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In Greek mythology
Greek mythology
the HYPERBOREANS ( Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Ὑπερβόρε(ι)οι, pronounced ; Latin : Hyperborei) were mythical race of giants who lived "beyond the North Wind". The Greeks thought that Boreas , the god of the North Wind (one of the Anemoi
Anemoi
, or "Winds") lived in Thrace
Thrace
, and therefore Hyperborea
Hyperborea
indicates a region that lay far to the north of Thrace
Thrace
.

This land was supposed to be perfect, with the sun shining twenty-four hours a day, which to modern ears suggests a possible location within the Arctic Circle
Arctic Circle
during the Midnight Sun
Midnight Sun
-time of year. However, it is also possible that Hyperborea
Hyperborea
had no real physical location at all, for according to the classical Greek poet Pindar
Pindar
, neither by ship nor on foot would you find the marvellous road to the assembly of the Hyperboreans.

Pindar
Pindar
also described the otherworldly perfection of the Hyperboreans: Never the Muse is absent from their ways: lyres clash and flutes cry and everywhere maiden choruses whirling. Neither disease nor bitter old age is mixed in their sacred blood; far from labor and battle they live.

CONTENTS

* 1 Early sources

* 1.1 Herodotus
Herodotus
* 1.2 Location of Hyperborea
Hyperborea
* 1.3 Later classical sources * 1.4 Ancient identification with Britain

* 2 Legends

* 2.1 Hyperboreans in Delos
Delos
* 2.2 Abaris the Hyperborean * 2.3 Physical appearance * 2.4 From east to west: Celts
Celts
as Hyperboreans

* 3 Modern interpretations * 4 Identification as Hyperboreans * 5 Hyperborean Indo-European hypothesis * 6 Hyperborea
Hyperborea
in modern esoteric thought * 7 Cultural references * 8 See also * 9 Notes * 10 References

EARLY SOURCES

HERODOTUS

The earliest extant source that mentions Hyperborea
Hyperborea
in detail, Herodotus
Herodotus
's Histories ( Book
Book
IV, Chapters 32–36), dates from circa 450 BC. However, Herodotus
Herodotus
recorded three earlier sources that supposedly mentioned the Hyperboreans, including Hesiod
Hesiod
and Homer
Homer
, the latter purportedly having written of Hyperborea
Hyperborea
in his lost work Epigoni : "if that be really a work of his". Herodotus
Herodotus
also wrote that the 7th-century BC poet Aristeas wrote of the Hyperboreans in a poem (now lost) called Arimaspea about a journey to the Issedones , who are estimated to have lived in the Kazakh Steppe
Kazakh Steppe
. Beyond these lived the one-eyed Arimaspians , further on the gold-guarding griffins , and beyond these the Hyperboreans. Herodotus
Herodotus
assumed that Hyperborea
Hyperborea
lay somewhere in Northeast Asia
Northeast Asia
.

Pindar
Pindar
, Simonides of Ceos and Hellanicus of Lesbos
Hellanicus of Lesbos
, contemporaries of Herodotus
Herodotus
in the 5th century BC, each briefly described or referenced the Hyperboreans in their works.

LOCATION OF HYPERBOREA

The Hyperboreans were believed to live beyond the snowy Riphean Mountains .

According to Pausanias : "The land of the Hyperboreans, men living beyond the home of Boreas."

Homer
Homer
placed Boreas in Thrace
Thrace
, and therefore Hyperborea
Hyperborea
was in his opinion north of Thrace, in Dacia
Dacia
.

Sophocles
Sophocles
(Antigone, 980–987), Aeschylus (Agamemnon, 193; 651), Simonides of Ceos (Schol. on Apollonius Rhodius, 1. 121) and Callimachus
Callimachus
(Delian, 65) also placed Boreas in Thrace
Thrace
. Other ancient writers however believed the home of Boreas or the Riphean Mountains were in a different location. For example, Hecataeus of Miletus believed that the Riphean Mountains were adjacent to the Black Sea. Alternatively Pindar
Pindar
placed the home of Boreas, the Riphean Mountains and Hyperborea
Hyperborea
all near the Danube
Danube
. Heraclides Ponticus and Antimachus
Antimachus
in contrast identified the Riphean Mountains with the Alps
Alps
, and the Hyperboreans as a Celtic tribe (perhaps the Helvetii
Helvetii
) who lived just beyond them. Aristotle placed the Riphean mountains on the borders of Scythia, and Hyperborea
Hyperborea
further north. Hecataeus of Abdera and others believed Hyperborea
Hyperborea
was Britain (see below).

Later Roman and Greek sources continued to change the location of the Riphean mountains, the home of Boreas, as well as Hyperborea, supposedly located beyond them. However all these sources agreed these were all in the far north of Greece or southern Europe. The ancient grammarian Simmias of Rhodes in the 3rd century BC connected the Hyperboreans to the Massagetae
Massagetae
and Posidonius in the 1st century BC to the Western Celts, but Pomponius Mela
Pomponius Mela
placed them even further north in the vicinity of the Arctic.

In maps based on reference points and descriptions given by Strabo
Strabo
, Hyperborea, shown variously as a peninsula or island, is located beyond what is now France, and stretches further north-south than east-west. Other descriptions put it in the general area of the Ural Mountains .

LATER CLASSICAL SOURCES

Plutarch, writing in the 1st century AD, connected the Hyperboreans with the Gauls
Gauls
who had sacked Rome
Rome
in the 4th century BC (see Battle of the Allia ).

