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The Holocene
Holocene
( /ˈhɒləˌsiːn, ˈhoʊ-/)[2][3] is the current geological epoch. It began after the Pleistocene[4], approximately 11,650 cal years before present.[5] The Holocene
Holocene
is part of the Quaternary
Quaternary
period. Its name comes from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
words ὅλος (holos, whole or entire) and καινός (kainos, new), meaning "entirely recent".[6] It has been identified with the current warm period, known as MIS 1, and is considered by some to be an interglacial period. The Holocene
Holocene
encompasses the growth and impacts of the human species worldwide, including all its written history, development of major civilizations, and overall significant transition toward urban living in the present. Human impacts on modern-era Earth
Earth
and its ecosystems may be considered of global significance for future evolution of living species, including approximately synchronous lithospheric evidence, or more recently atmospheric evidence of human impacts. The International Commission on Stratigraphy Subcommission on Quaternary Stratigraphy’s working group on the 'Anthropocene' (coined by Paul Crutzen and Eugene Stoermer in 2000) note this term is used to denote the present time interval in which many geologically significant conditions and processes have been profoundly altered by human activities. The 'Anthropocene' is not a formally defined geological unit.[7]

Contents

1 Overview 2 Geology 3 Climate 4 Ecological developments 5 Human developments 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links

Overview[edit] It is accepted by the International Commission on Stratigraphy that the Holocene
Holocene
started approximately 11,650 cal years BP.[5] The Subcommission on Quaternary
Quaternary
Stratigraphy quotes Gibbard and van Kolfschoten in Gradstein Ogg and Smith in stating the term 'Recent' as an alternative to Holocene
Holocene
is invalid and should not be used and also observe that the term Flandrian, derived from marine transgression sediments on the Flanders coast of Belgium has been used as a synonym for Holocene
Holocene
by authors who consider the last 10,000 years should have the same stage-status as previous interglacial events and thus be included in the Pleistocene.[8] The International Commission on Stratigraphy however considers the Holocene
Holocene
an epoch following the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
and specifically the last glacial period. Local names for the last glacial period include the Wisconsinan in North America,[9] the Weichselian in Europe,[10] the Devensian in Britain,[11] the Llanquihue in Chile[12] and the Otiran in New Zealand.[13] The Holocene
Holocene
can be subdivided into five time intervals, or chronozones, based on climatic fluctuations:[14]

Preboreal (10 ka–9 ka), Boreal (9 ka–8 ka), Atlantic (8 ka–5 ka), Subboreal
Subboreal
(5 ka–2.5 ka) and Subatlantic
Subatlantic
(2.5 ka–present).

Note: "ka" means "thousand years" (non-calibrated C14 dates)

The Blytt–Sernander classification of climatic periods initially defined by plant remains in peat mosses, is currently being explored. Geologists working in different regions are studying sea levels, peat bogs and ice core samples by a variety of methods, with a view toward further verifying and refining the Blytt–Sernander sequence. They find a general correspondence across Eurasia and North America, though the method was once thought to be of no interest. The scheme was defined for Northern Europe, but the climate changes were claimed to occur more widely. The periods of the scheme include a few of the final pre- Holocene
Holocene
oscillations of the last glacial period and then classify climates of more recent prehistory.[citation needed] Paleontologists
Paleontologists
have not defined any faunal stages for the Holocene. If subdivision is necessary, periods of human technological development, such as the Mesolithic, Neolithic, and Bronze Age, are usually used. However, the time periods referenced by these terms vary with the emergence of those technologies in different parts of the world.[citation needed] Climatically, the Holocene
Holocene
may be divided evenly into the Hypsithermal and Neoglacial
Neoglacial
periods; the boundary coincides with the start of the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
in Europe. According to some scholars, a third division, the Anthropocene, has now begun.[15] Geology[edit]

