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In Greek mythology
Greek mythology
the Hyperboreans (Ancient Greek: Ὑπερβόρε(ι)οι, pronounced [hyperbóre(ː)ɔi̯]; Latin: Hyperborei) were a mythical race of giants who lived "beyond the North Wind". The Greeks thought that Boreas, the god of the North Wind (one of the Anemoi, or "Winds") lived in Thrace, and therefore Hyperborea
Hyperborea
indicates a region that lay far to the north of Thrace. This land was supposed to be perfect, with the sun shining twenty-four hours a day, which to modern ears suggests a possible location within the Arctic Circle
Arctic Circle
during the Midnight Sun-time of year. However, it is also possible that Hyperborea
Hyperborea
had no real physical location at all, for according to the classical Greek poet Pindar,

neither by ship nor on foot would you find the marvellous road to the assembly of the Hyperboreans.

Pindar
Pindar
also described the otherworldly perfection of the Hyperboreans:

Never the Muse is absent from their ways: lyres clash and flutes cry and everywhere maiden choruses whirling. Neither disease nor bitter old age is mixed in their sacred blood; far from labor and battle they live.[1]

Contents

1 Early sources

1.1 Herodotus 1.2 Location of Hyperborea 1.3 Later classical sources 1.4 Ancient identification with Britain

2 Legends

2.1 Hyperboreans in Delos 2.2 Abaris the Hyperborean 2.3 Physical appearance 2.4 From east to west: Celts
Celts
as Hyperboreans

3 Modern interpretations 4 Identification as Hyperboreans 5 Hyperborean Indo-European hypothesis 6 Hyperborea
Hyperborea
in modern esoteric thought 7 Cultural references 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References

Early sources[edit] Herodotus[edit] The earliest extant source that mentions Hyperborea
Hyperborea
in detail, Herodotus's Histories ( Book
Book
IV, Chapters 32–36),[2] dates from circa 450 BC.[3] However, Herodotus
Herodotus
recorded three earlier sources that supposedly mentioned the Hyperboreans, including Hesiod
Hesiod
and Homer, the latter purportedly having written of Hyperborea
Hyperborea
in his lost work Epigoni: "if that be really a work of his". Herodotus
Herodotus
also wrote that the 7th-century BC poet Aristeas wrote of the Hyperboreans in a poem (now lost) called Arimaspea about a journey to the Issedones, who are estimated to have lived in the Kazakh Steppe.[4] Beyond these lived the one-eyed Arimaspians, further on the gold-guarding griffins, and beyond these the Hyperboreans.[5] Herodotus
Herodotus
assumed that Hyperborea lay somewhere in Northeast Asia. Pindar, Simonides of Ceos
Simonides of Ceos
and Hellanicus of Lesbos, contemporaries of Herodotus
Herodotus
in the 5th century BC, each briefly described or referenced the Hyperboreans in their works.[6] Location of Hyperborea[edit] The Hyperboreans were believed to live beyond the snowy Riphean Mountains. According to Pausanias: "The land of the Hyperboreans, men living beyond the home of Boreas."[7] Homer
Homer
placed Boreas in Thrace, and therefore Hyperborea
Hyperborea
was in his opinion north of Thrace, in Dacia.[8] Sophocles
Sophocles
(Antigone, 980–987), Aeschylus (Agamemnon, 193; 651), Simonides of Ceos
Simonides of Ceos
(Schol. on Apollonius Rhodius, 1. 121) and Callimachus
Callimachus
(Delian, [IV] 65) also placed Boreas in Thrace.[9] Other ancient writers however believed the home of Boreas or the Riphean Mountains were in a different location. For example, Hecataeus of Miletus believed that the Riphean Mountains were adjacent to the Black Sea.[8] Alternatively Pindar
Pindar
placed the home of Boreas, the Riphean Mountains and Hyperborea
Hyperborea
all near the Danube.[10] Heraclides Ponticus and Antimachus
Antimachus
in contrast identified the Riphean Mountains with the Alps, and the Hyperboreans as a Celtic tribe (perhaps the Helvetii) who lived just beyond them.[11] Aristotle placed the Riphean mountains on the borders of Scythia, and Hyperborea
Hyperborea
further north.[12] Hecataeus of Abdera and others believed Hyperborea
Hyperborea
was Britain (see below). Later Roman and Greek sources continued to change the location of the Riphean mountains, the home of Boreas, as well as Hyperborea, supposedly located beyond them. However all these sources agreed these were all in the far north of Greece or southern Europe.[13] The ancient grammarian Simmias of Rhodes
Simmias of Rhodes
in the 3rd century BC connected the Hyperboreans to the Massagetae[14] and Posidonius in the 1st century BC to the Western Celts, but Pomponius Mela
Pomponius Mela
placed them even further north in the vicinity of the Arctic.[15] In maps based on reference points and descriptions given by Strabo,[16] Hyperborea, shown variously as a peninsula or island, is located beyond what is now France, and stretches further north-south than east-west.[17] Other descriptions put it in the general area of the Ural Mountains. Another version[citation needed] exists: Hyperborea
Hyperborea
was located in the Murmansk region of Russia. Later classical sources[edit] Plutarch, writing in the 1st century AD, connected the Hyperboreans with the Gauls
Gauls
who had sacked Rome
Rome
in the 4th century BC (see Battle of the Allia).[18] Aelian, Diodorus Siculus
Diodorus Siculus
and Stephen of Byzantium
Stephen of Byzantium
all recorded important ancient Greek sources on Hyperborea, but added no new descriptions.[19] The 2nd century AD Stoic philosopher Hierocles equated the Hyperboreans with the Scythians, and the Riphean Mountains with the Ural Mountains.[20] Clement of Alexandria
Clement of Alexandria
and other early Christian writers also made this same Scythian equation.[21] Ancient identification with Britain[edit] Hyperborea
Hyperborea
was identified with Britain first by Hecataeus of Abdera in the 4th century BC, as in a preserved fragment by Diodorus Siculus:

