other species or subspecies suggested
Africanthropus Dreyer, 1935
Atlanthropus Arambourg, 1954
Cyphanthropus Pycraft, 1928
Pithecanthropus Dubois, 1894
Protanthropus Haeckel, 1895
Sinanthropus Black, 1927
Tchadanthropus Coppens, 1965
Telanthropus Broom & Anderson 1949
Human taxonomy is the classification of the human species (systematic
Homo sapiens) within zoological taxonomy. The systematic genus,
Homo, is designed to include both anatomically modern humans and
extinct varieties of archaic humans.
Since the introduction of systematic names in the 18th century,
knowledge of human evolution has increased drastically, and a number
of intermediate taxa have been proposed in the 20th to early 21st
century. The most widely accepted taxonomy groups takes the genus Homo
as originating between two and three million years ago, divided into
at least two species, archaic
Homo erectus and modern
with about a dozen further suggestions for species without universal
Homo is placed in the tribe
Hominini alongside Pan
(chimpanzees) . The two genera are estimated to have diverged over an
extended time of hybridization spanning roughly 10 to 6 million years
ago, with possible admixture as late as 4 million years ago. A
subtribe of uncertain validity, grouping archaic "pre-human" or
"para-human" species younger than the Homo-Pan split is
Australopithecina (proposed in 1939).
A proposal by Wood and Richmond (2000) would introduce Hominina as a
subtribe alongside Australopithecina, with
Homo the only known genus
within Hominina. Alternatively, following Cela-Conde and Ayala (2003),
the "pre-human" or "proto-human" genera of Australopithecus,
Ardipithecus, Praeanthropus, and possibly
Sahelanthropus may be placed
on equal footing alongside the genus Homo. An even more radical view
rejects the division of Pan and
Homo as separate genera, which based
Principle of Priority
Principle of Priority would imply the re-classification of
Homo paniscus (or similar).
3.1 H. sapiens ssp.
Homo erectus ssp.
4 See also
History of hominoid taxonomy
History of hominoid taxonomy and Hominini
Human taxonomy on one hand involves the placement of humans within the
taxonomy of the hominids (great apes), and on the other the division
of archaic and modern humans into species and, if applicable,
subspecies. Modern zoological taxonomy was developed by Carl Linnaeus
during the 1730s to 1750s. He named the human species as
in 1758, as the only member species of the genus Homo, divided into
several subspecies corresponding to the great races. The
homō (genitive hominis) means "human being". The systematic name
Hominidae for the family of the great apes was introduced by John
Edward Gray (1825). Gray also supplied
Hominini as the name of the
tribe including both chimpanzees (genus Pan) and humans (genus Homo).
The discovery of the first extinct archaic human species from the
fossil record dates to the mid 19th century,
classified in 1864. Since then, a number of other archaic species have
been named, but there is no universal consensus as to their exact
number. After the discovery of H. neanderthalensis, which even if
"archaic" is recognizable as clearly human, late 19th to early 20th
century anthropology for a time was occupied with finding the
supposedly "missing link" between
Homo and Pan. The "Piltdown Man"
hoax of 1912 was the (fraudulent) presentation of such a transitional
species. Since the mid-20th century, knowledge of the development of
Hominini has become much more detailed, and taxonomical terminology
has been altered a number of times to reflect this.
The introduction of
Australopithecus as a third genus, alongside Homo
and Pan, in the
Hominini tribe is due to
Raymond Dart (1925).
Australopithecina as a subtribe containing
Australopithecus as well as
Paranthropus (Broom 1938) is a proposal by Gregory & Hellman
(1939). More recently proposed additions to the Australopithecina
Ardipithecus (1995) and
Kenyanthropus (2001). The
Sahelanthropus (2002) relative to
Hominini is unclear. Cela-Conde and Ayala (2003) propose the
recognition of Australopithecus, Ardipithecus, Praeanthropus, and
Sahelanthropus (the latter incertae sedis) as separate genera.