Aelian , Diodorus Siculus
Diodorus Siculus
and Stephen of Byzantium all recorded important ancient Greek sources on Hyperborea, but added no new descriptions.

The 2nd century AD Stoic philosopher Hierocles equated the Hyperboreans with the Scythians, and the Riphean Mountains with the Ural Mountains
Ural Mountains
. Clement of Alexandria
Clement of Alexandria
and other early Christian writers also made this same Scythian equation.

ANCIENT IDENTIFICATION WITH BRITAIN

Hyperborea
Hyperborea
was identified with Britain first by Hecataeus of Abdera in the 4th century BC, as in a preserved fragment by Diodorus Siculus :

In the regions beyond the land of the Celts
Celts
there lies in the ocean an island no smaller than Sicily
Sicily
. This island, the account continues, is situated in the north and is inhabited by the Hyperboreans, who are called by that name because their home is beyond the point whence the north wind (Boreas) blows; and the island is both fertile and productive of every crop, and has an unusually temperate climate.

Hecateaus of Abdera also wrote that the Hyperboreans had on their island "a magnificent sacred precinct of Apollo
Apollo
and a notable temple which is adorned with many votive offerings and is spherical in shape". Some scholars have identified this temple with Stonehenge. Diodorus, however, does not identify Hyperborea
Hyperborea
with Britain, and his description of Britain (5.21-23) makes no mention of the Hyperboreans or their spherical temple. (See the section "Legends" below.)

Pseudo-Scymnus , around 90 BC, wrote that Boreas dwelled at the extremity of Gaulish territory, and that he had a pillar erected in his name on the edge of the sea (Periegesis, 183). Some have claimed this is a geographical reference to northern France, and Hyperborea
Hyperborea
as the British Isles which lay just beyond the English Channel
English Channel
.

Ptolemy
Ptolemy
(Geographia, 2. 21) and Marcian of Heraclea (Periplus, 2. 42) both placed Hyperborea
Hyperborea
in the North Sea
North Sea
which they called the "Hyperborean Ocean".

In his 1726 work on the druids , John Toland
John Toland
specifically identified Diodorus' Hyperborea
Hyperborea
with the Isle of Lewis
Lewis
, and the spherical temple with the Callanish Stones
Callanish Stones
.

LEGENDS

Along with Thule
Thule
, Hyperborea
Hyperborea
was one of several terrae incognitae to the Greeks and Romans , where Pliny , Pindar
Pindar
and Herodotus
Herodotus
, as well as Virgil
Virgil
and Cicero
Cicero
, reported that people lived to the age of one thousand and enjoyed lives of complete happiness. Hecataeus of Abdera collated all the stories about the Hyperboreans current in the fourth century BC and published a lengthy treatise on them, lost to us, but noted by Diodorus Siculus
Diodorus Siculus
(ii.47.1–2). Also, the sun was supposed to rise and set only once a year in Hyperborea; which would place it above or upon the Arctic Circle
Arctic Circle
, or, more generally, in the arctic polar regions .

The ancient Greek writer Theopompus in his work Philippica claimed Hyperborea
Hyperborea
was once planned to be conquered by a large race of soldiers from another island (some have claimed this was Atlantis
Atlantis
), the plan though was abandoned because the soldiers from Meropis realized the Hyperboreans were too strong for them and the most blessed of people; this unusual tale, which some believe was satire or comedy, was preserved by Aelian (Varia Historia, 3. 18).

Theseus
Theseus
visited the Hyperboreans, and Pindar
Pindar
transferred Perseus
Perseus
's encounter with Medusa there from its traditional site in Libya, to the dissatisfaction of his Alexandrian editors .

Apollonius wrote that the Argonauts
Argonauts
sighted Hyperborea, when they sailed through Eridanos .

HYPERBOREANS IN DELOS

On this 1570 map, Hyperborea
Hyperborea
is shown as an Arctic
Arctic
continent and described as "Terra Septemtrionalis Incognita" (Unknown Northern Land). Notice the similarities in the continent to that of Mercator's map above.

Alone among the Twelve Olympians
Twelve Olympians
, Apollo
Apollo
was venerated among the Hyperboreans, the Hellenes thought: he spent his winter amongst them. According to Herodotus
Herodotus
, offerings from the Hyperboreans came to Scythia packed with straw , and they were passed from tribe to tribe until they arrived at Dodona
Dodona
and from them to other Greek peoples until they to came to Apollo's temple on Delos
Delos
. He says they used this method because the first time the gifts were brought by two maidens, Hyperoche and Laodice, with a escort of five men, but none of them returned. To prevent that, since then the Hyperboreans brought the gifts to their borders and asked they neighbours to deliver them to the next country and so on until they arrived to Delos.

Herodotus
Herodotus
also details that other two virgin maidens, Arge and Opis, had come from Hyperborea
Hyperborea
to Delos
Delos
before, as a tribute to the goddess Ilithyia for ease of child-bearing, accompanied by the gods themselves. The maidens received honours in Delos, where the women collected gifts from them and sang hymns to them.

ABARIS THE HYPERBOREAN

Main article: Abaris the Hyperborean

A particular Hyperborean legendary healer was known as "Abaris" or "Abaris the Healer" whom Herodotus
Herodotus
first described in his works. Plato (Charmides, 158C) regarded Abaris as a physician from the far north, while Strabo
Strabo
reported Abaris was Scythian like the early philosopher Anacharsis (Geographica, 7. 3. 8).

