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MUHAMMAD IBN BATTUTA or IBN BAṭūṭAH (/ˌɪbənbætˈtuːtɑː/ ; Arabic : محمد ابن بطوطة‎‎); February 25, 1304 – 1368 or 1369), fully ʾABū ʿABD AL-LāH MUḥAMMAD IBN ʿABD AL-LāH L-LAWāTī ṭ-ṬANǧī IBN BAṭūṭAH (أبو عبد الله محمد بن عبد الله اللواتي الطنجي بن بطوطة), was a Moroccan scholar who widely travelled the medieval world. Over a period of thirty years, Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
visited most of the Islamic world and many non-Muslim lands, including North Africa
North Africa
, the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
, West Africa
West Africa
, the Middle East
Middle East
, India
India
, Central Asia , Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
, and China
China
. Near the end of his life, he dictated an account of his journeys, titled A GIFT TO THOSE WHO CONTEMPLATE THE WONDERS OF CITIES AND THE MARVELS OF TRAVELLING (تحفة النظار في غرائب الأمصار وعجائب الأسفار, Tuḥfat an-Nuẓẓār fī Gharāʾib al-Amṣār wa ʿAjāʾib al-Asfār), usually simply referred to as THE TRAVELS (الرحلة, Rihla). This account of his journeys provides a picture of medieval civilization that is still widely consulted today.

CONTENTS

* 1 Life

* 1.1 Early life

* 1.2 Itinerary 1325–1332

* 1.2.1 First Pilgrimage * 1.2.2 Iraq
Iraq
and Persia * 1.2.3 Arabia * 1.2.4 Somalia
Somalia
* 1.2.5 Swahili Coast

* 1.3 Itinerary 1332–1347

* 1.3.1 Anatolia
Anatolia
* 1.3.2 Central Asia
Central Asia
* 1.3.3 South Asia * 1.3.4 Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
* 1.3.5 China
China
* 1.3.6 Return

* 1.4 Itinerary 1349–1354

* 1.4.1 Spain and North Africa
North Africa
* 1.4.2 Mali
Mali
and Timbuktu
Timbuktu

* 2 Works * 3 Legacy * 4 See also * 5 Notes

* 6 References

* 6.1 Citations * 6.2 Bibliography

* 7 External links

LIFE

EARLY LIFE

A 13th-century book illustration produced in Baghdad
Baghdad
by al-Wasiti showing a group of pilgrims on a hajj

All that is known about Ibn Battuta's life comes from the autobiographical information included in the account of his travels, which records that he was of Berber descent, born into a family of Islamic legal scholars in Tangier
Tangier
, Morocco, on 25 February 1304, during the reign of the Marinid dynasty . He claimed descent from a Berber tribe known as the Lawata . As a young man he would have studied at a Sunni Maliki
Maliki
madh\'hab (Islamic jurisprudence school), the dominant form of education in North Africa
North Africa
at that time. Maliki Muslims requested Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
serve as their religious judge as he was from an area where it was practised.

ITINERARY 1325–1332

Tangiers Tlemcen Béjaïa Tunis
Tunis
Fes
Fes
Miliana Algiers
Algiers
Annaba
Annaba
Sousse Gabès Tripoli
Tripoli
Sfax
Sfax
Alexandria
Alexandria
Cairo
Cairo
Damascus
Damascus
Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Bethlehem Medina
Medina
Najaf
Najaf
Baghdad
Baghdad
Tigris
Tigris
Basra
Basra
Zagros Mountains Shiraz Tabriz
Tabriz
Mosul
Mosul
Cizre Mardin
Mardin
Jeddah
Jeddah
Yemen
Yemen
Rabigh Zabīd Ta\'izz Sana\'a Aden
Aden
Zeila
Zeila
Mogadishu
Mogadishu
Mombasa
Mombasa
Zanzibar
Zanzibar
Dhofar
Dhofar
Al-Hasa
Al-Hasa
Qatif
Qatif
Oman
Oman
Latakia
Latakia
Kilwa Ibn Battuta Itinerary 1325–1332 (North Africa, Iraq, Persia, the Arabian Peninsula, Somalia, Swahili Coast)

First Pilgrimage

In June 1325, at the age of twenty-one, Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
set off from his hometown on a hajj , or pilgrimage, to Mecca
Mecca
, a journey that would ordinarily take sixteen months. He would not see Morocco
Morocco
again for twenty-four years.

I set out alone, having neither fellow-traveller in whose companionship I might find cheer, nor caravan whose part I might join, but swayed by an overmastering impulse within me and a desire long-cherished in my bosom to visit these illustrious sanctuaries. So I braced my resolution to quit my dear ones, female and male, and forsook my home as birds forsake their nests. My parents being yet in the bonds of life, it weighed sorely upon me to part from them, and both they and I were afflicted with sorrow at this separation.

He travelled to Mecca
Mecca
overland, following the North African coast across the sultanates of Abd al-Wadid and Hafsid . The route took him through Tlemcen , Béjaïa , and then Tunis
Tunis
, where he stayed for two months. For safety, Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
usually joined a caravan to reduce the risk of being robbed. He took a bride in the town of Sfax
Sfax
, the first in a series of marriages that would feature in his travels. Ottoman 17th century tile depicting the Kaaba
Kaaba
, in Mecca
Mecca

In the early spring of 1326, after a journey of over 3,500 km (2,200 mi), Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
arrived at the port of Alexandria
Alexandria
, at the time part of the Bahri Mamluk empire . He met two ascetic pious men in Alexandria. One was Sheikh Burhanuddin who is supposed to have foretold the destiny of Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
as a world traveller saying "It seems to me that you are fond of foreign travel. You will visit my brother Fariduddin in India, Rukonuddin in Sind and Burhanuddin in China. Convey my greetings to them". Another pious man Sheikh Murshidi interpreted the meaning of a dream of Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
that he was meant to be a world traveller. He spent several weeks visiting sites in the area, and then headed inland to Cairo
Cairo
, the capital of the Mamluk Sultanate and an important city. After spending about a month in Cairo, he embarked on the first of many detours within the relative safety of Mamluk territory. Of the three usual routes to Mecca, Ibn Battuta chose the least-travelled, which involved a journey up the Nile
Nile
valley, then east to the Red Sea
Red Sea
port of Aydhab. Upon approaching the town, however, a local rebellion forced him to turn back.

Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
returned to Cairo
Cairo
and took a second side trip, this time to Mamluk-controlled Damascus
Damascus
. During his first trip he had encountered a holy man who prophesied that he would only reach Mecca by travelling through Syria . The diversion held an added advantage; because of the holy places that lay along the way, including Hebron
Hebron
, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
, and Bethlehem
Bethlehem
, the Mamluk authorities spared no efforts in keeping the route safe for pilgrims. Without this help many travellers would be robbed and murdered.