Holocene
Holocene
cinder cone volcano on State Highway 18 near Veyo, Utah

Continental motions due to plate tectonics are less than a kilometre over a span of only 10,000 years. However, ice melt caused world sea levels to rise about 35 m (115 ft) in the early part of the Holocene. In addition, many areas above about 40 degrees north latitude had been depressed by the weight of the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
glaciers and rose as much as 180 m (590 ft) due to post-glacial rebound over the late Pleistocene
Pleistocene
and Holocene, and are still rising today.[16] The sea level rise and temporary land depression allowed temporary marine incursions into areas that are now far from the sea. Holocene marine fossils are known, for example, from Vermont
Vermont
and Michigan. Other than higher-latitude temporary marine incursions associated with glacial depression, Holocene
Holocene
fossils are found primarily in lakebed, floodplain, and cave deposits. Holocene
Holocene
marine deposits along low-latitude coastlines are rare because the rise in sea levels during the period exceeds any likely tectonic uplift of non-glacial origin.[citation needed] Post-glacial rebound
Post-glacial rebound
in the Scandinavia
Scandinavia
region resulted in the formation of the Baltic Sea. The region continues to rise, still causing weak earthquakes across Northern Europe. The equivalent event in North America
North America
was the rebound of Hudson Bay, as it shrank from its larger, immediate post-glacial Tyrrell Sea phase, to near its present boundaries.[citation needed] Climate[edit]

Temperature variations during the Holocene

Paleogeographic reconstruction of the North Sea
North Sea
approximately 9,000 years ago during the early Holocene
Holocene
and after the end of the last ice age.

Climate has been fairly stable over the Holocene. Ice core
Ice core
records show that before the Holocene
Holocene
there was global warming after the end of the last ice age and cooling periods, but climate changes became more regional at the start of the Younger Dryas. During the transition from the last glacial to the Holocene, the Huelmo–Mascardi Cold Reversal in the Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere
began before the Younger Dryas, and the maximum warmth flowed south to north from 11,000 to 7,000 years ago. It appears that this was influenced by the residual glacial ice remaining in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
until the later date.[citation needed] The Holocene climatic optimum
Holocene climatic optimum
(HCO) was a period of warming in which the global climate became warmer. However, the warming was probably not uniform across the world. This period of warmth ended about 5,500 years ago with the descent into the Neoglacial
Neoglacial
and concomitant Neopluvial. At that time, the climate was not unlike today's, but there was a slightly warmer period from the 10th–14th centuries known as the Medieval Warm Period. This was followed by the Little Ice Age, from the 13th or 14th century to the mid-19th century, which was a period of cooling.[citation needed] Compared to glacial conditions, habitable zones have expanded northwards, reaching their northernmost point during the HCO. Greater moisture in the polar regions has caused the disappearance of steppe-tundra.[citation needed] The temporal and spatial extent of Holocene
Holocene
climate change is an area of considerable uncertainty, with radiative forcing recently proposed to be the origin of cycles identified in the North Atlantic region. Climate cyclicity through the Holocene
Holocene
(Bond events) has been observed in or near marine settings and is strongly controlled by glacial input to the North Atlantic.[17][18] Periodicities of ≈2500, ≈1500, and ≈1000 years are generally observed in the North Atlantic.[19][20][21] At the same time spectral analyses of the continental record, which is remote from oceanic influence, reveal persistent periodicities of 1000 and 500 years that may correspond to solar activity variations during the Holocene
Holocene
epoch.[22] A 1500-year cycle corresponding to the North Atlantic oceanic circulation may have had widespread global distribution in the Late Holocene.[22] Ecological developments[edit] Animal and plant life have not evolved much during the relatively short Holocene, but there have been major shifts in the distributions of plants and animals. A number of large animals including mammoths and mastodons, saber-toothed cats like Smilodon
Smilodon
and Homotherium, and giant sloths disappeared in the late Pleistocene
Pleistocene
and early Holocene—especially in North America, where animals that survived elsewhere (including horses and camels) became extinct. This extinction of American megafauna has been explained as caused by the arrival of the ancestors of Amerindians; though most scientists assert that climatic change also contributed. In addition, a controversial bolide impact over North America
North America
has been hypothesized to have triggered the Younger Dryas.[23] Throughout the world, ecosystems in cooler climates that were previously regional have been isolated in higher altitude ecological "islands".[24] The 8.2 ka event, an abrupt cold spell recorded as a negative excursion in the δ18O record lasting 400 years, is the most prominent climatic event occurring in the Holocene
Holocene
epoch, and may have marked a resurgence of ice cover. It has been suggested that this event was caused by the final drainage of Lake Agassiz, which had been confined by the glaciers, disrupting the thermohaline circulation of the Atlantic.[25] Subsequent research however, suggested that the discharge was probably superimposed upon a longer episode of cooler climate lasting up to 600 years and observed that the extent of the area affected was unclear.[26] Human developments[edit] See also: Human history