PHYSICAL APPEARANCE

Greek legend asserts that the Boreades, who were the descendants of Boreas and the snow-nymph Chione (or Khione), founded the first theocratic monarchy on Hyperborea. This legend is found preserved in the writings of Aelian :

This god has as priests the sons of Boreas and Chione , three in number, brothers by birth, and six cubits in height .

Diodorus Siculus
Diodorus Siculus
added to this account:

And the kings of this (Hyperborean) city and the supervisors of the sacred precinct are called Boreadae, since they are descendants of Boreas, and the succession to these positions is always kept in their family.

The Boreades were thus believed to be giant kings, around 10 feet (3.0 m) tall, who ruled Hyperborea.

No other physical descriptions of the Hyperboreans are provided in classical sources. However, Aelius Herodianus , a grammarian in the 3rd century, wrote that the mythical Arimaspi
Arimaspi
were identical to the Hyperboreans in physical appearance (De Prosodia Catholica, 1. 114) and Stephanus of Byzantium in the 6th century wrote the same (Ethnica, 118. 16). The ancient poet Callimachus
Callimachus
described the Arimaspi
Arimaspi
as having fair hair but it is disputed whether the Arimaspi
Arimaspi
were Hyperboreans.

FROM EAST TO WEST: CELTS AS HYPERBOREANS

Six classical Greek authors also came to identify these mythical people at the back of the North Wind with their Celtic neighbours in the north: Antimachus
Antimachus
of Colophon , Protarchus , Heraclides Ponticus , Hecataeus of Abdera , Apollonius of Rhodes and Posidonius of Apamea . The way the Greeks understood their relationship with non-Greek peoples was significantly moulded by the way myths of the Golden Age were transplanted into the contemporary scene, especially in the context of Greek colonisation and trade. As the Riphean mountains of the mythical past were identified with the Alps
Alps
of northern Italy, there was at least a geographic rationale for identifying the Hyperboreans with the Celts
Celts
living in and beyond the Alps, or at least the Hyperborean lands with the lands inhabited by the Celts. A reputation for feasting and a love of gold may have reinforced the connection.

In Ireland, however, the Celts
Celts
had their own legends of an advanced civilization in the far north. The Book
Book
of Invasions records that this civilization was established by migrants from Ireland, whose descendants returned to settle Ireland several centuries later:

Bethach son of Iarbonel the Soothsayer son of Nemed: his descendants went into the northern islands of the world to learn druidry and heathenism and diabolical knowledge, so that they became expert in all the arts. And their descendants were the Tuatha De Danann ... These latter acquired knowledge and science and diabolism in four cities: Failias, Goirias, Findlias and Muirias ... Thereafter the Tuatha De Danann came to Ireland, without ships, passing through the air in dark clouds. Map by Abraham Ortelius
Abraham Ortelius
, Amsterdam 1572: at the top left Oceanvs Hyperborevs separates Iceland
Iceland
from Greenland
Greenland

MODERN INTERPRETATIONS

Main article: Dzungarian_Gate § Hyperborean_connection

As with other legends of this sort, details can be selectively reconciled with modern knowledge. Above the Arctic Circle
Arctic Circle
, from the spring equinox to the autumnal equinox (depending on latitude), the sun can shine for 24 hours a day ; at the extreme (that is, the Pole), it rises and sets only once a year, possibly leading to the erroneous conclusion that a "day" for such persons is a year long, and therefore that living a thousand days would be the same as living a thousand years.

Since Herodotus
Herodotus
places the Hyperboreans beyond the Massagetae
Massagetae
and Issedones , both Central Asian
Central Asian
peoples, it appears that his Hyperboreans may have lived in Siberia
Siberia
. Heracles
Heracles
sought the golden-antlered hind of Artemis
Artemis
in Hyperborea. As the reindeer is the only deer species of which females bear antlers, this would suggest an arctic or subarctic region. Following J. D. P. Bolton's location of the Issedones on the south-western slopes of the Altay mountains
Altay mountains
, Carl P. Ruck places Hyperborea
Hyperborea
beyond the Dzungarian Gate
Dzungarian Gate
into northern Xinjiang
Xinjiang
, noting that the Hyperboreans were probably Chinese.

Amber
Amber
arrived in Greek hands from some place known to be far to the north. Avram Davidson proposed the theory that Hyperborea
Hyperborea
was derived from a logical (though erroneous) explanation by the Greeks for the insects, which apparently originated in a warm climate, found embedded inside the amber arriving in their cities from cold northern countries.

Unaware of the explanation offered by modern science (i.e. that these insects had lived in times when the climate of northern Europe
Europe
was much warmer, their bodies preserved unchanged in the amber) the Greeks came up with the idea that the coldness of northern countries was due to the cold breath of Boreas , the North Wind. So if one travelled "beyond Boreas" one would find a warm and sunny land.

IDENTIFICATION AS HYPERBOREANS

Northern Europeans (Scandinavians), when confronted with the classical Greco-Roman culture of the Mediterranean, identified themselves with the Hyperboreans, neglecting the traditional aspect of a perpetually sunny land beyond the north. This idea was especially strong during the 17th century in Sweden, where the later representatives of the ideology of Gothicism declared the Scandinavian peninsula both the lost Atlantis
Atlantis
and the Hyperborean land. The north of the Scandinavian peninsula is crossed by the Arctic Circle
Arctic Circle
, north of which there are sunless days during the winter and sunlit nights during the summer. European culture equally self-identified as Hyperborean; thus Washington Irving
Washington Irving
, in elaborating on Astoria in the Pacific Northwest
Pacific Northwest
, was of the opinion that

While the fiery and magnificent Spaniard, inflamed with the mania for gold, has extended his discoveries and conquests over those brilliant countries scorched by the ardent sun of the tropics, the adroit and buoyant Frenchman, and the cool and calculating Briton, have pursued the less splendid, but no less lucrative, traffic in furs amidst the hyperborean regions of the Canadas, until they have advanced even within the Arctic
Arctic
Circle.

