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Horus
Horus
is one of the most significant ancient Egyptian deities. He was worshipped from at least the late prehistoric Egypt until the Ptolemaic Kingdom
Ptolemaic Kingdom
and Roman Egypt. Different forms of Horus
Horus
are recorded in history and these are treated as distinct gods by Egyptologists.[1] These various forms may possibly be different perceptions of the same multi-layered deity in which certain attributes or syncretic relationships are emphasized, not necessarily in opposition but complementary to one another, consistent with how the Ancient Egyptians viewed the multiple facets of reality.[2] He was most often depicted as a falcon, most likely a lanner falcon or peregrine falcon, or as a man with a falcon head.[3] The earliest recorded form of Horus
Horus
is the tutelary deity of Nekhen
Nekhen
in Upper Egypt, who is the first known national god, specifically related to the king who in time came to be regarded as a manifestation of Horus
Horus
in life and Osiris
Osiris
in death.[1] The most commonly encountered family relationship describes Horus
Horus
as the son of Isis
Isis
and Osiris, and he plays a key role in the Osiris
Osiris
myth as Osiris's heir and the rival to Set, the murderer of Osiris. In another tradition Hathor
Hathor
is regarded as his mother and sometimes as his wife.[1] Horus
Horus
served many functions, most notably being a god of kingship and the sky.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Note of changes over time 3 Horus
Horus
and the pharaoh 4 Origin mythology 5 Mythological roles

5.1 Sky god 5.2 Conflict between Horus
Horus
and Set 5.3 Heru-pa-khered ( Horus
Horus
the Younger) 5.4 Her-ur ( Horus
Horus
the Elder)

6 Celebrations of Horus 7 In popular culture 8 Gallery 9 See also 10 References 11 External links

Etymology

ḥr "Horus" in hieroglyphs

Horus
Horus
is recorded in Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
as ḥr.w "Falcon"; the pronunciation has been reconstructed as ħaːruw. Additional meanings are thought to have been "the distant one" or "one who is above, over".[4] As the language changed over time, it appeared in Coptic dialects variously as hoːɾ or ħoːɾ and was adopted into ancient Greek as Ὧρος Hōros (pronounced at the time as hoːɾos). It also survives in Late Egyptian and Coptic theophoric names such as Har-si-ese "Horus, Son of Isis". Nekheny may have been another falcon god worshipped at Nekhen, city of the falcon, with whom Horus
Horus
was identified from early on. Horus
Horus
may be shown as a falcon on the Narmer Palette, dating from about the 31st century BC. Note of changes over time In early Egypt, Horus
Horus
was the brother of Isis, Osiris, Set and Nephthys. As different cults formed, he became the son of Isis
Isis
and Osiris. Isis
Isis
remained the sister of Osiris, Set and Nephthys. Horus
Horus
and the pharaoh The Pyramid Texts
Pyramid Texts
(c. 2400–2300 BC) describe the nature of the pharaoh in different characters as both Horus
Horus
and Osiris. The pharaoh as Horus
Horus
in life became the pharaoh as Osiris
Osiris
in death, where he was united with the other gods. New incarnations of Horus
Horus
succeeded the deceased pharaoh on earth in the form of new pharaohs.[5] The lineage of Horus, the eventual product of unions between the children of Atum, may have been a means to explain and justify pharaonic power. The gods produced by Atum
Atum
were all representative of cosmic and terrestrial forces in Egyptian life. By identifying Horus as the offspring of these forces, then identifying him with Atum himself, and finally identifying the Pharaoh
Pharaoh
with Horus, the Pharaoh theologically had dominion over all the world. The notion of Horus
Horus
as the pharaoh seems to have been superseded by the concept of the pharaoh as the son of Ra during the Fifth Dynasty.[6] Origin mythology

Part of a series on

Ancient Egyptian religion

Beliefs

Duat Ma'at Mythology Numerology Philosophy Soul

Practices

Funerals Offering formula Temples

Deities

Amun Amunet Anhur Anubis Anuket

Apep Apis Aten Atum Bastet

Bat Bes Four sons of Horus

Geb Hapy Hathor Heka Hemsut

Heqet Horus Isis Kek Khepri

Khnum Khonsu Maahes Ma'at

Mafdet Mehit Menhit Meretseger

Meskhenet Monthu Min Mnevis

Mut Neith Nekhbet Nephthys

Nu Nut Osiris Pakhet Ptah

Qebui Ra Ra-Horakhty Raet-Tawy

Reshep Satis Sekhmet Seker Selket

Sobek Sopdu Set Seshat Shu

Tatenen Taweret Tefnut Thoth

Wadjet Wadj-wer Wepwawet

Wosret

Texts

Amduat Books of Breathing

Book
Book
of Caverns Book
Book
of the Dead

Book
Book
of the Earth Book
Book
of Gates

Book
Book
of the Netherworld

Related religions

Atenism Hermeticism Kemeticism ( Kemetic Orthodoxy
Kemetic Orthodoxy
• Church of the Most High Goddess)

Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
portal

v t e

Horus
Horus
was born to the goddess Isis
Isis
after she retrieved all the dismembered body parts of her murdered husband Osiris, except his penis, which was thrown into the Nile and eaten by a catfish,[7][8] or sometimes depicted as instead by a crab, and according to Plutarch's account used her magic powers to resurrect Osiris
Osiris
and fashion a golden phallus[9] to conceive her son (older Egyptian accounts have the penis of Osiris
Osiris
surviving). Once Isis
Isis
knew she was pregnant with Horus, she fled to the Nile Delta marshlands to hide from her brother Set, who jealously killed Osiris and who she knew would want to kill their son.[10] There Isis
Isis
bore a divine son, Horus. Mythological roles

rˁ-ḥr-3ḫty "Ra-Horakhty" in hieroglyphs

Sky god Since Horus
Horus
was said to be the sky, he was considered to also contain the sun and moon.[citation needed] It became said[by whom?] that the sun was his right eye and the moon his left, and that they traversed the sky when he, a falcon, flew across it. Later, the reason that the moon was not as bright as the sun was explained by a tale, known as The Contendings of Horus
Horus
and Seth. In this tale, it was said that Set, the patron of Upper Egypt, and Horus, the patron of Lower Egypt, had battled for Egypt brutally, with neither side victorious, until eventually the gods sided with Horus. As Horus
Horus
was the ultimate victor he became known as ḥr.w wr "Horus the Great", but more usually translated " Horus
Horus
the Elder". In the struggle, Set had lost a testicle, explaining why the desert, which Set represented, is infertile. Horus' left eye had also been gouged out, then a new eye was created by part of Khonsu, the moon god, and was replaced. Horus
Horus
represented the eclipsing binary Algol in the Calendar of Lucky and Unlucky Days of papyrus Cairo 86637.[11][12] Horus
Horus
was occasionally shown in art as a naked boy with a finger in his mouth sitting on a lotus with his mother. In the form of a youth, Horus
Horus
was referred to as nfr ḥr.w "Good Horus", transliterated Neferhor, Nephoros or Nopheros (reconstructed as naːfiru ħaːruw).

Eye of Horus
Eye of Horus
or Wedjat

The Eye of Horus
Eye of Horus
is an ancient Egyptian symbol of protection and royal power from deities, in this case from Horus
Horus
or Ra. The symbol is seen on images of Horus' mother, Isis, and on other deities associated with her. In the Egyptian language, the word for this symbol was "wedjat" (wɟt).[13][14] It was the eye of one of the earliest of Egyptian deities, Wadjet, who later became associated with Bastet, Mut, and Hathor
Hathor
as well. Wadjet
Wadjet
was a solar deity and this symbol began as her all-seeing eye. In early artwork, Hathor
Hathor
is also depicted with this eye.[15] Funerary amulets were often made in the shape of the Eye of Horus. The Wedjat or Eye of Horus
Eye of Horus
is "the central element" of seven "gold, faience, carnelian and lapis lazuli" bracelets found on the mummy of Shoshenq II.[16] The Wedjat "was intended to protect the king [here] in the afterlife"[16] and to ward off evil. Egyptian and Near Eastern sailors would frequently paint the symbol on the bow of their vessel to ensure safe sea travel.[17] Conflict between Horus
Horus
and Set

Horus, Louvre, Shen rings in his grasp

Horus
Horus
was told by his mother, Isis, to protect the people of Egypt from Set, the god of the desert, who had killed Horus' father, Osiris.[18][19] Horus
Horus
had many battles with Set, not only to avenge his father, but to choose the rightful ruler of Egypt. In these battles, Horus
Horus
came to be associated with Lower Egypt, and became its patron. According to The Contendings of Horus
Horus
and Seth, Set is depicted as trying to prove his dominance by seducing Horus
Horus
and then having sexual intercourse with him. However, Horus
Horus
places his hand between his thighs and catches Set's semen, then subsequently throws it in the river so that he may not be said to have been inseminated by Set. Horus
Horus
then deliberately spreads his own semen on some lettuce, which was Set's favorite food. After Set had eaten the lettuce, they went to the gods to try to settle the argument over the rule of Egypt. The gods first listened to Set's claim of dominance over Horus, and call his semen forth, but it answered from the river, invalidating his claim. Then, the gods listened to Horus' claim of having dominated Set, and call his semen forth, and it answered from inside Set.[20][21]

Figure of a Horus
Horus
Falcon, between circa 300 and circa 250 BC (Greco-Roman).[22] The Walters Art Museum.

