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Holyhead
Holyhead
(/ˈhɒlɪhɛd/ ( listen) HOL-i-hed; Welsh: Caergybi [kɑːɨrˈɡəbi], "Cybi's fort") is a town in Wales
Wales
and a major Irish Sea
Irish Sea
port serving Ireland. It is also a community and the largest town in the Isle of Anglesey
Isle of Anglesey
county, with a population of 13,659 at the 2011 census.[1] Holyhead
Holyhead
is on Holy Island, which is separated from Anglesey
Anglesey
by a very narrow channel and was originally connected to Anglesey
Anglesey
via the Four Mile Bridge
Four Mile Bridge
and now by the Stanley Embankment. In the mid-19th century, Lord Stanley, a local philanthropist, funded the building of a larger causeway,[citation needed] known locally as "The Cobb", it now carries the A5 and the railway line. The A55 dual carriageway runs parallel to the Cobb on a modern causeway.

Contents

1 Prehistoric
Prehistoric
and Roman history 2 Transport 3 Industry 4 Climate 5 Governance 6 Notable people

6.1 Sport

7 Culture and sport 8 References 9 External links

Prehistoric
Prehistoric
and Roman history[edit] Main article: Caer Gybi (fort) The town centre is built around St. Cybi's Church, which is built inside one of Europe's few three-walled Roman forts (the fourth boundary being the sea, which used to come up to the fort). The Romans also built a watchtower on the top of Holyhead Mountain
Holyhead Mountain
inside Mynydd y Twr, a prehistoric hillfort. Settlements in the area date from prehistoric times, with circular huts, burial chambers and standing stones featuring in the highest concentration in Britain. The current lighthouse is on South Stack
South Stack
on the other side of Holyhead Mountain
Holyhead Mountain
and is open to the public. Transport[edit] The Port of Holyhead
Port of Holyhead
has a busy ferry port. Stena Line, Northern Europe's biggest ferry company, operates from the port, as do Irish Ferries. Ferries sail to Dublin, in Ireland; this forms the principal link for surface transport from central and northern England
England
and Wales to Ireland. There is archaeological evidence that people have been sailing between Holyhead
Holyhead
and Ireland
Ireland
for 4,000 years[citation needed]. Holyhead's maritime importance was at its height in the 19th century with a 1.7 mile (3 km) long sea breakwater. Holyhead Breakwater
Holyhead Breakwater
is the longest in the UK and was built to create a safe harbour for vessels caught in stormy waters on their way to Liverpool
Liverpool
and the industrial ports of Lancashire. Holyhead's sea heritage is remembered in a maritime museum. The post road built by Thomas Telford
Thomas Telford
from London strengthened Holyhead's position as the port from which the Royal Mail
Royal Mail
was dispatched to and from Dublin
Dublin
on the Mail coach. The A5 terminates at Admiralty Arch (1822–24), which was designed by Thomas Harrison to commemorate a visit by King George IV in 1821 en route to Ireland
Ireland
and marks the zenith of Irish Mail coach
Mail coach
operations. Holy Island and Anglesey
Anglesey
are separated by the Cymyran Strait
Cymyran Strait
which used to be crossed on the Four Mile Bridge; so called, because the bridge was 4 miles (6.4 km) from Holyhead
Holyhead
on the old turnpike.

Stanley Embankment towards Holy Island

The Stanley Embankment, or "The Cob", is an embankment that connects Anglesey
Anglesey
and Holy Island. It carries the North Wales
Wales
Coast Line railway and the A5 road. The embankment was designed and built by Thomas Telford. When the A5 was being constructed between London and the Port of Holyhead, a more direct route was needed. Construction started in 1822 and completed a year later.[2] It gets its formal name after John Stanley, 1st Baron Stanley of Alderley, a significant local benefactor. [3] In 2001, work was completed on the extension of the A55 North Wales Expressway from the Britannia Bridge
Britannia Bridge
to Holyhead, giving the town a dual carriageway connection to North Wales
Wales
and the main British motorway network. The A55 forms part of Euroroute E22. The Anglesey section was financed through a Private Finance Initiative
Private Finance Initiative
scheme. With the opening of the railway from London to Liverpool, Holyhead lost the London to Dublin
Dublin
Mail contract in 1839 to the Port of Liverpool. Only after the completion of the Chester and Holyhead Railway in 1850 and the building of Holyhead railway station
Holyhead railway station
did the Irish Mail return to Holyhead, operated from London Euston
London Euston
by the London and North Western Railway. Holyhead
Holyhead
is the terminus of the North Wales
Wales
Coast Line and is currently served by Virgin Trains
Virgin Trains
and Arriva Trains Wales
Wales
services. Virgin Trains
Virgin Trains
run direct trains to London Euston
London Euston
and Arriva Trains Wales
Wales
operate direct trains towards Cardiff and Birmingham International via Wrexham and Shrewsbury, and two direct trains per day to Manchester Piccadilly. The rail and ferry terminals are connected (for pedestrians and cyclists) to the town centre by The Celtic Gateway bridge. Industry[edit]