In the regions beyond the land of the Celts
Celts
there lies in the ocean an island no smaller than Sicily. This island, the account continues, is situated in the north and is inhabited by the Hyperboreans, who are called by that name because their home is beyond the point whence the north wind (Boreas) blows; and the island is both fertile and productive of every crop, and has an unusually temperate climate.[22]

Hecateaus of Abdera also wrote that the Hyperboreans had on their island "a magnificent sacred precinct of Apollo
Apollo
and a notable temple which is adorned with many votive offerings and is spherical in shape". Some scholars have identified this temple with Stonehenge.[19][23] Diodorus, however, does not identify Hyperborea with Britain, and his description of Britain (5.21–23) makes no mention of the Hyperboreans or their spherical temple. (See the section "Legends" below.) Pseudo-Scymnus, around 90 BC, wrote that Boreas dwelled at the extremity of Gaulish territory, and that he had a pillar erected in his name on the edge of the sea (Periegesis, 183). Some have claimed this is a geographical reference to northern France, and Hyperborea
Hyperborea
as the British Isles which lay just beyond the English Channel.[24] Ptolemy
Ptolemy
(Geographia, 2. 21) and Marcian of Heraclea (Periplus, 2. 42) both placed Hyperborea
Hyperborea
in the North Sea
North Sea
which they called the "Hyperborean Ocean".[25] In his 1726 work on the druids, John Toland
John Toland
specifically identified Diodorus' Hyperborea
Hyperborea
with the Isle of Lewis, and the spherical temple with the Callanish Stones.[26] Legends[edit] Along with Thule, Hyperborea
Hyperborea
was one of several terrae incognitae to the Greeks and Romans, where Pliny, Pindar
Pindar
and Herodotus, as well as Virgil
Virgil
and Cicero, reported that people lived to the age of one thousand and enjoyed lives of complete happiness. Hecataeus of Abdera collated all the stories about the Hyperboreans current in the fourth century BC and published a lengthy treatise on them, lost to us, but noted by Diodorus Siculus
Diodorus Siculus
(ii.47.1–2).[27] Also, the sun was supposed to rise and set only once a year in Hyperborea; which would place it above or upon the Arctic
Arctic
Circle, or, more generally, in the arctic polar regions. The ancient Greek writer Theopompus in his work Philippica claimed Hyperborea
Hyperborea
was once planned to be conquered by a large race of soldiers from another island (some have claimed this was Atlantis), the plan though was abandoned because the soldiers from Meropis realized the Hyperboreans were too strong for them and the most blessed of people; this unusual tale, which some believe was satire or comedy, was preserved by Aelian (Varia Historia, 3. 18). Theseus
Theseus
visited the Hyperboreans, and Pindar
Pindar
transferred Perseus's encounter with Medusa there from its traditional site in Libya, to the dissatisfaction of his Alexandrian editors.[28] Apollonius wrote that the Argonauts
Argonauts
sighted Hyperborea, when they sailed through Eridanos. Hyperboreans in Delos[edit]

On this 1570 map, Hyperborea
Hyperborea
is shown as an Arctic
Arctic
continent and described as "Terra Septemtrionalis Incognita" (Unknown Northern Land). Notice the similarities in the continent to that of Mercator's map above.

