The Info List - Impressionist

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is a 19th-century art movement characterised by relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes, open composition, emphasis on accurate depiction of light in its changing qualities (often accentuating the effects of the passage of time), ordinary subject matter, inclusion of movement as a crucial element of human perception and experience, and unusual visual angles. Impressionism originated with a group of Paris-based artists whose independent exhibitions brought them to prominence during the 1870s and 1880s. The Impressionists faced harsh opposition from the conventional art community in France. The name of the style derives from the title of a Claude Monet
Claude Monet
work, Impression, soleil levant
Impression, soleil levant
(Impression, Sunrise), which provoked the critic Louis Leroy to coin the term in a satirical review published in the Parisian newspaper Le Charivari. The development of Impressionism
in the visual arts was soon followed by analogous styles in other media that became known as impressionist music and impressionist literature.


1 Overview 2 Beginnings 3 Impressionist techniques 4 Content and composition 5 Main Impressionists 6 Gallery 7 Timeline: Lives of the Impressionists 8 Associates and influenced artists 9 Beyond France 10 Sculpture, photography and film 11 Music and literature 12 Post-Impressionism 13 See also 14 Notes 15 References 16 External links


Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Dance at Le Moulin de la Galette (Bal du moulin de la Galette), Musée d'Orsay, 1876

Radicals in their time, early Impressionists violated the rules of academic painting. They constructed their pictures from freely brushed colours that took precedence over lines and contours, following the example of painters such as Eugène Delacroix
Eugène Delacroix
and J. M. W. Turner. They also painted realistic scenes of modern life, and often painted outdoors. Previously, still lifes and portraits as well as landscapes were usually painted in a studio.[1] The Impressionists found that they could capture the momentary and transient effects of sunlight by painting outdoors or en plein air. They portrayed overall visual effects instead of details, and used short "broken" brush strokes of mixed and pure unmixed colour—not blended smoothly or shaded, as was customary—to achieve an effect of intense colour vibration. Impressionism
emerged in France at the same time that a number of other painters, including the Italian artists known as the Macchiaioli, and Winslow Homer
Winslow Homer
in the United States, were also exploring plein-air painting. The Impressionists, however, developed new techniques specific to the style. Encompassing what its adherents argued was a different way of seeing, it is an art of immediacy and movement, of candid poses and compositions, of the play of light expressed in a bright and varied use of colour. The public, at first hostile, gradually came to believe that the Impressionists had captured a fresh and original vision, even if the art critics and art establishment disapproved of the new style. By recreating the sensation in the eye that views the subject, rather than delineating the details of the subject, and by creating a welter of techniques and forms, Impressionism
is a precursor of various painting styles, including Neo-Impressionism, Post-Impressionism, Fauvism, and Cubism. Beginnings[edit] In the middle of the 19th century—a time of change, as Emperor Napoleon III
Napoleon III
rebuilt Paris
and waged war—the Académie des Beaux-Arts dominated French art. The Académie was the preserver of traditional French painting standards of content and style. Historical subjects, religious themes, and portraits were valued; landscape and still life were not. The Académie preferred carefully finished images that looked realistic when examined closely. Paintings in this style were made up of precise brush strokes carefully blended to hide the artist's hand in the work.[2] Colour was restrained and often toned down further by the application of a golden varnish.[3] The Académie had an annual, juried art show, the Salon de Paris, and artists whose work was displayed in the show won prizes, garnered commissions, and enhanced their prestige. The standards of the juries represented the values of the Académie, represented by the works of such artists as Jean-Léon Gérôme
Jean-Léon Gérôme
and Alexandre Cabanel. In the early 1860s, four young painters—Claude Monet, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Alfred Sisley, and Frédéric Bazille—met while studying under the academic artist Charles Gleyre. They discovered that they shared an interest in painting landscape and contemporary life rather than historical or mythological scenes. Following a practice that had become increasingly popular by mid-century, they often ventured into the countryside together to paint in the open air, but not for the purpose of making sketches to be developed into carefully finished works in the studio, as was the usual custom.[4] By painting in sunlight directly from nature, and making bold use of the vivid synthetic pigments that had become available since the beginning of the century, they began to develop a lighter and brighter manner of painting that extended further the Realism of Gustave Courbet
Gustave Courbet
and the Barbizon school. A favourite meeting place for the artists was the Café Guerbois
Café Guerbois
on Avenue de Clichy in Paris, where the discussions were often led by Édouard Manet, whom the younger artists greatly admired. They were soon joined by Camille Pissarro, Paul Cézanne, and Armand Guillaumin.[5]

Édouard Manet, The Luncheon on the Grass (Le déjeuner sur l'herbe), 1863

During the 1860s, the Salon jury routinely rejected about half of the works submitted by Monet and his friends in favour of works by artists faithful to the approved style.[6] In 1863, the Salon jury rejected Manet's The Luncheon on the Grass (Le déjeuner sur l'herbe) primarily because it depicted a nude woman with two clothed men at a picnic. While the Salon jury routinely accepted nudes in historical and allegorical paintings, they condemned Manet for placing a realistic nude in a contemporary setting.[7] The jury's severely worded rejection of Manet's painting appalled his admirers, and the unusually large number of rejected works that year perturbed many French artists. After Emperor Napoleon III
Napoleon III
saw the rejected works of 1863, he decreed that the public be allowed to judge the work themselves, and the Salon des Refusés (Salon of the Refused) was organized. While many viewers came only to laugh, the Salon des Refusés
Salon des Refusés
drew attention to the existence of a new tendency in art and attracted more visitors than the regular Salon.[8]

Alfred Sisley, View of the Saint-Martin Canal, Paris, 1870, Musée d'Orsay

Artists' petitions requesting a new Salon des Refusés
Salon des Refusés
in 1867, and again in 1872, were denied. In December 1873, Monet, Renoir, Pissarro, Sisley, Cézanne, Berthe Morisot, Edgar Degas
Edgar Degas
and several other artists founded the Société Anonyme Coopérative des Artistes Peintres, Sculpteurs, Graveurs ("Cooperative and Anonymous Association of Painters, Sculptors, and Engravers") to exhibit their artworks independently.[9] Members of the association were expected to forswear participation in the Salon.[10] The organizers invited a number of other progressive artists to join them in their inaugural exhibition, including the older Eugène Boudin, whose example had first persuaded Monet to adopt plein air painting years before.[11] Another painter who greatly influenced Monet and his friends, Johan Jongkind, declined to participate, as did Édouard Manet. In total, thirty artists participated in their first exhibition, held in April 1874 at the studio of the photographer Nadar.