After spending the Muslim month of Ramadan in Damascus, he joined a caravan travelling the 1,300 km (810 mi) south to Medina
Medina
, site of the tomb of the Islamic prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
. After four days in the town, he journeyed on to Mecca, where completing his pilgrimage he took the honorific status of El- Hajji . Rather than returning home, Ibn Battuta instead decided to continue on, choosing as his next destination the Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
, a Mongol Khanate , to the northeast.

Iraq
Iraq
And Persia

Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
made a brief visit to the Persian-Azari city of Tabriz
Tabriz
in 1327.

On 17 November 1326, following a month spent in Mecca, Ibn Battuta joined a large caravan of pilgrims returning to Iraq
Iraq
across the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
. The group headed north to Medina
Medina
and then, travelling at night, turned northeast across the Najd
Najd
plateau to Najaf , on a journey that lasted about two weeks. In Najaf, he visited the mausoleum of Ali
Ali
, the Fourth Caliph .

Then, instead of continuing on to Baghdad
Baghdad
with the caravan, Ibn Battuta started a six-month detour that took him into Persia . From Najaf, he journeyed to Wasit , then followed the river Tigris
Tigris
south to Basra
Basra
. His next destination was the town of Isfahan
Isfahan
across the Zagros Mountains in Persia. He then headed south to Shiraz , a large, flourishing city spared the destruction wrought by Mongol invaders on many more northerly towns. Finally, he returned across the mountains to Baghdad, arriving there in June 1327. Parts of the city were still ruined from the damage inflicted by Hulago Khan\'s invading army in 1258.

In Baghdad, he found Abu Sa\'id , the last Mongol ruler of the unified Ilkhanate, leaving the city and heading north with a large retinue. Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
joined the royal caravan for a while, then turned north on the Silk Road
Silk Road
to Tabriz
Tabriz
, the first major city in the region to open its gates to the Mongols
Mongols
and by then an important trading centre as most of its nearby rivals had been razed by the Mongol invaders.

Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
left again for Baghdad, probably in July, but first took an excursion northwards along the river Tigris. He visited Mosul
Mosul
, where he was the guest of the Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
governor, and then the towns of Cizre (Jazirat ibn 'Umar) and Mardin
Mardin
in modern-day Turkey. At a hermitage on a mountain near Sinjar , he met a Kurdish mystic who gave him some silver coins. Once back in Mosul, he joined a "feeder" caravan of pilgrims heading south to Baghdad, where they would meet up with the main caravan that crossed the Arabian Desert
Arabian Desert
to Mecca. Ill with diarrhoea, he arrived in the city weak and exhausted for his second hajj.

Arabia

Old City of Sana\'a , Yemen
Yemen

Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
remained in Mecca
Mecca
for some time (the Rihla suggests about three years, from September 1327 until autumn 1330). Problems with chronology, however, lead commentators to suggest that he may have left after the 1328 hajj.

After the hajj in either 1328 or 1330, he made his way to the port of Jeddah
Jeddah
on the Red Sea
Red Sea
coast. From there he followed the coast in a series of boats making slow progress against the prevailing south-easterly winds. Once in Yemen
Yemen
he visited Zabīd and later the highland town of Ta\'izz , where he met the Rasulid dynasty king ( Malik
Malik
) Mujahid Nur al-Din Ali
Ali
. Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
also mentions visiting Sana\'a , but whether he actually did so is doubtful. In all likelihood, he went directly from Ta'izz to the important trading port of Aden
Aden
, arriving around the beginning of 1329 or 1331.

Somalia

The port and waterfront of Zeila
Zeila

From Aden
Aden
, Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
embarked on a ship heading for Zeila
Zeila
on the coast of Somalia
Somalia
. He then moved on to Cape Guordafui further down the Somalia
Somalia
seaboard, spending about a week in each location. Later he would visit Mogadishu
Mogadishu
, the then pre-eminent city of the "Land of the Berbers
Berbers
" (بلد البربر Balad al-Barbar, the medieval Arabic term for the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
).

When Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
arrived in 1331, Mogadishu
Mogadishu
stood at the zenith of its prosperity. He described it as "an exceedingly large city" with many rich merchants, noted for its high-quality fabric that was exported to other countries, including Egypt
Egypt
. Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
added that the city was ruled by a Somali Sultan
Sultan
, Abu Bakr ibn Sayx 'Umar, who was originally from Berbera in northern Somalia
Somalia
and spoke both Somali (referred to by Battuta as Mogadishan, the Benadir dialect of Somali) and Arabic with equal fluency. The Sultan
Sultan
also had a retinue of wazirs (ministers), legal experts, commanders, royal eunuchs , and assorted hangers-on at his beck and call.

Swahili Coast

The Great Mosque of Kilwa Kisiwani , made of coral stones is the largest Mosque of its kind.

Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
continued by ship south to the Swahili Coast , a region then known in Arabic as the Bilad al- Zanj ("Land of the Zanj "), with an overnight stop at the island town of Mombasa
Mombasa
. Although relatively small at the time, Mombasa
Mombasa
would become important in the following century. After a journey along the coast, Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
next arrived in the island town of Kilwa in present-day Tanzania
Tanzania
, which had become an important transit centre of the gold trade. He described the city as "one of the finest and most beautifully built towns; all the buildings are of wood, and the houses are roofed with dīs reeds."

Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
recorded his visit to the Kilwa Sultanate in 1330, and commented favorably on the humility and religion of its ruler, Sultan al-Hasan ibn Sulaiman , a descendant of the legendary Ali
Ali
ibn al-Hassan Shirazi . He further wrote that the authority of the Sultan extended from Malindi in the north to Inhambane
Inhambane
in the south and was particularly impressed by the planning of the city, believing it to be the reason for Kilwa's success along the coast. From this period date the construction of the Palace of Husuni Kubwa and a significant extension to the Great Mosque of Kilwa , which was made of coral stones and the largest Mosque of its kind. With a change in the monsoon winds, Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
sailed back to Arabia, first to Oman
Oman
and the Strait of Hormuz
Strait of Hormuz
then on to Mecca
Mecca
for the hajj of 1330 (or 1332).

ITINERARY 1332–1347

Anatolia
Anatolia
Alanya
Alanya
Konya
Konya
Sinop Feodosiya Astrakhan
Astrakhan
Constantinople
Constantinople
Hagia Sophia Caspian Sea Aral Sea Bukhara
Bukhara
Samarkand
Samarkand
Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Isfahan
Isfahan
Delhi
Delhi
Khambhat Kozhikode
Kozhikode
Sumatra
Sumatra
Honavar Uttara Kannada
Uttara Kannada
Maldives
Maldives
Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Adam\'s Peak Vietnam
Vietnam
Philippines
Philippines
Chittagong
Chittagong
Sylhet
Sylhet
Burma
Burma
Malaysia
Malaysia
Mauritania
Mauritania
Quanzhou
Quanzhou
Fujian
Fujian
Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Beijing
Beijing
Balkh Antalya
Antalya
Bulgaria
Bulgaria
Azov
Azov
Pakistan
Pakistan
Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
Tajikistan
Tajikistan
Samarqand
Samarqand
Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
Deccan Alexandria
Alexandria
Cairo
Cairo
Damascus
Damascus
Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Bethlehem
Bethlehem
Medina
Medina
Baghdad
Baghdad
Shiraz Jeddah
Jeddah
Mecca
Mecca
Dhofar
Dhofar
Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
Itinerary 1332–1346 (Black Sea Area, Central Asia, India, South East Asia and China)

Anatolia

Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
may have met Andronikos III Palaiologos
Andronikos III Palaiologos
in late 1332.