In this vein the self-described "Hyperborean-Roman Company" (Hyperboreisch-römische Gesellschaft) were a group of northern European scholars who studied classical ruins in Rome, founded in 1824 by Theodor Panofka , Otto Magnus von Stackelberg , August Kestner and Eduard Gerhard . Friedrich Nietzsche
Friedrich Nietzsche
referred to his sympathetic readers as Hyperboreans in The Antichrist (written 1888, published 1895): "Let us look each other in the face. We are Hyperboreans – we know well enough how remote our place is." He quoted Pindar
Pindar
and added "Beyond the North, beyond the ice, beyond death – our life, our happiness."

The term "Hyperborean" still sees some jocular contemporary use in reference to groups of people who live in a cold climate. Under the Library of Congress Classification
Library of Congress Classification
System , the letter subclass PM includes "Hyperborean Languages", a catch-all category that refers to all the linguistically unrelated languages of peoples living in Arctic regions, such as the Inuit
Inuit
.

HYPERBOREAN INDO-EUROPEAN HYPOTHESIS

John G. Bennett wrote a research paper entitled "The Hyperborean Origin of the Indo-European Culture" (Journal Systematics, Vol. 1, No. 3, December 1963) in which he claimed the Indo-European homeland was in the far north, which he considered the Hyperborea
Hyperborea
of classical antiquity. This idea was earlier proposed by Bal Gangadhar Tilak (whom Bennett credits) in his The Arctic
Arctic
Home in the Vedas (1903) as well as the Austro-Hungarian ethnologist Karl Penka (Origins of the Aryans, 1883).

HYPERBOREA IN MODERN ESOTERIC THOUGHT

H. P. Blavatsky , René Guénon
René Guénon
and Julius Evola
Julius Evola
all shared the belief in the Hyperborean, polar origins of Mankind and a subsequent solidification and devolution. According to these esotericists , Hyperborea
Hyperborea
was the Golden Age
Golden Age
polar center of civilization and spirituality; mankind does not rise from the ape, but progressively devolves into the apelike condition as it strays physically and spiritually from its mystical otherworldly homeland in the Far North, succumbing to the demonic energies of the South Pole, the greatest point of materialization (see Joscelyn Godwin , Arktos: The Polar Myth).

Robert Charroux first related the Hyperboreans to an ancient astronaut race of "reputedly very large, very white people" who had chosen "the least warm area on the earth because it corresponded more closely to their own climate on the planet from which they originated". Miguel Serrano was influenced by Charroux's writings on the Hyperboreans.

CULTURAL REFERENCES

* George MacDonald
George MacDonald
's At the Back of the North Wind
At the Back of the North Wind
features a feminine version of Boreas , named "North Wind", who takes a sickly boy, "Diamond", to "the back of the North Wind", which she herself cannot enter. More than two chapters are devoted to a description of MacDonald's Hyperborea
Hyperborea
and how Diamond got there. * Dante
Dante
's Paradise, in his Divine Comedy
Divine Comedy
, is the subject of Hyperborean allusions: it is figured geographically north of Purgatory; and, great and little bears (symbols of the polar north) appear above the summit of Mount Purgatorio. * In Herman Melville
Herman Melville
's Moby Dick
Moby Dick
, Ishmael suggests that, among other things, the painting in the Spouter Inn in Chapter 3 could be "a Hyperborean winter scene". * Clark Ashton Smith
Clark Ashton Smith
authored a series of short stories known as the Hyperborean cycle (1931–58). Some elements were borrowed by H. P. Lovecraft in what later became known as the Cthulhu Mythos
Cthulhu Mythos
. * In Robert E. Howard
Robert E. Howard
's Conan stories (1932–36), Hyperborea
Hyperborea
is a land to the north-east of Conan's native Cimmeria . * The "Hyperboreans" (Hyperboreisch-römische Gesellschaft) were a group of northern European scholars who studied classical ruins in Rome, founded in 1824 by Theodor Panofka , Otto Magnus von Stackelberg , August Kestner and Eduard Gerhard . * Australian artist Norman Lindsay
Norman Lindsay
in July 1923 first exhibited his etching Hyperborea
Hyperborea
in Sydney. A month later he published two essays about Hyperborea, the first in Vision, No. 2, in which he said that only a picture or a poem could describe Hyperborea. The essays were later combined as Hyperborea: Two Fantastic Travel Essays by Fanfrolico Press in 1928. * Friedrich Nietzsche
Friedrich Nietzsche
referred to those who followed his philosophy as "Hyperboreans" in The Antichrist (translated by Anthony M. Ludovici.) * German electronic music pioneers Tangerine Dream
Tangerine Dream
released an album with the title Hyperborea
Hyperborea
in 1983. * Hyperborea
Hyperborea
and its inhabitants are referenced several times in the back history of Hellboy
Hellboy
comic book universe, particularly in the B.P.R.D series. * In Stephen King
Stephen King
's Dark Tower series, Calvin Tower calls Jake Chambers "Hyperborean Wanderer". * Ruins of the Hyperborean civilization play a role in the plot of Indiana Jones and the Fate of Atlantis
Atlantis
. * In The Last Olympian by Rick Riordan
Rick Riordan
Hyperborean Giants are fighting for Kronos and, with Prometheus
Prometheus
, give Percy Jackson Pandora\'s Box , containing hope. In Rick Riordan's subsequent book The Son of Neptune
The Son of Neptune
, Percy Jackson and his friends also encounter the giants in Alaska on their quest to free the god of death, Thanatos
Thanatos
. * The Hyperboreans are the subject of the title track of album Hyperboreans by Jackie Oates , an English folk music singer/songwriter. * The Hyperboreans are the subject of the many songs by Bal-Sagoth , an English symphonic black metal band. * The 1977 film Sinbad and the Eye of the Tiger wove a number of related references into the plot. Hyperborea
Hyperborea
was the name given to an island far in the North Sea, described in the film by the witch Zenobia as being "past the Celtic Isles". The island had been home to the Arimaspi
Arimaspi
and contained a pyramid structure called The Shrine of the Four Elements, located in a temperate valley hidden amongst the ice of the Arctic
Arctic
Circle. * Several of the characters in Ulysses by James Joyce
James Joyce
refer to themselves as Hyperborean, referring to their Celtic ethnicity. * Serbian writer Miloš Crnjanski
Miloš Crnjanski
wrote his autobiographical novel Among The Hyperboreans (Kod Hyperborejaca) , describing his years as a diplomat in Rome
Rome
at the outbreak of the World War II. In his escapist monologues and dialogues, he discusses art, nature, historical figures, life and death, describing the lives of his friends and contemporaries, as well as looking for the hidden connections between everything there is in the world: from Ancient Rome
Rome
to the far Hyperborean North.