Claude Monet, Haystacks, (sunset), 1890–1891, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

The critical response was mixed. Monet and Cézanne received the harshest attacks. Critic and humorist Louis Leroy wrote a scathing review in the newspaper Le Charivari
Le Charivari
in which, making wordplay with the title of Claude Monet's Impression, Sunrise
Impression, Sunrise
(Impression, soleil levant), he gave the artists the name by which they became known. Derisively titling his article The Exhibition of the Impressionists, Leroy declared that Monet's painting was at most, a sketch, and could hardly be termed a finished work. He wrote, in the form of a dialog between viewers,

Impression—I was certain of it. I was just telling myself that, since I was impressed, there had to be some impression in it ... and what freedom, what ease of workmanship! Wallpaper in its embryonic state is more finished than that seascape.[12]

Claude Monet, Woman with a Parasol - Madame Monet and Her Son
Woman with a Parasol - Madame Monet and Her Son
(Camille and Jean Monet), 1875, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.

The term Impressionist quickly gained favour with the public. It was also accepted by the artists themselves, even though they were a diverse group in style and temperament, unified primarily by their spirit of independence and rebellion. They exhibited together—albeit with shifting membership—eight times between 1874 and 1886. The Impressionists' style, with its loose, spontaneous brushstrokes, would soon become synonymous with modern life.[3] Monet, Sisley, Morisot, and Pissarro may be considered the "purest" Impressionists, in their consistent pursuit of an art of spontaneity, sunlight, and colour. Degas rejected much of this, as he believed in the primacy of drawing over colour and belittled the practice of painting outdoors.[13] Renoir turned away from Impressionism
for a time during the 1880s, and never entirely regained his commitment to its ideas. Édouard Manet, although regarded by the Impressionists as their leader,[14] never abandoned his liberal use of black as a colour, and never participated in the Impressionist exhibitions. He continued to submit his works to the Salon, where his painting Spanish Singer had won a 2nd class medal in 1861, and he urged the others to do likewise, arguing that "the Salon is the real field of battle" where a reputation could be made.[15]

Camille Pissarro, Boulevard Montmartre, 1897, the Hermitage, Saint Petersburg

Among the artists of the core group (minus Bazille, who had died in the Franco-Prussian War
Franco-Prussian War
in 1870), defections occurred as Cézanne, followed later by Renoir, Sisley, and Monet, abstained from the group exhibitions so they could submit their works to the Salon. Disagreements arose from issues such as Guillaumin's membership in the group, championed by Pissarro and Cézanne against opposition from Monet and Degas, who thought him unworthy.[16] Degas invited Mary Cassatt to display her work in the 1879 exhibition, but also insisted on the inclusion of Jean-François Raffaëlli, Ludovic Lepic, and other realists who did not represent Impressionist practices, causing Monet in 1880 to accuse the Impressionists of "opening doors to first-come daubers".[17] The group divided over invitations to Paul Signac and Georges Seurat
Georges Seurat
to exhibit with them in 1886. Pissarro was the only artist to show at all eight Impressionist exhibitions. The individual artists achieved few financial rewards from the Impressionist exhibitions, but their art gradually won a degree of public acceptance and support. Their dealer, Durand-Ruel, played a major role in this as he kept their work before the public and arranged shows for them in London and New York. Although Sisley died in poverty in 1899, Renoir had a great Salon success in 1879.[18] Monet became secure financially during the early 1880s and so did Pissarro by the early 1890s. By this time the methods of Impressionist painting, in a diluted form, had become commonplace in Salon art.[19] Impressionist techniques[edit]

Mary Cassatt, Lydia Leaning on Her Arms (in a theatre box), 1879

French painters who prepared the way for Impressionism
include the Romantic colourist Eugène Delacroix, the leader of the realists Gustave Courbet, and painters of the Barbizon school
Barbizon school
such as Théodore Rousseau. The Impressionists learned much from the work of Johan Barthold Jongkind, Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot
Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot
and Eugène Boudin, who painted from nature in a direct and spontaneous style that prefigured Impressionism, and who befriended and advised the younger artists. A number of identifiable techniques and working habits contributed to the innovative style of the Impressionists. Although these methods had been used by previous artists—and are often conspicuous in the work of artists such as Frans Hals, Diego Velázquez, Peter Paul Rubens, John Constable, and J. M. W. Turner—the Impressionists were the first to use them all together, and with such consistency. These techniques include:

Short, thick strokes of paint quickly capture the essence of the subject, rather than its details. The paint is often applied impasto. Colours are applied side-by-side with as little mixing as possible, a technique that exploits the principle of simultaneous contrast to make the colour appear more vivid to the viewer. Grays and dark tones are produced by mixing complementary colours. Pure impressionism avoids the use of black paint. Wet paint is placed into wet paint without waiting for successive applications to dry, producing softer edges and intermingling of colour. Impressionist paintings do not exploit the transparency of thin paint films (glazes), which earlier artists manipulated carefully to produce effects. The impressionist painting surface is typically opaque. The paint is applied to a white or light-coloured ground. Previously, painters often used dark grey or strongly coloured grounds. The play of natural light is emphasized. Close attention is paid to the reflection of colours from object to object. Painters often worked in the evening to produce effets de soir—the shadowy effects of evening or twilight. In paintings made en plein air (outdoors), shadows are boldly painted with the blue of the sky as it is reflected onto surfaces, giving a sense of freshness previously not represented in painting. (Blue shadows on snow inspired the technique.)