After his third pilgrimage to Mecca, Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
decided to seek employment with the Muslim Sultan
Sultan
of Delhi
Delhi
, Muhammad
Muhammad
bin Tughluq . In the autumn of 1330 (or 1332), he set off for the Seljuq controlled territory of Anatolia
Anatolia
with the intention of taking an overland route to India. He crossed the Red Sea
Red Sea
and the Eastern Desert to reach the Nile
Nile
valley and then headed north to Cairo. From there he crossed the Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
to Palestine and then travelled north again through some of the towns that he had visited in 1326. From the Syrian port of Latakia
Latakia
, a Genoese ship took him (and his companions) to Alanya
Alanya
on the southern coast of modern-day Turkey. He then journeyed westwards along the coast to the port of Antalya
Antalya
. In the town he met members of one of the semi-religious fityan associations. These were a feature of most Anatolian towns in the 13th and 14th centuries. The members were young artisans and had at their head a leader with the title of Akhis. The associations specialised in welcoming travellers. Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
was very impressed with the hospitality that he received and would later stay in their hospices in more than 25 towns in Anatolia. From Antalya
Antalya
Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
headed inland to Eğirdir
Eğirdir
which was the capital of the Hamid dynasty . He spent Ramadan (June 1331 or May 1333) in the city.

From this point the itinerary across Anatolia
Anatolia
in the Rihla is confused. Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
describes travelling westwards from Eğirdir
Eğirdir
to Milas
Milas
and then skipping 420 km (260 mi) eastward past Eğirdir
Eğirdir
to Konya
Konya
. He then continues travelling in an easterly direction, reaching Erzurum
Erzurum
from where he skips 1,160 km (720 mi) back to Birgi which lies north of Milas
Milas
. Historians believe that Ibn Battuta visited a number of towns in central Anatolia, but not in the order that he describes.

Central Asia

Bactrian camel (one of the symbols of Silk Road
Silk Road
caravans) in front of Mausoleum of Khoja Ahmed Yasawi in the city of Turkestan .

From Sinope he took a sea route to the Crimean Peninsula , arriving in the Golden Horde realm. He went to the port town of Azov
Azov
, where he met with the emir of the Khan, then to the large and rich city of Majar . He left Majar to meet with Uzbeg Khan 's travelling court (Orda ), which was at the time near Beshtau mountain. From there he made a journey to Bolghar , which became the northernmost point he reached, and noted its unusually (for a subtropics dweller) short nights in summer. Then he returned to the Khan's court and with it moved to Astrakhan
Astrakhan
.

Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
recorded that while in Bulghar he wanted to travel further north into the land of darkness. The land is snow-covered throughout (northern Siberia) and the only means of transport is dog-drawn sled. There lived a mysterious people who were reluctant to show themselves. They traded with southern people in a peculiar way. Southern merchants brought various goods and placed them in an open area on the snow in the night, then returned to their tents. Next morning they came to the place again and found their merchandise taken by the mysterious people, but in exchange they found fur-skins which could be used for making valuable coats, jackets, and other winter garments. The trade is done between merchants and the mysterious people without seeing each other. As Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
was not a merchant and saw no benefit of going there he abandoned the travel to this land of darkness. Flag
Flag
of the Golden Horde , during the reign of Öz Beg Khan

When they reached Astrakhan, Öz Beg Khan had just given permission for one of his pregnant wives, Princess Bayalun, a daughter of Byzantine emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos
Andronikos III Palaiologos
, to return to her home city of Constantinople
Constantinople
to give birth. Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
talked his way into this expedition, which would be his first beyond the boundaries of the Islamic world.

Arriving in Constantinople
Constantinople
towards the end of 1332 (or 1334), he met the Byzantine emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos. He visited the great church of Hagia Sophia and spoke with an Eastern Orthodox priest about his travels in the city of Jerusalem. After a month in the city, Ibn Battuta returned to Astrakhan, then arrived in the capital city Sarai al-Jadid and reported the accounts of his travels to Sultan
Sultan
Öz Beg Khan (r. 1313–1341). Then he continued past the Caspian and Aral Seas to Bukhara
Bukhara
and Samarkand
Samarkand
, where he visited the court of another Mongolian king, Tarmashirin (r. 1331–1334) of the Chagatai Khanate . From there, he journeyed south to Afghanistan
Afghanistan
, then crossed into India
India
via the mountain passes of the Hindu Kush
Hindu Kush
. In the Rihla, he mentions these mountains and the history of the range in slave trading. He wrote,

After this I proceeded to the city of Barwan, in the road to which is a high mountain, covered with snow and exceedingly cold; they call it the Hindu Kush, that is Hindu-slayer, because most of the slaves brought tither from India
India
die on account of the intenseness of the cold. — Ibn Batutta, Chapter XIII, Rihla – Khorasan

Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
and his party reached the Indus River
Indus River
on 12 September 1333. From there, he made his way to Delhi
Delhi
and became acquainted with the sultan, Muhammad
Muhammad
bin Tughluq .

South Asia

Tomb of Feroze Shah Tughluq, successor of Muhammad
Muhammad
bin Tughluq in Delhi. Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
served as a qadi or judge for six years during Muhammad
Muhammad
bin Tughluq's reign.

Muhammad
Muhammad
bin Tughluq was renowned as the wealthiest man in the Muslim world at that time. He patronized various scholars, Sufis, qadis , viziers and other functionaries in order to consolidate his rule. As with Mamluk Egypt, the Tughlaq Dynasty was a rare vestigial example of Muslim rule in Asia after the Mongol invasion. On the strength of his years of study in Mecca, Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
was appointed a qadi , or judge, by the sultan. However, he found it difficult to enforce Islamic law beyond the sultan's court in Delhi, due to lack of Islamic appeal in India.

From the Rajput
Rajput
Kingdom of Sarsatti, Battuta visited Hansi
Hansi
in India, describing it as "among the most beautiful cities, the best constructed and the most populated; it is surrounded with a strong wall, and its founder is said to be one of the great infidel kings, called Tara". Upon his arrival in Sindh
Sindh
, Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
mentions the Indian rhinoceros that lived on the banks of the Indus .