SEE ALSO

* Meropis * Baltia * Brittia * Mythical place * Pytheas
Pytheas
, ancient Greek explorer who sailed to Great Britain and perhaps Iceland
Iceland
as well, described the midnight sun * Southern Thule
Thule
* Thule
Thule
people * Thule
Thule
Society * Avalon
Avalon
* Shambhala * Agharta * El Dorado
El Dorado
* Ys * Iram of the Pillars * Lemuria (continent)
Lemuria (continent)
* Zion
Zion
* Sannikov Land
Sannikov Land
* Uttarakuru * Lukomorye

NOTES

* ^ Pindar
Pindar
, Tenth Pythian Ode; translated by Richmond Lattimore
Richmond Lattimore
. * ^ The History of Herodotus, parallel English/Greek: Book
Book
4: Melpomene: 30 * ^ Bridgman, Timothy P. (2005). Hyperboreans. Myth and history in Celtic-Hellenic contacts. London: Routledge. pp. 27–31. ISBN 0-415-96978-6 . * ^ Phillips, E. D. (1955). "The Legend of Aristeas: Fact and Fancy in Early Greek Notions of East Russia, Siberia, and Inner Asia". Artibus Asiae . 18 (2): 161–177 . JSTOR
JSTOR
3248792 . * ^ Bridgman, p. 31 * ^ Bridgman, p. 61. * ^ Description of Greece, 5. 7. 8 * ^ A B Aristeas of Proconnesus, Bolton, Oxford, 1962, p. 111 * ^ Bridgman, p. 35, 72 * ^ Bridgman, p. 45 * ^ Bridgman, pp. 60–69. * ^ Meteorologica, 1. 13. 350b. * ^ Bridgman, p. 75–80 * ^ Supplementum Hellenistcum, Berlin, 1983, No. 906, 411. * ^ Bridgman, p. 79. * ^ Strabo, 11.4.3. * ^ Fridtjof Nansen
Fridtjof Nansen
.In Northern Mists: Arctic
Arctic
Exploration in Early Times. Frederick A. Stokes co., 1911. Page 188. * ^ Plutarch – Life of Camillus * ^ A B Bridgman, pp. 163–173. * ^ Bridgman, p. 86 * ^ Stromata iv. xxi' Exhortation, II. * ^ Diodorus Siculus, Book
Book
II, 47–48 * ^ Squire, Charles, Celtic Myth & Legend, p.42 ff. Squire's claim that Diodorus locates this temple "in the centre of Britain" is unfounded. Diodorus 2.47 * ^ Lewis
Lewis
Spence, The Mysteries of Britain, 1905. * ^ Bridgman, p. 91 * ^ Haycock, David Boyd (2002). "Chapter 7: Much Greater, Than Commonly Imagined.". William Stukeley: Science, Religion and Archaeology in Eighteenth-Century England. Woodbridge, UK: Boydell & Brewer . ISBN 9780851158648 . Retrieved 12 March 2016. * ^ Bezalel Bar-Kochva (1997), "The Structure of an Ethnographical Work", Pseudo-Hecataeus: On the Jews * ^ Carter, Lin. Behind the North Wind. * ^ Harris, J. Rendel (1925). " Apollo
Apollo
at the Back of the North Wind". Journal of Hellenic Studies . 45 (2): 229–242. JSTOR
JSTOR
625047 .