Bronze bead necklace, Muséum de Toulouse

The beginning of the Holocene
Holocene
corresponds with the beginning of the Mesolithic
Mesolithic
age in most of Europe; but in regions such as the Middle East and Anatolia
Anatolia
with a very early neolithisation, Epipaleolithic
Epipaleolithic
is preferred in place of Mesolithic. Cultures in this period include Hamburgian, Federmesser, and the Natufian culture, during which the oldest inhabited places still existing on Earth
Earth
were first settled, such as Jericho
Jericho
in the Middle East.[27] There is also evolving archeological evidence of proto-religion at locations such as Göbekli Tepe, as long ago as the 9th millennium BCE.[28] Both are followed by the aceramic Neolithic
Neolithic
(Pre- Pottery
Pottery
Neolithic
Neolithic
A and Pre- Pottery
Pottery
Neolithic
Neolithic
B) and the pottery Neolithic. The Late Holocene
Holocene
brought advancements such as the bow and arrow and saw new methods of warfare in North America. Spear
Spear
throwers and their large points were replaced by the bow and arrow with its small narrow points beginning in Oregon and Washington. Villages built on defensive bluffs indicate increased warfare, leading to food gathering in communal groups for protection rather than individual hunting.[29] See also[edit]

8.2 kiloyear event 10th millennium BCE Blytt–Sernander system Holocene
Holocene
calendar Holocene
Holocene
extinction Neolithic
Neolithic
Subpluvial Older Peron Outburst flood Piora Oscillation Quaternary
Quaternary
extinction event

References[edit]