The Sultan
Sultan
was erratic even by the standards of the time and for six years Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
veered between living the high life of a trusted subordinate and falling under suspicion of treason for a variety of offences. His plan to leave on the pretext of taking another hajj was stymied by the Sultan. The opportunity for Battuta to leave Delhi finally arose in 1341 when an embassy arrived from Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
China asking for permission to rebuild a Himalayan Buddhist temple popular with Chinese pilgrims.

Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
was given charge of the embassy but en route to the coast at the start of the journey to China, he and his large retinue were attacked by a group of bandits. Separated from his companions, he was robbed and nearly lost his life. Despite this setback, within ten days he had caught up with his group and continued on to Khambhat in the Indian state of Gujarat
Gujarat
. From there, they sailed to Calicut (now known as Kozhikode), where Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama
would land two centuries later. While in Calicut, Battuta was the guest of the ruling Zamorin . While Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
visited a mosque on shore, a storm arose and one of the ships of his expedition sank. The other ship then sailed without him only to be seized by a local Sumatran king a few months later.

Afraid to return to Delhi
Delhi
and be seen as a failure, he stayed for a time in southern India
India
under the protection of Jamal-ud-Din, ruler of the small but powerful Nawayath sultanate on the banks of the Sharavathi river next to the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
. This area is today known as Hosapattana and lies in the Honavar administrative district of Uttara Kannada . Following the overthrow of the sultanate, Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
had no choice but to leave India. Although determined to continue his journey to China, he first took a detour to visit the Maldive Islands . A view of an island in the Maldives
Maldives

He spent nine months on the islands, much longer than he had intended. As a Chief Qadi, his skills were highly desirable in the formerly Buddhist nation that had recently converted to Islam
Islam
. Half-kidnapped into staying, he became chief judge and married into the royal family of Omar I . He became embroiled in local politics and left when his strict judgments in the laissez-faire island kingdom began to chafe with its rulers. In the Rihla he mentions his dismay at the local women going about with no clothing above the waist, and the locals taking no notice when he complained. From the Maldives, he carried on to Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and visited Sri Pada and Tenavaram temple .

Ibn Battuta's ship almost sank on embarking from Sri Lanka, only for the vessel that came to his rescue to suffer an attack by pirates. Stranded onshore, he worked his way back to the Madurai
Madurai
kingdom in India. Here he spent some time in the court of the short-lived Madurai Sultanate under Ghiyas-ud-Din Muhammad
Muhammad
Damghani, from where he returned to the Maldives
Maldives
and boarded a Chinese junk , still intending to reach China
China
and take up his ambassadorial post.

He reached the port of Chittagong
Chittagong
in modern-day Bangladesh
Bangladesh
intending to travel to Sylhet
Sylhet
to meet Shah Jalal , who became so renowned that Ibn Battuta, then in Chittagong, made a one-month journey through the mountains of Kamaru near Sylhet
Sylhet
to meet him. On his way to Sylhet, Ibn Battuta was greeted by several of Shah Jalal's disciples who had come to assist him on his journey many days before he had arrived. At the meeting in 1345 CE, Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
noted that Shah Jalal was tall and lean, fair in complexion and lived by the mosque in a cave, where his only item of value was a goat he kept for milk, butter, and yogurt. He observed that the companions of the Shah Jalal were foreign and known for their strength and bravery. He also mentions that many people would visit the Shah to seek guidance. Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
went further north into Assam
Assam
, then turned around and continued with his original plan.

Southeast Asia

Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
is believed to have arrived in Po Klong Garai
Po Klong Garai
(named "Kailukari"), Vietnam
Vietnam
where he is said to have briefly met the local princess Urduja (possibly of the Trần dynasty or a Cham aristocrat).

In 1345, Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
travelled on to Samudra Pasai Sultanate in present-day Aceh
Aceh
, Northern Sumatra
Sumatra
, where he notes in his travel log that the ruler of Samudra Pasai was a pious Muslim named Sultan Al- Malik
Malik
Al-Zahir Jamal-ad-Din, who performed his religious duties with utmost zeal and often waged campaigns against animists in the region. The island of Sumatra
Sumatra
, according to Ibn Battuta, was rich in camphor , areca nut , cloves , and tin . The madh\'hab he observed was Imam
Imam
Al-Shafi‘i
Al-Shafi‘i
, whose customs were similar to those he had previously seen in coastal India
India
, especially among the Mappila Muslims, who were also followers of Imam
Imam
Al-Shafi‘i. At that time Samudra Pasai marked the end of Dar al- Islam
Islam
, because no territory east of this was ruled by a Muslim. Here he stayed for about two weeks in the wooden walled town as a guest of the sultan, and then the sultan provided him with supplies and sent him on his way on one of his own junks to China.

Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
first sailed to Malacca
Malacca
on the Malay Peninsula
Malay Peninsula
which he described as "Mul Jawi". He met the ruler of Malacca
Malacca
and stayed as a guest for three days. He then sailed to Po Klong Garai
Po Klong Garai
(named "Kailukari") in Vietnam
Vietnam
where he is said to have briefly met a princess Urduja of the early Philippines
Philippines
, who wrote the word Bismillah in Islamic calligraphy . Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
described her people as opponents of the Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
. From Po Klong Garai
Po Klong Garai
he finally reached Quanzhou
Quanzhou
in Fujian
Fujian
province, China.

China

Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
provides the earliest mention of the Great Wall of China
China
with regards to Islamic geography although he did not see it.

In the year 1345 Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
arrived at Quanzhou
Quanzhou
in China's Fujian province, then under the rule of the Mongols
Mongols
. One of the first things he noted was that Muslims referred to the city as "Zaitun" (meaning olive ), but Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
could not find any olives anywhere. He mentioned local artists and their mastery in making portraits of newly arrived foreigners; these were for security purposes. Ibn Battuta praised the craftsmen and their silk and porcelain ; as well as fruits such as plums and watermelons and the advantages of paper money. He described the manufacturing process of large ships in the city of Quanzhou. He also mentioned Chinese cuisine and its usage of animals such as frogs, pigs and even dogs which were sold in the markets, and noted that the chickens in China
China
were larger in comparison. Scholars however have pointed out numerous errors given in Ibn Battuta's account of China, for example confusing the Yellow River
Yellow River
with the Grand Canal and other waterways, as well as believing that porcelain was made from coal.

In Quanzhou, Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
was welcomed by the local Muslim Qadi "Fanzhang" (Judge), Sheikh al- Islam
Islam
( Imam
Imam
) and the leader of the local Muslim merchants. who came to meet him with flags , drums , trumpets and musicians. Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
noted that the Muslim populace lived within a separate portion in the city where they had their own mosques, bazaars and hospitals. In Quanzhou, he met two prominent Persians, Burhan al-Din of Kazerun and Sharif al-Din from Tabriz
Tabriz
(both of whom were influential figures noted in the Yuan History as "A-mi-li-ding" and "Sai-fu-ding", respectively). While in Quanzhou
Quanzhou
he ascended the "Mount of the Hermit " and briefly visited a well-known Taoist monk in a cave.