Other proposed genera, now mostly considered part of Homo, include:
Pithecanthropus (Dubois, 1894),
Protanthropus (Haeckel, 1895),
Sinanthropus (Black, 1927),
Cyphanthropus (Pycraft, 1928)
Africanthropus (Dreyer, 1935),
Telanthropus (Broom & Anderson
Atlanthropus (Arambourg, 1954),
Tchadanthropus (Coppens, 1965).
Homo has been taken to originate some two millions ago since
the discovery of stone tools in Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, in the 1960s.
Homo habilis (Leakey et al., 1964) would be the first "human" species
(member of genus Homo) by definition, its type specimen being the OH 7
fossils. However, the discovery of more fossils of this type has
opened up the debate on the delineation of H. habilis from
Australopithecus. Especially, the
LD 350-1 jawbone fossil discovered
in 2013, dated to 2.8 Mya, has been argued as being transitional
between the two.  It is also disputed whether H. habilis was the
first hominin to use stone tools, as
Australopithecus garhi, dated to
c. 2.5 Mya, has been found along with stone tool implements. Fossil
KNM-ER 1470 (discovered in 1972, designated Pithecanthropus
rudolfensis by Alekseyev 1978) is now seen as either a third early
Homo (alongside H. habilis and H. erectus) at about 2
million years ago, or alternatively as transitional between
Australopithecus and Homo.
Wood and Richmond (2000) proposed that Gray's tribe Hominini
("hominins") be designated as comprising all species after the
chimpanzee-human last common ancestor by definition, to the inclusion
Australopithecines and other possible pre-human or para-human
species (such as
Ardipithecus and Sahelanthropus) not known in Gray's
time. In this suggestion, the new subtribe of Hominina was to be
designated as including the genus
Homo exclusively, so that Hominini
would have two subtribes,
Australopithecina and Hominina, with the
only known genus in Hominina being Homo.
Orrorin (2001) has been
proposed as a possible ancestor of Hominina but not
Designations alternative to Hominina have been proposed:
Australopithecinae (Gregory & Hellman 1939) and Preanthropinae
(Cela-Conde & Altaba 2002);
At least a dozen species of
Homo other than
Homo sapiens has been
proposed, with varying degrees on consensus.
Homo erectus is widely
recognized as the species directly ancestral to
Homo sapiens. Most
other proposed species are proposed as alternatively belonging to
Homo erectus or
Homo sapiens as a subspecies. This concerns
Homo ergaster in particular: The proposal of a broad division of
Homo erectus into an "African" and an "Asian" variety would consider
the Asian variety
Homo erectus sensu stricto and
Homo erectus sensu
lato would include both Asian
Homo erectus and African Homo
ergaster. There appears to be a recent trend, with the
availability of ever more difficult-to-classify fossils such as the
Dmanisi skulls (2013) or
Homo naledi fossils (2015) to subsume all
archaic varieties under
Comparative table of
Temporal range kya
Cranial capacity (cm³)
Discovery / publication of name
2,100 – 1,500
110-140 cm (4 ft 11 in)
33–55 kg (73–121 lb)
1,900 – 70
Africa, Eurasia (Java, China, India, Caucasus)
180 cm (5 ft 11 in)
60 kg (130 lb)
850 (early) – 1,100 (late)
also classified as H. habilis
1,900 – 600
100 cm (3 ft 3 in)
also classified as H. erectus
1,800 – 1,300
Eastern and Southern Africa
also classified as H. heidelbergensis
1,200 – 800
175 cm (5 ft 9 in)
90 kg (200 lb)
a single fossil, possibly H. erectus
900 – 350
1 skull cap
600 – 300
Europe, Africa, China
180 cm (5 ft 11 in)
90 kg (200 lb)
possibly a subspecies of H. sapiens
350 – 40
Europe, Western Asia
170 cm (5 ft 7 in)
55–70 kg (121–154 lb) (heavily built)
150 centimetres (4 ft 11 in) tall
45 kilograms (99 lb)
possibly H. erectus
190 – 10
also classified as H. heidelbergensis or a subspecies of H. sapiens
300 – 120
(anatomically modern humans)
200 – present
150 - 190 cm (4 ft 7 in - 6 ft 3 in)
50–100 kg (110–220 lb)
190 – 50
100 cm (3 ft 3 in)
25 kg (55 lb)
