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Roman history has been among the most influential to the modern world, from supporting the tradition of the rule by law to influencing the American Founding Fathers to the creation of the Catholic church. Roman history can be divided into the following periods:

Pre-historical and early Rome, covering Rome's earliest inhabitants and the legend of its founding by Romulus. The period of Etruscan dominance and the Regal Period, in which according to tradition, Romulus
Romulus
was the first of seven kings. The Roman Republic, which commenced in 509 BC when kings were replaced with rule by elected senators. The period was marked by vast expansion of Roman territory. During the 5th century BC, Rome
Rome
gained regional dominance in Latium, and eventually the entire Italian peninsula by the 3rd century BC. With the Punic Wars
Punic Wars
from 264 to 146 BC, Rome gained dominance over the Western Mediterranean, displacing Carthage as the dominant regional power. The Roman Empire: With the rise of Julius Caesar, the Republic waned and by all measures, concluded after a period of civil war and the victory of Octavian, the adopted son of Caesar in 27 BC over Mark Antony. After the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, Rome
Rome
managed to hang onto the empire, still known as the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
but long centered on the eastern Mediterranean, until the 8th century as the Duchy of Rome. At this time, the city was reduced to a fraction of its former size, being sacked several times in the 5th to 6th centuries, in 546 even temporarily depopulated entirely.[1] Medieval
Medieval
Rome: Characterized by a break with Byzantium and the formation of the Papal States. The Papacy struggled to retain influence in the emerging Holy Roman Empire, and during the Saeculum obscurum, the population of Rome
Rome
fell to as low as 30,000 inhabitants. Following the East–West Schism
East–West Schism
and the limited success in the Investiture Controversy, the Papacy did gain considerable influence in high medieval Europe, but with the Avignon Papacy
Avignon Papacy
and the Western Schism, the city of Rome
Rome
was reduced to irrelevance, its population falling below 20,000. Rome's decline into complete irrelevance during the medieval period, with the associated lack of construction activity, assured the survival of very significant ancient Roman material remains in the centre of the city, some abandoned and others continuing in use. The Roman Renaissance: In the 15th century, Rome
Rome
replaced Florence
Florence
as the symbol of artistic and cultural influence. The Roman Renaissance was cut short abruptly with the devastation of the city in 1527, but the Papacy reasserted itself in the Counter-Reformation, and the city continued to flourish during the early modern period. Rome
Rome
was annexed by Napoleon and was technically part of France
France
during 1798–1814. Modern History: The period from the 19th century to today. Rome
Rome
was under siege by the Allied invasion of Italy
Allied invasion of Italy
and was bombed several times. It was declared an open city on 14 August 1943. Rome
Rome
became the capital of the Italian Republic (established in 1946), with a population of 4.4 million in its metropolitan area (as of 2015[update]; 2.9 million within city limits)—is the largest city in Italy. It is among the largest urban areas of the European Union[2] and classified as a "global city".[3]

Contents

1 Ancient Rome

1.1 Earliest history

1.1.1 Legend
Legend
of Rome 1.1.2 City's formation 1.1.3 Italic context

1.2 Etruscan dominance 1.3 Roman Republic 1.4 Roman Empire

1.4.1 Early Empire 1.4.2 Crisis of the Third Century 1.4.3 Christianization 1.4.4 Germanic invasions and collapse of the Western Empire 1.4.5 Barbarian and Byzantine rule

2 Medieval
Medieval
Rome

2.1 Break with Byzantium and formation of the Papal States 2.2 Formation of the Holy Roman Empire 2.3 Roman Commune 2.4 Guelphs and Ghibellines 2.5 Boniface VIII and the Babylonian captivity 2.6 Cola di Rienzo
Cola di Rienzo
and the Pope's return to Rome 2.7 Western schism and conflict with Milan

3 Renaissance
Renaissance
Rome 4 Early modern history

4.1 Sack of Rome
Rome
(1527) 4.2 Counter-Reformation 4.3 Baroque
Baroque
period

5 Modern history

5.1 Italian unification 5.2 Kingdom of Italy 5.3 Capital of the Italian Republic

6 Historical city center 7 See also 8 References

8.1 Bibliography 8.2 Notes

9 Further reading

9.1 Imperial Rome 9.2 Medieval, Renaissance, Early Modern

Ancient Rome[edit] For more information, and the history of Rome
Rome
as a complete civilization, see Ancient Rome.

Rome
Rome
timeline

Roman Kingdom
Roman Kingdom
and Republic

753 BC According to legend, Romulus
Romulus
founds Rome.

753–509 BC Rule of the seven Kings of Rome.

509 BC Creation of the Republic.

390 BC The Gauls
Gauls
invade Rome. Rome
Rome
sacked.

264–146 BC Punic Wars.

146–44 BC Social and Civil Wars. Emergence of Marius, Sulla, Pompey
Pompey
and Caesar.

44 BC Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
assassinated.

Earliest history[edit] Further information: Founding of Rome There is archaeological evidence of human occupation of the Rome
Rome
area from at least 5,000 years, but the dense layer of much younger debris obscures Palaeolithic and Neolithic sites.[4] The evidence suggesting the city's ancient foundation is also obscured by the legend of Rome's beginning involving Romulus
Romulus
and Remus. The traditional date for the founding of Rome
Rome
is 21 April 753 BC, following Marcus Terentius Varro,[5] and the city and surrounding region of Latium
Latium
has continued to be inhabited with little interruption since around that time. Excavations made in 2014 have revealed a wall built long before the city's official founding year. Archaeologists uncovered a stone wall and pieces of pottery dating to the 9th century BC and the beginning of the 8th century BC, and there is evidence of people arriving on the Palatine hill
Palatine hill
as early as the 10th century BC.[6][7] The site of Sant'Omobono Area
Sant'Omobono Area
is crucial for understanding the related processes of monumentalization, urbanization, and state formation in Rome
Rome
in the late Archaic period. The Sant’Omobono temple site dates to 7th-6th century B.C., making these the oldest known temple remains in Rome.[8] Legend
Legend
of Rome[edit]

Capitoline Wolf
Capitoline Wolf
suckles the infant twins Romulus
Romulus
and Remus.

The origin of the city's name is thought to be that of the reputed founder and first ruler, the legendary Romulus.[9] It is said that Romulus
Romulus
and his twin brother Remus, apparent sons of the god Mars and descendants of the Trojan hero Aeneas, were suckled by a she-wolf after being abandoned, then decided to build a city. The brothers argued, Romulus
Romulus
killed Remus, and then named the city Rome
Rome
after himself. After founding and naming Rome
Rome
(as the story goes), he permitted men of all classes to come to Rome
Rome
as citizens, including slaves and freemen without distinction.[10] To provide his citizens with wives, Romulus
Romulus
invited the neighboring tribes to a festival in Rome
Rome
where he abducted the young women from amongst them (known as The Rape of the Sabine
Sabine
Women). After the ensuing war with the Sabines, Romulus
Romulus
shared the kingship with Sabine
Sabine
King Titus Tatius.[11] Romulus selected 100 of the most noble men to form the Roman senate
Roman senate
as an advisory council to the king. These men he called patres, and their descendants became the patricians. He created three centuries of equites: Ramnes (meaning Romans), Tities (after the Sabine
Sabine
king), and Luceres (Etruscans). He also divided the general populace into thirty curiae, named after thirty of the Sabine
Sabine
women who had intervened to end the war between Romulus
Romulus
and Tatius. The curiae formed the voting units in the Comitia Curiata.[12] Attempts have been made to find a linguistic root for the name Rome. Possibilities include derivation from the Greek Ῥώμη, meaning bravery, courage;[13] possibly the connection is with a root *rum-, "teat", with a theoretical reference to the totem wolf that adopted and suckled the cognately-named twins. The Etruscan name of the city seems to have been Ruma.[14] Compare also Rumon, former name of the Tiber
Tiber
River. Its further etymology remains unknown, as with most Etruscan words. Thomas G. Tucker's Concise Etymological Dictionary of Latin
Latin
(1931) suggests that the name is most probably from *urobsma (cf. urbs, robur) and otherwise, "but less likely" from *urosma "hill" (cf. Skt. varsman- "height, point," Old Slavonic врьхъ "top, summit", Russ. верх "top; upward direction", Lith. virsus "upper"). City's formation[edit] Rome
Rome
grew from pastoral settlements on the Palatine Hill
Palatine Hill
and surrounding hills approximately 30 km (19 mi) from the Tyrrhenian Sea
Tyrrhenian Sea
on the south side of the Tiber. The Quirinal Hill
Quirinal Hill
was probably an outpost for the Sabines, another Italic-speaking people. At this location, the Tiber
Tiber
forms a Z-shaped curve that contains an island where the river can be forded. Because of the river and the ford, Rome
Rome
was at a crossroads of traffic following the river valley and of traders traveling north and south on the west side of the peninsula. Archaeological finds have confirmed that there were two fortified settlements in the 8th century BC, in the area of the future Rome: Rumi on the Palatine Hill, and Titientes on the Quirinal Hill, backed by the Luceres living in the nearby woods.[15] These were simply three of numerous Italic-speaking communities that existed in Latium, a plain on the Italian peninsula, by the 1st millennium BC. The origins of the Italic peoples lie in prehistory and are therefore not precisely known, but their Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
migrated from the east in the second half of the 2nd millennium BC. According to Dionysius of Halicarnassus, many Roman historians (including Porcius Cato and Gaius Sempronius) regarded the origins of the Romans (descendants of the Aborigines) as Greek despite the fact that their knowledge was derived from Greek legendary accounts.[16] The Sabines, specifically, were first mentioned in Dionysius's account for having captured the city of Lista by surprise, which was regarded as the mother-city of the Aborigines.[17] Italic context[edit]

The Etruscan Tomb of the Whipping

The Italic speakers in the area included Latins
Latins
(in the west), Sabines (in the upper valley of the Tiber), Umbrians (in the north-east), Samnites (in the South), Oscans, and others. In the 8th century BC, they shared the peninsula with two other major ethnic groups: the Etruscans
Etruscans
in the North and the Greeks
Greeks
in the south. The Etruscans
Etruscans
(Etrusci or Tusci in Latin) were settled north of Rome in Etruria
Etruria
(modern northern Lazio, Tuscany
Tuscany
and part of Umbria). They founded cities such as Tarquinia, Veii, and Volterra
Volterra
and deeply influenced Roman culture, as clearly shown by the Etruscan origin of some of the mythical Roman kings. The origins of the Etruscans
Etruscans
are lost in prehistory. Historians have no literature, no texts of religion or philosophy; therefore, much of what is known about this civilisation is derived from grave goods and tomb findings.[18] The behaviour of the Etruscans
Etruscans
has led to some confusion. Like Latin, Etruscan is inflected and Hellenised. Like the Indo-Europeans, the Etruscans
Etruscans
were patrilineal and patriarchal. Like the Italics, they were war-like. The gladiatorial displays actually developed out of Etruscan funerary customs. Future studies of Etruscan and more excavations in the region will no doubt shed more light on the origin of Rome
Rome
and the Romans.[19][20] The Greeks
Greeks
had founded many colonies in Southern Italy
Italy
between 750 and 550 BC (which the Romans later called Magna Graecia), such as Cumae, Naples, Reggio Calabria, Crotone, Sybaris, and Taranto, as well as in the eastern two-thirds of Sicily.[21][22] Etruscan dominance[edit] Further information: Roman Kingdom

Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus
Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus
526–509 BC[23]

The Servian Wall
Servian Wall
takes its name from king Servius Tullius
Servius Tullius
and are the first true walls of Rome

After 650 BC, the Etruscans
Etruscans
became dominant in Italy
Italy
and expanded into north-central Italy. Roman tradition claimed that Rome
Rome
had been under the control of seven kings from 753 to 509 BC beginning with the mythical Romulus
Romulus
who was said to have founded the city of Rome
Rome
along with his brother Remus. The last three kings were said to be Etruscan (at least partially)—namely Tarquinius Priscus, Servius Tullius and Tarquinius Superbus. (Priscus is said by the ancient literary sources to be the son of a Greek refugee and an Etruscan mother.) Their names refer to the Etruscan town of Tarquinia. This traditional account of Roman history has come down to us through Livy, Plutarch, Dionysius of Halicarnassus, and others. It claims that Rome
Rome
was ruled during its first centuries by a succession of seven kings. The traditional chronology, as codified by Varro, allots 243 years for their reigns, an average of almost 35 years, which has been generally discounted by modern scholarship since the work of Barthold Georg Niebuhr. The Gauls
Gauls
destroyed much of Rome's historical records when they sacked the city after the Battle of the Allia in 390 BC (according to Polybius, the battle occurred in 387/6) and what was left was eventually lost to time or theft. With no contemporary records of the kingdom existing, all accounts of the kings must be carefully questioned.[24] The list of kings is also of dubious historical value, though the last-named kings may be historical figures. It is believed by some historians (again, this is disputed) that Rome
Rome
was under the influence of the Etruscans
Etruscans
for about a century. During this period, a bridge was built called the Pons Sublicius to replace the Tiber
Tiber
ford, and the Cloaca Maxima
Cloaca Maxima
was also built; the Etruscans
Etruscans
are said to have been great engineers of this type of structure. From a cultural and technical point of view, Etruscans
Etruscans
had arguably the second-greatest impact on Roman development, only surpassed by the Greeks. Expanding further south, the Etruscans
Etruscans
came into direct contact with the Greeks
Greeks
and initially had success in conflicts with the Greek colonists; after which, Etruria
Etruria
went into a decline. Taking advantage of this, Rome
Rome
rebelled and gained independence from the Etruscans around 500 BC. It also abandoned monarchy in favour of a republican system based on a Senate, composed of the nobles of the city, along with popular assemblies which ensured political participation for most of the freeborn men and elected magistrates annually. The Etruscans
Etruscans
left a lasting influence on Rome. The Romans learned to build temples from them, and the Etruscans
Etruscans
may have introduced the worship of a triad of gods — Juno, Minerva, and Jupiter — from the Etruscan gods: Uni, Menrva, and Tinia. However, the influence of Etruscan people in the development of Rome is often overstated.[25] Rome
Rome
was primarily a Latin
Latin
city. It never became fully Etruscan. Also, evidence shows that Romans were heavily influenced by the Greek cities in the South, mainly through trade.[26] Roman Republic[edit] Further information: Overthrow of the Roman monarchy, Roman Republic, and Crisis of the Roman Republic

Forum Romanum

The Roman Republic
Roman Republic
traditionally dates from 509 BC to 27 BC. After 500 BC, Rome
Rome
joined with the Latin
Latin
cities in defence against incursions by the Sabines. Winning the Battle of Lake Regillus
Battle of Lake Regillus
in 493 BC, Rome
Rome
established again the supremacy over the Latin countries it had lost after the fall of the monarchy. After a lengthy series of struggles, this supremacy became fixed in 393, when the Romans finally subdued the Volsci
Volsci
and Aequi. In 394 BC, they also conquered the menacing Etruscan neighbour of Veii. The Etruscan power was now limited to Etruria
Etruria
itself, and Rome
Rome
was the dominant city in Latium. Also a formal treaty with the city of Carthage
Carthage
is reported to have been made in the end of the 6th century BC, which defined the spheres of influence of each city and regulated the trade between them.

Chart Showing the Checks and Balances of the Roman Constitution.

At the same time, Heraclides states that 4th-century Rome
Rome
is a Greek city.[27] Rome's early enemies were the neighbouring hill tribes of the Volscians, the Aequi, and of course the Etruscans. As years passed and military successes increased Roman territory, new adversaries appeared. The fiercest were the Gauls, a loose collective of peoples who controlled much of Northern Europe including what is modern North and Central-East Italy. In 387 BC, Rome
Rome
was sacked and burned by the Senones
Senones
coming from eastern Italy
Italy
and led by Brennus, who had successfully defeated the Roman army at the Battle of the Allia
Battle of the Allia
in Etruria. Multiple contemporary records suggest that the Senones
Senones
hoped to punish Rome
Rome
for violating its diplomatic neutrality in Etruria. The Senones
Senones
marched 130 kilometres (81 mi) to Rome
Rome
without harming the surrounding countryside; once sacked, the Senones
Senones
withdrew from Rome.[28] Brennus was defeated by the dictator Furius Camillus at Tusculum
Tusculum
soon afterwards.[29][30] After that, Rome
Rome
hastily rebuilt its buildings and went on the offensive, conquering the Etruscans
Etruscans
and seizing territory from the Gauls
Gauls
in the north. After 345 BC, Rome
Rome
pushed south against other Latins. Their main enemy in this quadrant were the fierce Samnites, who outsmarted and trapped the legions in 321 BC at the Battle of Caudine Forks. In spite of these and other temporary setbacks, the Romans advanced steadily. By 290 BC, Rome
Rome
controlled over half of the Italian peninsula. In the 3rd century BC, Rome
Rome
brought the Greek poleis in the south under its control as well.[31]

Map showing Roman expansion in Italy.

Amidst the never ending wars (from the beginning of the Republic up to the Principate, the doors of the temple of Janus
Janus
were closed only twice – when they were open it meant that Rome
Rome
was at war), Rome
Rome
had to face a severe major social crisis, the Conflict of the Orders, a political struggle between the Plebeians (commoners) and Patricians (aristocrats) of the ancient Roman Republic, in which the Plebeians sought political equality with the Patricians. It played a major role in the development of the Constitution of the Roman Republic. It began in 494 BC, when, while Rome
Rome
was at war with two neighboring tribes, the Plebeians all left the city (the first Plebeian Secession). The result of this first secession was the creation of the office of Plebeian Tribune, and with it the first acquisition of real power by the Plebeians.[32]

Map of the centre of Rome
Rome
during the time of the Roman Empire

According to tradition, Rome
Rome
became a republic in 509 BC. However, it took a few centuries for Rome
Rome
to become the great city of popular imagination. By the 3rd century BC, Rome
Rome
had become the pre-eminent city of the Italian peninsula. During the Punic Wars between Rome
Rome
and the great Mediterranean empire of Carthage
Carthage
(264 to 146 BC), Rome's stature increased further as it became the capital of an overseas empire for the first time. Beginning in the 2nd century BC, Rome
Rome
went through a significant population expansion as Italian farmers, driven from their ancestral farmlands by the advent of massive, slave-operated farms called latifundia, flocked to the city in great numbers. The victory over Carthage
Carthage
in the First Punic War brought the first two provinces outside the Italian peninsula, Sicily
Sicily
and Sardinia.[33] Parts of Spain
Spain
(Hispania) followed, and in the beginning of the 2nd century the Romans got involved in the affairs of the Greek world. By then all Hellenistic kingdoms and the Greek city-states were in decline, exhausted from endless civil wars and relying on mercenary troops. The Romans looked upon the Greek civilisation with great admiration. The Greeks
Greeks
saw Rome
Rome
as a useful ally in their civil strifes, and it wasn't long before the Roman legions were invited to intervene in Greece. In less than 50 years the whole of mainland Greece was subdued. The Roman legions crushed the Macedonian phalanx twice, in 197 and 168 BC; in 146 BC the Roman consul Lucius Mummius razed Corinth, marking the end of free Greece. The same year Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus, the son of Scipio Africanus, destroyed the city of Carthage, making it a Roman province. In the following years, Rome
Rome
continued its conquests in Spain
Spain
with Tiberius Gracchus, and it set foot in Asia, when the last king of Pergamum
Pergamum
gave his kingdom to the Roman people. The end of the 2nd century brought another threat, when a great host of Germanic peoples, namely Cimbri
Cimbri
and Teutones, crossed the river Rhone and moved to Italy. Gaius Marius
Gaius Marius
was consul five consecutive times (seven total), and won two decisive battles in 102 and 101 BC He also reformed the Roman army, giving it such a good reorganization that it remained unchanged for centuries. The first thirty years of the last century BC were characterised by serious internal problems that threatened the existence of the Republic. The Social War, between Rome
Rome
and its allies, and the Servile Wars (slave uprisings) were hard conflicts,[34] all within Italy, and forced the Romans to change their policy with regards to their allies and subjects.[35] By then Rome
Rome
had become an extensive power, with great wealth which derived from the conquered people (as tribute, food or manpower, i.e. slaves). The allies of Rome
Rome
felt bitter since they had fought by the side of the Romans, and yet they were not citizens and shared little in the rewards. Although they lost the war, they finally got what they asked, and by the beginning of the 1st century AD practically all free inhabitants of Italy
Italy
were Roman citizens. However, the growth of the Imperium Romanum (Roman power) created new problems, and new demands, that the old political system of the Republic, with its annually elected magistrates and its sharing of power, could not solve. The dictatorship of Sulla, the extraordinary commands of Pompey
Pompey
Magnus, and the first triumvirate made that clear. In January 49 BC, Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
the conqueror of Gaul, marched his legions against Rome. In the following years, he vanquished his opponents, and ruled Rome
Rome
for four years. After his assassination in 44 BC, the Senate tried to reestablish the Republic, but its champions, Marcus Junius Brutus (descendant of the founder of the republic) and Gaius Cassius Longinus
Gaius Cassius Longinus
were defeated by Caesar's lieutenant Marcus Antonius and Caesar's nephew, Octavian. The years 44–31 BC mark the struggle for power between Marcus Antonius and Octavian
Octavian
(later known as Augustus). Finally, on 2 September 31 BC, in the Greek promontory of Actium, the final battle took place in the sea. Octavian
Octavian
was victorious, and became the sole ruler of Rome
Rome
(and its empire). That date marks the end of the Republic and the beginning of the Principate.[36][37] Roman Empire[edit] Further information: Roman Empire

Rome
Rome
Timeline

Roman Empire

44 BC – AD 14 Augustus
Augustus
establishes the Empire.

AD 64 Great Fire of Rome
Great Fire of Rome
during Nero's rule.

69–96 Flavian Dynasty. Building of the Colosseum.

3rd century Crisis of the Roman Empire. Building of the Baths of Caracalla
Baths of Caracalla
and the Aurelian
Aurelian
Walls.