Horus
Horus
falcon, after 600 BCE. Original in the Department of Ancient Egypt and Sudan, British Museum

However, Set still refused to relent, and the other gods were getting tired from over eighty years of fighting and challenges. Horus
Horus
and Set challenged each other to a boat race, where they each raced in a boat made of stone. Horus
Horus
and Set agreed, and the race started. But Horus had an edge: his boat was made of wood painted to resemble stone, rather than true stone. Set's boat, being made of heavy stone, sank, but Horus' did not. Horus
Horus
then won the race, and Set stepped down and officially gave Horus
Horus
the throne of Egypt.[23] After the New Kingdom, Set was still considered lord of the desert and its oases.[24] In many versions of the story, Horus
Horus
and Set divide the realm between them. This division can be equated with any of several fundamental dualities that the Egyptians saw in their world. Horus
Horus
may receive the fertile lands around the Nile, the core of Egyptian civilization, in which case Set takes the barren desert or the foreign lands that are associated with it; Horus
Horus
may rule the earth while Set dwells in the sky; and each god may take one of the two traditional halves of the country, Upper and Lower Egypt, in which case either god may be connected with either region. Yet in the Memphite Theology, Geb, as judge, first apportions the realm between the claimants and then reverses himself, awarding sole control to Horus. In this peaceable union, Horus
Horus
and Set are reconciled, and the dualities that they represent have been resolved into a united whole. Through this resolution, order is restored after the tumultuous conflict.[25] Egyptologists have often tried to connect the conflict between the two gods with political events early in Egypt's history or prehistory. The cases in which the combatants divide the kingdom, and the frequent association of the paired Horus
Horus
and Set with the union of Upper and Lower Egypt, suggest that the two deities represent some kind of division within the country. Egyptian tradition and archaeological evidence indicate that Egypt was united at the beginning of its history when an Upper Egyptian kingdom, in the south, conquered Lower Egypt in the north. The Upper Egyptian rulers called themselves "followers of Horus", and Horus
Horus
became the tutelary deity of the unified nation and its kings. Yet Horus
Horus
and Set cannot be easily equated with the two-halves of the country. Both deities had several cult centers in each region, and Horus
Horus
is often associated with Lower Egypt and Set with Upper Egypt. Other events may have also affected the myth. Before even Upper Egypt
Upper Egypt
had a single ruler, two of its major cities were Nekhen, in the far south, and Nagada, many miles to the north. The rulers of Nekhen, where Horus
Horus
was the patron deity, are generally believed to have unified Upper Egypt, including Nagada, under their sway. Set was associated with Nagada, so it is possible that the divine conflict dimly reflects an enmity between the cities in the distant past. Much later, at the end of the Second Dynasty (c. 2890–2686 BCE), Pharaoh
Pharaoh
Seth-Peribsen
Seth-Peribsen
used the Set animal
Set animal
to writing his serekh name in place of the falcon hieroglyph representing Horus. His successor Khasekhemwy
Khasekhemwy
used both Horus
Horus
and Set in the writing of his serekh. This evidence has prompted conjecture that the Second Dynasty saw a clash between the followers of the Horus
Horus
king and the worshippers of Set led by Seth-Peribsen. Khasekhemwy's use of the two animal symbols would then represent the reconciliation of the two factions, as does the resolution of the myth.[26] Heru-pa-khered ( Horus
Horus
the Younger) Horus
Horus
the Younger, Harpocrates
Harpocrates
to the Ptolemaic Greeks, is represented in the form of a youth wearing a lock of hair (a sign of youth) on the right of his head while sucking his finger. In addition, he usually wears the united crowns of Egypt, the crown of Upper Egypt
Upper Egypt
and the crown of Lower Egypt. He is a form of the rising sun, representing its earliest light. Her-ur ( Horus
Horus
the Elder) In this form he represented the god of light and the husband of Hathor. He was one of the oldest gods of ancient Egypt. He became the patron of Nekhen
Nekhen
(Hierakonpolis) and the first national god (God of the Kingdom). Later, he also became the patron of the pharaohs, and was called the son of truth.[27] – signifying his role as an important upholder of Maat. He was seen as a great falcon with outstretched wings whose right eye was the sun and the left one was the moon. In this form, he was sometimes given the title Kemwer, meaning (the) great black (one). The Greek form of Her-ur (or Har wer) is Haroeris. Other variants include Hor Merti ' Horus
Horus
of the two eyes' and Horkhenti Irti.[28] Celebrations of Horus Macrobius' Chronicon noted the annual ancient Egyptian celebration of Horus, specifying the time as the winter solstice. An analysis of the works of Epiphanius of Salamis
Epiphanius of Salamis
noted the Egyptian winter solstice celebration of Horus
Horus
in Panarion.[29] In popular culture Main article: Ancient Egyptian deities
Ancient Egyptian deities
in popular culture § Horus Gallery