possible H. sapiens subspecies or hybrid
Red Deer Cave people
possible H. sapiens subspecies or hybrid
H. sapiens ssp.
Further information: Archaic human admixture with modern humans,
Anatomically modern humans, and Race and genetics
1737 painting of Carl von Linné wearing a traditional Sami costume,
the type specimen of the H. s. sapiens subspecies of H. sapiens.
The recognition or non-recognition of subspecies of
Homo sapiens has a
complicated history. The rank of subspecies in zoology is introduced
for convenience, and not by objective criteria, based on pragmatic
consideration of factors such as geographic isolation and sexual
selection. The informal taxonomic rank of race is variously considered
equivalent or subordinate to the rank of subspecies, and the division
of anatomically modern humans (H. sapiens) into subspecies is closely
tied to the recognition of major racial groupings based on human
A subspecies cannot be recognized independently: a species will either
be recognized as having no subspecies at all or at least two
(including any that are extinct). Therefore, the designation of an
Homo sapiens sapiens (for which
Carl Linnaeus would
be the type specimen) only makes sense if at least one other
subspecies is recognized.
During the 19th to mid-20th century, it was common practice to
classify the major divisions of extant H. sapiens as subspecies,
following Linnaeus (1758), who had recognized H. s. americanus, H. s.
europaeus, H. s. asiaticus and H. s. afer as grouping the native
populations of the Americas, Europe and Western Asia, East Asia and
Sub-Saharan Africa, respectively, besides H. s. ferus (for the "wild"
form which he identified with feral children) and two further "wild"
forms for reported specimens now considered part of cryptozoology, H.
s. monstrosus and H. s. troglodytes. There were variations and
additions to the categories of Linnaeus, such as H. s. tasmanianus for
the native population of Australia. Bory de St. Vincent in his
Essai sur l'Homme (1825) extended Linné's "racial" categories to as
many as fifteen: Leiotrichi ("smooth-haired"): japeticus (with
subraces), arabicus, indicus, scythicus, sinicus, hyperboreus,
neptunianus, australasicus, columbicus, americanus, patagonicus;
Oulotrichi ("crisp-haired"): aethiopicus, cafer, hottentotus,
Georges Vacher de Lapouge (1899) also had
categories based on race, such as priscus, spelaeus (etc.);
Homo sapiens neanderthalensis was proposed by King (1864) as an
Homo neanderthalensis. There have been "taxonomic
wars" over whether Neanderthals were a separate species since their
discovery in the 1860s. Pääbo (2014) frames this as a debate that is
unresolvable in principle, "since there is no definition of species
perfectly describing the case." There are a number of proposals of
extinct varieties of
Homo sapiens made in the 20th century. Many of
the original proposals were not using explicit trinomial nomenclature,
even though they are still cited as valid synonyms of H. sapiens by
Wilson & Reeder (2005). These include:
Homo aurignacensis hauseri (Klaatsch & Hauser,
1910), Notanthropus eurafricanus (Sergi, 1911),
Homo fossilis infrasp.
proto-aethiopicus (Giuffrida-Ruggeri, 1915),
Homo wadjakensis (Dubois, 1921),
Homo sapiens grimaldiensis (Gregory, 1921), Homo
drennani (Kleinschmidt, 1931),
Homo galilensis (Joleaud, 1931) =
Paleanthropus palestinus (McCown & Keith, 1932). Rightmire
Homo sapiens rhodesiensis.