284–337 Diocletian
Diocletian
and Constantine. Building of the first Christian basilicas. Battle of Milvian Bridge. Rome
Rome
is replaced by Constantinople
Constantinople
as the capital of the Empire.

395 Definitive separation of Western and Eastern Roman Empire.

410 The Goths
Goths
of Alaric sack Rome.

455 The Vandals
Vandals
of Gaiseric sack Rome.

476 Fall of the west empire and deposition of the final emperor Romulus Augustus.

6th century Gothic War (535–554). The Goths
Goths
cut off the aqueducts in the siege of 537, an act which historians traditionally regard as the beginning of the Middle Ages in Italy[38]

608 Emperor Phocas
Phocas
donates the Pantheon to Pope
Pope
Boniface IV, converting it into a Christian church. Column of Phocas
Phocas
(the last addition made to the Forum Romanum) is erected.

630 The Curia
Curia
Julia (vacant since the disappearance of the Roman Senate) is transformed into the basilica of Sant'Adriano al Foro.

663 Constans II
Constans II
visits Rome
Rome
for twelve days—the only emperor to set foot in Rome
Rome
for two centuries. He strips buildings of their ornaments and bronze to be carried back to Constantinople.

751 Lombard conquest of the Exarchate of Ravenna, the Duchy of Rome
Duchy of Rome
is now completely cut off from the empire.

754 Alliance with the Franks, Pepin the Younger, declared Patrician of the Romans, invades Italy. Establishment of the Papal States.

Early Empire[edit] By the end of the Republic, the city of Rome
Rome
had achieved a grandeur befitting the capital of an empire dominating the whole of the Mediterranean. It was, at the time, the largest city in the world. Estimates of its peak population range from 450,000 to over 3.5 million people with estimates of 1 to 2 million being most popular with historians.[39] This grandeur increased under Augustus, who completed Caesar's projects and added many of his own, such as the Forum of Augustus
Augustus
and the Ara Pacis. He is said to have remarked that he found Rome
Rome
a city of brick and left it a city of marble (Urbem latericium invenit, marmoream reliquit). Augustus's successors sought to emulate his success in part by adding their own contributions to the city. In AD 64, during the reign of Nero, the Great Fire of Rome
Great Fire of Rome
left much of the city destroyed, but in many ways it was used as an excuse for new development.[40][41] Rome
Rome
was a subsidised city at the time, with roughly 15 to 25 percent of its grain supply being paid by the central government. Commerce and industry played a smaller role compared to that of other cities like Alexandria. This meant that Rome
Rome
had to depend upon goods and production from other parts of the Empire to sustain such a large population. This was mostly paid by taxes that were levied by the Roman government. If it had not been subsidised, Rome
Rome
would have been significantly smaller.[42]

The Arch of Gallienus
Gallienus
is one of the few monuments of ancient Rome
Rome
from the 3rd century, and was a gate in the Servian Wall. Two side gates were destroyed in 1447.

Rome's population declined after its peak in the 2nd century. At the end of that century, during the reign of Marcus Aurelius, the Antonine Plague killed 2,000 people a day.[43] Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius
died in 180, his reign being the last of the "Five Good Emperors" and Pax Romana. His son Commodus, who had been co-emperor since AD 177, assumed full imperial power, which is most generally associated with the gradual decline of the Western Roman Empire. Rome's population was only a fraction of its peak when the Aurelian
Aurelian
Wall was completed in the year 273 (in that year its population was only around 500,000). Crisis of the Third Century[edit] Starting in the early 3rd century, matters changed. The "Crisis of the third century" defines the disasters and political troubles for the Empire, which nearly collapsed. The new feeling of danger and the menace of barbarian invasions was clearly shown by the decision of Emperor Aurelian, who at year 273 finished encircling the capital itself with a massive wall which had a perimeter that measured close to 20 km (12 mi). Rome
Rome
formally remained capital of the empire, but emperors spent less and less time there. At the end of 3rd century Diocletian's political reforms, Rome
Rome
was deprived of its traditional role of administrative capital of the Empire. Later, western emperors ruled from Milan
Milan
or Ravenna, or cities in Gaul. In 330, Constantine I
Constantine I
established a second capital at Constantinople. At this time, part of the Roman aristocratic class moved to this new centre, followed by many of the artists and craftsmen who were living in the city. Christianization[edit] Further information: Early Christianity, Decline of Greco-Roman polytheism, Constantinian shift, and State church of the Roman Empire Christianity
Christianity
reached Rome
Rome
during the 1st century AD. For the first two centuries of the Christian era, Imperial authorities largely viewed Christianity
Christianity
simply as a Jewish sect rather than a distinct religion. No emperor issued general laws against the faith or its Church, and persecutions, such as they were, were carried out under the authority of local government officials.[44] A surviving letter from Pliny the Younger, governor of Bythinia, to the emperor Trajan
Trajan
describes his persecution and executions of Christians; Trajan
Trajan
notably responded that Pliny should not seek out Christians nor heed anonymous denunciations, but only punish open Christians who refused to recant.[45] Suetonius
Suetonius
mentions in passing that during the reign of Nero "punishment was inflicted on the Christians, a class of men given to a new and mischievous superstition" (superstitionis novae ac maleficae).[46] He gives no reason for the punishment. Tacitus
Tacitus
reports that after the Great Fire of Rome
Great Fire of Rome
in AD 64, some among the population held Nero
Nero
responsible and that the emperor attempted to deflect blame onto the Christians.[47] The war against the Jews during Nero's reign, which so destabilised the empire that it led to civil war and Nero's suicide, provided an additional rationale for suppression of this 'Jewish' sect. Diocletian
Diocletian
undertook what was to be the most severe and last major persecution of Christians, lasting from 303 to 311. Christianity
Christianity
had become too widespread to suppress, and in 313, the Edict of Milan
Milan
made tolerance the official policy. Constantine I (sole ruler 324–337) became the first Christian emperor, and in 380 Theodosius I established Christianity
Christianity
as the official religion. Under Theodosius, visits to the pagan temples were forbidden,[48] the eternal fire in the Temple of Vesta in the Roman Forum
Roman Forum
extinguished, the Vestal Virgins
Vestal Virgins
disbanded, auspices and witchcrafting punished. Theodosius refused to restore the Altar of Victory
Altar of Victory
in the Senate House, as asked by remaining pagan Senators. The Empire's conversion to Christianity
Christianity
made the Bishop of Rome
Rome
(later called the Pope) the senior religious figure in the Western Empire, as officially stated in 380 by the Edict of Thessalonica. In spite of its increasingly marginal role in the Empire, Rome
Rome
retained its historic prestige, and this period saw the last wave of construction activity: Constantine's predecessor Maxentius
Maxentius
built buildings such as its basilica in the Forum, Constantine himself erected the Arch of Constantine to celebrate his victory over the former, and Diocletian built the greatest baths of all. Constantine was also the first patron of official Christian buildings in the city. He donated the Lateran Palace to the Pope, and built the first great basilica, the old St. Peter's Basilica. Germanic invasions and collapse of the Western Empire[edit]

The ancient basilica of St. Lawrence outside the walls was built directly over the tomb of the people's favourite Roman martyr

Still Rome
Rome
remained one of the strongholds of Paganism, led by the aristocrats and senators. However, the new walls did not stop the city being sacked first by Alaric on 24 August, 410, by Geiseric in 455 and even by general Ricimer's unpaid Roman troops (largely composed of barbarians) on 11 July, 472.[49][50] This was the first time in almost 800 years that Rome
Rome
had fallen to an enemy. The previous sack of Rome
Rome
had been accomplished by the Gauls
Gauls
under their leader Brennus in 387 BC. The sacking of 410 is seen as a major landmark in the decline and fall of the Western Roman Empire. St. Jerome, living in Bethlehem at the time, wrote that "The City which had taken the whole world was itself taken."[51] These sackings of the city astonished all the Roman world. In any case, the damage caused by the sackings may have been overestimated. The population already started to decline from the late 4th century onward, although around the middle of the fifth century it seems that Rome
Rome
continued to be the most populous city of the two parts of the Empire, with a population of not less than 650,000 inhabitants.[52] The decline greatly accelerated following the capture of Africa Proconsularis
Africa Proconsularis
by the Vandals. Many inhabitants now fled as the city no longer could be supplied with grain from Africa from the mid-5th century onward. At the beginning of the 6th century Rome's population may have been less than 100,000. Many monuments were being destroyed by the citizens themselves, who stripped stones from closed temples and other precious buildings, and even burned statues to make lime for their personal use. In addition, most of the increasing number of churches were built in this way. For example, the first Saint Peter's Basilica
Saint Peter's Basilica
was erected using spoils from the abandoned Circus of Nero.[53] This "self-eating" attitude was a constant feature of Rome
Rome
until the Renaissance. From the 4th century, imperial edicts against stripping of stones and especially marble were common, but the need for their repetition shows that they were ineffective. Sometimes new churches were created by simply taking advantage of early Pagan temples, while sometimes changing the Pagan god or hero to a corresponding Christian saint or martyr. In this way, the Temple of Romulus and Remus
Romulus and Remus
became the basilica of the twin saints Cosmas and Damian. Later, the Pantheon, Temple of All Gods, became the church of All Martyrs. Barbarian and Byzantine rule[edit] Further information: Ostrogothic Kingdom, Duchy of Rome, and Sack of Rome
Rome
(546)

During the Gothic Wars of the mid-6th century, Rome
Rome
was besieged several times by Byzantine and Ostrogoth armies

South east view of the Pantheon

The Column of Phocas, last imperial monument in the Roman Forum.