Alone among the Twelve Olympians, Apollo
Apollo
was venerated among the Hyperboreans, the Hellenes thought: he spent his winter amongst them.[29] According to Herodotus, offerings from the Hyperboreans came to Scythia
Scythia
packed with straw, and they were passed from tribe to tribe until they arrived at Dodona
Dodona
and from them to other Greek peoples until they to came to Apollo's temple on Delos. He says they used this method because the first time the gifts were brought by two maidens, Hyperoche and Laodice, with a escort of five men, but none of them returned. To prevent that, since then the Hyperboreans brought the gifts to their borders and asked they neighbours to deliver them to the next country and so on until they arrived to Delos.[30] Herodotus
Herodotus
also details that other two virgin maidens, Arge and Opis, had come from Hyperborea
Hyperborea
to Delos
Delos
before, as a tribute to the goddess Ilithyia for ease of child-bearing, accompanied by the gods themselves. The maidens received honours in Delos, where the women collected gifts from them and sang hymns to them.[30] Abaris the Hyperborean[edit] Main article: Abaris the Hyperborean A particular Hyperborean legendary healer was known as "Abaris" or "Abaris the Healer" whom Herodotus
Herodotus
first described in his works. Plato (Charmides, 158C) regarded Abaris as a physician from the far north, while Strabo
Strabo
reported Abaris was Scythian like the early philosopher Anacharsis
Anacharsis
(Geographica, 7. 3. 8). Physical appearance[edit] Greek legend asserts that the Boreades, who were the descendants of Boreas and the snow-nymph Chione (or Khione), founded the first theocratic monarchy on Hyperborea. This legend is found preserved in the writings of Aelian:

This god [Apollon] has as priests the sons of Boreas [North Wind] and Chione [Snow], three in number, brothers by birth, and six cubits in height [about 3 metres].[31]

Diodorus Siculus
Diodorus Siculus
added to this account:

And the kings of this (Hyperborean) city and the supervisors of the sacred precinct are called Boreadae, since they are descendants of Boreas, and the succession to these positions is always kept in their family.[32]

The Boreades were thus believed to be giant kings, around 10 feet (3.0 m) tall, who ruled Hyperborea. No other physical descriptions of the Hyperboreans are provided in classical sources.[33] However, Aelius Herodianus, a grammarian in the 3rd century, wrote that the mythical Arimaspi
Arimaspi
were identical to the Hyperboreans in physical appearance (De Prosodia Catholica, 1. 114) and Stephanus of Byzantium
Stephanus of Byzantium
in the 6th century wrote the same (Ethnica, 118. 16). The ancient poet Callimachus
Callimachus
described the Arimaspi
Arimaspi
as having fair hair[34] but it is disputed whether the Arimaspi
Arimaspi
were Hyperboreans.[35] From east to west: Celts
Celts
as Hyperboreans[edit] Six classical Greek authors also came to identify these mythical people at the back of the North Wind with their Celtic neighbours in the north: Antimachus
Antimachus
of Colophon, Protarchus, Heraclides Ponticus, Hecataeus of Abdera, Apollonius of Rhodes and Posidonius of Apamea. The way the Greeks understood their relationship with non-Greek peoples was significantly moulded by the way myths of the Golden Age were transplanted into the contemporary scene, especially in the context of Greek colonisation and trade. As the Riphean mountains of the mythical past were identified with the Alps
Alps
of northern Italy, there was at least a geographic rationale for identifying the Hyperboreans with the Celts
Celts
living in and beyond the Alps, or at least the Hyperborean lands with the lands inhabited by the Celts. A reputation for feasting and a love of gold may have reinforced the connection.[36] In Ireland, however, the Celts
Celts
had their own legends of an advanced civilization in the far north. The Book
Book
of Invasions records that this civilization was established by migrants from Ireland, whose descendants returned to settle Ireland several centuries later:

Bethach son of Iarbonel the Soothsayer son of Nemed: his descendants went into the northern islands of the world to learn druidry and heathenism and diabolical knowledge, so that they became expert in all the arts. And their descendants were the Tuatha De Danann ... These latter acquired knowledge and science and diabolism in four cities: Failias, Goirias, Findlias and Muirias ... Thereafter the Tuatha De Danann came to Ireland, without ships, passing through the air in dark clouds.[37]

Map by Abraham Ortelius, Amsterdam 1572: at the top left Oceanvs Hyperborevs separates Iceland
Iceland
from Greenland