Horus, patron deity of Hierakonpolis (near Edfu), the predynastic capital of Upper Egypt. Its head was executed by means of beating the gold then connecting it with the copper body. A uraeus is fixed to the diadem which supports two tall openwork feathers. The eyes are inlaid with obsidian. Sixth Dynasty.

Horus
Horus
represented in relief with Wadjet
Wadjet
and wearing the double crown. Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut

Horus
Horus
relief in the Temple of Edfu

Statue of Horus
Horus
from the reign of Amenhotep II
Amenhotep II
(Eighteenth Dynasty, ca. 1400 BCE) in the Musée royal de Mariemont, Belgium

Relief of Horus
Horus
in the temple of Seti I
Seti I
in Abydos

See also

Hawk of Quraish Osiris
Osiris
myth Solar deity#Ancient Egypt

References

^ a b c "The Oxford Guide: Essential Guide to Egyptian Mythology", Edited by Donald B. Redford, Horus: by Edmund S. Meltzer, pp. 164–168, Berkley, 2003, ISBN 0-425-19096-X ^ "The Oxford Guide: Essential Guide to Egyptian Mythology", Edited by Donald B. Redford, p106 & p165, Berkley, 2003, ISBN 0-425-19096-X ^ Wilkinson, Richard H. (2003). The Complete Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. p. 202. ^ Meltzer, Edmund S. (2002). Horus. In D. B. Redford (Ed.), The ancient gods speak: A guide to Egyptian religion (pp. 164). New York: Oxford University Press, USA. ^ Allen, James P. (2005). The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts. Society of Biblical Literature. ISBN 978-1-58983-182-7.  ^ Samuel Noah Kramer. Mythologies of the Ancient World. Quadrangle Books: Chicago, 1961. pp. 35–43 ^ New York Folklore Society (1973). "New York folklore quarterly". 29. Cornell University Press. p. 294.  ^ Ian Shaw (2003). The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-815034-2.  ^ Piotr O. Scholz (2001). Eunuchs and castrati: a cultural history. Markus Wiener Publishers. p. 32. ISBN 1-55876-201-9.  ^ Roy G. Willis (1993). World Mythology. Macmillan. p. 43. ISBN 0-8050-2701-7.  ^ Jetsu, L.; Porceddu, S. (2015). "Shifting Milestones of Natural Sciences: The Ancient Egyptian Discovery of Algol's Period Confirmed". PLOS ONE. 10 (12): e.0144140 (23pp). arXiv:1601.06990 . Bibcode:2015PLoSO..1044140J. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0144140.  ^ Jetsu, L.; Porceddu, S.; Lyytinen, J.; Kajatkari, P.; et al. (2013). "Did the Ancient Egyptians Record the Period of the Eclipsing Binary Algol – The Raging One?". The Astrophysical Journal. 773 (1): A1 (14pp). arXiv:1204.6206 . Bibcode:2013ApJ...773....1J. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/773/1/1.  ^ Pommerening, Tanja, Die altägyptischen Hohlmaße (Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur, Beiheft 10), Hamburg, Helmut Buske Verlag, 2005 ^ M. Stokstad, "Art History" ^ "Lady of the West". hethert.org. Retrieved 18 January 2015.  ^ a b Silverman, David P. (1997). "Egyptian Art". Ancient Egypt. Duncan Baird Publishers. p. 228.  ^ Charles Freeman, The Legacy of Ancient Egypt, Facts on File, Inc. 1997. p. 91 ^ "The Goddesses and Gods of Ancient Egypt". Archived from the original on 4 June 2010.  ^ "Ancient Egypt: the Mythology – Horus". egyptianmyths.net.  ^ Scott David Foutz. "Theology WebSite: Etext Index: Egyptian Myth: The 80 Years of Contention Between Horus
Horus
and Seth". theologywebsite.com. Retrieved 18 January 2015.  ^ Fleming, Fergus, and Alan Lothian. The Way to Eternity: Egyptian Myth. Duncan Baird Publishers, 1997. pp. 80–81 ^ "Figure of a Horus
Horus
Falcon". The Walters Art Museum.  ^ Mythology, published by DBP, Chapter: Egypt's divine kingship ^ te Velde, Herman (1967). Seth, God of Confusion: A Study of His Role in Egyptian Mythology and Religion. Probleme der Ägyptologie 6. Translated by van Baaren-Pape, G. E. (2nd ed.). Leiden: E. J. Brill. ISBN 90-04-05402-2.  ^ te Velde 1967, pp. 59–63. ^ Meltzer in Redford, pp. 165–166 ^ Wilson, Erasmus (January 1, 1877). Cleopatra's needle: With brief notes on Egypt and Egyptian obelisks. London: Brain & Company. p. 208. Retrieved 6 December 2014.  ^ Patricia Turner, Charles Russell Coulter, Dictionary of ancient deities, 2001 ^ "MACROBIUS, Saturnalia – Loeb Classical Library". Loeb Classical Library. 