He then travelled south along the Chinese coast to Guangzhou
Guangzhou
, where he lodged for two weeks with one of the city's wealthy merchants.

From Guangzhou
Guangzhou
he went north to Quanzhou
Quanzhou
and then proceeded to the city of Fuzhou
Fuzhou
, where he took up residence with Zahir al-Din and was proud to meet Kawam al-Din and a fellow countryman named Al-Bushri of Ceuta
Ceuta
, who had become a wealthy merchant in China. Al-Bushri accompanied Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
northwards to Hangzhou
Hangzhou
and paid for the gifts that Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
would present to the Mongolian Emperor Togon-temür of the Yuan Dynasty
Yuan Dynasty
.

Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
said that Hangzhou
Hangzhou
was one of the largest cities he had ever seen, and he noted its charm, describing that the city sat on a beautiful lake surrounded by gentle green hills. He mentions the city's Muslim quarter and resided as a guest with a family of Egyptian origin. During his stay at Hangzhou
Hangzhou
he was particularly impressed by the large number of well-crafted and well-painted Chinese wooden ships, with coloured sails and silk awnings, assembling in the canals. Later he attended a banquet of the Yuan Mongol administrator of the city named Qurtai, who according to Ibn Battuta, was very fond of the skills of local Chinese conjurers . Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
also mentions locals who worship the Solar deity .

He described floating through the Grand Canal on a boat watching crop fields, orchids, merchants in black-silk, and women in flowered-silk and priests also in silk. In Beijing
Beijing
, Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
referred to himself as the long-lost ambassador from the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate and was invited to the Yuan imperial court of Togon-temür (who according to Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
was worshipped by some people in China). Ibn Batutta noted that the palace of Khanbaliq
Khanbaliq
was made of wood and that the ruler's "head wife" ( Empress Gi ) held processions in her honour.

Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
also wrote he had heard of "the rampart of Yajuj and Majuj " that was "sixty days' travel" from the city of Zeitun (Quanzhou); Hamilton Alexander Rosskeen Gibb notes that Ibn Battuta believed that the Great Wall of China
China
was built by Dhul-Qarnayn to contain Gog and Magog as mentioned in the Quran
Quran
. However, Ibn Battuta, who asked about the wall in China, could find no one who had either seen it or knew of anyone who had seen it, suggesting that no significant structure of the wall constructed in the earlier periods remained at that period (the present structure was built later during the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
).

Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
travelled from Beijing
Beijing
to Hangzhou, and then proceeded to Fuzhou
Fuzhou
. Upon his return to Quanzhou, he soon boarded a Chinese junk owned by the Sultan
Sultan
of Samudera Pasai Sultanate heading for Southeast Asia, whereupon Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
was unfairly charged a hefty sum by the crew and lost much of what he had collected during his stay in China.

Battuta claimed that the Mongol Khan (Qan) had interned with him in his grave, six slave soldiers and four girl slaves. Silver, gold, weapons, and carpets were put into the grave.

Return

After returning to Quanzhou
Quanzhou
in 1346, Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
began his journey back to Morocco. In Kozhikode, he once again considered throwing himself at the mercy of Muhammad
Muhammad
bin Tughluq in Delhi, but thought better of it and decided to carry on to Mecca. On his way to Basra
Basra
he passed through the Strait of Hormuz
Strait of Hormuz
, where he learned that Abu Sa\'id , last ruler of the Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
Dynasty had died in Persia. Abu Sa'id's territories had subsequently collapsed due to a fierce civil war between the Persians and Mongols.

In 1348, Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
arrived in Damascus
Damascus
with the intention of retracing the route of his first hajj. He then learned that his father had died 15 years earlier and death became the dominant theme for the next year or so. The Black Death had struck and he was on hand as it spread through Syria, Palestine , and Arabia. After reaching Mecca
Mecca
he decided to return to Morocco, nearly a quarter of a century after leaving home. On the way he made one last detour to Sardinia
Sardinia
, then in 1349, returned to Tangier
Tangier
by way of Fez , only to discover that his mother had also died a few months before.

ITINERARY 1349–1354

Tangiers Tlemcen Tunis
Tunis
Fes
Fes
Algiers
Algiers
Ténès Alexandria
Alexandria
Cairo
Cairo
Sijilmasa Taghaza Oualata Timbuktu
Timbuktu
Gao I-n-Azaoua Takedda Cagliari Marrakech
Marrakech
Gibraltar
Gibraltar
Granada
Granada
Málaga
Málaga
Ibn Battuta Itinerary 1349–1354 (North Africa, Spain and West Africa)

Spain And North Africa

Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
visited the Emirate of Granada
Granada
, which was the final vestige of the Arab-Andalusian populace in Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
.

After a few days in Tangier, Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
set out for a trip to the Muslim-controlled territory of al-Andalus on the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
. King Alfonso XI of Castile and León had threatened to attack Gibraltar
Gibraltar
, so in 1350, Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
joined a group of Muslims leaving Tangier
Tangier
with the intention of defending the port. By the time he arrived, the Black Death had killed Alfonso and the threat of invasion had receded, so he turned the trip into a sight-seeing tour, travelling through Valencia and ending up in Granada
Granada
.

After his departure from al-Andalus he decided to travel through Morocco. On his return home, he stopped for a while in Marrakech
Marrakech
, which was almost a ghost town following the recent plague and the transfer of the capital to Fez .

Once more Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
returned to Tangier, but only stayed for a short while. In 1324, two years before his first visit to Cairo, the West African Malian Mansa , or king of kings, Musa had passed through the same city on his own hajj and caused a sensation with a display of extravagant riches brought from his gold-rich homeland. Although Ibn Battuta never mentioned this visit specifically, when he heard the story it may have planted a seed in his mind as he then decided to cross the Sahara
Sahara
and visit the Muslim kingdoms on its far side.

Mali
Mali
And Timbuktu

Sankore Madrasah in Timbuktu
Timbuktu
, Mali
Mali

In the autumn of 1351, Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
left Fez and made his way to the town of Sijilmasa on the northern edge of the Sahara
Sahara
in present-day Morocco. There he bought a number of camels and stayed for four months. He set out again with a caravan in February 1352 and after 25 days arrived at the dry salt lake bed of Taghaza with its salt mines. All of the local buildings were made from slabs of salt by the slaves of the Masufa tribe, who cut the salt in thick slabs for transport by camel. Taghaza was a commercial centre and awash with Malian gold, though Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
did not form a favourable impression of the place, recording that it was plagued by flies and the water was brackish.