By the 1980s, the practice of dividing extant populations of homo
sapiens into subspecies declined. An early authority explicitly
avoiding the division of H. sapiens into subspecies was Grzimeks
Tierleben, published 1967–1972. A late example of an academic
authority proposing that the human racial groups should be considered
taxonomical subspecies is John Baker (1974). The trinomial
Homo sapiens sapiens became popular for "modern humans"
in the context of Neanderthals being considered a subspecies of H.
sapiens in the second half of the 20th century, without having any
formal authority introducing it. Derived from the convention,
widespread in the 1980s, of considering two subspecies, H. s.
neanderthalensis and H. s. sapiens, the explicit claim that "H. s.
sapiens is the only extant human subspecies" appears in the early
Since the 2000s, the extinct
Homo sapiens idaltu (White et al., 2003)
has gained wide recognition as a subspecies of
Homo sapiens, but even
in this case there is a dissenting view arguing that "the skulls may
not be distinctive enough to warrant a new subspecies name". H. s.
neanderthalensis and H. s. rhodesiensis continue to be considered
separate species by some authorities, but the genetic evidence of
archaic human admixture with modern humans discovered in the 2010s has
re-opened the details of taxonomy of archaic humans.
Homo erectus ssp.
Homo erectus since its introduction in 1892 has been divided into
numerous subspecies, many of them formerly considered individual
species of Homo. None of these subspecies have universal consensus
Homo erectus erectus (Java Man) (1970s)
Homo erectus yuanmouensis (Yuanmou Man) (Li et al., 1977)
Homo erectus lantianensis (Lantian Man) (Woo Ju-Kang, 1964)
Homo erectus nankinensis (Nanjing Man) (1993)
Homo erectus pekinensis (Peking Man) (1970s)
Homo erectus palaeojavanicus (Meganthropus) (Tyler, 2001)
Homo erectus soloensis (Solo Man) (Oppenoorth, 1932)
Homo erectus tautavelensis (Tautavel Man) (de Lumley and de Lumley,
Homo erectus georgicus (1991)
Homo erectus bilzingslebenensis (Vlček, 2002)
Timeline of human evolution
Jared Diamond in
The Third Chimpanzee
The Third Chimpanzee (1991), and Morris Goodman
(2003) Hecht, Jeff (19 May 2003). "Chimps are human, gene study
implies". New Scientist. Retrieved 2011-12-08.
^ J. E. Gray, "An outline of an attempt at the disposition of Mammalia
into Tribes and Families, with a list of genera apparently
appertaining to each Tribe", Annals of Philosophy', new series (1825),
^ Cela-Conde, C. J.; Ayala, F. J. (2003). "Genera of the human
lineage". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 100 (13):
7684–7689. doi:10.1073/pnas.0832372100. PMC 164648 .
^ Introduced for the
Florisbad Skull (discovered in 1932, Homo
Homo helmei). Also the genus suggested for a number
of archaic human skulls found at
Lake Eyasi by Weinert (1938). Leaky,
Journal of the East Africa Natural History Society' (1942), p. 43.
^ Villmoare B, Kimbel H, Seyoum C, Campisano C, DiMaggio E, Rowan J,
Braun D, Arrowsmith J, Reed K. (2015). Early
Homo at 2.8 Ma from
Ledi-Geraru, Afar, Ethiopia. Science. doi:10.1126/science.aaa1343.
Some paleoanthropologists regard the H. habilis taxon as invalid, made
up of fossil specimens of
Australopithecus and Homo. Tattersall, I.
& Schwartz, J.H., Extinct Humans, Westview Press, New York, 2001,
^ De Heinzelin, J; Clark, JD; White, T; Hart, W; Renne, P;
Woldegabriel, G; Beyene, Y; Vrba, E (1999). "Environment and behavior
of 2.5-million-year-old Bouri hominids". Science. 284 (5414): 625–9.
doi:10.1126/science.284.5414.625. PMID 10213682.
