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Gaaffaa Afriikaa‎ Geeska Afrika‎ የአፍሪካ ቀንድ‎ القرن الأفريقي‎ ቀርኒ ኣፍሪቃ‎

Countries and territories

Djibouti Eritrea Ethiopia Somalia

Major regional organizations Arab
Arab
League, Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa, Community of Sahel-Saharan States, Intergovernmental Authority on Development

Population 122,618,170 (2016 est.)

Area 1,882,757 km2

Languages

Afar Amharic Oromo Somali Tigrinya

Religion Islam, Christianity, Traditional faiths

Time Zones UTC+03:00

Currency

Djiboutian franc Eritrean nakfa Ethiopian birr Somali shilling

Capitals Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
(Ethiopia) Asmara
Asmara
(Eritrea) Djibouti
Djibouti
(Djibouti) Mogadishu
Mogadishu
(Somalia)

Total GDP (PPP) $ 247.751 Billion (2016)

Total GDP (nominal) $ 102,057 Billion (2016)

The Horn of Africa
Africa
(Amharic: የአፍሪካ ቀንድ yäafrika qänd, Arabic: القرن الأفريقي‎ al-qarn al-'afrīqī, Oromo: Gaaffaa Afriikaa, Somali: Geeska Afrika, Tigrinya: ቀርኒ ኣፍሪቃ) (shortened to HOA) is a peninsula in Northeast Africa. It juts hundreds of kilometers into the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
and Indian Ocean, lying along the southern side of the Gulf of Aden. The area is the easternmost projection of the African continent. The Horn of Africa denotes the region containing the countries of Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Somalia.[1][2][3][4] Regional studies on the Horn of Africa
Africa
are carried out, among others, in the fields of Ethiopian Studies as well as Somali Studies.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Prehistory 1.2 Ancient history 1.3 Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and Early Modern era 1.4 Modern history

2 Geography

2.1 Geology and climate 2.2 Ecology

3 Ethnicity and languages 4 Culture 5 Religion 6 Sports 7 Economy 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 External links

History[edit] Prehistory[edit] Main articles: Laas Geel
Laas Geel
and Dhambalin

The Horn of Africa
Africa
is one of the proposed urheimats (original homelands) of the Proto-Afroasiatic language.

Shell middens 125,000 years old have been found in Eritrea,[5] indicating the diet of early humans included seafood obtained by beachcombing. According to both genetic and fossil evidence, archaic Homo sapiens evolved into anatomically modern humans solely in Africa
Africa
between 200,000 and 100,000 years ago and may have dispersed from the Horn of Africa.[6][7]

The Bab-el-Mandeb
Bab-el-Mandeb
crossing in the Red Sea: now some 12 miles (20 km) wide, in prehistory narrower.

Today at the Bab-el-Mandeb
Bab-el-Mandeb
straits, the Red Sea
Red Sea
is about 12 miles (20 kilometres) wide, but 50,000 years ago it was much narrower and sea levels were 70 meters lower. Though the straits were never completely closed, there may have been islands in between which could be reached using simple rafts. It has been estimated that from a population of 2,000 to 5,000 individuals in Africa,[8] only a small group of possibly as few as 150 to 1,000 people crossed the Red Sea.[9] According to linguists, the first Afro-Asiatic-speaking populations arrived in the region during the ensuing Neolithic
Neolithic
era from the family's proposed urheimat ("original homeland") in the Nile Valley,[10] or the Near East.[11] Other scholars propose that the Afro-Asiatic family developed in situ in the Horn, with its speakers subsequently dispersing from there.[12] Genetic analysis also indicates that, beginning in the pre-agricultural period, settlers from the Near East
Near East
founded communities in Northeast Africa. These early settlements eventually gave rise to the Afro-Asiatic-speaking populations in the Horn and Maghreb
Maghreb
as the groups spread.[13] Ancient history[edit] Main articles: Land of Punt, Dʿmt, and Aksumite Empire Further information: History of Ethiopia, History of Eritrea, and Ethiopian historiography

Queen Ati, wife of King Perahu of Punt, as depicted on Pharaoh Hatshepsut's temple at Deir el-Bahri.

Together with northern Somalia, Djibouti, the Red Sea
Red Sea
coast of Sudan and Eritrea
Eritrea
is considered the most likely location of the land known to the ancient Egyptians
Egyptians
as Punt (or "Ta Netjeru," meaning god's land), whose first mention dates to the 25th century BCE.[14]

King Ezana's Stela
King Ezana's Stela
at Aksum, symbol of the Aksumite civilization.

Dʿmt
Dʿmt
was a kingdom located in Eritrea
Eritrea
and northern Ethiopia, which existed during the 8th and 7th centuries BCE. With its capital at Yeha, the kingdom developed irrigation schemes, used plows, grew millet, and made iron tools and weapons. After the fall of Dʿmt
Dʿmt
in the 5th century BCE, the plateau came to be dominated by smaller successor kingdoms, until the rise of one of these kingdoms during the 1st century, the Aksumite Kingdom, which was able to reunite the area.[15] The Kingdom of Aksum
Aksum
(also known as the Aksumite Empire) was an ancient state located in the highlands of present-day Ethiopia
Ethiopia
and Eritrea, which thrived between the 1st and 7th centuries CE. A major player in the commerce between the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and Ancient India, Aksum's rulers facilitated trade by minting their own currency. The state also established its hegemony over the declining Kingdom of Kush and regularly entered the politics of the kingdoms on the Arabian peninsula, eventually extending its rule over the region with the conquest of the Himyarite Kingdom. Under Ezana
Ezana
(fl. 320–360), the kingdom of Aksum
Aksum
became the first major empire to adopt Christianity, and was named by Mani as one of the four great powers of his time, along with Persia, Rome and China.

Ancient trading centers in the Horn of Africa
Africa
and the Arabian peninsula according to the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea

Northern Somalia
Somalia
was an important link in the Horn, connecting the region's commerce with the rest of the ancient world. Somali sailors and merchants were the main suppliers of frankincense, myrrh and spices, all of which were valuable luxuries to the Ancient Egyptians, Phoenicians, Mycenaeans, Babylonians
Babylonians
and Romans.[16][17] The Romans consequently began to refer to the region as Regio Aromatica. In the classical era, several flourishing Somali city-states such as Opone, Mosylon
Mosylon
and Malao
Malao
also competed with the Sabaeans, Parthians and Axumites for the rich Indo- Greco-Roman
Greco-Roman
trade.[18] The birth of Islam
Islam
opposite the Horn's Red Sea
Red Sea
coast meant that local merchants and sailors living on the Arabian Peninsula
Peninsula
gradually came under the influence of the new religion through their converted Arab Muslim
Muslim
trading partners. With the migration of Muslim
Muslim
families from the Islamic world
Islamic world
to the Horn in the early centuries of Islam, and the peaceful conversion of the local population by Muslim
Muslim
scholars in the following centuries, the ancient city-states eventually transformed into Islamic Mogadishu, Berbera, Zeila, Barawa
Barawa
and Merka, which were part of the Berber civilization.[19][20] The city of Mogadishu
Mogadishu
came to be known as the "City of Islam"[21] and controlled the East African gold trade for several centuries.[22] Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and Early Modern era[edit] Main articles: Adal Sultanate, Ajuran Sultanate, Warsangali
Warsangali
Sultanate, Sultanate of Showa, Sultanate of Ifat, Sultanate of the Geledi, Zagwe dynasty, Sultanate of Mogadishu, Aussa Sultanate, Majeerteen Sultanate, and Sultanate of Hobyo