After a ten-day stay in Taghaza, the caravan set out for the oasis of Tasarahla (probably Bir al-Ksaib) where it stopped for three days in preparation for the last and most difficult leg of the journey across the vast desert. From Tasarahla, a Masufa scout was sent ahead to the oasis town of Oualata , where he arranged for water to be transported a distance of four days travel where it would meet the thirsty caravan. Oualata was the southern terminus of the trans-Saharan trade route and had recently become part of the Mali
Mali
Empire. Altogether, the caravan took two months to cross the 1,600 km (990 mi) of desert from Sijilmasa. Azalai salt caravan from Agadez
Agadez
to Bilma
Bilma

From there, Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
travelled southwest along a river he believed to be the Nile
Nile
(it was actually the river Niger ), until he reached the capital of the Mali
Mali
Empire. There he met Mansa Suleyman , king since 1341. Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
disapproved of the fact that female slaves, servants and even the daughters of the sultan went about exposing parts of their bodies not befitting a Muslim. He left the capital in February accompanied by a local Malian merchant and journeyed overland by camel to Timbuktu
Timbuktu
. Though in the next two centuries it would become the most important city in the region, at that time it was a small city and relatively unimportant. It was during this journey that Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
first encountered a hippopotamus . The animals were feared by the local boatmen and hunted with lances to which strong cords were attached. After a short stay in Timbuktu, Ibn Battuta journeyed down the Niger to Gao in a canoe carved from a single tree. At the time Gao was an important commercial center.

After spending a month in Gao, Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
set off with a large caravan for the oasis of Takedda . On his journey across the desert, he received a message from the Sultan
Sultan
of Morocco
Morocco
commanding him to return home. He set off for Sijilmasa in September 1353, accompanying a large caravan transporting 600 female slaves, and arrived back in Morocco
Morocco
early in 1354.

Ibn Battuta's itinerary gives scholars a glimpse as to when Islam first began to spread into the heart of west Africa.

WORKS

See also: Rihla House in the Medina
Medina
of Tangier
Tangier
, possible site of Ibn Battuta's grave

After returning home from his travels in 1354, and at the suggestion of the Marinid ruler of Morocco, Abu Inan Faris , Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
dictated an account of his journeys to Ibn Juzayy , a scholar whom he had previously met in Granada. The account is the only source for Ibn Battuta's adventures. The full title of the manuscript may be translated as A GIFT TO THOSE WHO CONTEMPLATE THE WONDERS OF CITIES AND THE MARVELS OF TRAVELLING (تحفة النظار في غرائب الأمصار وعجائب الأسفار, Tuḥfat an-Nuẓẓār fī Gharāʾib al-Amṣār wa ʿAjāʾib al-Asfār). However, it is often simply referred to as THE TRAVELS (الرحلة, Rihla), in reference to a standard form of Arabic literature .

There is no indication that Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
made any notes or had any journal during his twenty-nine years of travelling. When he came to dictate an account of his experiences he had to rely on memory and manuscripts produced by earlier travellers. Ibn Juzayy did not acknowledge his sources and presented some of the earlier descriptions as Ibn Battuta's own observations. When describing Damascus, Mecca, Medina
Medina
and some other places in the Middle East, he clearly copied passages from the account by the Andalusian Ibn Jubayr which had been written more than 150 years earlier. Similarly, most of Ibn Juzayy's descriptions of places in Palestine were copied from an account by the 13th-century traveller Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Abdari .

Scholars do not believe that Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
visited all the places he described and argue that in order to provide a comprehensive description of places in the Muslim world, he relied on hearsay evidence and made use of accounts by earlier travellers. For example, it is considered very unlikely that Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
made a trip up the Volga River
Volga River
from New Sarai to visit Bolghar and there are serious doubts about a number of other journeys such as his trip to Sana'a in Yemen, his journey from Balkh to Bistam in Khorasan and his trip around Anatolia. Ibn Battuta's claim that a Maghrebian called "Abu'l Barakat the Berber" converted the Maldives
Maldives
to Islam
Islam
is contradicted by an entirely different story which says that the Maldives
Maldives
were converted to Islam
Islam
after miracles were performed by a Tabrizi named Maulana Shaikh Yusuf Shams-ud-din according to the Tarikh, the official history of the Maldives. Some scholars have also questioned whether he really visited China. Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
may have plagiarized entire sections of his descriptions of China
China
lifted from works by other authors like "Masalik al-absar fi mamalik al-amsar" by Shihab al-Umari , Sulaiman al-Tajir , and possibly from Al Juwayni , Rashid al din and an Alexander romance and Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
and Marco Polo's writings share extremely sections and themes, and some of the same commentary, it is also unlikely that the 3rd Caliph Uthman ibn Affan had someone with the exact identical name in China
China
who was encountered by Ibn Battuta. However, even if the Rihla is not fully based on what its author personally witnessed, it provides an important account of much of the 14th-century world. Sex slaves were used by Ibn Battuta such as in Delhi. He wedded and divorced women and had children to sex slaves in Malabar, Delhi, and Bukhara. Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
insulted Greeks as "enemies of Allah", drunkards and "swine eaters", while at the same time in ephesus he purchased and used a Greek girl. who was one of his many slave girls in his "harem" through Byzantium, Khorasan, African, and Palestine. It was two decades years before he again returned to find out what happened to one of his wives and child in Damascus.

Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
often experienced culture shock in regions he visited where the local customs of recently converted peoples did not fit in with his orthodox Muslim background. Among the Turks and Mongols, he was astonished at the freedom and respect enjoyed by women and remarked that on seeing a Turkish couple in a bazaar one might assume that the man was the woman's servant when he was in fact her husband. He also felt that dress customs in the Maldives, and some sub-Saharan regions in Africa were too revealing.

Little is known about Ibn Battuta's life after completion of his Rihla in 1355. He was appointed a judge in Morocco
Morocco
and died in 1368 or 1369.

The Maldives
Maldives
were converted to Islam
Islam
after miracles were performed by a Tabrizi named Maulana Shaikh Yusuf Shams-ud-din according to the Tarikh, the official history of the Maldives
Maldives
and it contradicts the claims by Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
who claimed that Maldives
Maldives
converted to Islam after jinn were driven away by a Moroccan called Abu al Barakat .

Ibn Battuta's work was unknown outside the Muslim world until the beginning of the 19th century, when the German traveller-explorer Ulrich Jasper Seetzen (1767–1811) acquired a collection of manuscripts in the Middle East, among which was a 94-page volume containing an abridged version of Ibn Juzayy's text. Three extracts were published in 1818 by the German orientalist Johann Kosegarten . A fourth extract was published the following year. French scholars were alerted to the initial publication by a lengthy review published in the Journal de Savants by the orientalist Silvestre de Sacy .

Three copies of another abridged manuscript were acquired by the Swiss traveller Johann Burckhardt and bequeathed to the University of Cambridge. He gave a brief overview of their content in a book published posthumously in 1819. The Arabic text was translated into English by the orientalist Samuel Lee and published in London in 1829.