New technology played a role in the development of the style. Impressionists took advantage of the mid-century introduction of premixed paints in tin tubes (resembling modern toothpaste tubes), which allowed artists to work more spontaneously, both outdoors and indoors.[20] Previously, painters made their own paints individually, by grinding and mixing dry pigment powders with linseed oil, which were then stored in animal bladders.[21] Many vivid synthetic pigments became commercially available to artists for the first time during the 19th century. These included cobalt blue, viridian, cadmium yellow, and synthetic ultramarine blue, all of which were in use by the 1840s, before Impressionism.[22] The Impressionists' manner of painting made bold use of these pigments, and of even newer colours such as cerulean blue,[3] which became commercially available to artists in the 1860s.[22] The Impressionists' progress toward a brighter style of painting was gradual. During the 1860s, Monet and Renoir sometimes painted on canvases prepared with the traditional red-brown or grey ground.[23] By the 1870s, Monet, Renoir, and Pissarro usually chose to paint on grounds of a lighter grey or beige colour, which functioned as a middle tone in the finished painting.[23] By the 1880s, some of the Impressionists had come to prefer white or slightly off-white grounds, and no longer allowed the ground colour a significant role in the finished painting.[24] Content and composition[edit]

Camille Pissarro, Hay Harvest at Éragny, 1901, National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario

Prior to the Impressionists, other painters, notably such 17th-century Dutch painters as Jan Steen, had emphasized common subjects, but their methods of composition were traditional. They arranged their compositions so that the main subject commanded the viewer's attention. The Impressionists relaxed the boundary between subject and background so that the effect of an Impressionist painting often resembles a snapshot, a part of a larger reality captured as if by chance.[25] Photography
was gaining popularity, and as cameras became more portable, photographs became more candid. Photography
inspired Impressionists to represent momentary action, not only in the fleeting lights of a landscape, but in the day-to-day lives of people.[citation needed]

Berthe Morisot, Reading, 1873, Cleveland Museum of Art

The development of Impressionism
can be considered partly as a reaction by artists to the challenge presented by photography, which seemed to devalue the artist's skill in reproducing reality. Both portrait and landscape paintings were deemed somewhat deficient and lacking in truth as photography "produced lifelike images much more efficiently and reliably".[26] In spite of this, photography actually inspired artists to pursue other means of creative expression, and rather than compete with photography to emulate reality, artists focused "on the one thing they could inevitably do better than the photograph—by further developing into an art form its very subjectivity in the conception of the image, the very subjectivity that photography eliminated".[26] The Impressionists sought to express their perceptions of nature, rather than create exact representations. This allowed artists to depict subjectively what they saw with their "tacit imperatives of taste and conscience".[27] Photography
encouraged painters to exploit aspects of the painting medium, like colour, which photography then lacked: "The Impressionists were the first to consciously offer a subjective alternative to the photograph".[26]

Claude Monet, Jardin à Sainte-Adresse, 1867, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.,[28] a work showing the influence of Japanese prints

Another major influence was Japanese ukiyo-e art prints (Japonism). The art of these prints contributed significantly to the "snapshot" angles and unconventional compositions that became characteristic of Impressionism. An example is Monet's Jardin à Sainte-Adresse, 1867, with its bold blocks of colour and composition on a strong diagonal slant showing the influence of Japanese prints[29] Edgar Degas
Edgar Degas
was both an avid photographer and a collector of Japanese prints.[30] His The Dance Class (La classe de danse) of 1874 shows both influences in its asymmetrical composition. The dancers are seemingly caught off guard in various awkward poses, leaving an expanse of empty floor space in the lower right quadrant. He also captured his dancers in sculpture, such as the Little Dancer of Fourteen Years. Main Impressionists[edit]

Berthe Morisot, The Harbour at Lorient, 1869, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.

The central figures in the development of Impressionism
in France, listed alphabetically, were:

Frédéric Bazille
Frédéric Bazille
(who only posthumously participated in the Impressionist exhibitions) (1841–1870) Gustave Caillebotte
Gustave Caillebotte
(who, younger than the others, joined forces with them in the mid-1870s) (1848–1894) Mary Cassatt
Mary Cassatt
(American-born, she lived in Paris
and participated in four Impressionist exhibitions) (1844–1926) Paul Cézanne
Paul Cézanne
(although he later broke away from the Impressionists) (1839–1906) Edgar Degas
Edgar Degas
(who despised the term Impressionist) (1834–1917) Armand Guillaumin
Armand Guillaumin
(1841–1927) Édouard Manet
Édouard Manet
(who did not participate in any of the Impressionist exhibitions) (1832–1883)[31] Claude Monet
Claude Monet
(the most prolific of the Impressionists and the one who embodies their aesthetic most obviously)[32] (1840–1926) Berthe Morisot
Berthe Morisot
(who participated in all Impressionist exhibitions except in 1879) (1841–1895) Camille Pissarro
Camille Pissarro
(1830–1903) Pierre-Auguste Renoir
Pierre-Auguste Renoir
(who participated in Impressionist exhibitions in 1874, 1876, 1877 and 1882) (1841–1919) Alfred Sisley
Alfred Sisley


Frédéric Bazille, Paysage au bord du Lez, 1870, Minneapolis Institute of Art

Alfred Sisley, Bridge at Villeneuve-la-Garenne, 1872, Metropolitan Museum of Art

Berthe Morisot, The Cradle, 1872, Musée d'Orsay

Armand Guillaumin, Sunset at Ivry (Soleil couchant à Ivry), 1873, Musee d'Orsay

Édouard Manet, Boating, 1874, Metropolitan Museum of Art

Alfred Sisley, La Seine au Point du jour, 1877, Museum of modern art André Malraux - MuMa, Le Havre

Édouard Manet, The Plum, 1878, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.

Édouard Manet, A Bar at the Folies-Bergère
A Bar at the Folies-Bergère
(Un Bar aux Folies-Bergère), 1882, Courtauld Institute of Art

Edgar Degas, After the Bath, Woman Drying Herself, c. 1884–1886 (reworked between 1890 and 1900), MuMa, Le Havre

Edgar Degas, L'Absinthe, 1876, Musée d'Orsay, Paris

Edgar Degas, Dancer with a Bouquet of Flowers (Star of the Ballet), 1878

Edgar Degas, Woman in the Bath, 1886, Hill-Stead Museum, Farmington, Connecticut

Edgar Degas, Dancers at The Bar, 1888, The Phillips Collection, Washington, D.C.