^ Fan, Junxuan; Hou, Xudong. "International Chronostratigraphic Chart". International Commission on Stratigraphy. Retrieved February 11, 2018.  ^ "Holocene". Merriam-Webster
Merriam-Webster
Dictionary.  ^ "Holocene". Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House. Retrieved February 11, 2018.  ^ Fan, Junxuan; Hou, Xudong. "International Chronostratigraphic Chart". International Commission on Stratigraphy. Retrieved June 18, 2016.  ^ a b Walker, Mike; Johnsen, Sigfus; Rasmussen, Sune Olander; Popp, Trevor; Steffensen, Jorgen-Peder; Gibrard, Phil; Hoek, Wim; Lowe, John; Andrews, John; Bjo Rck, Svante; Cwynar, Les C.; Hughen, Konrad; Kersahw, Peter; Kromer, Bernd; Litt, Thomas; Lowe, David J.; Nakagawa, Takeshi; Newnham, Rewi; Schwander, Jakob (2009). "Formal definition and dating of the GSSP (Global Stratotype Section and Point) for the base of the Holocene
Holocene
using the Greenland NGRIP ice core, and selected auxiliary records" (PDF). Journal of Quaternary
Quaternary
Science. 24 (1): 3–17. doi:10.1002/jqs.1227.  ^ "Holocene". Online Etymology Dictionary.  ^ "Working Group on the "Anthropocene"". Subcommission on Quaternary Stratigraphy. International Commission on Stratigraphy. January 4, 2016. Retrieved June 18, 2017.  ^ Gibbard, P. L. (January 4, 2016). "History of the stratigraphical nomenclature of the glacial period". Subcommission on Quaternary Stratigraphy. International Commission on Stratigraphy. Retrieved June 18, 2017.  ^ Clayton, Lee; Moran, Stephen R. (1982). "Chronology of late wisconsinan glaciation in middle North America". Quaternary
Quaternary
Science Reviews. 1 (1): 55–82. doi:10.1016/0277-3791(82)90019-1.  ^ Svendsen, John Inge; Astakhov, Valery I.; Bolshiyanov, Dimitri Yu.; Demidov, Igor; Dowdeswell, Julian A.; Gataullin, Valery; Hjort, Christian; Hubberten, Hans W.; Larsen, Eiliv; Mangerud, Jan; Melles, Martin; Moller, Per; Saarnisto, Matti; Siegert, Martin J. (March 1999). "Maximum extent of the Eurasian ice sheets in the Barents and Kara Sea region during the Weichselian" (PDF). Boreas. 28 (1): 234–242. doi:10.1111/j.1502-3885.1999.tb00217.x.  ^ Eyles, Nicholas; McCabe, A. Marshall (1989). "The Late Devensian (<22,000 BP) Irish Sea Basin: The sedimentary record of a collapsed ice sheet margin". Quaternary
Quaternary
Science Reviews. 8 (4): 307–351. doi:10.1016/0277-3791(89)90034-6.  ^ Denton, G. H.; Lowell, T. V.; Heusser, C. J.; Schluchter, C.; Andersern, B.G.; Heusser, Linda E.; Moreno, P.I.; Marchant, D.R. (1999). "Geomorphology, stratigraphy, and radiocarbon chronology of LlanquihueDrift in the area of the Southern Lake District, Seno Reloncavi, and Isla Grande de Chiloe, Chile" (PDF). Geografiska Annaler Series A Physical Geography. 81A (2): 167–229. doi:10.1111/j.0435-3676.1999.00057.x.  ^ Newnham, R. M.; Vandergoes, M. J.; Hendy, C. H.; Lowe, D. J.; Preusser, F. (February 2007). "A terrestrial palynological record for the last two glacial cycles from southwestern New Zealand". Quaternary Science Reviews. 26 (3-4): 517–535. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2006.05.005. Retrieved June 15, 2014.  ^ Mangerud, Jan; Anderson, Svend T.; Berglund, Bjorn E.; Donner, Joakim J. (October 1, 1974). " Quaternary
Quaternary
stratigraphy of Norden: a proposal for terminology and classification" (PDF). Boreas. 3: 109–128. doi:10.1111/j.1502-3885.1974.tb00669.x.  ^ Pearce, Fred (March 15, 2007). With Speed and Violence. Beacon Press. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-8070-8576-9.  ^ Gray, Louise (October 7, 2009). "England is sinking while Scotland rises above sea levels, according to new study". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved June 10, 2014.  ^ Bond, G.; et al. (1997). "A Pervasive Millennial-Scale Cycle in North Atlantic Holocene
Holocene
and Glacial
Glacial
Climates" (PDF). Science. 278 (5341): 1257–1266. Bibcode:1997Sci...278.1257B. doi:10.1126/science.278.5341.1257. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-02-27.  ^ Bond, G.; et al. (2001). "Persistent Solar Influence on North Atlantic Climate During the Holocene". Science. 294 (5549): 2130–2136. Bibcode:2001Sci...294.2130B. doi:10.1126/science.1065680. PMID 11739949.  ^ Bianchi, G.G.; McCave, I.N. (1999). " Holocene
Holocene
periodicity in North Atlantic climate and deep-ocean flow south of Iceland". Nature. 397: 515–517.  ^ Viau, A.E.; Gajewski, K.; Sawada, M.C.; Fines, P. (2006). "Millennial-scale temperature variations in North America
North America
during the Holocene". Journal of Geophysical Research. 111: D09102. Bibcode:2006JGRD..111.9102V. doi:10.1029/2005JD006031.  ^ Debret, M.; Sebag, D.; Crosta, X.; Massei, N.; Petit, J.-R.; Chapron, E.; Bout-Roumazeilles, V. (2009). "Evidence from wavelet analysis for a mid- Holocene
Holocene
transition in global climate forcing". Quaternary
Quaternary
Science Reviews. 28: 2675–2688. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2009.06.005.  ^ a b Kravchinsky, V.A.; Langereis, C.G.; Walker, S.D.; Dlusskiy, K.G.; White, D. "Discovery of Holocene
Holocene
millennial climate cycles in the Asian continental interior: Has the sun been governing the continental climate?". Global and Planetary Change. 110: 386–396. doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2013.02.011.  ^ Dalton, Rex (May 17, 2007). "Blast from the Past? A controversial new idea suggests that a big space rock exploded on or above North America at the end of the last ice age" (PDF). Nature. 447 (7142): 256–257. doi:10.1038/447256a. PMID 17507957. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 1, 2017.  ^ Singh, Ashbindu (2005). One Planet, Many People: Atlas of Our Changing Environment. United Nations Environment Programme. p. 4. ISBN 9789280725711.  ^ Barber, D.C; Dyke, A.; Hillaire-Marcel, C.; Jennings, A. E.; Andrews, J. T.; Kerwin, M. W.; Bilodeau, G.; McNeely, R.; Southon, J.; Morehead, M. D.; Gagnon, J.-M. (July 22, 1999). "Forcing of the cold event of 8,200 years ago by catastrophic drainage of Laurentide lakes" (PDF). Nature. 400 (6742): 344–348. doi:10.1038/22504. Retrieved February 11, 2018.  ^ Rohling, Eelco J.; Pälike, Heiko (April 21, 2005). "Centennial-scale climate cooling with a sudden event around 8,200 years ago" (PDF). Nature. 434 (7036): 975–979. doi:10.1038/nature03421. Retrieved February 11, 2018.  ^  Kenyon, Kathleen Mary (1911). "Jericho". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.  ^ Curry, Andrew (November 2008). "Göbekli Tepe: The World's First Temple?". Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved March 14, 2009.  ^ Snow, Dean R. (2010). Archaeology of Native North America. Upper Saddle River NJ: Prentice Hall. p. 384. ISBN 9780136156864. 