In the 1830s, during the French occupation of Algeria, the Bibliothèque Nationale (BNF) in Paris
Paris
acquired five manuscripts of Ibn Battuta's travels, in which two were complete. One manuscript containing just the second part of the work is dated 1356 and is believed to be Ibn Juzayy's autograph. The BNF manuscripts were used in 1843 by the Irish-French orientalist Baron de Slane
Baron de Slane
to produce a translation into French of Ibn Battuta's visit to the Sudan. They were also studied by the French scholars Charles Defrémery and Beniamino Sanguinetti. Beginning in 1853 they published a series of four volumes containing a critical edition of the Arabic text together with a translation into French. In their introduction Defrémery and Sanguinetti praised Lee's annotations but were critical of his translation which they claimed lacked precision, even in straightforward passages.

In 1929, exactly a century after the publication of Lee's translation, the historian and orientalist Hamilton Gibb published an English translation of selected portions of Defrémery and Sanguinetti's Arabic text. Gibb had proposed to the Hakluyt Society in 1922 that he should prepare an annotated translation of the entire Rihla into English. His intention was to divide the translated text into four volumes, each volume corresponding to one of the volumes published by Defrémery and Sanguinetti. The first volume was not published until 1958. Gibb died in 1971, having completed the first three volumes. The fourth volume was prepared by Charles Beckingham and published in 1994. Defrémery and Sanguinetti's printed text has now been translated into number of other languages.

LEGACY

Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
himself stated according to Ibn Juzayy that:

I have indeed—praise be to God—attained my desire in this world, which was to travel through the Earth, and I have attained this honour, which no ordinary person has attained.

* The interiors of the Ibn Battuta Mall in Dubai
Dubai
, United Arab Emirates , inaugurated in 2005, are inspired by the travels of Ibn Battuta, and carry the theme throughout the building. * The 2007 BBC television documentary Travels with a Tangerine, hosted by classicist Tim Mackintosh-Smith , traces Ibn Battuta's journey from Tangier
Tangier
to China. * He was portrayed by Richar van Weyden in the film Ninja Assassin (2009). His fictional persona is mentioned as being invited to the undisclosed training grounds in an oral history about the Ninja clans. * Ibn Batuta pehen ke joota is a popular Hindi
Hindi
nursery rhyme from the 1970s, written by the poet Sarveshwar Dayal Saxena . * Ibn-E-Batuta is a song from the 2010 Bollywood
Bollywood
film Ishqiya , titled after Ibn Battuta. * Layar Battuta is a song from the 2002 Malaysian album Aura sung by popular ethnic singer-songwriter Noraniza Idris , titled after the journey of Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
to Southeast Asia. * The 2009 IMAX
IMAX
film Journey to Mecca
Mecca
is based on Ibn Battuta's travels. * Ibn Battuta's travels are featured as part of the main plot in the modern-day settings of the episodic video game Unearthed: Trail of Ibn Battuta , which is developed in Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
by Semaphore. * Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
Centre is a research institution at Marrakech (Morocco) to test rovers, landers and instruments for the exploration of Mars and Moon. * Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
has inspired many Muslim travellers and Muslim travel writers. * Ibn Battuta: The Animated Series – a 2010s 13-part Malaysian 3D animated cartoon series based on his own biography, Rihla , aired on TV2 . * In series two of BBC Radio 4’s epic Tumanbay , the character of Alkin is inspired by the life of Ibn Battuta. * In Arab culture, people who travel frequently are often nicknamed "Ibn Battuta."

SEE ALSO

* List of places visited by Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta

NOTES

* ^ Aydhad was a port on the west coast of the Red Sea
Red Sea
at 22°19′51″N 36°29′25″E / 22.33083°N 36.49028°E / 22.33083; 36.49028 . * ^ Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
left Cairo
Cairo
on around 16 July 1326 and arrived in Damascus
Damascus
three weeks later on 9 August 1326. He described travelling on a complicated zig-zag route across Palestine in which he visited more than twenty cities. Such a journey would have been impossible in the allotted time and both Gibb (1958) and Hrbek (1962) have argued that Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
conflated this journey with later journeys that he made in the region. Elad (1987) has shown that Ibn Battuta's descriptions of most of the sites in Palestine were not original but were copied (without acknowledgement) from the earlier rihla by the traveller Mohammed al-Abdari . Because of these difficulties, it is not possible to determine an accurate chronology of Ibn Battuta's travels in the region. * ^ Most of Ibn Battuta's descriptions of the towns along the Tigris
Tigris
are copied from Ibn Jabayr
Ibn Jabayr
's Rihla from 1184. * ^ Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
states that he stayed in Mecca
Mecca
for the hajj of 1327, 1328, 1329 and 1330 but gives comparatively little information on his stays. After the hajj of 1330 he left for East Africa, arriving back again in Mecca
Mecca
before the 1332 hajj. He states that he then left for India
India
and arrived at the Indus river on 12 September 1333; however, although he does not specify exact dates, the description of his complex itinerary and the clues in the text to the chronology suggest that this journey to India
India
lasted around three years. He must have therefore either left Mecca
Mecca
two years earlier than stated or arrived in India
India
two years later. The issue is discussed by Gibb 1962 , pp. 528–537 Vol. 2, Hrbek 1962 and Dunn 2005 , pp. 132–133. * ^ This is one of several occasions where Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
interrupts a journey to branch out on a side trip only to later skip back and resume the original journey. Gibb describes these side trips as "divagations". The divagation through Anatolia
Anatolia
is considered credible as Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
describes numerous personal experiences and there is sufficient time between leaving Mecca
Mecca
in mid-November 1330 and reaching Eğirdir
Eğirdir
on the way back from Erzurum
Erzurum
at the start of Ramadan (8 June) in 1331. Gibb still admits that he found it difficult to believe that Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
actually travelled as far east as Erzurum. * ^ In the Rihla the date of Ibn Battuta's departure from Delhi
Delhi
is given as 17 Safar 743 AH or 22 July 1342. Dunn has argued that this is probably an error and to accommodate Ibn Battuta's subsequent travels and visits to the Maldives
Maldives
it is more likely that he left Delhi
Delhi
in 1341. * ^ Bir al-Ksaib (also Bir Ounane or El Gçaib) is in northern Mali at 21°17′33″N 5°37′30″W / 21.29250°N 5.62500°W / 21.29250; -5.62500 . The oasis is 265 km (165 mi) south of Taghaza and 470 km (290 mi) north of Oualata. * ^ The location of the Malian capital has been the subject of considerable scholarly debate but there is no consensus. The historian, John Hunwick has studied the times given by Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
for the various stages of his journey and proposed that the capital is likely to have been on the left side of the Niger River
Niger River
somewhere between Bamako
Bamako
and Nyamina . * ^ Dunn gives the clunkier translation A Gift to the Observers Concerning the Curiosities of the Cities and the Marvels Encountered in Travels. * ^ Neither de Slane's 19th century catalogue nor the modern online equivalent provide any information on the provenance of the manuscripts. Dunn states that all five manuscripts were "found in Algeria" but in their introduction Defrémery and Sanguinetti mention that the BNF had acquired one manuscript (MS Supplément arabe 909/Arabe 2287) from M. Delaporte, a former French consul to Morocco. * ^ French: "La version de M. Lee manque quelquefois d'exactitude, même dans des passage fort simples et très-faciles."