Modern interpretations[edit] Main article: Dzungarian Gate
Dzungarian Gate
§ Hyperborean connection As with other legends of this sort, details can be selectively reconciled with modern knowledge. Above the Arctic
Arctic
Circle, from the spring equinox to the autumnal equinox (depending on latitude), the sun can shine for 24 hours a day; at the extreme (that is, the Pole), it rises and sets only once a year, possibly leading to the erroneous conclusion that a "day" for such persons is a year long, and therefore that living a thousand days would be the same as living a thousand years. Since Herodotus
Herodotus
places the Hyperboreans beyond the Massagetae
Massagetae
and Issedones, both Central Asian
Central Asian
peoples, it appears that his Hyperboreans may have lived in Siberia. Heracles
Heracles
sought the golden-antlered hind of Artemis
Artemis
in Hyperborea. As the reindeer is the only deer species of which females bear antlers, this would suggest an arctic or subarctic region. Following J. D. P. Bolton's location of the Issedones on the south-western slopes of the Altay mountains, Carl P. Ruck places Hyperborea
Hyperborea
beyond the Dzungarian Gate
Dzungarian Gate
into northern Xinjiang, noting that the Hyperboreans were probably Chinese.[38] Amber
Amber
arrived in Greek hands from some place known to be far to the north. Avram Davidson proposed the theory that Hyperborea
Hyperborea
was derived from a logical (though erroneous) explanation by the Greeks for the insects, which apparently originated in a warm climate, found embedded inside the amber arriving in their cities from cold northern countries.[39] Unaware of the explanation offered by modern science (i.e. that these insects had lived in times when the climate of northern Europe
Europe
was much warmer, their bodies preserved unchanged in the amber) the Greeks came up with the idea that the coldness of northern countries was due to the cold breath of Boreas, the North Wind. So if one travelled "beyond Boreas" one would find a warm and sunny land. Identification as Hyperboreans[edit] Northern Europeans (Scandinavians), when confronted with the classical Greco-Roman culture of the Mediterranean, identified themselves with the Hyperboreans, neglecting the traditional aspect of a perpetually sunny land beyond the north. This idea was especially strong during the 17th century in Sweden, where the later representatives of the ideology of Gothicism
Gothicism
declared the Scandinavian peninsula both the lost Atlantis
Atlantis
and the Hyperborean land. The north of the Scandinavian peninsula is crossed by the Arctic
Arctic
Circle, north of which there are sunless days during the winter and sunlit nights during the summer. European culture equally self-identified as Hyperborean; thus Washington Irving, in elaborating on Astoria in the Pacific Northwest, was of the opinion that

While the fiery and magnificent Spaniard, inflamed with the mania for gold, has extended his discoveries and conquests over those brilliant countries scorched by the ardent sun of the tropics, the adroit and buoyant Frenchman, and the cool and calculating Briton, have pursued the less splendid, but no less lucrative, traffic in furs amidst the hyperborean regions of the Canadas, until they have advanced even within the Arctic
Arctic
Circle.[40]

In this vein the self-described "Hyperborean-Roman Company" (Hyperboreisch-römische Gesellschaft) were a group of northern European scholars who studied classical ruins in Rome, founded in 1824 by Theodor Panofka, Otto Magnus von Stackelberg, August Kestner
August Kestner
and Eduard Gerhard. Friedrich Nietzsche
Friedrich Nietzsche
referred to his sympathetic readers as Hyperboreans in The Antichrist (written 1888, published 1895): "Let us look each other in the face. We are Hyperboreans – we know well enough how remote our place is." He quoted Pindar
Pindar
and added "Beyond the North, beyond the ice, beyond death – our life, our happiness." The term "Hyperborean" still sees some jocular contemporary use in reference to groups of people who live in a cold climate. Under the Library of Congress Classification
Library of Congress Classification
System, the letter subclass PM includes "Hyperborean Languages", a catch-all category that refers to all the linguistically unrelated languages of peoples living in Arctic regions, such as the Inuit. Hyperborean Indo-European hypothesis[edit] John G. Bennett wrote a research paper entitled "The Hyperborean Origin of the Indo-European Culture" (Journal Systematics, Vol. 1, No. 3, December 1963) in which he claimed the Indo-European homeland was in the far north, which he considered the Hyperborea
Hyperborea
of classical antiquity.[41] This idea was earlier proposed by Bal Gangadhar Tilak (whom Bennett credits) in his The Arctic
Arctic
Home in the Vedas (1903) as well as the Austro-Hungarian ethnologist Karl Penka (Origins of the Aryans, 1883).[42] Hyperborea
Hyperborea
in modern esoteric thought[edit] H. P. Blavatsky, René Guénon
René Guénon
and Julius Evola all shared the belief in the Hyperborean, polar origins of Mankind and a subsequent solidification and devolution.[43] According to these esotericists, Hyperborea
Hyperborea
was the Golden Age
Golden Age
polar center of civilization and spirituality; mankind does not rise from the ape, but progressively devolves into the apelike condition as it strays physically and spiritually from its mystical otherworldly homeland in the Far North, succumbing to the demonic energies of the South Pole, the greatest point of materialization (see Joscelyn Godwin, Arktos: The Polar Myth). Robert Charroux first related the Hyperboreans to an ancient astronaut race of "reputedly very large, very white people" who had chosen "the least warm area on the earth because it corresponded more closely to their own climate on the planet from which they originated".[44] Miguel Serrano
Miguel Serrano
was influenced by Charroux's writings on the Hyperboreans.[45] Cultural references[edit]