Ruins of the Sultanate of Adal
Sultanate of Adal
in Zeila

In ancient and medieval times, the Horn of Africa
Africa
was referred to as the Bilad al Barbar ("Land of the Berbers").[23][24][25] It is also known as the Somali peninsula. During the Middle Ages, several powerful empires dominated the regional trade in the Horn, including the Adal Sultanate, the Ajuran Sultanate, the Warsangali
Warsangali
Sultanate, the Zagwe dynasty, and the Sultanate of the Geledi. The Sultanate of Showa, established in 896, was one of the oldest local Islamic states. It was centered in the former Shewa
Shewa
province in central Ethiopia. The polity was succeeded by the Sultanate of Ifat around 1285. Ifat was governed from its capital at Zeila
Zeila
in northern Somalia
Somalia
and was the easternmost district of the former Shewa Sultanate.[26] The Adal Sultanate
Adal Sultanate
was a medieval multi-ethnic Muslim
Muslim
state centered in the Horn region. At its height, it controlled large parts of Somalia, Ethiopia, Djibouti
Djibouti
and Eritrea. Many of the historic cities in the region, such as Amud, Maduna, Abasa, Berbera, Zeila
Zeila
and Harar, flourished during the kingdom's golden age. This period that left behind numerous courtyard houses, mosques, shrines and walled enclosures. Under the leadership of rulers such as Sabr ad-Din II, Mansur ad-Din, Jamal ad-Din II, Shams ad-Din, General Mahfuz and Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi, Adalite armies continued the struggle against the Solomonic dynasty, a campaign historically known as the Conquest of Abyssinia or Futuh al Habash. The Warsangali Sultanate
Warsangali Sultanate
was a kingdom centered in northeastern and in some parts of southeastern Somalia. It was one of the largest sultanates ever established in the territory, and, at the height of its power, included the Sanaag
Sanaag
region and parts of the northeastern Bari region of the country, an area historically known as Maakhir
Maakhir
or the Maakhir
Maakhir
Coast. The Sultanate was founded in the late 13th century in northern Somalia
Somalia
by a group of Somalis from the Warsangali
Warsangali
branch of the Darod
Darod
clan, and was ruled by the descendants of the Gerad Dhidhin.

The citadel in Gondershe, an important city in the medieval Ajuran Sultanate

Through a strong centralized administration and an aggressive military stance towards invaders, the Ajuran Sultanate
Ajuran Sultanate
successfully resisted an Oromo invasion from the west and a Portuguese incursion from the east during the Gaal Madow and the Ajuran-Portuguese wars. Trading routes dating from the ancient and early medieval periods of Somali maritime enterprise were also strengthened or re-established, and the state left behind an extensive architectural legacy. Many of the hundreds of ruined castles and fortresses that dot the landscape of Somalia
Somalia
today are attributed to Ajuran engineers,[27] including a lot of the pillar tomb fields, necropolises and ruined cities built during that era. The royal family, the House of Gareen, also expanded its territories and established its hegemonic rule through a skillful combination of warfare, trade linkages and alliances.[28] The Zagwe dynasty
Zagwe dynasty
ruled many parts of modern Ethiopia
Ethiopia
and Eritrea
Eritrea
from approximately 1137 to 1270. The name of the dynasty comes from the Cushitic-speaking Agaw people
Agaw people
of northern Ethiopia. From 1270 onwards for many centuries, the Solomonic dynasty
Solomonic dynasty
ruled the Ethiopian Empire.

The Lalibela
Lalibela
churches carved by the Zagwe dynasty
Zagwe dynasty
in the 12th century.

In the early 15th century, Ethiopia
Ethiopia
sought to make diplomatic contact with European kingdoms for the first time since Aksumite times. A letter from King Henry IV of England
Henry IV of England
to the Emperor of Abyssinia survives.[29] In 1428, the Emperor Yeshaq sent two emissaries to Alfonso V of Aragon, who sent return emissaries who failed to complete the return trip.[30] The first continuous relations with a European country began in 1508 with Portugal
Portugal
under Emperor Lebna Dengel, who had just inherited the throne from his father.[31] This proved to be an important development, for when Abyssinia was subjected to the attacks of the Adal Sultanate
Adal Sultanate
General and Imam
Imam
Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi
Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi
(called "Gurey" or "Grañ", both meaning "the Left-handed"), Portugal
Portugal
assisted the Ethiopian emperor by sending weapons and four hundred men, who helped his son Gelawdewos defeat Ahmad and re-establish his rule.[32] This Abyssinian–Adal War
Abyssinian–Adal War
was also one of the first proxy wars in the region as the Ottoman Empire, and Portugal
Portugal
took sides in the conflict.

King Fasilides's Castle in Gondar

When Emperor Susenyos converted to Roman Catholicism in 1624, years of revolt and civil unrest followed resulting in thousands of deaths.[33] The Jesuit missionaries had offended the Orthodox faith of the local Ethiopians. On June 25, 1632, Susenyos's son, Emperor Fasilides, declared the state religion to again be Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity, and expelled the Jesuit missionaries and other Europeans.[34][35] During the end of 18th and the beginning of 19th century the Yejju dynasty (more specifically, the Warasek) ruled north Ethiopia
Ethiopia
changing the official language of Amhara people
Amhara people
to Afaan Oromo, including inside the court of Gondar
Gondar
which was capital of the empire. Founded by Ali I of Yejju several successive descendants of him and Abba Seru Gwangul ruled with their army coming from mainly their clan the Yejju Oromo tribe as well as Wollo and Raya Oromo.[36]

The Sultanate of Hobyo's cavalry and fort

The Sultanate of the Geledi
Sultanate of the Geledi
was a Somali kingdom administered by the Gobroon dynasty, which ruled parts of the Horn of Africa
Africa
during the 18th and 19th centuries. It was established by the Ajuran soldier Ibrahim Adeer, who had defeated various vassals of the Ajuran Empire and established the House of Gobroon. The dynasty reached its apex under the successive reigns of Sultan
Sultan
Yusuf Mahamud Ibrahim, who successfully consolidated Gobroon power during the Bardera
Bardera
wars, and Sultan
Sultan
Ahmed Yusuf, who forced regional powers such as the Omani Empire to submit tribute. The Majeerteen Sultanate
Majeerteen Sultanate
(Migiurtinia) was another prominent Somali sultanate based in the Horn region. Ruled by King Osman Mahamuud during its golden age, it controlled much of northeastern and central Somalia
Somalia
in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The polity had all of the organs of an integrated modern state and maintained a robust trading network. It also entered into treaties with foreign powers and exerted strong centralized authority on the domestic front.[37][38] Much of the Sultanate's former domain is today coextensive with the autonomous Puntland
Puntland
region in northeastern Somalia.[39] The Sultanate of Hobyo
Sultanate of Hobyo
was a 19th-century Somali kingdom founded by Sultan
Sultan
Yusuf Ali Kenadid. Initially, Kenadid's goal was to seize control of the neighboring Majeerteen Sultanate, which was then ruled by his cousin Boqor
Boqor
Osman Mahamuud. However, he was unsuccessful in this endeavor, and was eventually forced into exile in Yemen. A decade later, in the 1870s, Kenadid returned from the Arabian Peninsula
Peninsula
with a band of Hadhrami musketeers and a group of devoted lieutenants. With their assistance, he managed to establish the kingdom of Hobyo, which would rule much of northeastern and central Somalia
Somalia
during the early modern period.[40] Modern history[edit] Main articles: First Italo-Abyssinian War, Second Italo-Abyssinian War, East African Campaign (World War II), Italian East Africa, and Somaliland
Somaliland
Campaign

Building of regional administration in Asmara

In the period following the opening of the Suez canal
Suez canal
in 1869, when European powers scrambled for territory in Africa
Africa
and tried to establish coaling stations for their ships, Italy
Italy
invaded and occupied Eritrea. On January 1, 1890, Eritrea
Eritrea
officially became a colony of Italy. In 1896 further Italian incursion into the horn was decisively halted by Ethiopian forces. By 1936 however, Eritrea
Eritrea
became a province of Italian East Africa
Africa
( Africa
Africa
Orientale Italiana), along with Ethiopia
Ethiopia
and Italian Somaliland. By 1941, Eritrea
Eritrea
had about 760,000 inhabitants, including 70,000 Italians.[41] The Commonwealth armed forces, along with the Ethiopian patriotic resistance, expelled those of Italy
Italy
in 1941,[42] and took over the area's administration. The British continued to administer the territory under a UN Mandate until 1951, when Eritrea
Eritrea
was federated with Ethiopia, as per UN resolution 390(A) and under the prompting of the United States adopted in December 1950.

Map of Africa
Africa
in 1909, the Horn region is the easternmost projection of the African continent.