* ^ A B Herodotus. Historia. Loeb Classical Library. Retrieved 17 May 2017. Book
Book
IV, 33-34 * ^ Aelian. On the Nature of Animals. Loeb Classical Library. p. 357. Retrieved 17 May 2017. * ^ Bibliotheca Historica, II. 47 * ^ Bridgman, pp.92–134 * ^ Hymn IV to Delos, 292 * ^ Bridgman, Timothy P. (2005), Hyperboreans: myth and history in Celtic-Hellenic contacts, Routledge, p. 76, ISBN 0-415-96978-6 – via Google Books
Google Books
* ^ See further Bridgman, Hyperboreans. Myth and history in Celtic-Hellenic contacts (2005). * ^ Book
Book
of Invasions 265 and 304-306 * ^ Wasson, R.G. ; Kramrisch, Stella; Ott, Jonathan; et al. (1986), Persephone's Quest – Entheogens and the origins of Religion, Yale University Press, pp. 227–230, ISBN 0-300-05266-9 * ^ Davidson, Adventures in Unhistory: Conjectures on the Factual Foundations of Several Ancient Legends. * ^ Irving, Astoria or Anecdotes of an enterprise beyond the Rocky Mountains (1836). * ^ Bennett, John G (December 1963). "The Hyperborean Origin of the Indo-European Culture". Systematics. 1 (3). Archived from the original on 2011-09-14. * ^ Godwin, Jocelyn (1993). Arktos: the Polar Myth in Science, Symbolism, and Nazi Survival. London: Thames & Hudson. pp. 32–50. ISBN 0-500-27713-3 . * ^ Jeffrey, Jason
Jason
(January–February 2000). " Hyperborea
Hyperborea
& the Quest for Mystical Enlightenment". New Dawn (58). * ^ Charroux, Robert (1974). The Mysterious Past. London: Futura Publications. p. 29. ISBN 0-86007-044-1 . * ^ Goodrick-Clarke, Nicholas (2003). Black Sun: Aryan Cults, Esoteric Nazism, and the Politics of Identity. New York: NYU Press. ISBN 0-8147-3155-4 .

REFERENCES

* Portions of this article were formerly excerpted from the public domain Lemprière 's Classical Dictionary , 1848. * Bridgman, Timothy M. (2005). Hyperboreans. Myth and history in Celtic-Hellenic contacts. Studies in Classics. New York and London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-96978-6 .

* v * t * e

Continents of the world

Africa
Africa

Antarctica
Antarctica

Asia
Asia

Australia

Europe
Europe

North America
North America

South America
South America

Afro-Eurasia
Afro-Eurasia

Americas
Americas

Eurasia
Eurasia

Oceania
Oceania

* FORMER SUPERCONTINENTS Gondwana
Gondwana
* Laurasia
Laurasia
* Pangaea
Pangaea
* Pannotia
Pannotia
* Rodinia
Rodinia
* Columbia * Kenorland * Nena * Sclavia * Ur * Vaalbara
Vaalbara

* HISTORICAL CONTINENTS Amazonia * Arctica
Arctica
* Asiamerica * Atlantica
Atlantica
* Avalonia
Avalonia
* Baltica
Baltica
* Cimmeria * Congo craton
Congo craton
* Euramerica
Euramerica
* Kalaharia * Kazakhstania * Laurentia
Laurentia
* North China * Siberia
Siberia
* South China * East Antarctica
Antarctica
* India

* SUBMERGED CONTINENTS Kerguelen Plateau
Kerguelen Plateau
* Zealandia
Zealandia

* POSSIBLE FUTURE SUPERCONTINENTS Pangaea
Pangaea
Ultima * Amasia * Novopangaea
Novopangaea

* MYTHICAL AND HYPOTHESISED CONTINENTS Atlantis
Atlantis
* Kumari Kandam * Lemuria * Meropis * Mu * Hyperborea * Terra Australis
Terra Australis

* See also Regions of the world * Continental fragment

* BOOK * CATEGORY

* v * t * e

Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
religion and mythology

CLASSICAL RELIGIOUS FORMS

* Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
religion * Gnosticism
Gnosticism
* Paleo-Balkan mythology
Paleo-Balkan mythology
* Hellenistic religion
Hellenistic religion
* Magic * Alchemy
Alchemy
* Orphism * Pythagoreanism
Pythagoreanism

Mystery religions and Sacred mysteries

* Dionysian Mysteries
Dionysian Mysteries
* Eleusinian Mysteries
Eleusinian Mysteries
* Imbrian Mysteries * Mithraism
Mithraism
* Samotracian Mysteries

MAIN BELIEFS

* Apotheosis
Apotheosis
* Euhemerism * Greek Heroic Age * Paganism
Paganism
* Paradoxography * Monism
Monism
* Polytheism
Polytheism
* Mythology
Mythology
* Theism
Theism

MYTHICAL BEINGS

* Greek mythological creatures * Greek mythological figures * List of minor Greek mythological figures

MYTHICAL TRIBES

* Amazons
Amazons
* Anthropophage * Atlantians * Bebryces * Curetes * Dactyls * Gargareans * Halizones * Korybantes
Korybantes
* Lapiths
Lapiths
* Lotus-eaters
Lotus-eaters
* Myrmidons * Pygmies * Telchines

PRIMORDIAL DEITIES

* Aether * Aion * Ananke * Chaos * Chronos * Erebus
Erebus
* Eros
Eros
* Gaia * Hemera
Hemera
* Nyx
Nyx
* Phanes * Pontus * Thalassa * Tartarus
Tartarus
* Uranus

TITANS

FIRST GENERATION

* Coeus * Crius * Cronus
Cronus
* Hyperion * Iapetus * Mnemosyne
Mnemosyne
* Oceanus
Oceanus
* Phoebe * Rhea * Tethys * Theia
Theia
* Themis
Themis