In 480, the last Western Roman emperor, Julius Nepos, was murdered and a Roman general of barbarian origin, Odoacer, declared allegiance to Eastern Roman emperor Zeno.[54] Despite owing nominal allegiance to Constantinople, Odoacer
Odoacer
and later the Ostrogoths
Ostrogoths
continued, like the last emperors, to rule Italy
Italy
as a virtually independent realm from Ravenna. Meanwhile, the Senate, even though long since stripped of wider powers, continued to administer Rome
Rome
itself, with the Pope usually coming from a senatorial family. This situation continued until Theodahad
Theodahad
murdered Amalasuntha, a pro-imperial Gothic queen, and usurped the power in 535. The Eastern Roman emperor, Justinian I (reigned 527–565), used this as a pretext to send forces to Italy under his famed general Belisarius, recapturing the city next year. The Byzantines successfully defended the city in a year-long siege, and eventually took Ravenna.[54] Gothic resistance revived however, and on 17 December, 546, the Ostrogoths
Ostrogoths
under Totila
Totila
recaptured and sacked Rome.[55] Belisarius soon recovered the city, but the Ostrogoths
Ostrogoths
retook it in 549. Belisarius
Belisarius
was replaced by Narses, who captured Rome
Rome
from the Ostrogoths
Ostrogoths
for good in 552, ending the so-called Gothic Wars which had devastated much of Italy. The continual war around Rome
Rome
in the 530s and 540s left it in a state of total disrepair — near-abandoned and desolate with much of its lower-lying parts turned into unhealthy marshes as the drainage systems were neglected and the Tiber's embankments fell into disrepair in the course of the latter half of the 6th century.[56] Here, malaria developed. The aqueducts were never repaired, leading to a shrinking population of less than 50,000 concentrated near the Tiber
Tiber
and around the Campus Martius, abandoning those districts without water supply. There is a legend, significant though untrue, that there was a moment where no one remained living in Rome.[citation needed] Justinian I
Justinian I
tried to grant Rome
Rome
subsidies for the maintenance of public buildings, aqueducts and bridges — though, being mostly drawn from an Italy
Italy
dramatically impoverished by the recent wars, these were not always sufficient. He also styled himself the patron of its remaining scholars, orators, physicians and lawyers in the stated hope that eventually more youths would seek a better education. After the wars, the Senate was theoretically restored, but under the supervision of the urban prefect and other officials appointed by, and responsible to, the Byzantine authorities in Ravenna. However, the Pope
Pope
was now one of the leading religious figures in the entire Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
and effectively more powerful locally than either the remaining senators or local Byzantine officials. In practice, local power in Rome
Rome
devolved to the Pope
Pope
and, over the next few decades, both much of the remaining possessions of the senatorial aristocracy and the local Byzantine administration in Rome
Rome
were absorbed by the Church. The reign of Justinian's nephew and successor Justin II
Justin II
(reigned 565–578) was marked from the Italian point of view by the invasion of the Lombards
Lombards
under Alboin
Alboin
(568). In capturing the regions of Benevento, Lombardy, Piedmont, Spoleto
Spoleto
and Tuscany, the invaders effectively restricted Imperial authority to small islands of land surrounding a number of coastal cities, including Ravenna, Naples, Rome
Rome
and the area of the future Venice. The one inland city continuing under Byzantine control was Perugia, which provided a repeatedly threatened overland link between Rome
Rome
and Ravenna. In 578 and again in 580, the Senate, in some of its last recorded acts, had to ask for the support of Tiberius II Constantine
Tiberius II Constantine
(reigned 578–582) against the approaching Dukes, Faroald I of Spoleto
Spoleto
and Zotto of Benevento. Maurice (reigned 582–602) added a new factor in the continuing conflict by creating an alliance with Childebert II
Childebert II
of Austrasia (reigned 575–595). The armies of the Frankish King invaded the Lombard territories in 584, 585, 588 and 590. Rome
Rome
had suffered badly from a disastrous flood of the Tiber
Tiber
in 589, followed by a plague in 590. The latter is notable for the legend of the angel seen, while the newly elected Pope
Pope
Gregory I (term 590–604) was passing in procession by Hadrian's Tomb, to hover over the building and to sheathe his flaming sword as a sign that the pestilence was about to cease. The city was safe from capture at least. Agilulf, however, the new Lombard King (reigned 591 to c. 616), managed to secure peace with Childebert, reorganised his territories and resumed activities against both Naples
Naples
and Rome
Rome
by 592. With the Emperor preoccupied with wars in the eastern borders and the various succeeding Exarchs unable to secure Rome
Rome
from invasion, Gregory took personal initiative in starting negotiations for a peace treaty. This was completed in the autumn of 598—later recognised by Maurice—lasting until the end of his reign. The position of the Bishop of Rome
Rome
was further strengthened under the usurper Phocas
Phocas
(reigned 602–610). Phocas
Phocas
recognised his primacy over that of the Patriarch of Constantinople
Constantinople
and even decreed Pope
Pope
Boniface III (607) to be "the head of all the Churches". Phocas's reign saw the erection of the last imperial monument in the Roman Forum, the column bearing his name. He also gave the Pope
Pope
the Pantheon, at the time closed for centuries, and thus probably saved it from destruction. During the 7th century, an influx of both Byzantine officials and churchmen from elsewhere in the empire made both the local lay aristocracy and Church leadership largely Greek speaking. However, the strong Byzantine cultural influence did not always lead to political harmony between Rome
Rome
and Constantinople. In the controversy over Monothelitism, popes found themselves under severe pressure (sometimes amounting to physical force) when they failed to keep in step with Constantinople's shifting theological positions. In 653, Pope
Pope
Martin I was deported to Constantinople
Constantinople
and, after a show trial, exiled to the Crimea, where he died.[57][58] Then, in 663, Rome
Rome
had its first imperial visit for two centuries, by Constans II—its worst disaster since the Gothic Wars when the Emperor proceeded to strip Rome
Rome
of metal, including that from buildings and statues, to provide armament materials for use against the Saracens. However, for the next half century, despite further tensions, Rome
Rome
and the Papacy continued to prefer continued Byzantine rule—in part because the alternative was Lombard rule, and in part because Rome's food was largely coming from Papal estates elsewhere in the Empire, particularly Sicily. Medieval
Medieval
Rome[edit]

Rome
Rome
Timeline

Medieval
Medieval
Rome

772 The Lombards
Lombards
briefly conquer Rome
Rome
but Charlemagne
Charlemagne
liberates the city a year later.

800 Charlemagne
Charlemagne
is crowned Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
in St. Peter's Basilica.

846 The Saracens sack St. Peter.

852 Building of the Leonine Walls.

962 Otto I
Otto I
crowned Emperor by Pope
Pope
John XII

1000 Emperor Otto III and Pope
Pope
Sylvester II.

1084 The Normans
Normans
sack Rome.

1144 Creation of the commune of Rome.

1300 First Jubilee proclaimed by Pope
Pope
Boniface VIII.

1303 Foundation of the Roman University.

1309 Pope
Pope
Clement V moves the Holy Seat to Avignon.

1347 Cola di Rienzo
Cola di Rienzo
proclaims himself tribune.

1377 Pope
Pope
Gregory XI
Gregory XI
moves the Holy Seat back to Rome.

Break with Byzantium and formation of the Papal States[edit] Further information: Duchy of Rome
Duchy of Rome
and Papal States In 727, Pope
Pope
Gregory II refused to accept the decrees of Emperor Leo III, which promoted the Emperor's iconoclasm.[59] Leo reacted first by trying in vain to abduct the Pontiff, and then by sending a force of Ravennate troops under the command of the Exarch
Exarch
Paulus, but they were pushed back by the Lombards
Lombards
of Tuscia and Benevento. Roman general Eutychius sent west by the Emperor successfully captured Rome
Rome
and restored it as a part of the empire in 728. On 1 November, 731, a council was called in St. Peter's by Gregory III to excommunicate the iconoclasts. The Emperor responded by confiscating large Papal estates in Sicily
Sicily
and Calabria
Calabria
and transferring areas previously ecclesiastically under the Pope
Pope
to the Patriarch of Constantinople. Despite the tensions Gregory III never discontinued his support to the imperial efforts against external threats. In this period the Lombard kingdom revived under the leadership of King Liutprand. In 730 he razed the countryside of Rome
Rome
to punish the Pope
Pope
who had supported the duke of Spoleto.[60] Though still protected by his massive walls, the pope could do little against the Lombard king, who managed to ally himself with the Byzantines.[61] Other protectors were now needed. Gregory III was the first Pope
Pope
to ask for concrete help from the Frankish Kingdom, then under the command of Charles Martel
Charles Martel
(739).[62] Liutprand's successor Aistulf
Aistulf
was even more aggressive. He conquered Ferrara
Ferrara
and Ravenna, ending the Exarchate of Ravenna. Rome
Rome
seemed his next victim. In 754, Pope
Pope
Stephen II went to France
France
to name Pippin the Younger, king of the Franks, as patricius romanorum, i.e. protector of Rome. In the August of that year the King and Pope
Pope
together crossed back the Alps and defeated Aistulf
Aistulf
at Pavia. When Pippin went back to St. Denis however, Aistulf
Aistulf
did not keep his promises, and in 756 besieged Rome
Rome
for 56 days. The Lombards
Lombards
returned north when they heard news of Pippin again moving to Italy. This time he agreed to give the Pope
Pope
the promised territories, and the Papal States
Papal States
were born. In 771 the new King of the Lombards, Desiderius, devised a plot to conquer Rome
Rome
and seize Pope
Pope
Stephen III during a feigned pilgrimage within its walls. His main ally was one Paulus Afiarta, chief of the Lombard party within the city. He conquered Rome
Rome
in 772 but angered Charlemagne. However the plan failed, and Stephens' successor, Pope Hadrian I called Charlemagne
Charlemagne
against Desiderius, who was finally defeated in 773.[63] The Lombard Kingdom was no more, and now Rome entered into the orbit of a new, greater political institution. Numerous remains from this period, along with a museum devoted to Medieval
Medieval
Rome, can be seen at Crypta Balbi in Rome. Formation of the Holy Roman Empire[edit] Further information: Papal States
Papal States
and Kingdom of Italy
Italy
(Holy Roman Empire)

A 13th-century fresco of Sylvester and Constantine, showing the Donation of Constantine, Santi Quattro Coronati, Rome

19th-century drawing of Old Saint Peter's Basilica
Old Saint Peter's Basilica
as it is thought to have looked around 1450 AD

From the Forum, the medieval and Renaissance
Renaissance
Senate House stands directly upon the Tabularium, ancient Rome's repository of archives.