The strategic importance of Eritrea, due to its Red Sea
Red Sea
coastline and mineral resources, was the main cause for the federation with Ethiopia, which in turn led to Eritrea's annexation as Ethiopia's 14th province in 1952. This was the culmination of a gradual process of takeover by the Ethiopian authorities, a process which included a 1959 edict establishing the compulsory teaching of Amharic, the main language of Ethiopia, in all Eritrean schools. The lack of regard for the Eritrean population led to the formation of an independence movement in the early 1960s (1961), which erupted into a 30-year war against successive Ethiopian governments that ended in 1991. Following a UN-supervised referendum in Eritrea
Eritrea
(dubbed UNOVER) in which the Eritrean people overwhelmingly voted for independence, Eritrea declared its independence and gained international recognition in 1993.[43] In 1998, a border dispute with Ethiopia
Ethiopia
led to the Eritrean-Ethiopian War.[44]

Place Menelik in Djibouti
Djibouti
City in 1905

From 1862 until 1894, the land to the north of the Gulf of Tadjoura situated in modern-day Djibouti
Djibouti
was called Obock and was ruled by Somali and Afar Sultans, local authorities with whom France
France
signed various treaties between 1883 and 1887 to first gain a foothold in the region.[45][46][47] In 1894, Léonce Lagarde established a permanent French administration in the city of Djibouti
Djibouti
and named the region Côte française des Somalis (French Somaliland), a name which continued until 1967. In 1958, on the eve of neighboring Somalia's independence in 1960, a referendum was held in the territory to decide whether or not to join the Somali Republic or to remain with France. The referendum turned out in favour of a continued association with France, partly due to a combined yes vote by the sizable Afar ethnic group and resident Europeans.[48] There was also reports of widespread vote rigging, with the French expelling thousands of Somalis before the referendum reached the polls.[49] The majority of those who voted no were Somalis who were strongly in favour of joining a united Somalia, as had been proposed by Mahmoud Harbi, Vice President of the Government Council. Harbi was killed in a plane crash two years later.[48] Djibouti finally gained its independence from France
France
in 1977, and Hassan Gouled Aptidon, a Somali politician who had campaigned for a yes vote in the referendum of 1958, eventually wound up as the nation's first president (1977–1999).[48] In early 2011, the Djiboutian citizenry took part in a series of protests against the long-serving government, which were associated with the larger Arab
Arab
Spring demonstrations. The unrest eventually subsided by April of the year, and Djibouti's ruling People's Rally for Progress party was re-elected to office.

Statue of Sayyid Mohammed Abdullah Hassan
Mohammed Abdullah Hassan
(the "Mad Mullah"), leader of the Dervish State

Mohammed Abdullah Hassan's Dervish State
Dervish State
successfully repulsed the British Empire
British Empire
four times and forced it to retreat to the coastal region.[50] Due to these successful expeditions, the Dervish State
Dervish State
was recognized as an ally by the Ottoman and German Empires. The Turks also named Hassan Emir
Emir
of the Somali nation,[51] and the Germans promised to officially recognize any territories the Dervishes were to acquire.[52] After a quarter of a century of holding the British at bay, the Dervishes were finally defeated in 1920 as a direct consequence of Britain's new policy of aerial bombardment.[53] As a result of this bombardment, former Dervish territories were turned into a protectorate of Britain. Italy
Italy
faced similar opposition from Somali Sultans and armies, and did not acquire full control of parts of modern Somalia
Somalia
until the Fascist
Fascist
era in late 1927. This occupation lasted until 1941, and was replaced by a British military administration. Northern Somalia
Somalia
would remain a protectorate, while southern Somalia
Somalia
became a trusteeship. The Union of the two regions in 1960 formed the Somali Republic. A civilian government was formed, and on July 20, 1961, through a popular referendum, a new constitution that had first been drafted the year before was ratified.[54] Due to its longstanding ties with the Arab
Arab
world, Somalia
Somalia
was accepted in 1974 as a member of the Arab
Arab
League.[55] During the same year, the nation's former socialist administration also chaired the Organization of African Unity, the predecessor of the African Union.[56] In 1991, the Somali Civil War
Somali Civil War
broke out, which saw the collapse of the federal government and the emergence of numerous autonomous polities, including the Puntland
Puntland
administration in the northeast and Somaliland, an unrecognised self-declared sovereign state that is internationally recognised as an autonomous region of Somalia,[57] in the northwest. Somalia's inhabitants subsequently reverted to local forms of conflict resolution, either secular, Islamic or customary law, with a provision for appeal of all sentences. A Transitional Federal Government
Transitional Federal Government
was subsequently created in 2004.[58] The Federal Government of Somalia was established on August 20, 2012, concurrent with the end of the TFG's interim mandate.[59] It represents the first permanent central government in the country since the start of the civil war.[59] The Federal Parliament of Somalia
Somalia
serves as the government's legislative branch.[60]

Haile Selassie's reign as emperor of Ethiopia
Ethiopia
is the best known and perhaps most influential in the nation's history.

Modern Ethiopia
Ethiopia
and its current borders are a result of significant territorial reduction in the north and expansion in the east and south toward its present borders, owing to several migrations, commercial integration, treaties as well as conquests, particularly by Emperor Menelik II and Ras Gobena.[61] From the central province of Shoa, Menelik set off to subjugate and incorporate ‘the lands and people of the South, East and West into an empire.’[61][62] He did this with the help of Ras Gobena's Shewan Oromo militia, began expanding his kingdom to the south and east, expanding into areas that had not been held since the invasion of Ahmad ibn Ibrihim al-Ghazi, and other areas that had never been under his rule, resulting in the borders of Ethiopia
Ethiopia
of today.[63] Menelik had signed the Treaty of Wichale with Italy
Italy
in May 1889, in which Italy
Italy
would recognize Ethiopia’s sovereignty so long as Italy
Italy
could control a small area of northern Tigray (part of modern Eritrea).[64] In return Italy, was to provide Menelik with arms and support him as emperor.[65] The Italians used the time between the signing of the treaty and its ratification by the Italian government to further expand their territorial claims. Italy began a state funded program of resettlement for landless Italians in Eritrea, which increased tensions between the Eritrean peasants and the Italians.[65] This conflict erupted in the Battle of Adwa
Battle of Adwa
on 1 March 1896, in which Italy’s colonial forces were defeated by the Ethiopians.[66] The early 20th century in Ethiopia
Ethiopia
was marked by the reign of Emperor Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
I, who came to power after Iyasu V was deposed. In 1935, Haile Selassie's troops fought and lost the Second Italo-Abyssinian War, after which point Italy
Italy
annexed Ethiopia
Ethiopia
to Italian East Africa.[67] Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
subsequently appealed to the League of Nations, delivering an address that made him a worldwide figure and 1935's Time magazine Man of the Year.[68] Following the entry of Italy
Italy
into World War II, British Empire
British Empire
forces, together with patriot Ethiopian fighters, liberated Ethiopia
Ethiopia
in the course of the East African Campaign in 1941.[69]

Addis Ababa, capital of Ethiopia
Ethiopia
since 1886.

Haile Selassie's reign came to an end in 1974, when a Soviet-backed Marxist-Leninist military junta, the Derg
Derg
led by Mengistu Haile Mariam, deposed him, and established a one-party communist state, which was called the People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. In July 1977, the Ogaden War
Ogaden War
broke out after the government of President of Somalia
Somalia
Siad Barre
Siad Barre
sought to incorporate the predominantly Somali-inhabited Ogaden
Ogaden
region into a Pan-Somali Greater Somalia. By September 1977, the Somali army controlled 90% of the Ogaden, but was later forced to withdraw after Ethiopia's Derg
Derg
received assistance from the USSR, Cuba, South Yemen, East Germany[70] and North Korea, including around 15,000 Cuban combat troops. In 1989, the Tigrayan Peoples' Liberation Front
Tigrayan Peoples' Liberation Front
(TPLF) merged with other ethnically based opposition movements to form the Ethiopian Peoples' Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), and eventually managed to overthrow Mengistu's dictatorial regime in 1991. A transitional government, composed of an 87-member Council of Representatives and guided by a national charter that functioned as a transitional constitution, was then set up. The first free and democratic election took place later in 1995, when Ethiopia's longest-serving Prime Minister Meles Zenawi
Meles Zenawi
was elected to office. As with other nations in the Horn region, Ethiopia
Ethiopia
maintained its historically close relations with countries in the Middle East
Middle East
during this period of change.[71] Zenawi died in 2012, but his Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) party remains the ruling political coalition in Ethiopia. Geography[edit] Geology and climate[edit]

The Horn of Africa
Africa
as seen from the NASA
NASA
Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
in May 1993. The orange and tan colors in this image indicate a largely arid to semiarid climate.