Gustave Caillebotte, Paris
Street, Rainy Day, 1877, Art Institute of Chicago

Pierre-Auguste Renoir, On the Terrace, 1881, Art Institute of Chicago

Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Girl with a Hoop, 1885

Claude Monet, The Cliff at Étretat after the Storm, 1885, Clark Art Institute, Williamstown, Massachusetts

Mary Cassatt, The Child's Bath
The Child's Bath
(The Bath), 1893, oil on canvas, Art Institute of Chicago

Berthe Morisot, Portrait
of Mme Boursier and Her Daughter, c. 1873, Brooklyn Museum

Timeline: Lives of the Impressionists[edit]

The Impressionists

Associates and influenced artists[edit]

James Abbott McNeill Whistler, Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket, 1874, Detroit Institute of Arts

Among the close associates of the Impressionists were several painters who adopted their methods to some degree. These include Jean-Louis Forain (who participated in Impressionist exhibitions in 1879, 1880, 1881 and 1886)[33] and Giuseppe De Nittis, an Italian artist living in Paris
who participated in the first Impressionist exhibit at the invitation of Degas, although the other Impressionists disparaged his work.[34] Federico Zandomeneghi
Federico Zandomeneghi
was another Italian friend of Degas who showed with the Impressionists. Eva Gonzalès
Eva Gonzalès
was a follower of Manet who did not exhibit with the group. James Abbott McNeill Whistler was an American-born painter who played a part in Impressionism
although he did not join the group and preferred grayed colours. Walter Sickert, an English artist, was initially a follower of Whistler, and later an important disciple of Degas; he did not exhibit with the Impressionists. In 1904 the artist and writer Wynford Dewhurst wrote the first important study of the French painters published in English, Impressionist Painting: its genesis and development, which did much to popularize Impressionism
in Great Britain. By the early 1880s, Impressionist methods were affecting, at least superficially, the art of the Salon. Fashionable painters such as Jean Béraud and Henri Gervex
Henri Gervex
found critical and financial success by brightening their palettes while retaining the smooth finish expected of Salon art.[35] Works by these artists are sometimes casually referred to as Impressionism, despite their remoteness from Impressionist practice. The influence of the French Impressionists lasted long after most of them had died. Artists like J.D. Kirszenbaum were borrowing Impressionist techniques throughout the twentieth century. Beyond France[edit]

The Girl with Peaches
Girl with Peaches
(1887, Tretyakov Gallery) by Valentin Serov

Arthur Streeton's 1889 landscape Golden Summer, Eaglemont, held at the National Gallery of Australia, is an example of Australian impressionism.

Peder Severin Krøyer's 1888 work Hip, Hip, Hurrah!, held at the Gothenburg Museum of Art, shows members of the Skagen Painters.

As the influence of Impressionism
spread beyond France, artists, too numerous to list, became identified as practitioners of the new style. Some of the more important examples are:

The American Impressionists, including Mary Cassatt, William Merritt Chase, Frederick Carl Frieseke, Childe Hassam, Willard Metcalf, Lilla Cabot Perry, Theodore Robinson, Edmund Charles Tarbell, John Henry Twachtman, Catherine Wiley
Catherine Wiley
and J. Alden Weir. The Australian Impressionists, including Tom Roberts, Arthur Streeton, Walter Withers, Charles Conder
Charles Conder
and Frederick McCubbin
Frederick McCubbin
(who were prominent members of the Heidelberg School), and John Peter Russell, a friend of Van Gogh, Rodin, Monet and Matisse. The Amsterdam Impressionists in the Netherlands, including George Hendrik Breitner, Isaac Israëls, Willem Bastiaan Tholen, Willem de Zwart, Willem Witsen
Willem Witsen
and Jan Toorop. Anna Boch, Vincent van Gogh's friend Eugène Boch, Georges Lemmen
Georges Lemmen
and Théo van Rysselberghe, Impressionist painters from Belgium. Ivan Grohar, Rihard Jakopič, Matija Jama, and Matej Sternen, Impressionists from Slovenia. Their beginning was in the school of Anton Ažbe
Anton Ažbe
in Munich and they were influenced by Jurij Šubic and Ivana Kobilca, Slovenian painters working in Paris Wynford Dewhurst, Walter Richard Sickert, and Philip Wilson Steer
Philip Wilson Steer
were well known Impressionist painters from the United Kingdom. Pierre Adolphe Valette, who was born in France but who worked in Manchester, was the tutor of L. S. Lowry. The German Impressionists, including Lovis Corinth, Max Liebermann, Ernst Oppler, Max Slevogt
Max Slevogt
and August von Brandis. László Mednyánszky
László Mednyánszky
in Hungary Theodor von Ehrmanns and Hugo Charlemont
Hugo Charlemont
who were rare Impressionists among the more dominant Vienna Secessionist
Vienna Secessionist
painters in Austria William John Leech, Roderic O'Conor, and Walter Osborne
Walter Osborne
in Ireland Konstantin Korovin
Konstantin Korovin
and Valentin Serov
Valentin Serov
in Russia Francisco Oller
Francisco Oller
y Cestero, a native of Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
and a friend of Pissarro and Cézanne James Nairn
James Nairn
in New Zealand. William McTaggart
William McTaggart
in Scotland. Laura Muntz Lyall, a Canadian artist Władysław Podkowiński, a Polish Impressionist and symbolist Nicolae Grigorescu
Nicolae Grigorescu
in Romania Nazmi Ziya Güran, who brought Impressionism
to Turkey Chafik Charobim
Chafik Charobim
in Egypt Eliseu Visconti
Eliseu Visconti
in Brazil Joaquín Sorolla
Joaquín Sorolla
in Spain Faustino Brughetti, Fernando Fader, Candido Lopez, Martín Malharro, Walter de Navazio, Ramón Silva
Ramón Silva
in Argentina Skagen Painters
Skagen Painters
a group of Scandinavian artists who painted in a small Danish fishing village Nadežda Petrović
Nadežda Petrović
in Serbia Ásgrímur Jónsson
Ásgrímur Jónsson
in Iceland Fujishima Takeji
Fujishima Takeji
in Japan Frits Thaulow
Frits Thaulow
in Norway
and later France.

Sculpture, photography and film[edit] The sculptor Auguste Rodin
Auguste Rodin
is sometimes called an Impressionist for the way he used roughly modeled surfaces to suggest transient light effects.[36] Pictorialist photographers whose work is characterized by soft focus and atmospheric effects have also been called Impressionists. French Impressionist Cinema
French Impressionist Cinema
is a term applied to a loosely defined group of films and filmmakers in France from 1919–1929, although these years are debatable. French Impressionist filmmakers include Abel Gance, Jean Epstein, Germaine Dulac, Marcel L’Herbier, Louis Delluc, and Dmitry Kirsanoff. Music and literature[edit] Main articles: Impressionist music
Impressionist music
and Impressionism