George MacDonald's At the Back of the North Wind
At the Back of the North Wind
features a feminine version of Boreas, named "North Wind", who takes a sickly boy, "Diamond", to "the back of the North Wind", which she herself cannot enter. More than two chapters are devoted to a description of MacDonald's Hyperborea
Hyperborea
and how Diamond got there. Dante's Paradise, in his Divine Comedy, is the subject of Hyperborean allusions: it is figured geographically north of Purgatory; and, great and little bears (symbols of the polar north) appear above the summit of Mount Purgatorio. In Herman Melville's Moby Dick, Ishmael suggests that, among other things, the painting in the Spouter Inn in Chapter 3 could be "a Hyperborean winter scene". Clark Ashton Smith
Clark Ashton Smith
authored a series of short stories known as the Hyperborean cycle
Hyperborean cycle
(1931–58). Some elements were borrowed by H. P. Lovecraft in what later became known as the Cthulhu Mythos. In Robert E. Howard's Conan stories (1932–36), Hyperborea
Hyperborea
is a land to the north-east of Conan's native Cimmeria. The "Hyperboreans" (Hyperboreisch-römische Gesellschaft) were a group of northern European scholars who studied classical ruins in Rome, founded in 1824 by Theodor Panofka, Otto Magnus von Stackelberg, August Kestner
August Kestner
and Eduard Gerhard. Australian artist Norman Lindsay
Norman Lindsay
in July 1923 first exhibited his etching Hyperborea
Hyperborea
in Sydney. A month later he published two essays about Hyperborea, the first in Vision, No. 2, in which he said that only a picture or a poem could describe Hyperborea. The essays were later combined as Hyperborea: Two Fantastic Travel Essays by Fanfrolico Press in 1928. Friedrich Nietzsche
Friedrich Nietzsche
referred to those who followed his philosophy as "Hyperboreans" in The Antichrist (translated by Anthony M. Ludovici.) German electronic music pioneers Tangerine Dream
Tangerine Dream
released an album with the title Hyperborea
Hyperborea
in 1983. Hyperborea
Hyperborea
and its inhabitants are referenced several times in the back history of Hellboy
Hellboy
comic book universe, particularly in the B.P.R.D series. In Stephen King's Dark Tower series, Calvin Tower calls Jake Chambers "Hyperborean Wanderer". Ruins of the Hyperborean civilization play a role in the plot of Indiana Jones and the Fate of Atlantis. In The Last Olympian
The Last Olympian
by Rick Riordan
Rick Riordan
Hyperborean Giants are fighting for Kronos and, with Prometheus, give Percy Jackson Pandora's Box, containing hope. In Rick Riordan's subsequent book The Son of Neptune, Percy Jackson and his friends also encounter the giants in Alaska on their quest to free the god of death, Thanatos. The Hyperboreans are the subject of the title track of album Hyperboreans by Jackie Oates, an English folk music singer/songwriter. The Hyperboreans are the subject of the many songs by Bal-Sagoth, an English symphonic black metal band. The 1977 film Sinbad and the Eye of the Tiger
Sinbad and the Eye of the Tiger
wove a number of related references into the plot. Hyperborea
Hyperborea
was the name given to an island far in the North Sea, described in the film by the witch Zenobia as being "past the Celtic Isles". The island had been home to the Arimaspi
Arimaspi
and contained a pyramid structure called The Shrine of the Four Elements, located in a temperate valley hidden amongst the ice of the Arctic
Arctic
Circle. Several of the characters in Ulysses by James Joyce
James Joyce
refer to themselves as Hyperborean, referring to their Celtic ethnicity. Serbian writer Miloš Crnjanski
Miloš Crnjanski
wrote his autobiographical novel Among The Hyperboreans (Kod Hyperborejaca), describing his years as a diplomat in Rome
Rome
at the outbreak of the World War II. In his escapist monologues and dialogues, he discusses art, nature, historical figures, life and death, describing the lives of his friends and contemporaries, as well as looking for the hidden connections between everything there is in the world: from Ancient Rome
Rome
to the far Hyperborean North. In Transformers: Cybertron, Hyperborea
Hyperborea
was a spaceship that carried the first colonists of Animatron.