On 25 April, 799 the new Pope, Leo III, led the traditional procession from the Lateran
Lateran
to the Church of San Lorenzo in Lucina
San Lorenzo in Lucina
along the Via Flaminia (now Via del Corso). Two nobles (followers of his predecessor Hadrian) who disliked the weakness of the Pope
Pope
with regards to Charlemagne, attacked the processional train and delivered a life-threatening wound to the Pope. Leo fled to the King of the Franks, and in November, 800, the King entered Rome
Rome
with a strong army and a number of French bishops. He declared a judicial trial to decide if Leo III were to remain Pope, or if the deposers' claims had reasons to be upheld. This trial, however, was only a part of a well thought out chain of events which ultimately surprised the world. The Pope
Pope
was declared legitimate and the attempters subsequently exiled. On 25 December, 800, Pope
Pope
Leo III crowned Charlemagne
Charlemagne
Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
in St. Peter's Basilica. This act forever severed the loyalty of Rome
Rome
from its imperial progeny, Constantinople. It created instead a rival empire which, after a long series of conquests by Charlemagne, now encompassed most of the Christian Western territories. Following the death of Charlemagne, the lack of a figure with equal prestige led the new institution into disagreement. At the same time the universal church of Rome
Rome
had to face emergence of the lay interests of the City itself, spurred on by the conviction that the Roman people, though impoverished and abased, had again the right to elect the Western Emperor. The famous counterfeit document called the Donation of Constantine, prepared by the Papal notaries, guaranteed to the Pope
Pope
a dominion[64][65] stretching from Ravenna
Ravenna
to Gaeta. This nominally included the suzerainty over Rome, but this was often highly disputed, and as the centuries passed, only the strongest Popes were to be able to assert it. The main element of weakness of the Papacy within the walls of the city was the continued necessity of the election of new popes, in which the emerging noble families soon managed to insert a leading role for themselves. The neighbouring powers, namely the Duchy of Spoleto
Spoleto
and Toscana, and later the Emperors, learned how to take their own advantage of this internal weakness, playing the role of arbiters among the contestants. Rome
Rome
was indeed prey of anarchy in this age. The lowest point was touched in 897, when a raging crowd exhumed the corpse of a dead pope, Formosus, and put it on trial.[66][67][68][69] Roman Commune[edit] See also: Commune of Rome
Rome
and 14 regions of Medieval
Medieval
Rome From 1048 to 1257, the papacy experienced increasing conflict with the leaders and churches of the Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and the Byzantine Empire. The latter culminated in the East-West Schism, dividing the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and Eastern Orthodox Church. From 1257 to 1377, the pope, though the bishop of Rome, resided in Viterbo, Orvieto, and Perugia, and then Avignon. The return of the popes to Rome
Rome
after the Avignon Papacy
Avignon Papacy
was followed by the Western Schism: the division of the western church between two, and for a time three, competing papal claimants. In this period the renovated Church was again attracting pilgrims and prelates from all the Christian world, and money with them: even with a population of only 30,000, Rome
Rome
was again becoming a city of consumers dependent upon the presence of a governmental bureaucracy. In the meantime, Italian cities were acquiring increasing autonomy, mainly led by new families which were replacing the old aristocracy with a new class formed by entrepreneurs, traders and merchants. After the sack of Rome
Rome
by the Normans
Normans
in 1084, the rebuilding of the city was supported by powerful families such as the Frangipane family and the Pierleoni family, whose wealth came from commerce and banking rather than landholdings. Inspired by neighbouring cities like Tivoli and Viterbo, Rome's people began to consider adopting a communal status and gaining a substantial amount of freedom from papal authority. Led by Giordano Pierleoni, the Romans rebelled against the aristocracy and Church rule in 1143. The Senate and the Roman Republic, the Commune of Rome, were born again. Through the inflammatory words of preacher Arnaldo da Brescia, an idealistic, fierce opponent of ecclesiastical property and church interference in temporal affairs, the revolt that led to the creation of the Commune of Rome
Rome
continued until it was put down in 1155, though it left its mark on the civil government of the Eternal City for centuries. 12th-century Rome, however, had little in common with the empire which had ruled over the Mediterranean some 700 years before, and soon the new Senate had to work hard to survive, choosing an ambiguous policy of shifting its support from the Pope
Pope
to the Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and vice versa as the political situation required. At Monteporzio, in 1167, during one of these shifts, in the war with Tusculum, Roman troops were defeated by the imperial forces of Frederick Barbarossa. Luckily, the winning enemies were soon dispersed by a plague and Rome
Rome
was saved.

Interior of the basilica of Santa Maria in Trastevere, one of the most beautiful Roman churches built or re-built in the Middle Ages

In 1188 the new communal government was finally recognised by Pope Clement III. The Pope
Pope
had to make large cash payments to the communal officials, while the 56 senators became papal vassals. The Senate always had problems in the accomplishment of its function, and various changes were tried. Often a single Senator was in charge. This sometimes led to tyrannies, which did not help the stability of the newborn organism. Guelphs and Ghibellines[edit] Further information: Guelphs and Ghibellines In 1204 the streets of Rome
Rome
were again in flames when the struggle between Pope
Pope
Innocent III's family and its rivals, the powerful Orsini family, led to riots in the city. Many ancient buildings were then destroyed by machines used by the rival bands to besiege their enemies in the innumerable towers and strongholds which were a hallmark of the Middle Age Italian towns.

The Torre dei Conti
Torre dei Conti
was one of the many towers built by the noble families of Rome
Rome
to mark their power and defend themselves in the several feuds that marked the city in the Middle Ages. Only the lower third part of Torre dei Conti
Torre dei Conti
can be seen today.

The struggle between the Popes and the emperor Frederick II, also king of Naples
Naples
and Sicily, saw Rome
Rome
support the Ghibellines. To repay his loyalty, Frederick sent to the commune the Carroccio
Carroccio
he had won to the Lombards
Lombards
at the battle of Cortenuova in 1234, and which was exposed in the Campidoglio. In that year, during another revolt against the Pope, the Romans headed by senator Luca Savelli sacked the Lateran. Curiously, Savelli was the nephew of Pope
Pope
Honorius III and father of Honorius IV, but in that age family ties often did not determine one's allegiance. Rome
Rome
was never to evolve into an autonomous, stable reign, as happened to other communes like Florence, Siena
Siena
or Milan. The endless struggles between noble families (Savelli, Orsini, Colonna, Annibaldi), the ambiguous position of the Popes, the haughtiness of a population which never abandoned the dreams of their splendid past but, at the same time, thought only of immediate advantage, and the weakness of the republican institutions always deprived the city of this possibility. In an attempt to imitate more successful communes, in 1252 the people elected a foreign Senator, the Bolognese Brancaleone degli Andalò. In order to bring peace in the city he suppressed the most powerful nobles (destroying some 140 towers), reorganised the working classes and issued a code of laws inspired by those of northern Italy. Brancaleone was a tough figure, but died in 1258 with almost nothing of his reforms turned into reality. Five years later Charles I of Anjou, then king of Naples, was elected Senator. He entered the city only in 1265, but soon his presence was needed to face Conradin, the Hohenstaufen's heir who was coming to claim his family's rights over southern Italy, and left the city. After June 1265 Rome
Rome
was again a democratic republic, electing Henry of Castile as senator. But Conradin
Conradin
and the Ghibelline party were crushed in the Battle of Tagliacozzo (1268), and therefore Rome
Rome
fell again in the hands of Charles. Nicholas III, a member of Orsini family, was elected in 1277 and moved the seat of the Popes from the Lateran
Lateran
to the more defensible Vatican. He also ordered that no foreigner could become senator of Rome. Being a Roman himself, he had himself elected senator by the people. With this move, the city began again to side for the papal party. In 1285 Charles was again Senator, but the Sicilian Vespers
Sicilian Vespers
reduced his charisma, and the city was thenceforth free from his authority. The next senator was again a Roman, and again a pope, Honorius IV of the Savelli. Boniface VIII and the Babylonian captivity[edit] The successor to Celestine V was a Roman of the Caetani family, Boniface VIII. Entangled in a local feud against the traditional rivals of his family, the Colonna, at the same time he struggled to assure the universal supremacy of the Holy See. In 1300 he launched the first Jubilee and in 1303 founded the first University of Rome.[70][71] The Jubilee was an important move for Rome, as it further increased its international prestige and, most of all, the city's economy was boosted by the flow of pilgrims.[71] Boniface died in 1303 after the humiliation of the Schiaffo di Anagni
Anagni
("Slap of Anagni"), which signalled instead the rule of the King of France
France
over the Papacy and marked another period of decline for Rome.[71][72] Boniface's successor, Clement V, never entered the city, starting the so-called "Babylonian Captivity", the absence of the Popes from their Roman seat in favour of Avignon, which would last for more than 70 years.[72][73] This situation brought the independence of the local powers, but these were revealed to be largely unstable; and the lack of the holy revenues caused a deep decay of Rome.[72][73] For more than a century Rome
Rome
had no new major buildings. Furthermore, many of the monuments of the city, including the main churches, began to fall into ruin.[72] Cola di Rienzo
Cola di Rienzo
and the Pope's return to Rome[edit]

Cola di Rienzo
Cola di Rienzo
stormed the Capitoline Hill
Capitoline Hill
in 1347 to create a new Roman Republic. Though short-lived, his attempt is recorded by a 19th-century statue near the ramped Cordonata
Cordonata
leading to Michelangelo's Piazza del Campidoglio.

In spite of its decline and the absence of the Pope, Rome
Rome
had not lost its spiritual prestige: in 1341 the famous poet Petrarca came to the city to be crowned as Poet laureate
Poet laureate
in Capitoline Hill. Noblemen and poor people at one time demanded with one voice the return of the Pope. Among the many ambassadors that in this period took their way to Avignon, emerged the bizarre but eloquent figure of Cola di Rienzo. As his personal power among the people increased by time, on 20 May 1347 he conquered the Capitoline at the head of an enthusiastic crowd. The period of his power, though very short-lived, aspired to the prestige of Ancient Rome. Now in possession of dictatorial powers, he took the title of "tribune", referring to the pleb's magistracy of the Roman Republic. Cola also considered himself at an equal status of that of the Holy Roman Emperor. On 1 August, he conferred Roman citizenship on all the Italian cities, and even prepared for the election of a Roman emperor of Italy. It was too much: the Pope
Pope
denounced him as heretic, criminal and pagan, the populace had begun to be disenchanted with him, while the nobles had always hated him. On 15 December, he was forced to flee.

The so-called Casa di Rienzi still in its urban context before the opening of the Via del Mare in a watercolour by Ettore Roesler Franz (about 1880).

In August 1354, Cola was again a protagonist, when Cardinal Gil Alvarez De Albornoz entrusted him with the role of "senator of Rome" in his program of reassuring the Pope's rule in the Papal States. In October the tyrannical Cola, who had become again very unpopular for his delirious behaviour and heavy bills, was killed in a riot provoked by the powerful family of the Colonna. In April 1355, Charles IV of Bohemia
Bohemia
entered the city for the ritual coronation as Emperor. His visit was very disappointing for the citizens. He had little money, received the crown not from the Pope
Pope
but from a Cardinal, and moved away after a few days. With the emperor back in his lands, Albornoz could regain a certain control over the city, while remaining in his safe citadel in Montefiascone, in the Northern Lazio. The senators were chosen directly by the Pope
Pope
from several cities of Italy, but the city was in fact independent. The Senate council included six judges, five notaries, six marshals, several familiars, twenty knights and twenty armed men. Albornoz had heavily suppressed the traditional aristocratic families, and the "democratic" party felt confident enough to start an aggressive policy. In 1362 Rome
Rome
declared war on Velletri. This move, however, provoked a civil war. The countryside party hired a condottieri band called "Del Cappello" ("Hat"), while the Romans bought the services of German and Hungarian troops, plus a citizen levy of 600 knights and even 22,000 infantry. This was the period in which condottieri bands were active in Italy. Many of the Savelli, Orsini and Annibaldi expelled from Rome
Rome
became leaders of such military units. The war with Velletri
Velletri
languished, and Rome
Rome
again gave itself to the new Pope, Urban V, provided Albornoz did not enter the walls. On 16 October 1367, in reply to the prayers of St Brigid and Petrarca, Urban finally visited for the city. During his presence, Charles IV was again crowned in the city (October 1368). In addition, the Byzantine emperor John V Palaeologus came in Rome
Rome
to beg for a crusade against the Ottoman Empire, but in vain. However, Urban did not like the unhealthy air of the city, and on 5 September 1370 he sailed again to Avignon. His successor, Gregory XI, officially set the date of his return to Rome
Rome
at May 1372, but again the French cardinals and the King stopped him. Only on 17 January 1377, Gregory XI
Gregory XI
could finally reinstate the Holy See in Rome. Western schism and conflict with Milan[edit] The incoherent behaviour of his successor, the Italian Urban VI, provoked in 1378 the Western Schism, which impeded any true attempt of improving the conditions of the decaying Rome. The 14th century, with the absence of the popes during the Avignon
Avignon
Papacy, had been a century of neglect and misery for the city of Rome, which dropped to its lowest level of population. With the return of the papacy to Rome repeatedly postponed because of the bad conditions of the city and the lack of control and security, it was first necessary to strengthen the political and doctrinal aspects of the pontiff. When in 1377 Gregory XI
Gregory XI
was in fact returned to Rome, he found a city in anarchy because of the struggles between the nobility and the popular faction, and in which his power was now more formal than real. There followed four decades of instability, characterised by the local power struggle between the commune and the papacy, and internationally by the great Western Schism, at the end of which was elected Pope, Martin V. He restored order, laying the foundations of its rebirth.[74]

Michelangelo's ceiling in the Sistine Chapel.