REFERENCES

CITATIONS

* ^ A B Dunn 2005 , p. 20. * ^ Nehru, Jawaharlal (1989). Glimpses of World History . Oxford University Press. p. 752. ISBN 0-19-561323-6 . After outlining the extensive route of Ibn Battuta's Journey, Nehru notes: "This is a record of travel which is rare enough today with our many conveniences.... In any event, Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
must be amongst the great travellers of all time." * ^ M-S p. ix. * ^ Dunn 2005 , pp. 310–311; Defrémery & Sanguinetti 1853 , pp. 9–10 Vol. 1 * ^ Dunn 2005 , p. 19 * ^ Defrémery Dunn 2005 , p. 19 * ^ Dunn 2005 , p. 22 * ^ A Mediterranean Society. University of California Press. 1967. pp. 67–. GGKEY:TA7KAQ8PCE3. * ^ Dunn 2005 , pp. 30-31. * ^ Defrémery Gibb 1958 , p. 8 * ^ Dunn 2005 , p. 37; Defrémery Defrémery & Sanguinetti 1853 , p. 26 Vol. 1 * ^ Travels of Ibe Batutah translated by H.A.R Gibb * ^ Defrémery Defrémery & Sanguinetti 1853 , p. 67 Vol. 1 * ^ Peacock & Peacock 2008 . * ^ Dunn 2005 , pp. 53–54 * ^ Defrémery Gibb 1958 , p. 66; Dunn 2005 , p. 53 * ^ Dunn 2005 , p. 54. * ^ Gibb 1958 , pp. 71, 118. * ^ Gibb 1958 , p. 81 Note 48. * ^ Hrbek 1962 , pp. 421-425. * ^ Elad 1987 . * ^ Dunn 2005 , pp. 66-79. * ^ Dunn 2005 , pp. 88–89; Defrémery Gibb 1958 , p. 249 Vol. 1 * ^ Gibb 1958 , pp. 255–257 Vol. 1; Dunn 2005 , pp. 89–90 * ^ Dunn 2005 , p. 97; Defrémery Defrémery Defrémery & Sanguinetti 1854 , pp. 128–131 Vol. 2 * ^ Defrémery Defrémery Defrémery & Sanguinetti 1854 , p. 149 Vol. 2 * ^ Dunn 2005 , pp. 115–116, 134 * ^ Gibb 1962 , p. 373 Vol. 2 * ^ Sanjay Subrahmanyam, The Career and Legend of Vasco Da Gama, (Cambridge University Press: 1998), pp. 120-121. * ^ J. D. Fage, Roland Oliver, Roland Anthony Oliver, The Cambridge History of Africa, (Cambridge University Press: 1977), p. 190. * ^ George Wynn Brereton Huntingford , Agatharchides, The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea: With Some Extracts from Agatharkhidēs "On the Erythraean Sea", (Hakluyt Society: 1980), p. 83. * ^ Helen Chapin Metz (1992). Somalia: A Country Study. US: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. ISBN 0-8444-0775-5 . * ^ Versteegh, Kees (2008). Encyclopedia of Arabic language
Arabic language
and linguistics, Volume 4. Brill. p. 276. ISBN 9004144765 . * ^ A B C David D. Laitin, Said S. Samatar, Somalia: Nation in Search of a State, (Westview Press: 1987), p. 15. * ^ Chapurukha Makokha Kusimba, The Rise and Fall of Swahili States, (AltaMira Press: 1999), p.58 * ^ Chittick 1977 , p. 191 * ^ Gibb 1962 , p. 379 Vol. 2 * ^ Dunn 2005 , p. 126 * ^ Defrémery Defrémery Gibb 1962 , pp. 533–535, Vol. 2; Hrbek 1962 , pp. 455–462. * ^ Gibb 1962 , pp. 533-535, Vol. 2. * ^ Gibb 1962 , p. 535, Vol. 2. * ^ Safarname Ibn Battutah-vol:1 * ^ Dunn 2005 , pp. 169–171 * ^ "The_Longest_Hajj_Part2_6". hajjguide.org. Retrieved 13 June 2015. * ^ Dunn 2005 , pp. 171–178 * ^ A B Ibn Battuta, The Travels of Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
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BIBLIOGRAPHY

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* Chittick, H. Neville (1968). "Ibn Baṭṭūṭa and East Africa". Journal de la Société des Africanistes. 38 (2): 239–241. * Euben, Roxanne L. (2006), "Ibn Battuta", Journeys to the Other Shore: Muslim and Western Travelers in Search of Knowledge, Princeton N.J.: Princeton University Press, pp. 63–89, ISBN 978-069112721-7 * Ferrand, Gabriel (1913), "Ibn Batūtā", Relations de voyages et textes géographiques arabes, persans et turks relatifs à l\'Extrème-Orient du 8e au 18e siècles (Volumes 1 and 2) (in French), Paris: Ernest Laroux, pp. 426–437 . * Gordon, Stewart (2008), When Asia was the World: Traveling Merchants, Scholars, Warriors, and Monks who created the "Riches of the East", Philadelphia, PA.: Da Capo Press, Perseus Books, ISBN 0-306-81556-7 . * Harvey, L.P. (2007), Ibn Battuta, New York: I.B. Tauris, ISBN 978-184511-394-0 . * Mackintosh-Smith, Tim (2002), Travels with a Tangerine: A Journey in the Footnotes of Ibn Battutah, London: Picador, ISBN 978-0-330-49114-3 . * Mackintosh-Smith, Tim (ed.) (2003), The Travels of Ibn Battutah, London: Picador, ISBN 0-330-41879-3 CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ). Contains an introduction by Mackintosh-Smith and then an abridged version (around 40 percent of the original) of the translation by H.A.R. Gibb and C.E. Beckingham (1958–1994). * Mackintosh-Smith, Tim (2005), Hall of a Thousand Columns: Hindustan to Malabar with Ibn Battutah, London: John Murray, ISBN 978-0-7195-6710-0 . * Mackintosh-Smith, Tim (2010), Landfalls: On the Edge of Islam
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EXTERNAL LINKS

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* A Tangerine in Delhi
Delhi
— Saudi Aramco World article by Tim Mackintosh-Smith (March/April 2006). * The Longest Hajj: The Journeys of Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
— Saudi Aramco World article by Douglas Bullis (July/August 2000). * Google Books — link to a 2004 reissue of Gibb's 1929 translation. * French text from Defrémery and Sanguinetti (1853–1858) with an introduction and footnotes by Stéphane Yérasimos published in 1982: Volume 1, Volume 2, Volume 3.

* v * t * e

Geography and cartography in medieval

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