Further reading[edit]

Roberts, Neil (2014). The Holocene: an environmental history (3rd ed.). Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-4051-5521-2.  Mackay, A. W.; Battarbee, R. W.; Birks, H. J. B.; et al., eds. (2003). Global change in the Holocene. London: Arnold. ISBN 0-340-76223-3.  Hunt CO and Rabett RJ. (2013). Holocene
Holocene
landscape intervention and plant food production strategies in island and mainland Southeast Asia. Journal of Archaeological Science

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Holocene.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original works on the topic: Cenozoic#Quaternary

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Holocene.

The Holocene
Holocene
epoch explained by the BBC ghK Classification

v t e

Quaternary
Quaternary
Period

Pleistocene
Pleistocene
Epoch Holocene
Holocene
Epoch

Early Middle Late

Preboreal Boreal Atlantic Subboreal Subatlantic

v t e

Geologic history of Earth

Cenozoic
Cenozoic
era¹ (present–66.0 Mya)

Quaternary
Quaternary
(present–2.588 Mya)

Holocene
Holocene
(present–11.784 kya) Pleistocene
Pleistocene
(11.784 kya–2.588 Mya)

Neogene
Neogene
(2.588–23.03 Mya)

Pliocene
Pliocene
(2.588–5.333 Mya) Miocene
Miocene
(5.333–23.03 Mya)

Paleogene (23.03–66.0 Mya)

Oligocene
Oligocene
(23.03–33.9 Mya) Eocene
Eocene
(33.9–56.0 Mya) Paleocene
Paleocene
(56.0–66.0 Mya)

Mesozoic
Mesozoic
era¹ (66.0–251.902 Mya)