^ Kaplan, Matt (8 August 2012). "Fossils point to a big family for
human ancestors". Nature. Retrieved 8 August 2012.
^ Wood and Richmond; Richmond, BG (2000). "
Human evolution: taxonomy
and paleobiology". Journal of Anatomy. 197 (Pt 1): 19–60.
doi:10.1046/j.1469-7580.2000.19710019.x. PMC 1468107 .
^ Reynolds, Sally C; Gallagher, Andrew (2012-03-29). African Genesis:
Perspectives on Hominin Evolution. ISBN 9781107019959.
^ Brunet, M.; et al. (2002). "A new hominid from the upper Miocene of
Chad, central Africa". Nature. 418: 145–151.
doi:10.1038/nature00879. PMID 12110880. Cela-Conde, C.J.;
Ayala, F.J. (2003). "Genera of the human lineage". PNAS. 100 (13):
7684–7689. doi:10.1073/pnas.0832372100. PMC 164648 .
PMID 12794185. Wood, B.; Lonergan, N. (2008). "The hominin
fossil record: taxa, grades and clades" (PDF). J. Anat. 212:
354–376. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7580.2008.00871.x. PMC 2409102 .
^ Hazarika, Manji (16–30 June 2007). "
Homo erectus/ergaster and Out
of Africa: Recent Developments in Paleoanthropology and Prehistoric
Archaeology" (PDF). ; Klein, R. (1999). The
Human Career: Human
Biological and Cultural Origins. Chicago: University of Chicago Press,
^ Antón, S. C. (2003). "Natural history of
Homo erectus". Am. J.
Phys. Anthropol. 122: 126–170. doi:10.1002/ajpa.10399. By the 1980s,
the growing numbers of H. erectus specimens, particularly in Africa,
led to the realization that Asian H. erectus (H. erectus sensu
stricto), once thought so primitive, was in fact more derived than its
African counterparts. These morphological differences were interpreted
by some as evidence that more than one species might be included in H.
erectus sensu lato (e.g., Stringer, 1984; Andrews, 1984; Tattersall,
1986; Wood, 1984, 1991a, b; Schwartz and Tattersall, 2000) ... Unlike
the European lineage, in my opinion, the taxonomic issues surrounding
Asian vs. African H. erectus are more intractable. The issue was most
pointedly addressed with the naming of H. ergaster on the basis of the
type mandible KNM-ER 992, but also including the partial skeleton and
isolated teeth of KNM-ER 803 among other Koobi Fora remains (Groves
and Mazak, 1975). Recently, this specific name was applied to most
early African and Georgian H. erectus in recognition of the
less-derived nature of these remains vis à vis conditions in Asian H.
erectus (see Wood, 1991a, p. 268; Gabunia et al., 2000a). It should be
noted, however, that at least portions of the paratype of H. ergaster
(e.g., KNM-ER 1805) are not included in most current conceptions of
that taxon. The H. ergaster question remains famously unresolved
(e.g., Stringer, 1984; Tattersall, 1986; Wood, 1991a, 1994; Rightmire,
1998b; Gabunia et al., 2000a; Schwartz and Tattersall, 2000), in no
small part because the original diagnosis provided no comparison with
the Asian fossil record
^ Skull suggests three early human species were one : Nature News
& Comment David Lordkipanidze, Marcia S. Ponce de Leòn, Ann
Margvelashvili, Yoel Rak, G. Philip Rightmire, Abesalom Vekua,
Christoph P. E. Zollikofer (18 October 2013). "A Complete Skull from
Dmanisi, Georgia, and the Evolutionary Biology of Early Homo".
Science. 342 (6156): 326–331. doi:10.1126/science.1238484. CS1
maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Switek, Brian (17 October
2013). "Beautiful Skull Spurs Debate on
Human History". National
Geographic. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
^ Schrenk, Friedemann; Kullmer, Ottmar; Bromage, Timothy (2007). "The
Homo Fossils". In Henke, Winfried; Tattersall, Ian.