Claude Monet, Water Lilies, 1916, The National Museum of Western Art, Tokyo

Musical Impressionism
is the name given to a movement in European classical music that arose in the late 19th century and continued into the middle of the 20th century. Originating in France, musical Impressionism
is characterized by suggestion and atmosphere, and eschews the emotional excesses of the Romantic era. Impressionist composers favoured short forms such as the nocturne, arabesque, and prelude, and often explored uncommon scales such as the whole tone scale. Perhaps the most notable innovations of Impressionist composers were the introduction of major 7th chords and the extension of chord structures in 3rds to five- and six-part harmonies. The influence of visual Impressionism
on its musical counterpart is debatable. Claude Debussy
Claude Debussy
and Maurice Ravel
Maurice Ravel
are generally considered the greatest Impressionist composers, but Debussy disavowed the term, calling it the invention of critics. Erik Satie
Erik Satie
was also considered in this category, though his approach was regarded as less serious, more musical novelty in nature. Paul Dukas
Paul Dukas
is another French composer sometimes considered an Impressionist, but his style is perhaps more closely aligned to the late Romanticists. Musical Impressionism
beyond France includes the work of such composers as Ottorino Respighi (Italy) Ralph Vaughan Williams, Cyril Scott, and John Ireland (England), and Manuel De Falla, and Isaac Albeniz
Isaac Albeniz
(Spain). The term Impressionism
has also been used to describe works of literature in which a few select details suffice to convey the sensory impressions of an incident or scene. Impressionist literature is closely related to Symbolism, with its major exemplars being Baudelaire, Mallarmé, Rimbaud, and Verlaine. Authors such as Virginia Woolf, D.H. Lawrence, and Joseph Conrad
Joseph Conrad
have written works that are Impressionistic in the way that they describe, rather than interpret, the impressions, sensations and emotions that constitute a character's mental life.

Camille Pissarro, Children on a Farm, 1887

Post-Impressionism[edit] Main article: Post-Impressionism Post-Impressionism
developed from Impressionism. During the 1880s several artists began to develop different precepts for the use of colour, pattern, form, and line, derived from the Impressionist example: Vincent van Gogh, Paul Gauguin, Georges Seurat, and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec. These artists were slightly younger than the Impressionists, and their work is known as post-Impressionism. Some of the original Impressionist artists also ventured into this new territory; Camille Pissarro
Camille Pissarro
briefly painted in a pointillist manner, and even Monet abandoned strict plein air painting. Paul Cézanne, who participated in the first and third Impressionist exhibitions, developed a highly individual vision emphasising pictorial structure, and he is more often called a post-Impressionist. Although these cases illustrate the difficulty of assigning labels, the work of the original Impressionist painters may, by definition, be categorised as Impressionism.

Georges Seurat, A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte, 1884–1886, The Art Institute of Chicago

Vincent van Gogh, Cypresses, 1889, Metropolitan Museum of Art

Paul Gauguin, The Midday Nap, 1894, Metropolitan Museum of Art

Paul Cézanne, The Card Players, 1894–1895, Musée d'Orsay, Paris

See also[edit]

Art periods Expressionism
(as a reaction to Impressionism) Les XX Luminism (Impressionism) Macchiaioli Cantonese school of painting


^ Exceptions include Canaletto, who painted outside and may have used the camera obscura. ^ Nathalia Brodskaya, Impressionism, Parkstone International, 2014, pp. 13-14 ^ a b c Samu, Margaret. "Impressionism: Art and Modernity". In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000 (October 2004) ^ Bomford et al. 1990, pp. 21–27. ^ Greenspan, Taube G. "Armand Guillaumin", Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online, Oxford University Press. ^ Seiberling, Grace, "Impressionism", Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online, Oxford University Press. ^ Denvir (1990), p.133. ^ Denvir (1990), p.194. ^ Bomford et al. 1990, p. 209. ^ Jensen 1994, p. 90. ^ Denvir (1990), p.32. ^ Rewald (1973), p. 323. ^ Gordon; Forge (1988), pp. 11–12. ^ Distel et al. (1974), p. 127. ^ Richardson (1976), p. 3. ^ Denvir (1990), p.105. ^ Rewald (1973), p. 603. ^ Distel, Anne, Michel Hoog, and Charles S. Moffett. 1974. Impressionism; a Centenary Exhibition, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, December 12, 1974–February 10, 1975. [New York]: [Metropolitan Museum of Art]. p. 190. ISBN 0870990977. ^ Rewald (1973), p. 475–476. ^ Bomford et al. 1990, pp. 39–41. ^ Renoir and the Impressionist Process Archived 2011-01-05 at the Wayback Machine.. The Phillips Collection, retrieved May 21, 2011 ^ a b Wallert, Arie; Hermens, Erma; Peek, Marja (1995). Historical painting techniques, materials, and studio practice: preprints of a symposium, University of Leiden, Netherlands, 26-29 June, 1995. [Marina Del Rey, Calif.]: Getty Conservation Institute. p. 159. ISBN 0892363223. ^ a b Stoner, Joyce Hill; Rushfield, Rebecca Anne (2012). The conservation of easel paintings. London: Routledge. p. 177. ISBN 1136000410. ^ Stoner, Joyce Hill; Rushfield, Rebecca Anne (2012). The conservation of easel paintings. London: Routledge. p. 178. ISBN 1136000410. ^ Rosenblum (1989), p. 228. ^ a b c Levinson, Paul (1997) The Soft Edge; a Natural History and Future of the Information Revolution, Routledge, London and New York ^ Sontag, Susan (1977) On Photography, Penguin, London ^ Metropolitan Museum of Art ^ Gary Tinterow, Origins of Impressionism, Metropolitan Museum of Art,1994, page 433 ^ Baumann; Karabelnik, et al. (1994), p. 112. ^ Cole, Bruce (1991). Art of the Western World: From Ancient Greece to Post Modernism. Simon and Schuster. p. 242. ISBN 0671747282 ^ Denvir (1990), p.140. ^ "Joconde : catalogue collectif des collections des musées de France". www.culture.gouv.fr. Retrieved 2017-12-28.  ^ Denvir (1990), p.152. ^ Rewald (1973), p.476–477. ^ Kleiner, Fred S., and Helen Gardner (2014). Gardner's art through the ages: a concise Western history. Boston, MA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning. p. 382. ISBN 9781133954798.