SECOND GENERATION

* Asteria * Astraeus * Atlas * Eos
Eos
* Epimetheus * Helios
Helios
* Lelantos * Leto
Leto
* Menoetius * Metis * Pallas * Perses * Prometheus
Prometheus
* Selene
Selene

THIRD GENERATION

* Hecate
Hecate
* Hesperus
Hesperus
* Phosphorus

OLYMPIANS

* Zeus
Zeus
* Hera
Hera
* Aphrodite
Aphrodite
* Apollo
Apollo
* Ares
Ares
* Artemis
Artemis
* Athena
Athena
* Demeter
Demeter
* Dionysus
Dionysus
* Hephaestus
Hephaestus
* Hermes
Hermes
* Hestia
Hestia
* Poseidon
Poseidon

AQUATIC DEITIES

* Poseidon
Poseidon
* Amphitrite
Amphitrite
* Alpheus * Ceto * Glaucus
Glaucus
* Nereus
Nereus
* Phorcys
Phorcys
* Potamoi * Potamides * Proteus
Proteus
* Scamander
Scamander
* Styx
Styx
* Thaumas * Thetis
Thetis
* Triton * Oceanids

LOVE DEITIES

EROTES

* Anteros
Anteros
* Eros
Eros
* Hedylogos * Hermaphroditus
Hermaphroditus
* Himeros * Hymen/Hymenaeus * Pothos

* Aphrodite
Aphrodite
* Aphroditus
Aphroditus
* Philotes * Peitho
Peitho

WAR DEITIES

* Adrestia
Adrestia
* Alala
Alala
* Alke * Amphillogiai * Androktasiai * Ares
Ares
* Athena
Athena
* Bia * Deimos * Enyalius * Enyo * Eris * Gynaecothoenas * Homados * Hysminai * Ioke * Keres * Kratos * Kydoimos * Makhai * Nike * Palioxis * Pallas * Perses * Phobos * Phonoi * Polemos * Proioxis

OTHER MAJOR DEITIES

* Asclepius
Asclepius
* Circe
Circe
* Eileithyia
Eileithyia
* Harmonia * Hebe * Iris * Momus
Momus
* Morpheus * Nemesis * Paean * Pan * Zelus

HEROES/HEROINES

* Achilles
Achilles
* Actaeon
Actaeon
* Argonauts
Argonauts
* Ajax the Great * Ajax the Lesser
Ajax the Lesser
* Atalanta
Atalanta
* Autolycus
Autolycus
* Bellerophon * Cadmus
Cadmus
* Daedalus
Daedalus
* Diomedes
Diomedes
* Dioscuri
Dioscuri
(Castor and Pollux) * Echetlus
Echetlus
* Heracles
Heracles
* Icarus
Icarus
* Iolaus
Iolaus
* Jason
Jason
* Meleager
Meleager
* Odysseus
Odysseus
* Oedipus
Oedipus
* Orpheus
Orpheus
* Peleus
Peleus
* Perseus
Perseus
* Theseus
Theseus
* Triptolemus
Triptolemus

STORAGE CONTAINERS/ CUPS

* Amphora
Amphora
* Chalice
Chalice
* Ciborium * Cotyla
Cotyla
* Hydria
Hydria
* Hydriske * Kalathos * Kalpis * Kylix
Kylix
* Kantharos
Kantharos
* Lebes * Lekythos
Lekythos
* Loutrophoros * Oenochoe
Oenochoe
* Pelike
Pelike
* Pithos
Pithos
* Skyphos
Skyphos
* Stamnos
Stamnos

MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS

* Aulos
Aulos
* Barbiton
Barbiton
* Chelys * Cithara
Cithara
* Cochilia * Crotalum
Crotalum
( Castanets ) * Epigonion * Lyre
Lyre
* Pan flute * Pandura * Phorminx * Psaltery
Psaltery
* Salpinx * Sistrum * Tambourine
Tambourine
* Trigonon * Tympanum * Water organ
Water organ

RITES AND PRACTICES

* Amphictyonic League
Amphictyonic League
* Amphidromia * Animal sacrifice
Animal sacrifice
* Apotheosis
Apotheosis
* Apotropaic magic * Baptes * Curse tablet * Daduchos * Delphinion * Funeral and burial practices * Hymns * Hero cult * Heroon
Heroon
* Hierophany * Hierophant * Hierophylakes * Hieros gamos * Iatromantis * Interpretatio graeca
Interpretatio graeca
* Libations * Mystagogue * Nekyia * Necromancy
Necromancy
* Necromanteion * Nymphaeum
Nymphaeum
* Panegyris * Pharmakos * Prayers * Sacrifices * Temenos * Temples * Votive offerings

GAMES

PANHELLENIC GAMES

* Olympic Games * Pythian Games
Pythian Games
* Nemean Games
Nemean Games
* Isthmian Games
Isthmian Games

* Agon * Panathenaic Games
Panathenaic Games
* Rhieia

FESTIVALS/FEASTS

* Actia * Adonia * Agrionia * Amphidromia * Anthesteria
Anthesteria
* Apellai * Apaturia * Aphrodisia * Arrhephoria * Ascolia * Bendidia * Boedromia * Brauronia * Buphonia * Chalceia * Diasia * Delphinia * Dionysia
Dionysia
* Ecdysia * Elaphebolia * Gamelia * Haloa * Heracleia * Hermaea * Hieromenia * Iolaia * Kronia * Lenaia * Lykaia * Metageitnia * Munichia * Oschophoria * Pamboeotia * Pandia * Plynteria * Pyanopsia * Skira * Synoikia * Soteria * Tauropolia * Thargelia * Theseia * Thesmophoria
Thesmophoria