The Horn of Africa
Africa
is almost equidistant from the equator and the Tropic of Cancer. It consists chiefly of mountains uplifted through the formation of the Great Rift Valley, a fissure in the Earth's crust extending from Turkey
Turkey
to Mozambique
Mozambique
and marking the separation of the African and Arabian tectonic plates. Mostly mountainous, the region arose through faults resulting from the Rift Valley. Geologically, the Horn and Yemen
Yemen
once formed a single landmass around 18 million years ago, before the Gulf of Aden
Gulf of Aden
rifted and separated the Horn region from the Arabian Peninsula.[72][73] The Somali Plate
Somali Plate
is bounded on the west by the East African Rift, which stretches south from the triple junction in the Afar Depression, and an undersea continuation of the rift extending southward offshore. The northern boundary is the Aden Ridge
Aden Ridge
along the coast of Saudi Arabia. The eastern boundary is the Central Indian Ridge, the northern portion of which is also known as the Carlsberg Ridge. The southern boundary is the Southwest Indian Ridge. Extensive glaciers once covered the Simien and Bale Mountains
Bale Mountains
but melted at the beginning of the Holocene. The mountains descend in a huge escarpment to the Red Sea
Red Sea
and more steadily to the Indian Ocean. Socotra
Socotra
is a small island in the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
off the coast of Somalia. Its size is 3,600 km2 (1,390 sq mi) and it is a territory of Yemen. The lowlands of the Horn are generally arid in spite of their proximity to the equator. This is because the winds of the tropical monsoons that give seasonal rains to the Sahel
Sahel
and the Sudan
Sudan
blow from the west. Consequently, they lose their moisture before reaching Djibouti
Djibouti
and Somalia, with the result that most of the Horn receives little rainfall during the monsoon season.

The Horn of Africa. NASA
NASA
image

In the mountains of Ethiopia, many areas receive over 2,000 mm (80 in) per year, and even Asmara
Asmara
receives an average of 570 mm (23 in). This rainfall is the sole source of water for many areas outside Ethiopia, including Egypt. In the winter, the northeasterly trade winds do not provide any moisture except in mountainous areas of northern Somalia, where rainfall in late autumn can produce annual totals as high as 500 mm (20 in). On the eastern coast, a strong upwelling and the fact that the winds blow parallel to the coast means annual rainfall can be as low as 50 mm (2 in). The climate in Ethiopia
Ethiopia
varies considerably between regions. It is generally hotter in the lowlands and temperate on the plateau. At Addis Ababa, which ranges from 2,200 to 2,600 m (7,218 to 8,530 ft), maximum temperature is 26 °C (78.8 °F) and minimum 4 °C (39.2 °F). The weather is usually sunny and dry, but the short (belg) rains occur from February to April and the big (meher) rains from mid-June to mid-September. The Danakil Desert stretches across 100,000 km2 of arid terrain in northeast Ethiopia, southern Eritrea, and northwestern Djibouti. The area is known for its volcanoes and extreme heat, with daily temperatures over 45 °C and often surpassing 50 °C. It has a number lakes formed by lava flows that dammed up several valleys. Among are Lake Asale (116 m below sea level) and Lake Giuletti/Afrera (80 m below sea level), both of which possess cryptodepressions in the Danakil Depression. The Afrera contains many active volcanoes, including the Maraho, Dabbahu, Afdera and Erta Ale.[74][75] In Somalia, there is not much seasonal variation in climate. Hot conditions prevail year-round along with periodic monsoon winds and irregular rainfall. Mean daily maximum temperatures range from 28 to 43 °C (82 to 109 °F), except at higher elevations along the eastern seaboard, where the effects of a cold offshore current can be felt. Somalia
Somalia
has only two permanent rivers, the Jubba and the Shabele, both of which begin in the Ethiopian Highlands.[76] Ecology[edit]

The Horn region has the world's largest population of camels.[77]

About 220 mammals are found in the Horn of Africa. Among threatened species of the region, there are several antelopes such as the beira, the dibatag, the silver dikdik and the Speke's gazelle. Other remarkable species include the Somali wild ass, the desert warthog, the hamadryas baboon, the Somali pygmy gerbil, the ammodile, and the Speke's pectinator. The Grevy's zebra
Grevy's zebra
is the unique wild equid of the region. There are predators such as spotted hyena, striped hyena and African leopard. The endangered painted hunting dog had populations in the Horn of Africa, but pressures from human exploitation of habitat along with warfare have reduced or extirpated this canid in this region.[78] Some important bird species of the Horn are the black boubou, the golden-winged grosbeak, the Warsangli linnet, and the Djibouti francolin. The Horn of Africa
Africa
holds more endemic reptiles than any other region in Africa, with over 285 species total (and about 90 species found exclusively in the region). Among endemic reptile genera, there are Haackgreerius, Haemodracon, Ditypophis, Pachycalamus and Aeluroglena. Half of these genera are uniquely found on Socotra. Unlike reptiles, amphibians are poorly represented in the region. There are about 100 species of freshwater fish in the Horn of Africa, about 10 of which are endemic. Among the endemic, the cave-dwelling Somali blind barb and the Somali cavefish can be found.

Myrrh, a common resin in the Horn

It is estimated that about 5,000 species of vascular plants are found in the Horn, about half of which are endemic. Endemism is most developed in Socotra
Socotra
and northern Somalia. The region has two endemic plant families: the Barbeyaceae and the Dirachmaceae. Among the other remarkable species, there are the cucumber tree found only on Socotra (Dendrosicyos socotrana), the Bankoualé palm, the yeheb nut, and the Somali cyclamen. Due to the Horn of Africa's semi-arid and arid climate, droughts are not uncommon. They are complicated by climate change and changes in agricultural practices. For centuries, the region's pastoral groups have observed careful rangeland management practices to mitigate the effects of drought, such as avoiding overgrazing or setting aside land only for young or ill animals. However, population growth has put pressure on limited land and led to these practices no longer being maintained. Droughts in 1983–85, 1991–92, 1998–99 and 2011 have disrupted periods of gradual growth in herd numbers, leading to a decrease of between 37% and 62% of the cattle population. Initiatives by ECHO and USAID have succeeded in reclaiming hundreds of hectares of pastureland through rangeland management, leading to the establishment of the Dikale Rangeland in 2004.[79] Ethnicity and languages[edit] Besides sharing similar geographic endowments, the countries of the Horn of Africa
Africa
are, for the most part, linguistically and ethnically linked together,[4] evincing a complex pattern of interrelationships among the various groups.[80]

Saho women in traditional attire

According to Ethnologue, there are 10 individual languages spoken in Djibouti, 14 in Eritrea, 90 in Ethiopia, and 15 in Somalia.[81] Most people in the Horn speak Afroasiatic languages
Afroasiatic languages
of the Cushitic or Semitic branches. The former includes Oromo, spoken by the Oromo people in Ethiopia, and Somali, spoken by the Somali people
Somali people
in Somalia, Djibouti
Djibouti
and Ethiopia; the latter includes Amharic, spoken by the Amhara people
Amhara people
of Ethiopia, and Tigrinya spoken by the Tigrinyas
Tigrinyas
of Eritrea
Eritrea
and Tigrayans
Tigrayans
of Ethiopia, respectively. Other Afroasiatic languages with a significant number of speakers include the Cushitic Afar, Saho, Hadiyya, Sidamo and Agaw languages, as well as the Semitic Tigre, Gurage, Harari, Silt'e and Argobba tongues.[82]

The major Afroasiatic languages
Afroasiatic languages
spoken in Ethiopia.

Additionally, Omotic languages
Omotic languages
are spoken by Omotic communities inhabiting Ethiopia's southern regions. Among these idioms are Aari, Dizi, Gamo, Kafa, Hamer and Wolaytta.[83] Languages belonging to the Nilo-Saharan and Niger-Congo families are also spoken in some areas by Nilotic and Bantu ethnic minorities, respectively. These tongues include the Nilo-Saharan Me'en and Mursi languages used in southwestern Ethiopia, and Kunama and Nara idioms spoken in parts of southern Eritrea. In the riverine and littoral areas of southern Somalia, Bajuni, Barawani, and Bantu groups also speak variants of the Niger-Congo Swahili and Mushunguli languages.[84][85] Culture[edit]

The Northern Stelae Park in Axum
Axum
with King Ezana's Stele
King Ezana's Stele
at the centre. The Great Stele lies broken.