Baumann, Felix Andreas, Marianne Karabelnik-Matta, Jean Sutherland Boggs, and Tobia Bezzola (1994). Degas Portraits. London: Merrell Holberton. ISBN 1-85894-014-1 Bomford, David, Jo Kirby, John Leighton, Ashok Roy, and Raymond White (1990). Impressionism. London: National Gallery. ISBN 0-300-05035-6 Denvir, Bernard (1990). The Thames and Hudson Encyclopaedia of Impressionism. London: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0-500-20239-7 Distel, Anne, Michel Hoog, and Charles S. Moffett (1974). Impressionism; a centenary exhibition, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, December 12, 1974-February 10, 1975. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 0-8709-9097-7 Eisenman, Stephen F (2011). "From Corot to Monet: The Ecology of Impressionism". Milan: Skira. ISBN 8857207064. Gordon, Robert; Forge, Andrew (1988). Degas. New York: Harry N. Abrams. ISBN 0-8109-1142-6 Gowing, Lawrence, with Adriani, Götz; Krumrine, Mary Louise; Lewis, Mary Tompkins; Patin, Sylvie; Rewald, John (1988). Cézanne: The Early Years 1859-1872. New York: Harry N. Abrams. Jensen, Robert (1994). Marketing modernism in fin-de-siècle Europe. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691033331. Moskowitz, Ira; Sérullaz, Maurice (1962). French Impressionists: A Selection of Drawings of the French 19th Century. Boston and Toronto: Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 0-316-58560-2 Rewald, John (1973). The History of Impressionism
(4th, Revised Ed.). New York: The Museum of Modern Art. ISBN 0-87070-360-9 Richardson, John (1976). Manet (3rd Ed.). Oxford: Phaidon Press Ltd. ISBN 0-7148-1743-0 Rosenblum, Robert (1989). Paintings in the Musée d'Orsay. New York: Stewart, Tabori & Chang. ISBN 1-55670-099-7 Moffett, Charles S. (1986). "The New Painting, Impressionism 1874-1886". Geneva: Richard Burton SA.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Impressionist paintings.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Impressionism

Look up impressionism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Hecht Museum Mauclair, Camille (1903): The French Impressionists (1860-1900) at Project Gutenberg Museumsportal Schleswig-Holstein Suburban Pastoral The Guardian, 24 February 2007 Impressionism: Paintings collected by European Museums (1999) was an art exhibition co-organized by the High Museum of Art, Atlanta, the Seattle Art Museum, and the Denver Art Museum, touring from May through December 1999. Online guided tour Monet's Years at Giverny: Beyond Impressionism, exhibition catalogue fully online as PDF from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which discusses Monet's role in this movement Degas: The Artist's Mind, exhibition catalogue fully online as PDF from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which discusses Degas's role in this movement Definition of impressionism on the Tate Art Glossary

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Frédéric Bazille Eugène Boudin Gustave Caillebotte Mary Cassatt Paul Cézanne Edgar Degas Armand Guillaumin Édouard Manet Claude Monet Berthe Morisot Camille Pissarro Pierre-Auguste Renoir Alfred Sisley


Gustave Caillebotte Henry O. Havemeyer Ernest Hoschedé


Paul Durand-Ruel Georges Petit Ambroise Vollard

American artists

William Merritt Chase Frederick Carl Frieseke Childe Hassam Willard Metcalf Lilla Cabot Perry Theodore Robinson John Henry Twachtman J. Alden Weir

Canadian artists

Henri Beau William Blair Bruce William Brymner Marc-Aurèle de Foy Suzor-Coté Maurice Galbraith Cullen Helen Galloway McNicoll James Wilson Morrice Robert Wakeham Pilot

Other artists

Marie Bracquemond Giovanni Battista Ciolina Lovis Corinth Antoine Guillemet Nazmi Ziya Güran Max Liebermann Laura Muntz Lyall Konstantin Korovin Henry Moret Francisco Oller Władysław Podkowiński John Peter Russell Valentin Serov Max Slevogt Joaquín Sorolla Philip Wilson Steer Eliseu Visconti

Other media

Music Literature French Impressionist Cinema

See also

American Impressionism

The Ten

California Impressionism Pennsylvania Impressionism Canadian Impressionism Heidelberg School Amsterdam Impressionism Decorative Impressionism Post-Impressionism


The Impressionists (2006 drama)

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19th-century movements

Neo-impressionism Divisionism Pointillism Cloisonnism Les Nabis Synthetism Symbolism Art Nouveau


Cuno Amiet Charles Angrand Émile Bernard Edvard Munch Pierre Bonnard Marius Borgeaud Paul Cézanne Henri-Edmond Cross Maurice Denis Georges Dufrénoy Paul Gauguin Hippolyte Petitjean Paul Ranson Odilon Redon Henri Rousseau René Schützenberger Paul Sérusier Georges Seurat Paul Signac Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec Charles Laval Georges Lemmen Maximilien Luce Paul Ranson Vincent van Gogh Théo van Rysselberghe Félix Vallotton Édouard Vuillard

20th-century movements

Fauvism Die Brücke Der Blaue Reiter Expressionism Cubism


Georges Braque Charles Camoin André Derain Raoul Dufy Henri Matisse Albert Gleizes Ernst Ludwig Kirchner Karl Schmidt-Rottluff Wassily Kandinsky Sonia Lewitska Franz Marc Jean Metzinger Henry Ottmann Francis Picabia Pablo Picasso Robert Antoine Pinchon Henriette Tirman Jean Marchand Othon Friesz


Artistes Indépendants Les XX Volpini Exhibition Le Barc de Boutteville La Libre Esthétique Ambroise Vollard Salon d'Automne Salon des Indépendants Salon des Cent Salon des Tuileries


Félix Fénéon Albert Aurier

See also

Impressionism Modernism Modern art Secessionism

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Le Déjeuner sur l’herbe
Le Déjeuner sur l’herbe
(1862-63) Olympia (1863) A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte
A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte
(1886) Mont Sainte-Victoir (1887) The Starry Night
The Starry Night
(1889) Ubu Roi
Ubu Roi
(1896) Verklärte Nacht
Verklärte Nacht
(1899) Le bonheur de vivre
Le bonheur de vivre
(1905-1906) Les Demoiselles d'Avignon
Les Demoiselles d'Avignon
(1907) The Firebird
The Firebird
(1910) Afternoon of a Faun (1912) Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2
Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2
(1912) The Rite of Spring
The Rite of Spring
(1913) In Search of Lost Time
In Search of Lost Time
(1913–1927) The Metamorphosis
The Metamorphosis
(1915) Black Square (1915) Fountain (1917) The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari
The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari
(1920) Six Characters in Search of an Author (1921) Ulysses (1922) The Waste Land
The Waste Land
(1922) The Magic Mountain
The Magic Mountain
(1924) Battleship Potemkin
Battleship Potemkin
(1925) The Sun Also Rises
The Sun Also Rises
(1926) The Threepenny Opera
The Threepenny Opera
(1928) The Sound and the Fury
The Sound and the Fury
(1929) Un Chien Andalou
Un Chien Andalou
(1929) Villa Savoye
Villa Savoye
(1931) The Blue Lotus
The Blue Lotus
(1936) Fallingwater
(1936) Waiting for Godot
Waiting for Godot