See also[edit]

1309 Hyperborea Agharta Avalon Baltia Brittia El Dorado Iram of the Pillars Lemuria (continent) Lukomorye Meropis Mythical place Pytheas Sannikov Land Shambhala Southern Thule Thule
Thule
people Thule
Thule
Society Uttarakuru Ys Zion

Notes[edit]

^ Pindar, Tenth Pythian Ode; translated by Richmond Lattimore. ^ The History of Herodotus, parallel English/Greek: Book
Book
4: Melpomene: 30 ^ Bridgman, Timothy P. (2005). Hyperboreans. Myth and history in Celtic-Hellenic contacts. London: Routledge. pp. 27–31. ISBN 0-415-96978-6.  ^ Phillips, E. D. (1955). "The Legend of Aristeas: Fact and Fancy in Early Greek Notions of East Russia, Siberia, and Inner Asia". Artibus Asiae. 18 (2): 161–177 [p. 166]. doi:10.2307/3248792. JSTOR 3248792.  ^ Bridgman, p. 31 ^ Bridgman, p. 61. ^ Description of Greece, 5. 7. 8 ^ a b Aristeas of Proconnesus, Bolton, Oxford, 1962, p. 111 ^ Bridgman, p. 35, 72 ^ Bridgman, p. 45 ^ Bridgman, pp. 60–69. ^ Meteorologica, 1. 13. 350b. ^ Bridgman, p. 75–80 ^ Supplementum Hellenistcum, Berlin, 1983, No. 906, 411. ^ Bridgman, p. 79. ^ Strabo, 11.4.3. ^ Fridtjof Nansen.In Northern Mists: Arctic
Arctic
Exploration in Early Times. Frederick A. Stokes co., 1911. Page 188. ^ Plutarch – Life of Camillus ^ a b Bridgman, pp. 163–173. ^ Bridgman, p. 86 ^ Stromata iv. xxi' Exhortation, II. ^ Diodorus Siculus, Book
Book
II, 47–48 ^ Squire, Charles, Celtic Myth & Legend, p.42 ff. Squire's claim that Diodorus locates this temple "in the centre of Britain" is unfounded. Diodorus 2.47 ^ Lewis
Lewis
Spence, The Mysteries of Britain, 1905. ^ Bridgman, p. 91 ^ Haycock, David Boyd (2002). "Chapter 7: Much Greater, Than Commonly Imagined.". William Stukeley: Science, Religion and Archaeology in Eighteenth-Century England. Woodbridge, UK: Boydell & Brewer. ISBN 9780851158648. Retrieved 12 March 2016.  ^ Bezalel Bar-Kochva (1997), "The Structure of an Ethnographical Work", Pseudo-Hecataeus: On the Jews  ^ Carter, Lin. Behind the North Wind.  ^ Harris, J. Rendel (1925). " Apollo
Apollo
at the Back of the North Wind". Journal of Hellenic Studies. 45 (2): 229–242. doi:10.2307/625047. JSTOR 625047.  ^ a b Herodotus. Historia. Loeb Classical Library. Retrieved 17 May 2017.  Book
Book
IV, 33–34 ^ Aelian. On the Nature of Animals. Loeb Classical Library. p. 357. Retrieved 17 May 2017.  ^ Bibliotheca Historica, II. 47 ^ Bridgman, pp.92–134 ^ Hymn IV to Delos, 292 ^ Bridgman, Timothy P. (2005), Hyperboreans: myth and history in Celtic-Hellenic contacts, Routledge, p. 76, ISBN 0-415-96978-6 – via Google Books  ^ See further Bridgman, Hyperboreans. Myth and history in Celtic-Hellenic contacts (2005). ^ Book
Book
of Invasions 265 and 304-306 ^ Wasson, R.G.; Kramrisch, Stella; Ott, Jonathan; et al. (1986), Persephone's Quest – Entheogens and the origins of Religion, Yale University Press, pp. 227–230, ISBN 0-300-05266-9  ^ Davidson, Adventures in Unhistory: Conjectures on the Factual Foundations of Several Ancient Legends. ^ Irving, Astoria or Anecdotes of an enterprise beyond the Rocky Mountains (1836). ^ Bennett, John G (December 1963). "The Hyperborean Origin of the Indo-European Culture". Systematics. 1 (3). Archived from the original on 2011-09-14.  ^ Godwin, Jocelyn (1993). Arktos: the Polar Myth in Science, Symbolism, and Nazi Survival. London: Thames & Hudson. pp. 32–50. ISBN 0-500-27713-3.  ^ Jeffrey, Jason
Jason
(January–February 2000). " Hyperborea
Hyperborea
& the Quest for Mystical Enlightenment". New Dawn (58).  ^ Charroux, Robert (1974). The Mysterious Past. London: Futura Publications. p. 29. ISBN 0-86007-044-1.  ^ Goodrick-Clarke, Nicholas (2003). Black Sun: Aryan Cults, Esoteric Nazism, and the Politics of Identity. New York: NYU Press. ISBN 0-8147-3155-4. 