Handbook of Paleoanthropology. 1. In collaboration with Thorolf Hardt.
Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. pp. 1611–1631.
doi:10.1007/978-3-540-33761-4_52. ISBN 978-3-540-32474-4.
Confirmed H. habilis fossils are dated to between 2.1 and 1.5 million
years ago. This date range overlaps with the emergence of Homo
erectus. Wilford, John Noble (August 9, 2007). "Fossils in Kenya
Challenge Linear Evolution". The New York Times. Retrieved
DiMaggio, Erin N.; Campisano, Christopher J.; Rowan, John; et al.
(March 20, 2015). "Late Pliocene fossiliferous sedimentary record and
the environmental context of early
Homo from Afar, Ethiopia". Science.
Washington, D.C.: American Association for the Advancement of Science.
347 (6228): 1355–1359. doi:10.1126/science.aaa1415.
ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 25739409. Hominins with
"proto-Homo" traits may have lived as early as 2.8 million years ago,
as suggested by a fossil jawbone classified as transitional between
Homo discovered in 2015.
^ Haviland, William A.; Walrath, Dana; Prins, Harald E. L.; McBride,
Bunny (2007). Evolution and Prehistory: The
Human Challenge (8th ed.).
Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth. p. 162.
ISBN 978-0-495-38190-7. H. erectus may have appeared some 2
million years ago. Fossils dated to as much as 1.8 million years ago
have been found both in Africa and in Southeast Asia, and the oldest
fossils by a narrow margin (1.85 to 1.77 million years ago) were found
in the Caucasus, so that it is unclear whether H. erectus emerged in
Africa and migrated to Eurasia, or if, conversely, it evolved in
Eurasia and migrated back to Africa.
^ Ferring, R.; Oms, O.; Agusti, J.; Berna, F.; Nioradze, M.; Shelia,
T.; Tappen, M.; Vekua, A.; Zhvania, D.; Lordkipanidze, D. (2011).
"Earliest human occupations at
Dmanisi (Georgian Caucasus) dated to
1.85-1.78 Ma". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 108
(26): 10432. doi:10.1073/pnas.1106638108. PMC 3127884 .
^ "New discovery suggests
Homo erectus originated from Asia". Daily
News and Analysis. Mumbai, India: Diligent Media Corporation Ltd.
Asian News International. June 8, 2011. Retrieved 2015-05-04.
^ Frazier, Kendrick (November–December 2006). "Leakey Fights Church
Campaign to Downgrade
Human Fossils". Skeptical
Inquirer. Amherst, NY: Committee for Skeptical Inquiry. 30 (6).
ISSN 0194-6730. Retrieved 2015-05-04.
^ Now also included in H. erectus are
Peking Man (formerly
Sinanthropus pekinensis) and
Java Man (formerly Pithecanthropus
erectus). H. erectus is now grouped into various subspecies, including
Homo erectus erectus,
Homo erectus yuanmouensis,
Homo erectus nankinensis,
Homo erectus pekinensis, Homo
Homo erectus soloensis,
Homo erectus georgicus. The distinction from descendant
species such as
Homo heidelbergensis and indeed
Homo sapiens is not entirely clear.
^ Curnoe, Darren (June 2010). "A review of early
Homo in southern
Africa focusing on cranial, mandibular and dental remains, with the
description of a new species (
Homo gautengensis sp. nov.)". HOMO -
Journal of Comparative
Human Biology. Amsterdam, the Netherlands:
Elsevier. 61 (3): 151–177. doi:10.1016/j.jchb.2010.04.002.