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Until September 2009, Holyhead's main industry was the massive aluminium smelter on the outskirts of the town, operated by Anglesey Aluminium, a subsidiary of Rio Tinto Group. A large jetty in the harbour received ships from Jamaica
Jamaica
and Australia, and their cargoes of alumina were transported on a rope-driven conveyor belt running underneath the town to the plant. The jetty is now used by Orthios to dock cruise ships visiting from all over the world. The jetty is wide enough for coaches to travel down to collect and deliver passengers to the town and on local tours. The plant relied for its electricity supply on the island's nuclear power station at Wylfa, near Cemaes
Cemaes
Bay. However, Wylfa
Wylfa
was reaching the end of its life and had permission to generate only until 2012,[4] and the ending of a low-cost electricity supply contract in 2009 impacted on the financial viability of the smelting plant. Continuing operations involve the remelting of aluminium scrap for re-use. The site is subject to proposals by a development company called Orthios. Holyhead
Holyhead
Port is a major employer, most of the jobs being linked to ferry services to the Republic of Ireland
Ireland
operated by Stena and Irish Ferries. Other significant industrial/transport sector employers in Holyhead
Holyhead
include Holyhead
Holyhead
Boatyard, Gwynedd
Gwynedd
Shipping, and Eaton Electrical, with the last of these having seen many job losses in 2009.[5] New retail developments in recent years have been a major source of new job creation. Climate[edit] Like the rest of the British Isles
British Isles
and Wales, Holyhead
Holyhead
has a maritime climate with cool summers and mild winters, and often high winds exacerbated by its location by the Irish Sea. The nearest official weather observation station is at RAF Valley, about 5 miles South East of the town centre.

Climate data for Valley 10m asl, 1981–2010

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 8.2 (46.8) 8.1 (46.6) 9.6 (49.3) 11.8 (53.2) 14.9 (58.8) 17.1 (62.8) 18.8 (65.8) 18.8 (65.8) 17.1 (62.8) 14.1 (57.4) 11.1 (52) 8.7 (47.7) 13.2 (55.8)

Average low °C (°F) 3.6 (38.5) 3.0 (37.4) 4.5 (40.1) 5.7 (42.3) 8.2 (46.8) 10.7 (51.3) 12.8 (55) 12.9 (55.2) 11.4 (52.5) 9.0 (48.2) 6.3 (43.3) 3.9 (39) 7.7 (45.9)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 75.5 (2.972) 54.8 (2.157) 62.8 (2.472) 55.2 (2.173) 48.4 (1.906) 53.5 (2.106) 54.0 (2.126) 69.9 (2.752) 71.5 (2.815) 101.4 (3.992) 103.5 (4.075) 90.6 (3.567) 841.1 (33.114)

Mean monthly sunshine hours 62.3 86.5 123.1 177.8 231.8 207.8 201.1 189.5 146.7 109.7 63.6 51.6 1,651.4

Source: MetOffice[6]

Governance[edit]

Clock Tower commemorating the extension of the Holyhead
Holyhead
Docks between 1875 and 1880

Holyhead Town Council
Holyhead Town Council
is the town's community council, comprising sixteen councillors elected from the seven community electoral wards.[7] For elections to the Isle of Anglesey
Isle of Anglesey
County
County
Council, the Caergybi electoral ward covers the majority of Holyhead
Holyhead
and elects three county councillors every four years. In May 2017 the ward elected a Labour Party candidate and two Independents.[8] Notable people[edit]

Captain John Macgregor Skinner (1761-1832) moved to Holyhead
Holyhead
from the USA in 1793. Master on packet ships between Holyhead
Holyhead
and Dublin
Dublin
but was washed overboard. The town erected an obelisk in his honour [9] and his house is an exhibit at the Holyhead
Holyhead
Maritime Museum. [10] John Walpole Willis
John Walpole Willis
(1793–1877) a Welsh-born judge, and a judge of the Supreme Court of New South Wales Lillie Goodisson (1860-1947) a Welsh Australian nurse and a pioneer of family planning in New South Wales Francis Dodd RA (1874–1949) a British portrait painter, landscape artist and printmaker John Fox-Russell
John Fox-Russell
(1893–1917) winner of the Victoria Cross, was born in the town Ceinwen Rowlands (1905–1983) a Welsh concert soprano and recording artist R. S. Thomas
R. S. Thomas
(1913–2000) a Welsh poet and Anglican priest poet, grew up in Holyhead Barbara Margaret Trimble (1921–1995) a British writer of over 20 crime, thriller and romance novels David Crystal
David Crystal
(born 1941) linguist and chair of the charity behind Holyhead's Ucheldre Centre, lives in Holyhead Glenys Kinnock
Glenys Kinnock
(born 1944) a politician, was educated at Holyhead
Holyhead
High School Dawn French
Dawn French
(born 1957) comedian and actor Kevin Johnson (born 1960) is a managing partner at Medicxi Ventures, a venture capital firm Jason Evans (born 1968) a Welsh photographer and lecturer on photography Ben Crystal (born 1977) an English actor, author, and producer, brought up in the town Gareth Williams (1978–2010) worked for GCHQ
GCHQ
and SIS died in suspicious circumstances