References[edit]

Portions of this article were formerly excerpted from the public domain Lemprière's Classical Dictionary, 1848. Bridgman, Timothy M. (2005). Hyperboreans. Myth and history in Celtic-Hellenic contacts. Studies in Classics. New York and London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-96978-6. 

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Apotheosis Euhemerism Greek Heroic Age Monism Mythology Nympholepsy Paganism Paradoxography Polytheism Theism

Texts/ Epic poems/ Ode

Aretalogy Argonautica Bibliotheca Cyranides Derveni papyrus Ehoiai Greek Magical Papyri Homeric Hymns Iliad Odyssey Papyrus Graecus Holmiensis Telegony The golden verses of Pythagoras Theogony Works and Days Epic Cycle Theban Cycle

Rites and practices

Amphictyonic League Amphidromia Animal sacrifice Apotheosis Baptes Curse tablet Daduchos Delphinion Funeral and burial practices Hymns Hero cult Heroon Hierophany Hierophant Hierophylakes Hieros gamos Hypsistarians Iatromantis Interpretatio graeca Libations Mystagogue Nekyia Necromancy Necromanteion Nymphaeum Panegyris Pharmakos Prayers Orgia Sacrifices Temenos Temples Votive offerings

Sacred places

Athenian sacred ships Cave of Zeus Cretea Delphi Delos Dodona Eleusis Hiera Orgas Olympia Olympus Psychro Cave Sacred Way

Mythical beings

Dragons in Greek mythology Greek mythological creatures Greek mythological figures List of minor Greek mythological figures

Deities

Primordial deities

Aether Aion Ananke Chaos Chronos Erebus Eros Gaia Hemera Nyx Phanes Pontus Thalassa Tartarus Uranus

Titans

First generation

Coeus Crius Cronus Hyperion Iapetus Mnemosyne Oceanus Phoebe Rhea Tethys Theia Themis

Second generation

Asteria Astraeus Atlas Eos Epimetheus Helios Leto Menoetius Metis Pallas Perses Prometheus Selene

Third generation

Hecate Hesperus Phosphorus

Twelve Olympians

Aphrodite Apollo Ares Artemis Athena Demeter Dionysus Hephaestus Hera Hermes Hestia Poseidon Zeus

Aquatic deities

Amphitrite Alpheus Ceto Glaucus The Naiads The Nereids Nereus The Oceanids Phorcys Poseidon The Potamoi Potamides Proteus Scamander Thaumas Thetis Triton

Love deities

Erotes

Anteros Eros Hedylogos Hermaphroditus Himeros Hymen/Hymenaeus Pothos

Aphrodite Aphroditus Philotes Peitho

War deities

Adrestia Alala Alke Amphillogiai Androktasiai Ares Athena Bia Deimos Enyalius Enyo Eris Gynaecothoenas Homados Hysminai Ioke Keres Kratos Kydoimos Ma Makhai Nike Palioxis Pallas Perses Phobos Phonoi Polemos Proioxis

Chthonic
Chthonic
deities

Psychopomps

Hermanubis Hermes Thanatos

Achlys Angelos Hades
Hades
/ Pluto Hecate Hypnos Keres Lampad Macaria Melinoe Persephone

Health deities

Aceso Aegle Artemis Apollo Asclepius Chiron Eileithyia Epione Hebe Hygieia Iaso Paean Panacea Telesphorus

Sleep deities

Empusa Epiales Hypnos Morpheus Pasithea Phantasos Phobetor Oneiroi

Messenger deities

Angelia Arke Hermes Iris

Trickster deities

Apate Dolos Hermes Momus

Magic deities

Circe Hecate Hermes
Hermes
Trismegistus Triple deity

Other major deities

Azone The Erinyes Harmonia The Muses Nemesis Pan Unknown God Zelus

Heroes/Heroines

Abderus Achilles Actaeon Aeneas Argonauts Ajax the Great Ajax the Lesser Akademos Amphiaraus Amphitryon Antilochus Atalanta Autolycus Bellerophon Bouzyges Cadmus Chrysippus Cyamites Daedalus Diomedes Dioscuri
Dioscuri
(Castor and Pollux) Echetlus Eleusis Erechtheus Eunostus Ganymede Hector Heracles Icarus Iolaus Jason Meleager Odysseus Oedipus Orpheus Pandion Peleus Pelops Penthesilea Perseus Theseus Triptolemus