ISSN 0018-442X. PMID 20466364. A species proposed in
2010 based on the fossil remains of three individuals dated between
1.9 and 0.6 million years ago. The same fossils were also classified
as H. habilis, H. ergaster or
Australopithecus by other
^ Hazarika, Manjil (2007). "
Homo erectus/ergaster and Out of Africa:
Recent Developments in Paleoanthropology and Prehistoric Archaeology"
(PDF). EAA Summer School eBook. 1. European Anthropological
Association. pp. 35–41. Retrieved 2015-05-04. "Intensive
Course in Biological Anthrpology, 1st Summer School of the European
Anthropological Association, 16–30 June, 2007, Prague, Czech
^ The type fossil is Mauer 1, dated to ca. 0.6 million years ago. The
transition from H. heidelbergensis to H. neanderthalensis
between 300 and 243 thousand years ago is conventional, and makes use
of the fact that there is no known fossil in this period. Examples of
H. heidelbergensis are fossils found at Bilzingsleben (also classified
Homo erectus bilzingslebensis).
^ Bischoff, James L.; Shamp, Donald D.; Aramburu, Arantza; et al.
(March 2003). "The Sima de los Huesos Hominids Date to Beyond U/Th
Equilibrium (>350 kyr) and Perhaps to 400–500 kyr: New
Radiometric Dates". Journal of Archaeological Science. Amsterdam, the
Netherlands: Elsevier. 30 (3): 275–280. doi:10.1006/jasc.2002.0834.
ISSN 0305-4403. The first humans with "proto-Neanderthal
traits" lived in Eurasia as early as 0.6 to 0.35 million years ago
(classified as H. heidelbergensis, also called a chronospecies because
it represents a chronological grouping rather than being based on
clear morphological distinctions from either H. erectus or H.
neanderthalensis), with the first "true Neanderthals" appearing
between 0.25 and 0.2 million years ago.
Papagianni, Dmitra; Morse, Michael A. (2013). The Neanderthals
Rediscovered: How Modern Science is Rewriting Their Story. New York:
Thames & Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-05177-1.
^ Chang, Chun-Hsiang; Kaifu, Yousuke; Takai, Masanaru; Kono, Reiko T.;
Grün, Rainer; Matsu’ura, Shuji; Kinsley, Les; Lin, Liang-Kong
(2015). "The first archaic
Homo from Taiwan". Nature Communications.
6: 6037. doi:10.1038/ncomms7037. PMC 4316746 .
^ The age of H. sapiens has long been assumed to be close to 200,000
years, but since 2017 there have been a number of suggestions
extending this time to has high as 300,000 years. In 2017, fossils
Jebel Irhoud (Morocco) suggest that
Homo sapiens may have
speciated by as early as 315,000 years ago. Callaway, Ewan (7 June
Homo sapiens fossil claim rewrites our species'
history". Nature. doi:10.1038/nature.2017.22114. Retrieved 11 June
2017. Genetic evidence has been adduced for an age of roughly
270,000 years. Posth, Cosimo; et al. (4 July 2017). "Deeply divergent
archaic mitochondrial genome provides lower time boundary for African
gene flow into Neanderthals". Nature Communications.
doi:10.1038/ncomms16046. Retrieved 4 July 2017. CS1 maint:
Explicit use of et al. (link)
^ provisional names
Homo sp. Altai or
Homo sapiens ssp. Denisova.
^ Linné, Carl von (1758). Systema naturæ. Regnum animale (10 ed.).
^ See e.g. John Wendell Bailey, The Mammals of Virginia (1946), p.
356.; Journal of Mammalogy 26-27 (1945), p. 359.; The Mankind
Quarterly 1-2 (1960), 113ff ("Zoological
Subspecies of Man"), J.
Desmond Clark (ed.), The Cambridge History of Africa, Cambridge
University Press (1982), p. 141 (with references).
^ Annals of Philosophy 11, London (1826), p. 71
^ Frederick S. Szalay, Eric Delson, Evolutionary History of the
Primates (2013), 508
^ Pääbo, Svante (2014).
Neanderthal Man: In Search of Lost Genomes.
New York: Basic Books. p. 237.
^ Groves, C.P. (2005). Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M., eds.
of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.).
Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-801-88221-4.