Guillaume Apollinaire Djuna Barnes Tadeusz Borowski André Breton Mikhail Bulgakov Anton Chekhov Joseph Conrad Alfred Döblin E. M. Forster William Faulkner Gustave Flaubert Ford Madox Ford André Gide Knut Hamsun Jaroslav Hašek Ernest Hemingway Hermann Hesse James Joyce Franz Kafka Arthur Koestler D. H. Lawrence Wyndham Lewis Thomas Mann Katherine Mansfield Filippo Tommaso Marinetti Guy de Maupassant Robert Musil Katherine Anne Porter Marcel Proust Gertrude Stein Italo Svevo Virginia Woolf


Anna Akhmatova Richard Aldington W. H. Auden Charles Baudelaire Luca Caragiale Constantine P. Cavafy Blaise Cendrars Hart Crane H.D. Robert Desnos T. S. Eliot Paul Éluard Odysseas Elytis F. S. Flint Stefan George Max Jacob Federico García Lorca Amy Lowell Robert Lowell Mina Loy Stéphane Mallarmé Marianne Moore Wilfred Owen Octavio Paz Fernando Pessoa Ezra Pound Lionel Richard Rainer Maria Rilke Arthur Rimbaud Giorgos Seferis Wallace Stevens Dylan Thomas Tristan Tzara Paul Valéry William Carlos Williams W. B. Yeats

Visual art

Josef Albers Jean Arp Balthus George Bellows Umberto Boccioni Pierre Bonnard Georges Braque Constantin Brâncuși Alexander Calder Mary Cassatt Paul Cézanne Marc Chagall Giorgio de Chirico Camille Claudel Joseph Cornell Joseph Csaky Salvador Dalí Edgar Degas Raoul Dufy Willem de Kooning Robert Delaunay Charles Demuth Otto Dix Theo van Doesburg Marcel Duchamp James Ensor Max Ernst Jacob Epstein Paul Gauguin Alberto Giacometti Vincent van Gogh Natalia Goncharova Julio González Juan Gris George Grosz Raoul Hausmann Jacques Hérold Hannah Höch Edward Hopper Frida Kahlo Wassily Kandinsky Ernst Ludwig Kirchner Paul Klee Oskar Kokoschka Pyotr Konchalovsky André Lhote Fernand Léger Franz Marc Albert Marque Jean Marchand René Magritte Kazimir Malevich Édouard Manet Henri Matisse Colin McCahon Jean Metzinger Joan Miró Amedeo Modigliani Piet Mondrian Claude Monet Henry Moore Edvard Munch Emil Nolde Georgia O'Keeffe Méret Oppenheim Francis Picabia Pablo Picasso Camille Pissarro Man Ray Odilon Redon Pierre-Auguste Renoir Auguste Rodin Henri Rousseau Egon Schiele Georges Seurat Paul Signac Alfred Sisley Edward Steichen Alfred Stieglitz Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec Édouard Vuillard Grant Wood


George Antheil Milton Babbitt Jean Barraqué Alban Berg Luciano Berio Nadia Boulanger Pierre Boulez John Cage Elliott Carter Aaron Copland Henry Cowell Henri Dutilleux Morton Feldman Henryk Górecki Josef Matthias Hauer Paul Hindemith Arthur Honegger Charles Ives Leoš Janáček György Ligeti Witold Lutosławski Olivier Messiaen Luigi Nono Harry Partch Krzysztof Penderecki Sergei Prokofiev Luigi Russolo Erik Satie Pierre Schaeffer Arnold Schoenberg Dmitri Shostakovich Richard Strauss Igor Stravinsky Edgard Varèse Anton Webern Kurt Weill Iannis Xenakis


Edward Albee Maxwell Anderson Jean Anouilh Antonin Artaud Samuel Beckett Bertolt Brecht Anton Chekhov Friedrich Dürrenmatt Jean Genet Maxim Gorky Walter Hasenclever Henrik Ibsen William Inge Eugène Ionesco Alfred Jarry Georg Kaiser Maurice Maeterlinck Vladimir Mayakovsky Arthur Miller Seán O'Casey Eugene O'Neill John Osborne Luigi Pirandello Erwin Piscator George Bernard Shaw August Strindberg John Millington Synge Ernst Toller Frank Wedekind Thornton Wilder Stanisław Ignacy Witkiewicz


Ingmar Bergman Anton Giulio Bragaglia Luis Buñuel Marcel Carné Charlie Chaplin René Clair Jean Cocteau Maya Deren Alexander Dovzhenko Carl Theodor Dreyer Viking Eggeling Sergei Eisenstein Jean Epstein Robert J. Flaherty Abel Gance Isidore Isou Buster Keaton Lev Kuleshov Fritz Lang Marcel L'Herbier Georges Méliès F. W. Murnau Georg Wilhelm Pabst Vsevolod Pudovkin Jean Renoir Walter Ruttmann Victor Sjöström Josef von Sternberg Dziga Vertov Jean Vigo Robert Wiene


George Balanchine Merce Cunningham Clotilde von Derp Sergei Diaghilev Isadora Duncan Michel Fokine Loie Fuller Martha Graham Hanya Holm Doris Humphrey Léonide Massine Vaslav Nijinsky Alwin Nikolais Alexander Sakharoff Ted Shawn Anna Sokolow Ruth St. Denis Helen Tamiris Charles Weidman Mary Wigman


Alvar Aalto Marcel Breuer Gordon Bunshaft Antoni Gaudí Walter Gropius Hector Guimard Raymond Hood Victor Horta Friedensreich Hundertwasser Philip Johnson Louis Kahn Le Corbusier Adolf Loos Konstantin Melnikov Erich Mendelsohn Pier Luigi Nervi Richard Neutra Oscar Niemeyer Hans Poelzig Antonin Raymond Gerrit Rietveld Eero Saarinen Rudolf Steiner Edward Durell Stone Louis Sullivan Vladimir Tatlin Paul Troost Jørn Utzon Ludwig Mies van der Rohe Frank Lloyd Wright