In 1433 the Duke of Milan, Filippo Maria Visconti
Filippo Maria Visconti
signed a peace treaty with Florence
Florence
and Venice. He then sent the condottieri Niccolò Fortebraccio and Francesco Sforza to harass the Papal States, in vengeance for Eugene IV's support to the two former republics. Fortebraccio, supported by the Colonna, occupied Tivoli in October 1433 and ravaged Rome's countryside. Despite the concessions made by Eugene to the Visconti, the Milanese soldiers did not stop their destruction. This led the Romans, on 29 May 1434 to institute a Republican government under the Banderesi. Eugene left the city a few days later, during the night of 4 June. However, the Banderesi proved incapable of governing the city, and their inadequacies and violence soon deprived them of popular support. The city was therefore returned to Eugene by the army of Giovanni Vitelleschi on 26 October 1434. After the death in mysterious circumstances of Vitelleschi, the city came under the control of Ludovico Scarampo, Patriarch of Aquileia. Eugene returned to Rome
Rome
on 28 September 1443. Renaissance
Renaissance
Rome[edit]

Rome
Rome
Timeline

Renaissance
Renaissance
and early modern Rome

c. 1420s–1519 Rome
Rome
becomes a centre of the Renaissance. Founding of the new St. Peter's Basilica. Sistine Chapel.

1527 The Landsknechts sack Rome.

1555 Creation of the Ghetto.

1585–1590 Urban reforms under Pope
Pope
Sixtus V.

1592–1606 Caravaggio
Caravaggio
working in Rome.

1600 Giordano Bruno
Giordano Bruno
is burned.

1626 The new St. Peter's Basilica
St. Peter's Basilica
is consecrated.

1638–1667 Baroque
Baroque
era. Bernini and Borromini. Rome
Rome
has 120,000 inhabitants.

1703 Building of the Port of Ripetta.

1732–1762 Building of the Fontana di Trevi.

Main article: Roman Renaissance The latter half of the 15th century saw the seat of the Italian Renaissance
Renaissance
move to Rome
Rome
from Florence. The Papacy wanted to surpass the grandeur of other Italian cities. To this end the popes created increasingly extravagant churches, bridges, town squares and public spaces, including a new Saint Peter's Basilica, the Sistine Chapel, Ponte Sisto
Ponte Sisto
(the first bridge to be built across the Tiber
Tiber
since antiquity), and Piazza Navona. The Popes were also patrons of the arts engaging such artists as Michelangelo, Perugino, Raphael, Ghirlandaio, Luca Signorelli, Botticelli, and Cosimo Rosselli. Under Pope
Pope
Nicholas V, who became Pontiff on 19 March 1447, the Renaissance
Renaissance
can be said to have begun in Rome, heralding a period in which the city became the centre of Humanism. He was the first Pope
Pope
to embellish the Roman court with scholars and artists, including Lorenzo Valla and Vespasiano da Bisticci. On 4 September 1449 Nicholas proclaimed a Jubilee for the following year, which saw a great influx of pilgrims from all Europe. The crowd was so large that in December, on Ponte Sant'Angelo, some 200 people died, crushed underfoot or drowned in the River Tiber. Later that year the Plague reappeared in the city, and Nicholas fled.

View of Rome
Rome
in 1493

However Nicholas brought stability to the temporal power of the Papacy, a power in which the Emperor was to have no part at all. In this way, the coronation and the marriage of Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor on 16 March 1452, was more a civil ceremony. The Papacy now controlled Rome
Rome
with a strong hand. A plot by Stefano Porcari, whose aim was the restoration of the Republic, was ruthlessly suppressed on January 1453. Porcari was hanged together with the other plotters, Francesco Gabadeo, Pietro de Monterotondo, Battista Sciarra and Angiolo Ronconi, but the Pope
Pope
gained a treacherous reputation, as when the execution was beginning he was too drunk to confirm the grace he had previously given to Sciarra and Ronconi. Nicholas was also actively involved in Rome's urban renewal, in collaboration with Leon Battista Alberti, including the construction of a new St Peter's Basilica.

A painting from the Roman Renaissance.

Nicholas' successor Calixtus III neglected Nicholas's cultural policies, instead devoting himself to his greatest passion, his nephews. The Tuscan Pius II, who took the reins after his death in 1458, was a great Humanist, but did little for Rome. During his reign Lorenzo Valla
Lorenzo Valla
demonstrated that the Donation of Constantine
Donation of Constantine
was a forgery. Pius was the first Pope
Pope
to use guns, in campaign against the rebel barons Savelli in the neighbourhood of Rome, in 1461. One year later the bringing to Rome
Rome
of the head of the Apostle St. Andrew produced a great number of pilgrims. The reign of Pope
Pope
Paul II (1464–1471) was notable only for the reintroduction of the Carnival, which was to become a very popular feast in Rome
Rome
in the following centuries. In the same year (1468) a plot against the Pope
Pope
was uncovered, organised by the intellectuals of the Roman Academy founded by Pomponio Leto. The conspirators were sent to Castel Sant'Angelo.

The Tempietto (San Pietro in Montorio), an excellent example of Italian Renaissance
Renaissance
architecture

More important by far was the Pontificate of Sixtus IV, considered the first Pope-King of Rome. In order to favour his relative Girolamo Riario, he promoted the unsuccessful Congiura dei Pazzi
Pazzi
against the Medici of Florence
Florence
(26 April 1478) and in Rome
Rome
fought the Colonna and the Orsini. The personal politics of intrigue and war required much money, but in spite of this Sixtus was a true patron of art in the manner of Nicholas V. He reopened the Academy and reorganised the Collegio degli Abbreviatori, and in 1471 began the construction of the Vatican Library, whose first curator was Platina. The Library was officially founded on 15 June 1475. He restored several churches, including Santa Maria del Popolo, the Aqua Virgo
Aqua Virgo
and the Hospital of the Holy Spirit; paved several streets and also built a famous bridge over the Tiber
Tiber
river, which still bears his name. His main building project was the Sistine Chapel
Sistine Chapel
in the Vatican Palace. Its decoration called on some of the most renowned artists of the age, including Mino da Fiesole, Sandro Botticelli, Domenico Ghirlandaio, Pietro Perugino, Luca Signorelli
Luca Signorelli
and Pinturicchio, and in the 16th century Michelangelo decorated the ceiling with his famous masterpiece, contributing to what became one of the most famous monuments of the world. Sixtus died on 12 August 1484. Chaos, corruption and nepotism appeared in Rome
Rome
under the reign of his successors, Innocent VIII and Pope
Pope
Alexander VI (1492–1503). During the vacation period between the death of the former and the election of the latter there were 220 murders in the city. Alexander had to face Charles VIII of France, who invaded Italy
Italy
in 1494 and entered Rome
Rome
on 31 December of that year. The Pope
Pope
could only barricade himself into Castel Sant'Angelo, which had been turned into a true fortress by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. In the end, the skilful Alexander was able to gain the support of the king, assigning his son Cesare Borgia
Cesare Borgia
as military counsellor for the subsequent invasion of the Kingdom of Naples. Rome
Rome
was safe and, as the King directed himself southwards, the Pope
Pope
again changed his position, joining the anti-French League of the Italian States which finally compelled Charles to flee to France. The most nepotist Pope
Pope
of all, Alexander, favoured his ruthless son Cesare, creating for him a personal Duchy out of territories of the Papal States, and banning from Rome
Rome
Cesare's most relentless enemy, the Orsini family. In 1500 the city hosted a new Jubilee, but grew ever more unsafe as, especially at night, the streets were controlled by bands of lawless "bravi". Cesare himself assassinated Alfonso of Bisceglie; as well as, presumably, the Pope's son, Giovanni of Gandia. The Renaissance
Renaissance
had a great impact on Rome's appearance, with works like the Pietà
Pietà
by Michelangelo
Michelangelo
and the frescoes of the Borgia Apartment, all made during Innocent's reign. Rome
Rome
reached the highest point of splendour under Pope
Pope
Julius II (1503–1513) and his successors Leo X and Clement VII, both members of the Medici family. During this twenty-year period Rome
Rome
became the greatest centre of art in the world. The old St. Peter's Basilica
St. Peter's Basilica
was demolished and a new one begun. The city hosted artists like Bramante, who built the Temple of San Pietro in Montorio
San Pietro in Montorio
and planned a great project to renovate the Vatican; Raphael, who in Rome
Rome
became the most famous painter in Italy, creating frescos in the Cappella Niccolina, the Villa Farnesina, the Raphael's Rooms, and many other famous paintings. Michelangelo
Michelangelo
began the decoration of the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel
Sistine Chapel
and executed the famous statue of Moses for the tomb of Julius. Rome
Rome
lost in part its religious character, becoming increasingly a true Renaissance
Renaissance
city, with a great number of popular feasts, horse races, parties, intrigues and licentious episodes. Its economy was prosperous, with the presence of several Tuscan bankers, including Agostino Chigi, a friend of Raphael
Raphael
and a patron of the arts. Despite his premature death, and to his eternal credit, Raphael
Raphael
also promoted for the first time the preservation of the ancient ruins. Early modern history[edit] Sack of Rome
Rome
(1527)[edit]

The sack of Rome
Rome
in 1527, by Johannes Lingelbach, 17th century.