^ T. Harrison in: William H. Kimbel, Lawrence B. Martin (eds.),
Species Concepts and
Primate Evolution (2013), 361.
^ M. R. Drennan, "An Australoid Skull from the Cape Flats", The
Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and
Ireland Vol. 59 (Jul. - Dec., 1929), 417-427.
^ among other names suggested for fossils later subsumed under
neanderthalensis, see: Eric Delson, Ian Tattersall, John Van
Couvering, Alison S. Brooks, Encyclopedia of
Human Evolution and
Prehistory: Second Edition, Routledge (2004).
^ Rightmire GP (June 3, 1983). "The Lake Ndutu cranium and early Homo
sapiens in Africa". Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 61 (2): 245–54.
doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330610214. PMID 6410925.
^ English translation (1972–1975): Grzimek's
Encyclopedia, Volume 11, p. 55.
^ John R. Baker, Race, Oxford University Press (1974).
Homo sapiens sapiens is rarely used before the 1940s. In 1946, John
Wendell Bailey attributes the name to Linnaeus (1758) explicitly:
"Linnaeus. Syst. Nat. ed. 10, Vol. 1. pp. 20, 21, 22, lists five races
of man, viz:
Homo sapiens sapiens (white — Caucasian) [...]", This
is a misattribution, but H. s. sapiens has since often been attributed
to Linnaeus. In actual fact, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. ed. 10 Vol. 1. p. 21
does not have
Homo sapiens sapiens, the "white" or "Caucasian" race
being instead called
Homo sapiens Europaeus. This is explicitly
pointed out in Bulletin der Schweizerische Gesellschaft für
Anthropologie und Ethnologie Volume 21 (1944), p. 18 (arguing not
against H. s. sapiens but against "H. s. albus L." proposed by von
Eickstedt and Peters): "die europide Rassengruppe, als Subspecies
Homo sapiens eurpoaeus L. heissen" ("the Europid
racial group, considered as a subspecies, would be named H. s.
europeaeus L."). See also: John R. Baker, Race, Oxford University
Press (1974), 205.
^ "We are the only surviving subspecies of
Homo sapiens." Michio
Kitahara, The tragedy of evolution: the human animal confronts modern
society (1991), p. xi.
Chris Stringer (June 12, 2003). "
Human evolution: Out of Ethiopia".
^ Hublin, J. J. (2009). "The origin of Neandertals". Proceedings of
the National Academy of Sciences. 106 (38): 16022–7.
JSTOR 40485013. PMC 2752594 . PMID 19805257.
Harvati, K.; Frost, S.R.; McNulty, K.P. (2004). "
reconsidered: implications of 3D primate models of intra- and
interspecific differences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101 (5):
1147–52. Bibcode:2004PNAS..101.1147H. doi:10.1073/pnas.0308085100.
PMC 337021 . PMID 14745010. "
King, 1864". Wiley-Blackwell Encyclopedia of
Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell. 2013.
^ a b In the 1970s a tendency developed to regard the Javanese variety
of H. erectus as a subspecies,
Homo erectus erectus, with the Chinese
variety being referred to as
Homo erectus pekinensis. See: Sartono, S.
Implications arising from
Pithecanthropus VIII In: Paleoanthropology:
Morphology and Paleoecology. Russell H. Tuttle (Ed.), p. 328.
^ Emanuel Vlček: Der fossile Mensch von Bilzingsleben (=
Bilzingsleben. Bd. 6 = Beiträge zur Ur- und Frühgeschichte
Mitteleuropas 35). Beier & Beran, Langenweißbach 2002.
Last common ancestors
H. e. erectus
H. e. georgicus
H. e. lantianensis
H. e. nankinensis
H. e. palaeojavanicus
H. e. pekinensis
H. e. soloensis
H. e. tautavelensis
H. e. yuanmouensis
H. s. idaltu
H. s. sapiens (anatomically modern human)
Red Deer Cave people
Origin of modern humans
Recent African origin