Related articles

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Visual art

Abstract expressionism Art Nouveau Art & Language Conceptual art Constructivism Cubism Proto-Cubism Cubo-Futurism De Stijl Devětsil Divisionism Fauvism Impressionism Neo-Impressionism Post-Impressionism Color Field Incoherents Lyrical Abstraction Mail art Minimalism Mir iskusstva Neue Slowenische Kunst Nonconformism Pop art Rayonism Suprematism Vorticism Nouveau réalisme

Literature and poetry

Acmeism Angry Penguins Asemic writing Cyberpunk Ego-Futurism Experimental literature Flarf poetry Hungry generation Imaginism Language poets Neoteric Nouveau roman Oberiu Oulipo Ultraísmo Visual poetry Zaum


By style

Jazz Metal Pop Rock

Prog Punk


Aleatoric music Ars subtilior Atonal music Drone music Electroacoustic music Electronic music Experimental pop Free jazz Futurism
(music) Industrial music Microtonal music Minimal music Musique concrète New Complexity No wave Noise music Post-rock Rock in Opposition Second Viennese School Serialism Spectral music Stochastic music Textural music Totalism Twelve-tone technique

Cinema and theatre

Cinéma pur Dogme 95 Drop Art Epic theatre Remodernist film Structural film Theatre of the Absurd Theatre of Cruelty


Bauhaus Constructivism Dada Expressionism Fluxus Futurism Lettrism Modernism Minimalism Postminimalism Neo-minimalism Neo-Dada Neoism Postmodernism Late modernism Primitivism Russian Futurism Russian symbolism Situationist International Social realism Socialist realism Surrealism Symbolism


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Art movements


Early Christian Migration Period Anglo-Saxon Visigothic Pre-Romanesque Insular Viking Byzantine Merovingian Carolingian Ottonian Romanesque Norman-Sicilian Gothic (International Gothic)


Italian Renaissance Early Netherlandish German Renaissance Antwerp Mannerists Danube school High Renaissance Romanism Mannerism Fontainebleau Northern Mannerism Flemish Baroque

17th century

Baroque Caravaggisti Classicism Dutch Golden Age

18th century

Rococo Neoclassicism Romanticism

19th century

Naïve Nazarene Realism / Realism Historicism Biedermeier Gründerzeit Barbizon school Pre-Raphaelites Academic Aestheticism Decadent Macchiaioli Art Nouveau Peredvizhniki Impressionism Post-Impressionism Neo-impressionism Divisionism Pointillism Cloisonnism Les Nabis Synthetism Kalighat painting Symbolism Hudson River School

20th century

Arts and Crafts Fauvism Die Brücke Cubism Expressionism Neue Künstlervereinigung München Futurism Metaphysical art Rayonism Der Blaue Reiter Orphism Synchromism Vorticism Suprematism Ashcan Dada De Stijl Purism Bauhaus Kinetic art New Objectivity Neues Sehen Surrealism Neo-Fauvism Precisionism Scuola Romana Art Deco International Typographic Style Social realism Abstract expressionism Vienna School of Fantastic Realism Color Field Lyrical abstraction Tachisme COBRA Action painting New media art Letterist International Pop art Situationist International Lettrism Neo-Dada Op art Nouveau réalisme Art & Language Conceptual art Land art Systems art Video art Minimalism Fluxus Photorealism Performance art Installation art Endurance art Outsider art Neo-expressionism Lowbrow Young British Artists Amazonian pop art

21st century

Art intervention Hyperrealism Neo-futurism Stuckism Sound art Superstroke Superflat Relational art

Related articles

List of art movements Feminist art movement (in the US) Modern art Modernism Late modernism Postmodern art Avant-garde

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Claude Monet


Women in the Garden
Women in the Garden
(1866) Garden at Sainte-Adresse
Garden at Sainte-Adresse
(1867) Regatta at Sainte-Adresse (1867) L'Enfant a la tasse
L'Enfant a la tasse
(1868) The Magpie (1868) Bain à la Grenouillère
Bain à la Grenouillère
(1869) Impression, Sunrise
Impression, Sunrise
(1872) Springtime (1872) Boulevard des Capucines (1873) Argenteuil Basin with a Single Sailboat
Argenteuil Basin with a Single Sailboat
(1874) Snow at Argenteuil
Snow at Argenteuil
(1875) Woman with a Parasol - Madame Monet and Her Son
Woman with a Parasol - Madame Monet and Her Son
(1875) Bords de la Seine à Argenteuil
Bords de la Seine à Argenteuil
(1875) Beach in Pourville
Beach in Pourville
(1882) Portrait
of Père Paul (1882) The Cliff Walk at Pourville
The Cliff Walk at Pourville
(1882) Stormy Sea in Étretat
Stormy Sea in Étretat
(1883) Boating on the River Epte
Boating on the River Epte
(1890) Le Jardin de l'artiste à Giverny
Le Jardin de l'artiste à Giverny
(1900) San Giorgio Maggiore at Dusk
San Giorgio Maggiore at Dusk
(1908) The Doge's Palace Seen from San Giorgio Maggiore (1908) Le Grand Canal
Le Grand Canal
(1908) Le Bassin Aux Nymphéas
Le Bassin Aux Nymphéas
(1919) Water Lilies
Water Lilies

Painting series

Haystacks (1890–91) Poplars (1891) Rouen Cathedral (1892–94) Charing Cross Bridge (1899–1904) Houses of Parliament (1900–05) Water Lilies


Camille Doncieux
Camille Doncieux
(first wife) Alice Hoschedé
Alice Hoschedé
(second wife) Suzanne Hoschedé
Suzanne Hoschedé
(step-daughter) Blanche Hoschedé Monet
Blanche Hoschedé Monet
(step-daughter and daughter-in-law) Jean Monet (son) Michel Monet
Michel Monet
(son) Theodore Earl Butler
Theodore Earl Butler
(son-in-law, married Monet's step-daughters, Suzanne and Marthe) Jacques-François Ochard
Jacques-François Ochard
(teacher) Eugène Boudin
Eugène Boudin
(teacher) Ernest Hoschedé
Ernest Hoschedé
(patron) Paul Durand-Ruel
Paul Durand-Ruel


Monet's home and gardens Musée de l'Orangerie Musée d'Orsay Musée Mar