In 1527 the ambiguous policy followed by the second Medici Pope, Pope Clement VII, resulted in the dramatic sack of the city by the unruly Imperial troops of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. After the execution of some 1,000 defenders, the pillage began.[75][76] The city was devastated for several days, many of the citizens were killed or took shelter outside the walls. Of 189 Swiss Guards on duty only 42 survived.[75][77] The Pope
Pope
himself was imprisoned for months in Castel Sant'Angelo. The sack marked the end of one of the most splendid eras of modern Rome.[75][78] The 1525's Jubilee resulted in a farce, as Martin Luther's claims had spread criticism and even despise against the Pope's greed of money throughout Europe. The prestige of Rome
Rome
was then challenged by the defections of the churches of Germany
Germany
and England. Pope
Pope
Paul III (1534–1549) tried to recover the situation by summoning the Council of Trento, although being, at the same time, the most nepotist Pope
Pope
of all. He even separated Parma
Parma
and Piacenza
Piacenza
from the Papal States
Papal States
to create an independent duchy for his son Pier Luigi.[75] He continued the patronage of art supporting the Michelangelo's Last Judgment, asking him to renovate the Campidoglio and the ongoing construction of St. Peter's. After the shock of the sack, he also called the brilliant architect Giuliano da Sangallo
Giuliano da Sangallo
the Younger to strengthen the walls of the Leonine City.[75] The need for renovation in the religious customs became evident in the vacancy period after Paulus' death, when the streets of Rome
Rome
became seat of masked carousels which satirised the Cardinals attending the conclave. His two immediate successors were feeble figures who did nothing to escape the actual Spanish suzerainty over Rome.[75] Counter-Reformation[edit] Pope
Pope
Paul IV, elected in 1555, was a member of the anti-Spanish party in the Italian War of 1551–59, but his policy resulted in the Neapolitan troops of the viceroy again besieging Rome
Rome
in 1556. Paul sued for peace, but had to accept the supremacy of Philip II of Spain.[75] He was one of the most hated Popes of all, and, after his death the raging populace burned the Holy Inquisition's palace and destroyed his marble statue on the Campidoglio.[79][80] Pope
Pope
Paul's Counter-Reformation
Counter-Reformation
views are well shown by his order that a central area of Rome, around the Porticus Octaviae, be delimited, creating the famous Roman Ghetto, the very constricted area in which the city's Jews were forced to live in seclusion. They had to remain in the rione Sant'Angelo and locked in at night. The Pope
Pope
decreed that Jews should wear a distinctive sign, yellow hats for men[81] and veils or shawls for women. Jewish ghettos existed in Europe for the next 315 years. The Counter-Reformation
Counter-Reformation
gained pace under his successors, the milder Pope
Pope
Pius IV and the severe Saint Pius V. The former was a nepotist lover of court splendours, but more severe customs arrived anyway through the ideas of his advisor, the prelate Charles Borromeo, who was to become one of the most popular figures among the Rome's people. Pius V and Borromeo gave Rome
Rome
a true Counter-Reformation
Counter-Reformation
character. All pomp was removed from the court, the jokers were expelled, and cardinals and bishops were obliged to live in the city. Blasphemy and concubinage were severely punished. Prostitutes were expelled or confined in a reserved district. The Inquisition's power in the city was reasserted, and its palace rebuilt with an increased space for prisons. During this period Michelangelo
Michelangelo
opened the Porta Pia
Porta Pia
and turned the Baths of Diocletian
Diocletian
into the spectacular basilica of Santa Maria degli Angeli e dei Martiri, where Pius IV was buried. The pontificate of his successor, Gregory XIII, was considered a failure. As he tried to use milder measures than those of St. Pius, the worst element of the Roman population felt free to scourge again the streets. The French writer and philosopher Montaigne maintained that "life and goods were never as unsure as at the time of Gregorius XIII, perhaps", and that a confraternity even held same-sex marriage in the church of San Giovanni a Porta Latina. The courtesans repressed by Pius had now returned. Sixtus V was of very different temper. Although short (1585–1590), his reign however remembered as one of the most effective in the modern Rome's history. He was even tougher than Pius V, and was variously nicknamed castigamatti ("punisher of the mad"), papa di ferro ("Iron Pope"), dictator and even, ironically, demon, since no other Pope
Pope
before him pursued with such a determination the reform of the church and the customs. Sixtus profoundly reorganised the Papal States' administration, and cleaned the streets of Rome
Rome
of thugs, procurers, dueling and so on. Even the nobles and Cardinals could not consider themselves free from the arms of Sixtus' police. The money from taxes, which were not now wasted in corruption, permitted an ambitious building program. Some ancient aqueducts were restored, and new one, the Acquedotto Felice (from Sixtus' name, Felice Peretti) was constructed. New houses were built in the desolate district of Esquilino, Viminale and Quirinale, while old houses in the centre of the city were destroyed to open new, larger streets. Sixtus's principal aim was to make Rome
Rome
a better destination for pilgrimages, and the new streets were intended to permit a better access to the major Basilicas. Old obelisks were moved or erected to embellish St. John in Lateran, Santa Maria Maggiore and St. Peter, as well as Piazza del Popolo, in front of Santa Maria del Popolo. Baroque
Baroque
period[edit]

Piazza Navona
Piazza Navona
(17th century)

Map of Rome
Rome
from Topographia Italiae, published by Matthaeus Merian's heirs in 1688.

In the 18th century, the Papacy reached the peak of its temporal power, the Papal States
Papal States
including most of Central Italy, including Latium, Umbria, Marche and the Legations of Ravenna, Ferrara
Ferrara
and Bologna
Bologna
extending north into the Romagna, as well as the small enclaves of Benevento
Benevento
and Pontecorvo in southern Italy
Italy
and the larger Comtat Venaissin
Comtat Venaissin
around Avignon
Avignon
in southern France. Baroque
Baroque
and Rococo
Rococo
architecture flourishes in Rome. Work on the Trevi Fountain begins in 1732 (completed in 1762). The Spanish Steps
Spanish Steps
are designed in 1735. Pope
Pope
Clement XIII's tomb by Canova
Canova
is completed in 1792. The Palazzo Nuovo
Palazzo Nuovo
becomes the world's first public museum in 1734. Some of the most famous views of Rome
Rome
in the 18th century were etched by Giovanni Battista Piranesi. His grand vision of classic Rome inspired many to visit the city and examine the ruins themselves.

Modern history[edit]

Rome
Rome
Timeline

Modern Rome

1798–1799 and 1800–1814 French occupation.

1848–1849 Roman Republic
Roman Republic
with Mazzini and Garibaldi.

1870 Rome
Rome
conquered by Italian troops.

1874–1885 Building of the Termini Station and founding of the Vittoriano.

1922 March on Rome.

1929 Lateran
Lateran
Pacts.

1932–1939 Building of Cinecittà.

1943 Bombing of Rome.

1960 Rome
Rome
is seat of the Summer Olympics.

1975–1985 Years of terrorism. Death of Aldo Moro. Pope
Pope
John Paul II is shot.

1990 Rome
Rome
is seat of the Football World Championship.

2000 Rome
Rome
is seat of the Jubilee.

Italian unification[edit]

Proclamation of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
in 1849, in Piazza del Popolo.

View of the dome of Saint Peter's Basilica
Saint Peter's Basilica
from Borgo Santo Spirito.

In 1870, the Pope's holdings were left in an uncertain situation when Rome
Rome
itself was annexed by the Piedmont-led forces which had united the rest of Italy, after a nominal resistance by the papal forces. Between 1861 and 1929 the status of the Pope
Pope
was referred to as the "Roman Question". The successive Popes were undisturbed in their palace, and certain prerogatives recognized by the Law of Guarantees, including the right to send and receive ambassadors. But the Popes did not recognise the Italian king's right to rule in Rome, and they refused to leave the Vatican compound until the dispute was resolved in 1929. Other states continued to maintain international recognition of the Holy See
Holy See
as a sovereign entity. The rule of the Popes was interrupted by the short-lived Roman Republic (1798), which was under the influence of the French Revolution. During Napoleon's reign, Rome
Rome
was annexed into his empire and was technically part of France. After the fall of Napoleon's Empire, the Papal States
Papal States
were restored by the Congress of Vienna, with the exception of Avignon
Avignon
and the Comtat Venaissin, which remained part of France. Another Roman Republic
Roman Republic
arose in 1849, within the framework of revolutions of 1848. Two of the most influential figures of the Italian unification, Giuseppe Mazzini
Giuseppe Mazzini
and Giuseppe Garibaldi, fought for the short-lived republic. However, the actions of these two great men would not have resulted in unification without the sly leadership of Camillo Benso di Cavour, Prime Minister of Piedmont-Sardinia. Even among those who wanted to see the peninsula unified into one country, different groups could not agree on what form a unified state would take. Vincenzo Gioberti, a Piedmontese priest, had suggested a confederation of Italian states under rulership of the Pope. His book, Of the Moral and Civil Primacy of the Italians, was published in 1843 and created a link between the Papacy and the Risorgimento. Many leading revolutionaries wanted a republic, but eventually it was a king and his chief minister who had the power to unite the Italian states as a monarchy. In his attempt to unify Northern Italy
Italy
under the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia, Cavour enacted major industrialisation of the country in order to become the economic leader of Italy. In doing so, he believed that the other states would naturally come under his rule. Next, he sent the army of Piedmont
Piedmont
to the Crimean War
Crimean War
to join the French and British. Making minor successes in the war against Russia, cordial relations were established between Piedmont- Sardinia
Sardinia
and France; a relationship to be exploited in the future.

Rome
Rome
from the Saint Peter´s Basilica, 1901.

The return of Pope
Pope
Pius IX in Rome, with help of French troops, marked the exclusion of Rome
Rome
from the unification process that was embodied in the Second Italian Independence War and the Mille expedition, after which all the Italian peninsula, except Rome
Rome
and Venetia, would be unified under the House of Savoy. Garibaldi first attacked Sicily, luckily under the guise of passing British ships and landing with little resistance. Taking the island, Garibaldi's actions were publicly denounced by Cavour but secretly encouraged via weapons supplements. This policy or real-politik, where the ends justified the means of unification, was continued as Garibaldi faced crossing the Strait of Messina. Cavour privately asked the British navy to allow Garibaldi's troops across the sea while publicly he again, denounced Garibaldi's actions. The maneuver was a success and Garibaldi's military genius carried him on to take the entire kingdom. Cavour then moved to take Venetia and Lombardy
Lombardy
via an alliance with France. The Italians and French together would attack the two states with France
France
getting the city of Nice and the region of Savoy in return. However, the French pulled out of their agreement soon after, enraging Cavour who subsequently resigned. Only Lombardy
Lombardy
had been captured at the time. With French units still stationed at Rome
Rome
however, Cavour, being called back to office, foresaw a possibility of Garibaldi attacking the Papal States
Papal States
and accidentally disrupting French-Italian relations. The army of Sardinia
Sardinia
was therefore mobilised to attack the Papal States but remain outside Rome. In the Austro-Prussian war however, a deal was made between the new Italy
Italy
and Prussia, where Italy
Italy
would attack Austria in return for the region of Venetia. The war was a major success for the Prussians (though the Italians did not win a single battle), and the northern front of Italy
Italy
was complete. In July 1870, the Franco-Prussian War
Franco-Prussian War
started, and French Emperor Napoleon III
Napoleon III
could no longer protect the Papal States. Soon after, the Italian army under general Raffaele Cadorna
Raffaele Cadorna
entered Rome
Rome
on 20 September, after a cannonade of three hours, through Porta Pia
Porta Pia
(see capture of Rome). The Leonine City
Leonine City
was occupied the following day, a provisional Government Joint created by Cadorna out of local noblemen to avoid the rise of the radical factions. Rome
Rome
and Latium
Latium
were annexed to the Kingdom of Italy
Italy
after a plebiscite held on 2 October. 133,681 voted for annexion, 1,507 opposed (in Rome
Rome
itself, there were 40,785 "Yes" and 57 "No"). When Rome
Rome
was eventually taken, the Italian government reportedly intended to let Pope
Pope
Pius IX keep the part of Rome, west of the Tiber, known as the Leonine City
Leonine City
as a small remaining Papal State, but Pius IX rejected the offer because acceptance would have been an implied endorsement of the legitimacy of the Italian kingdom's rule over his former domain.[82] One week after entering Rome, the Italian troops had taken the entire city save for the Apostolic Palace; the inhabitants of the city then voted to join Italy.[83] On 1 July 1, 1871 Rome
Rome
became the official capital of united Italy
Italy
and from then until June 1929 the popes had no temporal power. The pope referred to himself during this time as the "prisoner of the Vatican", although he was not actually restrained from coming and going. Pius IX took steps to ensure self-sufficiency, such as the construction of the Vatican Pharmacy. Italian nobility who owed their titles to the pope rather than the royal family became known as the Black Nobility
Black Nobility
during this period because of their purported mourning. Kingdom of Italy[edit]

Italian soldiers enter Rome
Rome
in 1870.