The countries of the Horn of Africa
Africa
have been the birthplace of many ancient, as well as modern, cultural achievements in several fields including agriculture, architecture, art, cuisine, education, literature, music, technology and theology to name but a few. Ethiopian agriculture established the earliest known use of the seed grass Teff
Teff
(Poa abyssinica) between 4000–1000 BCE.[86] Teff
Teff
is used to make the flat bread injera/taita. Coffee
Coffee
also originated in Ethiopia
Ethiopia
and has since spread to become a worldwide beverage.[87] Ethiopian art is renowned for the ancient tradition of Ethiopian Orthodox Christian iconography stretching back to wall paintings of the 7th century CE.[88] Somali architecture
Somali architecture
includes the Fakr ad-Din Mosque, which was built in 1269 by the Fakr ad-Din, the first Sultan of the Sultanate of Mogadishu.[89] Ethiopia, too is renowned for its ancient churches, such as at the UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
at Lalibela.[90] The Horn has produced numerous indigenous writing systems. Among these is Ge'ez script
Ge'ez script
(ግዕዝ Gəʿəz) (also known as Ethiopic), which has been written in for at least 2000 years.[91] It is an abugida script that was originally developed to write the Ge'ez language. In speech communities that use it, such as the Amharic
Amharic
and Tigrinya, the script is called fidäl (ፊደል), which means "script" or "alphabet".

The Osmanya
Osmanya
writing script

In the early 20th century, in response to a national campaign to settle on a writing script for the Somali language
Somali language
(which had long since lost its ancient script[92]), Osman Yusuf Kenadid, a Somali poet and remote cousin of the Sultan
Sultan
Yusuf Ali Kenadid of the Sultanate of Hobyo, devised a phonetically sophisticated alphabet called Osmanya (also known as far soomaali; Osmanya: 𐒍𐒖𐒇 𐒈𐒝𐒑𐒛𐒐𐒘) for representing the sounds of Somali.[93] Though no longer the official writing script in Somalia, the Osmanya script is available in the Unicode
Unicode
range 10480-104AF [from U+10480 – U+104AF (66688–66735)]. The Somali writer Nuruddin Farah
Nuruddin Farah
has also garnered acclaim as perhaps the most celebrated writer ever to come out of the Horn of Africa. Having published many short stories, novels and essays, Farah's prose has earned him, among other accolades, the Premio Cavour in Italy, the Kurt Tucholsky Prize in Sweden, and in 1998, the prestigious Neustadt International Prize for Literature. In the same year, the French edition of his novel Gifts also won the St. Malo Literature Festival's prize.[94] The music of the Ethiopian highlands uses a unique modal system called qenet, of which there are four main modes: tezeta, bati, ambassel, and anchihoy.[95] Three additional modes are variations on the above: tezeta minor, bati major, and bati minor.[96] Some songs take the name of their qenet, such as tezeta, a song of reminiscence.[95] In the field of technology, the Great Stele of Axum, at over 100 feet (30 m) long, was the largest single stone ever quarried in the ancient world.[97] Additionally, the glossy lifestyle magazine Sheeko is published quarterly for and by the Horn community. Religion[edit]

The Chapel of the Tablet at the Church of Our Lady Mary of Zion allegedly houses the original Ark of the Covenant.

Most inhabitants in the Horn of Africa
Africa
follow one of the three major Abrahamic faiths. These religions have had a longstanding adherence in the region. The ancient Axumite Kingdom produced coins and stelae associated with the disc and crescent symbols of the deity Ashtar.[98] The kingdom later became one of the earliest states to adopt Christianity, following the conversion of King Ezana
Ezana
II in the 4th century.

Engraving of the 13th-century Fakr ad-Din Mosque
Mosque
built by Fakr ad-Din, the first Sultan
Sultan
of Mogadishu.

Islam
Islam
was introduced to the region early on from the Arabian peninsula, shortly after the hijra. At Muhammad's urging, a band of persecuted Muslims had fled across the Red Sea
Red Sea
into the Horn. There, the Muslims were granted protection by the Aksumite King Aṣḥama ibn Abjar.[99] In the late 9th century, Al-Yaqubi wrote that Muslims were living along the northern Somali seaboard.[100] He also mentioned that the Adal kingdom had its capital in Zeila,[100][101] suggesting that the Adal Sultanate
Adal Sultanate
with Zeila
Zeila
as its headquarters dates back to at least the 9th or 10th centuries.[101] Additionally, Judaism
Judaism
has a long presence in the region. The Kebra Negast (" Book
Book
of the Glory of Kings") relates that Israelite tribes arrived in Ethiopia
Ethiopia
with Menelik I, purported to be the son of King Solomon
Solomon
and the Queen of Sheba
Queen of Sheba
(Makeda). The legend relates that Menelik as an adult returned to his father in Jerusalem, and then resettled in Ethiopia, and that he took with him the Ark of the Covenant.[102] The Beta Israel
Beta Israel
today primarily follow the Orit (from Aramaic "Oraita" – "Torah"), which consists of the Five Books of Moses and the books Joshua, Judges and Ruth. A number of ethnic minority groups in southern Ethiopia
Ethiopia
also adhere to various traditional faiths. Among these belief systems are the Nilo-Saharan Surma people's acknowledgment of the sky god Tumu.[103] Sports[edit]

Cyclists competing in the Tour of Eritrea
Eritrea
in Asmara, Eritrea

In the modern era, the Horn of Africa
Africa
has produced several world-famous sports personalities, including long distance runners such as the world-record holder Kenenisa Bekele
Kenenisa Bekele
and Derartu Tulu, the first Ethiopian woman to win an Olympic gold medal and the only woman to have twice won the 10,000 meter Olympic gold in the short history of the event. One of the most successful runners from the region has been Haile Gebrselassie[104] who was acclaimed as "Athlete of the Year 1998" by the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF). As well as numerous gold medals in various events, Gebrselassie achieved 15 world records and world bests in long and middle distance running, including world record marathon times in 2007 and 2008. Somali athlete Abdi Bile became a world champion when he won the 1500m for men at the 1987 World Championships in Athletics, running the final 800m of the race in 1:46.0, the fastest final 800m of any 1,500 meter track race in history. Eritrea
Eritrea
has established the cycling event the Tour of Eritrea. In recent years, the Somali diaspora
Somali diaspora
produced a football star in Ayub Daud, a midfielder who plays for Juventus
Juventus
in Italy's Serie A. Zahra Bani, a Somali-Italian javelin thrower, has garnered attention with her performances that so far have earned her adopted Italy
Italy
a silver medal at the 2005 Mediterranean Games, as has Mo Farah, a Somali-British athlete that took gold for his adopted Great Britain in the 3000m at the 2009 European Indoor Championships in Turin
Turin
and later golds in both the 10,000m and 5,000m at the 2012 London Olympics. Economy[edit]

Vegetable shop in Asmara, Eritrea

According to the IMF, in 2010 the Horn of Africa
Africa
region had a total GDP (PPP) of $106.224 billion and nominal of $35.819 billion. Per capita, the GDP in 2010 was $1061 (PPP) and $358 (nominal).[105][106][107][108] States of the region depend largely on a few key exports:

Economy of Ethiopia: Coffee
Coffee
80% of total exports. Economy of Somalia: Bananas and livestock over 50% of total exports.

Over 95% of cross-border trade within the region is unofficial and undocumented, carried out by pastoralists trading livestock.[109] The unofficial trade of live cattle, camels, sheep and goats from Ethiopia sold to other countries in the Horn and the wider Eastern Africa region, including Somalia
Somalia
and Djibouti, generates an estimated total value of between US$250 and US$300 million annually (100 times more than the official figure).[109] This trade helps lower food prices, increase food security, relieve border tensions and promote regional integration.[109] However, there are also risks as the unregulated and undocumented nature of this trade runs risks, such as allow disease to spread more easily across national borders. Furthermore, governments are unhappy with lost tax revenue and foreign exchange revenues.[109] Much of the Horn nations' trade links are with Middle Eastern countries. In 2011, an event hosted by the Arab
Arab
Center for Research and Policy Studies in Doha, Qatar
Qatar
devoted several days of discussion to ways in which countries in the Horn region and the adjacent Arabian peninsula could further strengthen these historically close economic, social, cultural and religious ties.[110] See also[edit]

Incense Route Land of Punt Operation Enduring Freedom - Horn of Africa Silk Road

National history:

History of Djibouti History of Eritrea History of Ethiopia History of Somalia

Sultanates and kingdoms:

Adal Sultanate Ajuran Sultanate Aksumite Empire Ethiopian Empire Aussa Sultanate Dervish State Harar
Harar
Sultanate Ifat Sultanate Kingdom of Gomma Kingdom of Gumma Kingdom of Jimma Kingdom of Kaffa Majeerteen Sultanate Mudaito Dynasty Sultanate of Hobyo Sultanate of Mogadishu Sultanate of Shewa Sultanate of the Geledi Walashma dynasty Warsangali
Warsangali
Sultanate Zagwe dynasty