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Horus.

UCAR educational article about Horus Britannica Online: Horus
Horus
(Egyptian God)

v t e

Ancient Egyptian religion

Beliefs

Emanationism Isfet Maat Maa Kheru Mythology Numerology Paganism Pantheism Philosophy Polytheism Soul

Practices

Funerals Heku Mortuary temples Offering formula Temples Veneration of the dead

Deities

Ogdoad

Amun Amunet Heh Hauhet Kek Kauket Nu Naunet

Ennead

Atum Shu Tefnut Geb Nut Osiris Isis Set Nephthys

Aker Akhty Ammit Am-heh Anat Andjety Anhur Anput Anubis Anuket Apedemak Apep Apis Apt Aqen Arensnuphis Ash Astarte Aten Astennu Babi Banebdjedet Bastet Bat Bata Ba-Pef Bes Buchis Dedun Four sons of Horus

Duamutef Hapi Imset Qebehsenuef

Ha Hapi Hathor Hatmehit Hedetet Hedjhotep Heka Hemen Hemsut Heqet Hermanubis Hesat Horus Heryshaf Hu Iabet Iah Iat Ihy Imentet Imhotep Iunit Iusaaset Kebechet Khensit Khenti-Amentiu Khenti-kheti Khepri Kherty Khnum Khonsu Kothar-wa-Khasis Maahes Ma'at Mandulis Matit Medjed Mafdet Mehen Mehet-Weret Mehit Menhit Meret Meretseger Meskhenet Min Mnevis Montu Mut Nebethetepet Nebtuwi Nefertem Nehebkau Nehmetawy Neith Nemty Nekhbet Neper Pakhet Petbe Ptah Qebui Qetesh Ra Raet-Tawy Rem Renenutet Renpet Repyt Resheph Sah Satis Sekhmet Seker Serapis Serket Seshat Shai Shed Shesmetet Shezmu Sia Sobek Sopdet Sopdu Souls of Pe and Nekhen Tatenen Taweret Tayt Ta-Bitjet Tenenet Thoth

Hermes Trismegistus

Tjenenyet Tutu Unut Wadjet Wadj-wer Weneg Wepset Wepwawet Werethekau Wosret

Creatures

Aani Abtu Bennu Griffin Hieracosphinx Medjed Serpopard Sha Sphinx Uraeus

Characters

Dedi Djadjaemankh Rededjet Ubaoner

Locations

Neter-khertet Aaru Benben Duat Land of Manu The Indestructibles

Symbols and Objects

Ankh Atef Atet Book
Book
of Thoth Cartouche Crook and flail Deshret Djed Egyptian obelisk Egyptian pool Eye of Horus Eye of Ra Hedjet Hemhem crown Hennu Imiut fetish Khepresh Kneph Matet boat Menat Nebu Nemes Neshmet Ouroboros Pschent Scarab Seqtet boat Serekh Shen ring Tyet Ushabti Was-sceptre Winged sun

Writings

Amduat Books of Breathing Book
Book
of Caverns Book
Book
of the Dead Book
Book
of the Earth Book
Book
of Gates Book
Book
of the Heavenly Cow Book
Book
of Traversing Eternity Coffin Texts The Contendings of Horus
Horus
and Seth Enigmatic Book
Book
of the Netherworld Great Hymn to the Aten Litany of the Eye of Horus Litany of Re Pyramid Texts

Related religions

Atenism Gnosticism Hermeticism Kemetism Temple of Set

Book Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
portal

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 69724039 LCCN: no2015152

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