SACRED PLACES

* Athenian sacred ships * Cave of Zeus
Zeus
* Cretea * Delphi
Delphi
* Delos
Delos
* Dodona
Dodona
* Eleusis
Eleusis
* Hiera Orgas
Hiera Orgas
* Olympia * Olympus * Psychro Cave
Psychro Cave
* Sacred Way
Sacred Way

TEXTS/ EPIC POEMS

* Argonautica
Argonautica
* Bibliotheca * Cyranides * Derveni papyrus
Derveni papyrus
* Ehoiai
Ehoiai
* Greek Magical Papyri * Homeric Hymns * Iliad
Iliad
* Odyssey
Odyssey
* Papyrus Graecus Holmiensis * Telegony * Theogony
Theogony
* Works and Days
Works and Days
* Epic Cycle
Epic Cycle
* Theban Cycle

ORACLES /SEERS

* Aesacus * Aleuas * Amphiaraus * Amphilochus * Ampyx * Anius * Asbolus * Bakis * Branchus * Calchas
Calchas
* Carnus * Carya * Cassandra
Cassandra
* Elatus * Ennomus * Halitherses * Helenus * Iamus * Idmon * Manto * Melampus * Mopsus * Munichus * Phineus
Phineus
* Polyeidos * Polypheides * Pythia
Pythia
* Sibyl
Sibyl
* Telemus * Theiodamas * Theoclymenus * Tiresias
Tiresias

MYTHICAL REALMS

* Atlantis
Atlantis
* Hyperborea * Panchaea * Themiscyra

UNDERWORLD

ENTRANCES TO THE UNDERWORLD

RIVERS

* Acheron
Acheron
* Cocytus
Cocytus
* Eridanos * Lethe
Lethe
* Phlegethon * Styx
Styx

LAKES/ SWAMPS

* Acherusia * Avernus Lake * Lerna Lake

CAVES

* Cave at Cape Matapan
Cape Matapan
* Cave Charonium * Cave at Lake Avernus
Lake Avernus
* Cave at Heraclea Pontica

PLOUTONION

* Pluto\'s Gate

PLACES

* Elysium
Elysium
* Erebus
Erebus
* Fields of Asphodel * Fields of Punishment * Isles of the Blessed * Tartarus
Tartarus

JUDGES OF THE UNDERWORLD

* Aeacus
Aeacus
* Minos
Minos
* Rhadamanthus
Rhadamanthus

GUARDS

* Cerberus
Cerberus

FERRYMAN

* Charon * Charon\'s obol

CHTHONIC DEITIES

PSYCHOPOMPS

* Hermes
Hermes
* Thanatos
Thanatos

* Hades
Hades
/ Pluto * Persephone
Persephone
* Achlys * Angelos * Hecate
Hecate
* Hypnos
Hypnos
* Keres * Lampad * Macaria * Melinoe
Melinoe

SYMBOLS-OBJECTS

* Bident * Cap of invisibility

ANIMALS-DAEMONS/SPIRITS

* Ascalaphus * Ceuthonymus * Eurynomos * Hade\'s cattle

MYTHOLOGICAL WARS

* Amazonomachy
Amazonomachy
* Attic War * Centauromachy * Gigantomachy
Gigantomachy
* Theomachy * Titanomachy
Titanomachy
* Trojan War
Trojan War

Mythological and Religious objects

* Adamant * Aegis * Ambrosia
Ambrosia
* Apple of Discord
Apple of Discord
* Ara * Argo
Argo
* Baetylus
Baetylus
* Caduceus
Caduceus
* Cornucopia * Dragon\'s teeth * Galatea * Golden apple
Golden apple
* Golden Fleece
Golden Fleece
* Gorgoneion
Gorgoneion
* Greek terracotta figurines
Greek terracotta figurines
* Harpe
Harpe
* Ichor * Lotus tree * Minoan sealstone * Moly * Necklace of Harmonia * Omphalos
Omphalos
* Orichalcum
Orichalcum
* Palladium * Panacea * Pandora\'s box * Petasos
Petasos
( Winged helmet
Winged helmet
) * Philosopher\'s stone * Ring of Gyges * Rod of Asclepius
Asclepius
* Sacrificial tripod * Sceptre
Sceptre
* Shield of Achilles
Achilles
* Shirt of Nessus * Sword of Damocles * Talaria
Talaria
* Thunderbolt
Thunderbolt
* Thymiaterion * Thyrsus
Thyrsus
* Trident
Trident
* Trojan Horse
Trojan Horse
* Winnowing Oar * Wheel of Fortune * Xoanon
Xoanon

SYMBOLS

* Labrys
Labrys
* Ouroboros
Ouroboros
* Owl of Athena
Athena

MYTHOLOGICAL POWERS

* Anthropomorphism
Anthropomorphism
* Divination
Divination
* Eternal youth
Eternal youth
* Evocation * Fortune-telling * Immortality * Language of the birds * Nympholepsy * Magic * Shamanism
Shamanism
* Shapeshifting * Weather modification
Weather modification

MODERN OFFSHOOT RELIGIONS

* Discordianism
Discordianism
* Gaianism * Hellenismos * Decline of Greco-Roman polytheism
Decline of Greco-Roman polytheism

MODERN POPULAR CULTURE

* Greek mythology
Greek mythology
in popular culture

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