Cretaceous
Cretaceous
(66.0–145.0 Mya)

Late (66.0–100.5 Mya) Early (100.5–145.0 Mya)

Jurassic
Jurassic
(145.0–201.3 Mya)

Late (145.0–163.5 Mya) Middle (163.5–174.1 Mya) Early (174.1–201.3 Mya)

Triassic
Triassic
(201.3–251.902 Mya)

Late (201.3–237 Mya) Middle (237–247.2 Mya) Early (247.2–251.902 Mya)

Paleozoic
Paleozoic
era¹ (251.902–541.0 Mya)

Permian
Permian
(251.902–298.9 Mya)

Lopingian
Lopingian
(251.902–259.8 Mya) Guadalupian
Guadalupian
(259.8–272.3 Mya) Cisuralian
Cisuralian
(272.3–298.9 Mya)

Carboniferous
Carboniferous
(298.9–358.9 Mya)

Pennsylvanian (298.9–323.2 Mya) Mississippian (323.2–358.9 Mya)

Devonian
Devonian
(358.9–419.2 Mya)

Late (358.9–382.7 Mya) Middle (382.7–393.3 Mya) Early (393.3–419.2 Mya)

Silurian
Silurian
(419.2–443.8 Mya)

Pridoli (419.2–423.0 Mya) Ludlow (423.0–427.4 Mya) Wenlock (427.4–433.4 Mya) Llandovery (433.4–443.8 Mya)

Ordovician
Ordovician
(443.8–485.4 Mya)

Late (443.8–458.4 Mya) Middle (458.4–470.0 Mya) Early (470.0–485.4 Mya)

Cambrian
Cambrian
(485.4–541.0 Mya)

Furongian (485.4–497 Mya) Series 3 (497–509 Mya) Series 2 (509–521 Mya) Terreneuvian
Terreneuvian
(521–541.0 Mya)

Proterozoic
Proterozoic
eon² (541.0 Mya–2.5 Gya)

Neoproterozoic era (541.0 Mya–1 Gya)

Ediacaran
Ediacaran
(541.0-~635 Mya) Cryogenian (~635-~720 Mya) Tonian (~720 Mya-1 Gya)

Mesoproterozoic era (1–1.6 Gya)

Stenian (1-1.2 Gya) Ectasian (1.2-1.4 Gya) Calymmian (1.4-1.6 Gya)

Paleoproterozoic era (1.6–2.5 Gya)

Statherian (1.6-1.8 Gya) Orosirian
Orosirian
(1.8-2.05 Gya) Rhyacian (2.05-2.3 Gya) Siderian
Siderian
(2.3-2.5 Gya)

Archean
Archean
eon² (2.5–4 Gya)

Eras

Neoarchean (2.5–2.8 Gya) Mesoarchean (2.8–3.2 Gya) Paleoarchean
Paleoarchean
(3.2–3.6 Gya) Eoarchean
Eoarchean
(3.6–4 Gya)

Hadean
Hadean
eon² (4–4.6 Gya)

 

 

kya = thousands years ago. Mya = millions years ago. Gya = billions years ago.¹ = Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
eon. ² = Precambrian
Precambrian
supereon. Source: (2017/02). International Commission on Stratigraphy. Retrieved 13 July 2015. Divisions of Geologic Time—Major Chronostratigraphic and Geochronologic Units USGS Retrieved 10 March 2013.

v t e

Prehistoric technology

Prehistory

timeline outline Stone Age subdivisions New Stone Age

Technology

history

Tools

Farming

Neolithic
Neolithic
Revolution

founder crops New World crops

Ard / plough Celt Digging stick Domestication Goad Irrigation Secondary products Sickle Terracing

Food processing

Fire Basket Cooking

Earth
Earth
oven

Granaries Grinding slab Ground stone Hearth

Aşıklı Höyük Qesem Cave

Manos Metate Mortar and pestle Pottery Quern-stone Storage pit

Hunting

Arrow Boomerang

throwing stick

Bow and arrow

history

Nets Spear

Spear-thrower baton harpoon woomera Schöningen Spears

Projectile points

Arrowhead Bare Island Cascade Clovis Cresswell Cumberland Eden Folsom Lamoka Manis Site Plano Transverse arrowhead