Notes[edit]

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South of the Sahara, Second Edition: A Geographical Interpretation, (The Guilford Press: 2004), p. 26 ^ Michael Hodd, East Africa
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Handbook, 7th Edition, (Passport Books: 2002), p. 21: "To the north are the countries of the Horn of Africa comprising Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti
Djibouti
Somaliland
Somaliland
and Somalia." ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, inc, Jacob E. Safra, The New Encyclopædia Britannica, (Encyclopædia Britannica: 2002), p.61: "The northern mountainous area, known as the Horn of Africa, comprises Djibouti, Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Somalia." ^ a b Sandra Fullerton Joireman, Institutional Change in the Horn of Africa, (Universal-Publishers: 1997), p.1: "The Horn of Africa encompasses the countries of Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti
Djibouti
and Somalia. These countries share similar peoples, languages, and geographical endowments." ^ Walter RC, Buffler RT, Bruggemann JH, et al. (May 2000). "Early human occupation of the Red Sea
Red Sea
coast of Eritrea
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during the last interglacial". Nature. 405 (6782): 65–9. Bibcode:2000Natur.405...65W. doi:10.1038/35011048. PMID 10811218.  ^ Ghirotto S; Penso-Dolfin L; Barbujani G. (Aug 2011). "Genomic evidence for an African expansion of anatomically modern humans by a Southern route". Human Biology. 83 (4): 477–89. doi:10.3378/027.083.0403. PMID 21846205. Data on cranial morphology have been interpreted as suggesting that, before the main expansion from Africa
Africa
through the Near East, anatomically modern humans may also have taken a Southern route from the Horn of Africa through the Arabian peninsula
Arabian peninsula
to India, Melanesia
Melanesia
and Australia, about 100,000 yrs ago. CS1 maint: Date and year (link) ^ Mellars, P; KC, Gori; M, Carr; PA, Soares; Richards, MB (Jun 2013). "Genetic and archaeological perspectives on the initial modern human colonization of southern Asia". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 110: 26. These data support a coastally oriented dispersal of modern humans from eastern Africa
Africa
to southern Asia
Asia
∼60-50 thousand years ago (ka). This was associated with distinctively African microlithic and "backed-segment" technologies analogous to the African "Howiesons Poort" and related technologies, together with a range of distinctively "modern" cultural and symbolic features (highly shaped bone tools, personal ornaments, abstract artistic motifs, microblade technology, etc.), similar to those that accompanied the replacement of "archaic" Neanderthal by anatomically modern human populations in other regions of western Eurasia at a broadly similar date.  ^ Lev A. Zhivotovsky, Noah A. Rosenberg & Marcus W. Feldman (2003). "Features of evolution and expansion of modern humans, inferred from genomewide microsatellite markers" (PDF). American Journal of Human Genetics. 72 (5): 1171–1186. doi:10.1086/375120. PMC 1180270 . PMID 12690579. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-04-06.  ^ Stix, Gary (2008). "The Migration History of Humans: DNA Study Traces Human Origins Across the Continents".  ^ Zarins, Juris (1990), "Early Pastoral Nomadism and the Settlement of Lower Mesopotamia", (Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research) ^ Diamond, J; Bellwood, P (2003). "Farmers and Their Languages: The First Expansions". Science. 300 (5619): 597–603. Bibcode:2003Sci...300..597D. doi:10.1126/science.1078208. PMID 12714734.  ^ Blench, R. (2006). Archaeology, Language, and the African Past. Rowman Altamira. pp. 143–144. ISBN 0759104662. Retrieved 8 September 2014.  ^ Jason A. Hodgson; Connie J. Mulligan; Ali Al-Meeri; Ryan L. Raaum (June 12, 2014). "Early Back-to- Africa
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in History, p. 324. ^ David D. Laitin, Said S. Samatar, Somalia: Nation in Search of a State, (Westview Press: 1987), p. 15. ^ I.M. Lewis, A modern history of Somalia: nation and state in the Horn of Africa, 2nd edition, revised, illustrated, (Westview Press: 1988), p.20 ^ Brons, Maria (2003), Society, Security, Sovereignty and the State in Somalia: From Statelessness to Statelessness?, p. 116. ^ Morgan, W. T. W. (1969), East Africa: Its Peoples and Resources, p. 18. ^ J. D. Fage, Roland Oliver, Roland Anthony Oliver, The Cambridge History of Africa, (Cambridge University Press: 1977), p.190 ^ George Wynn Brereton Huntingford, Agatharchides, The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea: With Some Extracts from Agatharkhidēs "On the Erythraean Sea", (Hakluyt Society: 1980), p.83 ^ John I. Saeed, Somali – Volume 10 of London Oriental and African language library, (J. Benjamins: 1999), p. 250. ^ Nehemia Levtzion; Randall Pouwels (2000). The History of Islam
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in the Iron Age: C.500 BC-1400 AD. Cambridge University Press. p. 43. ISBN 978-0-521-09900-4.  ^ "A Country Study: Somalia
Somalia
from The Library of Congress". Lcweb2.loc.gov. Retrieved 2013-07-25.  ^ a b Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 25. Americana Corporation. 1965. p. 255.  ^ a b Lewis, I.M. (1955). Peoples of the Horn of Africa: Somali, Afar and Saho. International African Institute. p. 140.  ^ Budge, Queen of Sheba, Kebra Negast, chap. 61. ^ Aparna Rao; Michael Bollig; Monika Böck (2007). The Practice of War: Production, Reproduction and Communication of Armed Violence. Berghahn Books. ISBN 978-1-84545-280-3.  ^ Athlete Profile Haile Gebrselassie. "Gebrselassie Haile page on www.iaaf.org". Iaaf.org. Retrieved 2013-07-25.  ^ "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". Imf.org. 2006-09-14. Retrieved 2013-07-25.  ^ "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". Imf.org. 2006-09-14. Retrieved 2013-07-25.  ^ "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". Imf.org. 2006-09-14. Retrieved 2013-07-25.  ^ "The World Factbook". Cia.gov. Retrieved 2013-07-25.  ^ a b c d Pavanello, Sara 2010. Working across borders – Harnessing the potential of cross-border activities to improve livelihood security in the Horn of Africa
Africa
drylands Archived 2010-11-12 at the Wayback Machine.. London: Overseas Development Institute ^ ""Arabs and the Horn of Africa" Kicking off November 27, 2011". daho: English.dohainstitute.org. 2011-11-21. Retrieved 2013-07-31. 

References[edit]

Beshah, Girma; Aregay, Merid Wolde (1964). The Question of the Union of the Churches in Luso-Ethiopian Relations (1500–1632). Lisbon: Junta de Investigações do Ultramar and Centro de Estudos Históricos Ultramarinos.  Negash, Tekeste (2005). Eritrea
Eritrea
and Ethiopia: the Federal Experience. Uppsala, Sweden: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.  Shillington, Kevin (2005). Encyclopedia of African History. CRC Press. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Horn of Africa.

History of the Horn of Africa Horn of Africa
Africa
News Agency "Somali Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund.  Horn of Africa
Africa
Biodiversity Hotspot African Wild Dog Conservancy's Biodiversity Hotspots Page CIA World Factbook: Djibouti CIA World Factbook: Eritrea CIA World Factbook: Ethiopia CIA World Factbook: Somalia A 'Child Alert' issued by UNICEF for the Horn of Africa Yemen
Yemen
Horn of Africa
Africa
Link Horn of Africa
Africa
Concerns from the Dean Peter Krogh Foreign Affairs Digital Archives Combined Joint Task Force – Horn of Africa
Africa
official website CFR.org Interactive Map: Horn of Africa Global Governance Institute Analysis on the Horn of Africa
Africa
and the EU [1]

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Regions of the world

v t e

Regions of Africa

Central Africa

Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Cape Lopez Mayombe Igboland

Mbaise

Maputaland Pool Malebo Congo Basin Chad Basin Congolese rainforests Ouaddaï highlands Ennedi Plateau

East Africa

African Great Lakes

Albertine Rift East African Rift Great Rift Valley Gregory Rift Rift Valley lakes Swahili coast Virunga Mountains Zanj

Horn of Africa

Afar Triangle Al-Habash Barbara Danakil Alps Danakil Desert Ethiopian Highlands Gulf of Aden Gulf of Tadjoura

Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
islands

Comoros Islands

North Africa

Maghreb

Barbary Coast Bashmur Ancient Libya Atlas Mountains

Nile Valley

Cataracts of the Nile Darfur Gulf of Aqaba Lower Egypt Lower Nubia Middle Egypt Nile Delta Nuba Mountains Nubia The Sudans Upper Egypt

Western Sahara

West Africa

Pepper Coast Gold Coast Slave Coast Ivory Coast Cape Palmas Cape Mesurado Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Niger Basin Guinean Forests of West Africa Niger Delta Inner Niger Delta

Southern Africa

Madagascar

Central Highlands (Madagascar) Northern Highlands

Rhodesia

North South

Thembuland Succulent Karoo Nama Karoo Bushveld Highveld Fynbos Cape Floristic Region Kalahari Desert Okavango Delta False Bay Hydra Bay

Macro-regions

Aethiopia Arab
Arab
world Commonwealth realm East African montane forests Eastern Desert Equatorial Africa Françafrique Gibraltar Arc Greater Middle East Islands of Africa List of countries where Arabic is an official language Mediterranean Basin MENA MENASA Middle East Mittelafrika Negroland Northeast Africa Portuguese-speaking African countries Sahara Sahel Sub-Saharan Africa Sudan
Sudan
(region) Sudanian Savanna Tibesti Mountains Tropical Africa

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Regions of Asia

Central

Greater Middle East Aral Sea

Aralkum Desert Caspian Sea Dead Sea Sea of Galilee

Transoxiana

Turan

Greater Khorasan Ariana Khwarezm Sistan Kazakhstania Eurasian Steppe

Asian Steppe Kazakh Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe

Mongolian-Manchurian grassland Wild Fields

Yedisan Muravsky Trail

Ural

Ural Mountains

Volga region Idel-Ural Kolyma Transbaikal Pryazovia Bjarmaland Kuban Zalesye Ingria Novorossiya Gornaya Shoriya Tulgas Iranian Plateau Altai Mountains Pamir Mountains Tian Shan Badakhshan Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Mount Imeon Mongolian Plateau Western Regions Taklamakan Desert Karakoram

Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract

Siachen Glacier

North

Inner Asia Northeast Far East

Russian Far East Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga

Extreme North Siberia

Baikalia
Baikalia
(Lake Baikal) Transbaikal Khatanga Gulf Baraba steppe

Kamchatka Peninsula Amur Basin Yenisei Gulf Yenisei Basin Beringia Sikhote-Alin

East

Japanese archipelago

Northeastern Japan Arc Sakhalin Island Arc

Korean Peninsula Gobi Desert Taklamakan Desert Greater Khingan Mongolian Plateau Inner Asia Inner Mongolia Outer Mongolia China proper Manchuria

Outer Manchuria Inner Manchuria Northeast China Plain Mongolian-Manchurian grassland

North China Plain

Yan Mountains

Kunlun Mountains Liaodong Peninsula Himalayas Tibetan Plateau

Tibet

Tarim Basin Northern Silk Road Hexi Corridor Nanzhong Lingnan Liangguang Jiangnan Jianghuai Guanzhong Huizhou Wu Jiaozhou Zhongyuan Shaannan Ordos Loop

Loess Plateau Shaanbei

Hamgyong Mountains Central Mountain Range Japanese Alps Suzuka Mountains Leizhou Peninsula Gulf of Tonkin Yangtze River Delta Pearl River Delta Yenisei Basin Altai Mountains Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass

West

Greater Middle East

MENA MENASA Middle East

Red Sea Caspian Sea Mediterranean Sea Zagros Mountains Persian Gulf

Pirate Coast Strait of Hormuz Greater and Lesser Tunbs

Al-Faw Peninsula Gulf of Oman Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Aden Balochistan Arabian Peninsula

Najd Hejaz Tihamah Eastern Arabia South Arabia

Hadhramaut Arabian Peninsula
Peninsula
coastal fog desert

Tigris–Euphrates Mesopotamia

Upper Mesopotamia Lower Mesopotamia Sawad Nineveh plains Akkad (region) Babylonia

Canaan Aram Eber-Nari Suhum Eastern Mediterranean Mashriq Kurdistan Levant

Southern Levant Transjordan Jordan Rift Valley

Israel Levantine Sea Golan Heights Hula Valley Galilee Gilead Judea Samaria Arabah Anti-Lebanon Mountains Sinai Peninsula Arabian Desert Syrian Desert Fertile Crescent Azerbaijan Syria Palestine Iranian Plateau Armenian Highlands Caucasus

Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains

Greater Caucasus Lesser Caucasus

North Caucasus South Caucasus

Kur-Araz Lowland Lankaran Lowland Alborz Absheron Peninsula

Anatolia Cilicia Cappadocia Alpide belt

South

Greater India Indian subcontinent Himalayas Hindu Kush Western Ghats Eastern Ghats Ganges Basin Ganges Delta Pashtunistan Punjab Balochistan Kashmir

Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley Pir Panjal Range

Thar Desert Indus Valley Indus River
Indus River
Delta Indus Valley Desert Indo-Gangetic Plain Eastern coastal plains Western Coastal Plains Meghalaya subtropical forests MENASA Lower Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows Doab Bagar tract Great Rann of Kutch Little Rann of Kutch Deccan Plateau Coromandel Coast Konkan False Divi Point Hindi Belt Ladakh Aksai Chin Gilgit-Baltistan

Baltistan Shigar Valley

Karakoram

Saltoro Mountains

Siachen Glacier Bay of Bengal Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Mannar Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Lakshadweep Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Andaman Islands Nicobar Islands

Maldive Islands Alpide belt

Southeast

Mainland

Indochina Malay Peninsula

Maritime

Peninsular Malaysia Sunda Islands Greater Sunda Islands Lesser Sunda Islands

Indonesian Archipelago Timor New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

Philippine Archipelago

Luzon Visayas Mindanao

Leyte Gulf Gulf of Thailand East Indies Nanyang Alpide belt

Asia-Pacific Tropical Asia Ring of Fire

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Regions of Europe

North

Nordic Northwestern Scandinavia Scandinavian Peninsula Fennoscandia Baltoscandia Sápmi West Nordic Baltic Baltic Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Iceland Faroe Islands

East

Danubian countries Prussia Galicia Volhynia Donbass Sloboda Ukraine Sambia Peninsula

Amber Coast

Curonian Spit Izyum Trail Lithuania Minor Nemunas Delta Baltic Baltic Sea Vyborg Bay Karelia

East Karelia Karelian Isthmus

Lokhaniemi Southeastern

Balkans Aegean Islands Gulf of Chania North Caucasus Greater Caucasus Kabardia European Russia

Southern Russia

Central

Baltic Baltic Sea Alpine states Alpide belt Mitteleuropa Visegrád Group

West

Benelux Low Countries Northwest British Isles English Channel Channel Islands Cotentin Peninsula Normandy Brittany Gulf of Lion Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Pyrenees Alpide belt

South

Italian Peninsula Insular Italy Tuscan Archipelago Aegadian Islands Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Gibraltar Arc Southeastern Mediterranean Crimea Alpide belt

Germanic Celtic Slavic countries Uralic European Plain Eurasian Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe Wild Fields Pannonian Basin

Great Hungarian Plain Little Hungarian Plain Eastern Slovak Lowland

v t e

Regions of North America

Northern

Eastern Canada Western Canada Canadian Prairies Central Canada Northern Canada Atlantic Canada The Maritimes French Canada English Canada Acadia

Acadian Peninsula

Quebec City–Windsor Corridor Peace River Country Cypress Hills Palliser's Triangle Canadian Shield Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Newfoundland (island) Vancouver Island Gulf Islands Strait of Georgia Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Labrador Peninsula Gaspé Peninsula Avalon Peninsula

Bay de Verde Peninsula

Brodeur Peninsula Melville Peninsula Bruce Peninsula Banks Peninsula
Peninsula
(Nunavut) Cook Peninsula Gulf of Boothia Georgian Bay Hudson Bay James Bay Greenland Pacific Northwest Inland Northwest Northeast

New England Mid-Atlantic Commonwealth

West

Midwest Upper Midwest Mountain States Intermountain West Basin and Range Province

Oregon Trail Mormon Corridor Calumet Region Southwest

Old Southwest

Llano Estacado Central United States

Tallgrass prairie

South

South Central Deep South Upland South

Four Corners East Coast West Coast Gulf Coast Third Coast Coastal states Eastern United States