Mythical tribes

Amazons Anthropophage Atlantians Bebryces Curetes Dactyls Gargareans Halizones Korybantes Lapiths Lotus-eaters Myrmidons Pygmies Telchines

Oracles/Seers

Aesacus Aleuas Amphiaraus Amphilochus Ampyx Anius Asbolus Bakis Branchus Calchas Carnus Carya Cassandra Delphic Sibyl Elatus Ennomus Halitherses Helenus Iamus Idmon Manto Melampus Mopsus Munichus Phineus Polyeidos Polypheides Pythia Sibyl Telemus Theiodamas Theoclymenus Tiresias

Magic

Apotropaic magic Greek Magical Papyri Philia

Mythical realms

Aethiopia Atlantis Hyperborea Libya Nysa Panchaia Scythia Themiscyra

Underworld

Entrances to the underworld

Rivers

Acheron Cocytus Eridanos Lethe Phlegethon Styx

Lakes/ Swamps

Acherusia Avernus Lake Lerna
Lerna
Lake

Caves

Cave at Cape Matapan Cave Charonium Cave at Lake Avernus Cave at Heraclea Pontica

Ploutonion

Pluto's Gate

Places

Elysium Erebus Fields of Asphodel Fields of Punishment Isles of the Blessed Tartarus

Judges of the underworld

Aeacus Minos Rhadamanthus

Guards

Cerberus

Ferryman

Charon Charon's obol

Symbols-Objects

Bident Cap of invisibility

Animals-Daemons/Spirits

Ascalaphus Ceuthonymus Eurynomos Hade's cattle

Mythological wars

Amazonomachy Attic War Centauromachy Gigantomachy Cranes-Pygmies war Theomachy Titanomachy Trojan War

Mythological and religious objects

Adamant Aegis Ambrosia Apple of Discord Ara Baetylus Caduceus Cornucopia Dragon's teeth Diipetes Galatea Golden apple Golden Fleece Gorgoneion Greek terracotta figurines Harpe Ichor Lotus tree Minoan sealstone Moly Necklace of Harmonia Omphalos Orichalcum Palladium Panacea Pandora's box Petasos
Petasos
(Winged helmet) Philosopher's stone Ring of Gyges Rod of Asclepius Sacrificial tripod Sceptre Shield of Achilles Shirt of Nessus Sword of Damocles Talaria Thunderbolt Thymiaterion Thyrsus Trident Trojan Horse Winnowing Oar Wheel of Fortune Wheel of fire Xoanon

Symbols

Arkalochori Axe Labrys Ouroboros Owl of Athena

Mythological powers

Anthropomorphism Divination Eternal youth Evocation Fortune-telling Immortality Language of the birds Nympholepsy Magic Ornithomancy Shamanism Shapeshifting Weather modification

Storage containers/ Cups

Amphora Calathus Chalice Ciborium Cotyla Hydria Hydriske Kalpis Kylix Kantharos Lebes Lekythos Loutrophoros Oenochoe Pelike Pithos Skyphos Stamnos

Musical Instruments

Aulos Barbiton Chelys Cithara Cochilia Crotalum
Crotalum
(Castanets) Epigonion Kollops Lyre Pan flute Pandura Phorminx Psaltery Salpinx Sistrum Tambourine Trigonon Tympanum Water organ

Games

Panhellenic Games

Olympic Games Pythian Games Nemean Games Isthmian Games

Agon Panathenaic Games Rhieia

Festivals/Feasts

Actia Adonia Agrionia Amphidromia Anthesteria Apellai Apaturia Aphrodisia Arrhephoria Ascolia Bendidia Boedromia Brauronia Buphonia Chalceia Diasia Delphinia Dionysia Ecdysia Elaphebolia Gamelia Haloa Heracleia Hermaea Hieromenia Iolaia Kronia Lenaia Lykaia Metageitnia Munichia Oschophoria Pamboeotia Pandia Plynteria Pyanopsia Skira Synoikia Soteria Tauropolia Thargelia Theseia Thesmophoria

Vessels

Argo Phaeacian ships

Modern offshoot religions

Discordianism Gaianism Hellenismos Decline of Greco-Roman polytheism

Modern popular culture

Greek mythology
Greek mythology

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