Systems

Game drive system

Buffalo jump

Toolmaking

Earliest toolmaking

Oldowan Acheulean Mousterian

Clovis culture Cupstone Fire hardening Gravettian
Gravettian
culture Hafting Hand axe

Grooves

Langdale axe industry Levallois technique Lithic core Lithic reduction

analysis debitage flake

Lithic technology Magdalenian
Magdalenian
culture Metallurgy Microblade technology Mining Prepared-core technique Solutrean
Solutrean
industry Striking platform Tool stone Uniface Yubetsu technique

Other tools

Adze Awl

bone

Axe Bannerstone Blade

prismatic

Bone tool Bow drill Burin Canoe

Oar Pesse canoe

Chopper

tool

Cleaver Denticulate tool Fire plough Fire-saw Hammerstone Knife Microlith Quern-stone Racloir Rope Scraper

side

Stone tool Tally stick Weapons Wheel

illustration

Architecture

Ceremonial

Göbekli Tepe Kiva Standing stones

megalith row Stonehenge

Pyramid

Dwellings

Neolithic
Neolithic
architecture British megalith architecture Nordic megalith architecture Burdei Cave Cliff dwelling Dugout Hut

Quiggly hole

Jacal Longhouse Mud brick

Mehrgarh

Neolithic
Neolithic
long house Pit-house Pueblitos Pueblo Rock shelter

Blombos Cave Abri de la Madeleine Sibudu Cave

Stone roof Roundhouse Stilt house

Alp pile dwellings

Wattle and daub

Water management

Check dam Cistern Flush toilet Reservoir Water well

Other architecture

Archaeological features Broch Burnt mound

fulacht fiadh

Causewayed enclosure

Tor enclosure

Circular enclosure

Goseck

Cursus Henge

Thornborough

Oldest buildings Megalithic architectural elements Midden Timber circle Timber trackway

Sweet Track

Arts and culture

Material goods

Baskets Beadwork Beds Chalcolithic Clothing/textiles

timeline

Cosmetics Glue Hides

shoes Ötzi

Jewelry

amber use

Mirrors Pottery

Cardium Grooved ware Linear Jōmon Unstan ware

Sewing needle Weaving Wine

Winery wine press

PrehistArt

Art of the Upper Paleolithic Art of the Middle Paleolithic

Blombos Cave

List of Stone Age
Stone Age
art Bird stone Bradshaw rock paintings Cairn Carved Stone Balls Cave
Cave
paintings

painting pigment

Cup and ring mark Geoglyph Golden hats Guardian stones Megalithic art Petroform Petroglyph Petrosomatoglyph Pictogram Rock art

Stone carving

Sculpture Statue menhir Stone circle

list British Isles and Brittany

Venus figurines

Burial

Burial mounds

Bowl barrow Round barrow

Mound Builders
Mound Builders
culture

U.S. sites

Chamber tomb

Severn-Cotswold

Cist

Dartmoor kistvaens

Clava cairn Court tomb Cremation Dolmen

Great dolmen

Funeral pyre Gallery grave

transepted wedge-shaped

Grave goods Jar burial Long barrow

unchambered Grønsalen

Megalithic tomb Mummy Passage grave Rectangular dolmen Ring cairn Simple dolmen Stone box grave Tor cairn Tumulus Unchambered long cairn

Other cultural

Astronomy

sites lunar calendar

Behavioral modernity Origin of language

trepanning

Prehistoric medicine Evolutionary musicology

music archaeology

Prehistoric music

Alligator drum flutes Divje Babe flute gudi

Prehistoric numerals Origin of religion

Paleolithic religion Prehistoric religion Spiritual drug use

Prehistoric warfare Symbols

symbolism

Authority control

.