Appalachia

Trans-Mississippi Great North Woods Great Plains Interior Plains Great Lakes Great Basin

Great Basin
Great Basin
Desert

Acadia Ozarks Ark-La-Tex Waxhaws Siouxland Twin Tiers Driftless Area Palouse Piedmont Atlantic coastal plain Outer Lands Black Dirt Region Blackstone Valley Piney Woods Rocky Mountains Mojave Desert The Dakotas The Carolinas Shawnee Hills San Fernando Valley Tornado Alley North Coast Lost Coast Emerald Triangle San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area

San Francisco Bay North Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) East Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) Silicon Valley

Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Gulf of Mexico Lower Colorado River Valley Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta Colville Delta Arkansas Delta Mobile–Tensaw River Delta Mississippi Delta Mississippi River Delta Columbia River Estuary Great Basin High Desert Monterey Peninsula Upper Peninsula
Peninsula
of Michigan Lower Peninsula
Peninsula
of Michigan Virginia Peninsula Keweenaw Peninsula Middle Peninsula Delmarva Peninsula Alaska Peninsula Kenai Peninsula Niagara Peninsula Beringia Belt regions

Bible Belt Black Belt Corn Belt Cotton Belt Frost Belt Rice Belt Rust Belt Sun Belt Snow Belt

Latin

Northern Mexico Baja California Peninsula Gulf of California

Colorado River Delta

Gulf of Mexico Soconusco Tierra Caliente La Mixteca La Huasteca Bajío Valley of Mexico Mezquital Valley Sierra Madre de Oaxaca Yucatán Peninsula Basin and Range Province Western Caribbean Zone Isthmus of Panama Gulf of Panama

Pearl Islands

Azuero Peninsula Mosquito Coast West Indies Antilles

Greater Antilles Lesser Antilles

Leeward Leeward Antilles Windward

Lucayan Archipelago Southern Caribbean

Aridoamerica Mesoamerica Oasisamerica Northern Middle Anglo Latin

French Hispanic

American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

v t e

Regions of Oceania

Australasia

Gulf of Carpentaria New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

New Zealand

South Island North Island

Coromandel Peninsula

Zealandia New Caledonia Solomon
Solomon
Islands (archipelago) Vanuatu

Kula Gulf

Australia Capital Country Eastern Australia Lake Eyre basin Murray–Darling basin Northern Australia Nullarbor Plain Outback Southern Australia

Maralinga

Sunraysia Great Victoria Desert Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf St Vincent Lefevre Peninsula Fleurieu Peninsula Yorke Peninsula Eyre Peninsula Mornington Peninsula Bellarine Peninsula Mount Henry Peninsula

Melanesia

Islands Region

Bismarck Archipelago Solomon
Solomon
Islands Archipelago

Fiji New Caledonia Papua New Guinea Vanuatu

Micronesia

Caroline Islands

Federated States of Micronesia Palau

Guam Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru Northern Mariana Islands Wake Island

Polynesia

Easter Island Hawaiian Islands Cook Islands French Polynesia

Austral Islands Gambier Islands Marquesas Islands Society Islands Tuamotu

Kermadec Islands Mangareva Islands Samoa Tokelau Tonga Tuvalu

Ring of Fire

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Regions of South America

East

Amazon basin Atlantic Forest Caatinga Cerrado

North

Caribbean South America West Indies Los Llanos The Guianas Amazon basin

Amazon rainforest

Gulf of Paria Paria Peninsula Paraguaná Peninsula Orinoco Delta

South

Tierra del Fuego Patagonia Pampas Pantanal Gran Chaco Chiquitano dry forests Valdes Peninsula

West

Andes

Tropical Andes Wet Andes Dry Andes Pariacaca mountain range

Altiplano Atacama Desert

Latin Hispanic American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

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Polar regions

Antarctic

Antarctic
Antarctic
Peninsula East Antarctica West Antarctica Eklund Islands Ecozone Extreme points Islands

Arctic

Arctic
Arctic
Alaska British Arctic
Arctic
Territories Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Finnmark Greenland Northern Canada Northwest Territories Nunavik Nunavut Russian Arctic Sakha Sápmi Yukon North American Arctic

v t e

Earth's oceans and seas

Arctic
Arctic
Ocean

Amundsen Gulf Barents Sea Beaufort Sea Chukchi Sea East Siberian Sea Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Boothia Kara Sea Laptev Sea Lincoln Sea Prince Gustav Adolf Sea Pechora Sea Queen Victoria Sea Wandel Sea White Sea

Atlantic Ocean

Adriatic Sea Aegean Sea Alboran Sea Archipelago Sea Argentine Sea Baffin Bay Balearic Sea Baltic Sea Bay of Biscay Bay of Bothnia Bay of Campeche Bay of Fundy Black Sea Bothnian Sea Caribbean Sea Celtic Sea English Channel Foxe Basin Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Gulf of Lion Gulf of Guinea Gulf of Maine Gulf of Mexico Gulf of Saint Lawrence Gulf of Sidra Gulf of Venezuela Hudson Bay Ionian Sea Irish Sea Irminger Sea James Bay Labrador Sea Levantine Sea Libyan Sea Ligurian Sea Marmara Sea Mediterranean Sea Myrtoan Sea North Sea Norwegian Sea Sargasso Sea Sea of Åland Sea of Azov Sea of Crete Sea of the Hebrides Thracian Sea Tyrrhenian Sea Wadden Sea

Indian Ocean

Andaman Sea Arabian Sea Bali Sea Bay of Bengal Flores Sea Great Australian Bight Gulf of Aden Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Oman Gulf of Suez Java Sea Laccadive Sea Mozambique
Mozambique
Channel Persian Gulf Red Sea Timor
Timor
Sea

Pacific Ocean

Arafura Sea Banda Sea Bering Sea Bismarck Sea Bohai Sea Bohol Sea Camotes Sea Celebes Sea Ceram Sea Chilean Sea Coral Sea East China Sea Gulf of Alaska Gulf of Anadyr Gulf of California Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf of Fonseca Gulf of Panama Gulf of Thailand Gulf of Tonkin Halmahera Sea Koro Sea Mar de Grau Molucca Sea Moro Gulf Philippine Sea Salish Sea Savu Sea Sea of Japan Sea of Okhotsk Seto Inland Sea Shantar Sea Sibuyan Sea Solomon
Solomon
Sea South China Sea Sulu Sea Tasman Sea Visayan Sea Yellow Sea

Southern Ocean

Amundsen Sea Bellingshausen Sea Cooperation Sea Cosmonauts Sea Davis Sea D'Urville Sea King Haakon VII Sea Lazarev Sea Mawson Sea Riiser-Larsen Sea Ross Sea Scotia Sea Somov Sea Weddell Sea

Landlocked seas

Aral Sea Caspian Sea Dead Sea Salton Sea

  Book   Category

v t e

Kingdoms and dynasties of the medieval Horn of Africa

States

Islamic sultanates & Empires

Somali Sultanates

Adal Ajuran Aussa Imamate Sultanate of Harar Ifat Mogadishu Warsangali

Aussa Sultanate Arababni Argobba Aymallal Bale Baqulin Dahlak Dobe'a Bazin Belgin Dara Dawaro Dewe Gabaal Ganz Gidaya Gurage Hadiya Harar Jarin Maya Mora Nagash Qita'a Sharkha Showa (Menz, Gedem) Tankish Werjih

Christian kingdoms and Empires

Ambassel Agame Akkele Guzay Amhara Angot Bahr Begemder Bugna Delanta Dembela Enderta Entitcho Gheralta Hamasien Haramat Lasta Mai-Tsade Tembien Tigray Tselemt Salowa Semada Serae Shewa
Shewa
(Efrata, Geshe) Shire Wag

Kingdom of Beta Israel

Dembiya Gafat Gojjam Waldebba Semien Wegera Qwara Tsegede Wolqayt

Kingdom of Damot

Dawro Enarya Janjero Kaffa Sheka Wolayta

Sidama kingdoms

Bahargamo Buzamo Garo Kambaata Sidamo Sigamo

Events

Ethiopian–Adal war Adal conquest of Ethiopia Oromo migrations First Ajuran-Portuguese war Second Ajuran-Portuguese war

Dynasties

Solomonic dynasty Walashma dynasty Gareen dynasty Goobroon dynasty Zagwe dynasty

Coordinates: 09°N 48°E / 9°N 48°E / 9; 48

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 315124

.