Sport[edit]

Donough O'Brien (1879–1953) a Welsh-born Irish cricketer. Ray Williams (born 1959) is weightlifting Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
gold medallist Tony Roberts (born 1969) is Welsh international footballer Gareth Evans (born 1986) weightlifter, competed in the 2012 Summer Olympics lives in the town. Alex Lynch (born in 1995) professional footballer, educated in Holyhead
Holyhead
High School

Culture and sport[edit]

St. Mary's Help of Christians Church

View of Holyhead
Holyhead
market; activities, stalls and Welsh dress

Holyhead, (c 1850)

Holyhead
Holyhead
is the start and finish point of the Anglesey
Anglesey
Coastal Path. Holyhead
Holyhead
hosted the National Eisteddfod
National Eisteddfod
in 1927. Holyhead's arts centre, the Ucheldre Centre, is located in the chapel of an old convent belonging to the order of the Bon Sauveur. It holds regular arts exhibitions, performances, workshops and film screenings. The Holyhead Maritime Museum
Holyhead Maritime Museum
is housed in what is claimed to be Wales's oldest lifeboat house. The lifeboat station was established in 1828.[11] According to the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Census 2001, 47% of the residents in the town can speak Welsh. The highest percentage of speakers is the 15-year-old age group, of whom 66% can speak the language. According to the 2011 Census, of those in the community who were born in Wales, only 52.2% of the population could speak Welsh.[12] The town's main football team is called Holyhead
Holyhead
Hotspur and they play in the Cymru Alliance
Cymru Alliance
[1], with their reserves playing in the Gwynedd League. There is also Holyhead
Holyhead
Gwelfor Athletic who play in the Anglesey
Anglesey
League. Holyhead's cliffs are used for coasteering, a water sport which involves jumping off cliffs at different heights. Holyhead
Holyhead
is home to one of the first churches of the Jedi Religion, founded by brothers Daniel and Barney Jones early in 2008.[13] Holyhead High School
Holyhead High School
(previously County
County
Secondary school) was the first comprehensive school in the UK. Holyhead
Holyhead
was officially twinned with Greystones, County
County
Wicklow on 20 January 2012, and this is celebrated on a new road sign.[14] References[edit]

^ a b "Parish Headcounts: Isle of Anglesey". Neighbourhood Statistics. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 15 March 2018.  ^ Description of the embankment by Cycling North Wales ^ Hughes, Margaret: " Anglesey
Anglesey
from the sea", page 73. Gwasg Carreg Gwalch, 2001 ^ " Wylfa
Wylfa
to continue generating until 2012". Nuclear Engineering International. Archived from the original on 5 March 2012. Retrieved 13 December 2011.  ^ " Holyhead
Holyhead
factory closure could put 265 jobs at risk". North Wales Daily Post. 19 April 2013. Retrieved 26 May 2017.  ^ "Valley 1981–2010 averages". MetOffice. Archived from the original on 12 August 2014. Retrieved 11 August 2014.  ^ "Councillors". Holyhead
Holyhead
Town Council. Retrieved 5 December 2017.  ^ "Election results for Caergybi - Local Elections May 2017 - Thursday, 4th May, 2017". Isle of Anglesey
Isle of Anglesey
County
County
Council. Retrieved 5 December 2017.  ^ Holyhead.com Accessed 15 February 2015 ^ Holyhead Maritime Museum
Holyhead Maritime Museum
Accessed 15 February 2015 ^ "RNLI: Holyhead". Retrieved 16 February 2016.  ^ "O'r rhai a anwyd yng Nghymru, % yn gallu siarad Cymraeg". Statiaith.  ^ "BBC News article on Jedi church in Holyhead". 28 January 2008. Retrieved 19 October 2008.  ^ Everett, Cliff (23 January 2012). "Twinning Oath Signed". holyheadtowncouncil.com. Holyhead
Holyhead
Town Council. Retrieved 8 February 2012. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Holyhead.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Holyhead.

Holyhead
Holyhead
Regeneration Website Holyhead
Holyhead
Town Council Welcome to Holyhead

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Anglesey

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Amlwch Beaumaris Benllech Holyhead Llangefni Menai Bridge

Villages

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Cemaes
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Rivers

Afon Alaw Afon Braint Afon Cadnant Afon Cefni

Ancient sites

Barclodiad y Gawres Beaumaris
Beaumaris
Castle Bodowyr Bryn Celli Ddu Bryn Gwyn stones Caer Gybi Caer Lêb Castell Bryn Gwyn Din Lligwy Lligwy Burial Chamber Llyn Cerrig Bach Llys Rhosyr St Gwenfaen's Well Tŷ Newydd

Islands

Holy Island Church Island Cribinau East Mouse Middle Mouse Puffin Island Salt Island South Stack The Skerries North Stack West Mouse Ynys Benlas Ynys Castell Ynys Dulas Ynys Feurig Ynys Gaint Ynys Gored Goch Ynys Llanddwyn Ynys Moelfre Ynys y Bîg

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