Rome
Rome
became the focus of hopes of Italian reunification when the rest of Italy
Italy
was reunited under the Kingdom of Italy
Italy
with a temporary capital at Florence. In 1861, Rome
Rome
was declared the capital of Italy even though it was still under the control of the Pope. During the 1860s, the last vestiges of the Papal States
Papal States
were under the French protection of Napoleon III. And it was only when this was lifted in 1870, owing to the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War, that Italian troops were able to capture Rome
Rome
entering the city through a breach near Porta Pia. Afterwards, Pope
Pope
Pius IX declared himself as prisoner in the Vatican, and in 1871 the capital of Italy
Italy
was moved from Florence
Florence
to Rome.[84] Soon after World War I, Rome
Rome
witnessed the rise to power of Italian Fascism guided by Benito Mussolini, who, at the request of King Victor Emmanuel III, marched on the city in 1922, eventually declaring a new Empire and allying Italy
Italy
with Nazi Germany.[85] The interwar period saw a rapid growth in the city's population, that surpassed 1,000,000 inhabitants.[86]

The Apostolic Palace.

This Roman Question
Roman Question
was finally resolved on 11 February 1929 between the Holy See
Holy See
and the Kingdom of Italy. The Lateran
Lateran
Treaty was signed by Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
on behalf of King Victor Emmanuel III
Victor Emmanuel III
and by Cardinal Secretary of State
Cardinal Secretary of State
Pietro Gasparri
Pietro Gasparri
for Pope
Pope
Pius XI. The treaty, which became effective on 7 June 1929, and the Concordat established the independent State of the Vatican City
Vatican City
and granted Roman Catholicism special status in Italy.

Propaganda inscription, "the work of the liberators" (opera dei liberatori) on wall of a bombed building, Rome, 1944

During World War II, Rome
Rome
suffered few bombings (notably at San Lorenzo) and relatively little damage because none of the nations involved wanted to endanger the life of Pope
Pope
Pius XII in Vatican City. There were some bitter fights between Italian and German troops in the south of the city and even in sight of the Colosseum, shortly after the armistice between Italy
Italy
and Allied armed forces.[citation needed] On 4 June 1944 Rome
Rome
became the first capital city of an Axis nation to fall to the Allies, but was relatively undamaged because on 14 August 1943, a day after the last allied bombing, the Germans declared it an "open city" and withdrew, meaning that the Allies did not have to fight their way in.[87][88] In practice Italy
Italy
made no attempt to interfere with the Holy See within the Vatican walls. However, they confiscated church property in many other places, including the Quirinal Palace, formerly the pope's official residence. Pope
Pope
Pius IX (1846–78), the last ruler of the Papal States, claimed that after Rome
Rome
was annexed he was a "Prisoner in the Vatican". Further information: Vatican City
Vatican City
during World War II Vatican City
Vatican City
officially pursued a policy of neutrality during World War II, under the leadership of Pope
Pope
Pius XII. Although the city of Rome
Rome
was occupied by Germany
Germany
from 1943 and the Allies from 1944, Vatican City
Vatican City
itself was not occupied. One of Pius XII's main diplomatic priorities was to prevent the bombing of Rome; so sensitive was the pontiff that he protested even the British air dropping of pamphlets over Rome, claiming that the few landing within the city-state violated the Vatican's neutrality.[89] Before the American entry into the war, there was little impetus for such a bombing, as the British saw little strategic value in it.[90] After the American entry, the US opposed such a bombing, fearful of offending Catholic members of its military forces, while the British then supported it.[91] Pius XII similarly advocated for the declaration of Rome
Rome
as an "open city", but this occurred only on 14 August 1943, after Rome
Rome
had already been bombed twice.[92] Although the Italians consulted the Vatican on the wording of the open city declaration, the impetus for the change had little to do with the Vatican.[93] Capital of the Italian Republic[edit]

View of Via del Corso
Via del Corso
(2008)

View of the EUR district (2003)

Rome
Rome
grew substantially after the war, as one of the driving forces behind the "Italian economic miracle" of post-war reconstruction and modernisation. It became a fashionable city in the 1950s and early 1960s, the years of "la dolce vita" ("the sweet life"), with popular classic films such as Ben Hur, Quo Vadis, Roman Holiday
Roman Holiday
and La Dolce Vita[94] being filmed in the city's iconic Cinecittà
Cinecittà
Studios. A new rising trend in population continued until the mid-1980s, when the commune had more than 2.8 million residents; after that, population started to slowly decline as more residents moved to nearby suburbs. The Rome metropolitan area
Rome metropolitan area
has about 4.4 million inhabitants as of 2015[update]. Being the capital city of Italy, all the principal institutions of the nation are located there, including the President; the seat of government with its single Ministeri; the Parliament; the main judicial Courts, and the diplomatic representatives for both Italy
Italy
and the Vatican City. A number of notable international cultural, scientific and humanitarian institutions are located in Rome, including the German Archaeological Institute, and the FAO. Rome
Rome
hosted the 1960 Summer Olympics, using many ancient sites such as the Villa Borghese and the Thermae of Caracalla as venues.[95] For the Olympic Games new structures were created: the Olympic Stadium (which was itself enlarged and renovated to host qualifying rounds and the final match of the 1990 FIFA
FIFA
football World Cup); the Villaggio Olimpico (Olympic Village), created to house the athletes, was later redeveloped as a residential district. Rome's Leonardo da Vinci–Fiumicino Airport
Leonardo da Vinci–Fiumicino Airport
opened in 1961. Tourism brings an average of 7–10 million visitors a year. Rome
Rome
is the 3rd most visited city in the European Union, after London
London
and Paris. The Colosseum
Colosseum
(4 million tourists) and the Vatican Museums
Vatican Museums
(4.2 million tourists) are the 39th and 37th (respectively) most visited places in the world, according to a 2012 study.[96] Many of the ancient monuments of Rome
Rome
were restored by the Italian state and by the Vatican for the 2000 Jubilee. Historical city center[edit] Further information: List of ancient monuments in Rome, List of monuments of the Roman Forum, and Churches of Rome Further information: Tourism in Rome
Rome
and List of tourist attractions in Rome Today's Rome
Rome
is a modern metropolis, yet it reflects the stratification of the epochs of its long history. The historical centre, identified as those parts within the limits of the ancient Imperial walls, contains archaeological remains from Ancient Rome. These are continuously being excavated and opened to the public, such as the Colosseum; the Roman Forum, and the Catacombs. There are areas with remains from Medieval
Medieval
times. There are palaces and artistic treasures from the Renaissance; fountains, churches and palaces from Baroque
Baroque
times. There is art and architecture from the Art Nouveau, Neoclassic, Modernist
Modernist
and Rationalist
Rationalist
periods. There are museums, such as the Musei Capitolini, the Vatican Museums, Galleria Borghese. Parts of the historical centre were reorganised after the 19th-century Italian Unification
Italian Unification
(1880–1910 – Roma Umbertina). The increase of population caused by the centralisation of the Italian state necessitated new infrastructure and accommodation. There were also substantial alterations and adaptations made during the Fascist period, for example, the creation of the Via dei Fori Imperiali; and the Via della Conciliazione
Via della Conciliazione
in front of the Vatican. These projects involved the destruction of a large part of the old Borgo neighbourhood. New quartieri were founded, such as EUR (Esposizione Universale Roma), San Basilio, Garbatella, Cinecittà, Trullo and Quarticciolo. So great was the influx of people that on the coast, there was restructuring of Ostia and the inclusion of bordering villages such as Labaro, Osteria del Curato, Quarto Miglio, Capannelle, Pisana, Torrevecchia, Ottavia, Casalotti. See also[edit]

Rome
Rome
portal History portal

Timeline of the city of Rome Timeline of Roman history

References[edit] Bibliography[edit]

Beard, Mary (2015). SPQR: A History of Ancient Rome. New York & London: Liveright Publishing. ISBN 978-0-87140-423-7.  Bloch, Raymond (1969). The ancient civilization of the Etruscans. New York: Cowles Book.  Boak, Arthur Edward Romilly (1921). A history of Rome
Rome
to 565 A. D. New York: Macmillan.  Bonfante, Larissa; et al. ed. (1986). Etruscan Life and Afterlife: a Handbook of Etruscan Studies. Warminster: Aris and Phillips. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Bonfante, Larissa (1990). Etruscan. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-07118-2.  Bonfante, Larissa (2006). Etruscan Inscriptions and Etruscan Religion in The Religion of the Etruscans. Austin: University of Texas Press.  Bonfante, G.; L. Bonfante (2002). The Etruscan Language. An Introduction. Manchester University Press.  Bury, J B (2009). History of the Later Roman Empire: From the Death of Theodosius I. BiblioLife. ISBN 978-1-113-20104-1.  Döge, F.U. (2004) "Die militärische und innenpolitische Entwicklung in Italien 1943–1944", Chapter 11, in:Pro- und antifaschistischer Neorealismus. PhD Thesis, Free University, Berlin. 960 p. [in German] Ekonomou, Andrew J. 2007. Byzantine Rome
Rome
and the Greek Popes: Eastern influences on Rome
Rome
and the papacy from Gregory the Great to Zacharias, A.D. 590–752. Lexington Books. Gregorovius, Ferdinand. History of the City of Rome
Rome
in the Middle Ages. Fields, Nic (2007). The Roman Army of the Punic Wars
Punic Wars
264–146 BC. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-84603-145-1. Retrieved 8 July 2011. * Theodor Mommsen
Theodor Mommsen
The History of Rome, Books I, II, III, IV, V. Frost Abbott, Frank (1911). A history and description of Roman political institutions. Harvard Univ. Press. ISBN 0-543-92749-0. Retrieved 15 July 2011.  Kertzer, David (2004). Prisoner of the Vatican. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 0-618-22442-4. 

Attribution

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "The History of Rome". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

The History of Rome, Book I at Project Gutenberg

The History of Rome, Book II at Project Gutenberg

The History of Rome, Book III at Project Gutenberg

The History of Rome, Book IV at Project Gutenberg

The History of Rome, Book V at Project Gutenberg Römische Geschichte, in German

Notes[edit]

^ Procopius, Gothic War, III.xxii. "In Rome
Rome
he suffered nothing human to remain, leaving it altogether, in every part, a perfect desert." ^ listed as 8th largest by Wendell Cox, Demographia (2014), between Berlin and Naples. ^ "GaWC (Globalization and World Cities Research Network) – The World According to GaWC 2008". Lboro.ac.uk. 3 June 2009. Retrieved 22 January 2010.  ^ Heiken, G., Funiciello, R. and De Rita, D. (2005), The Seven Hills of Rome: A Geological Tour of the Eternal City. Princeton University Press. ^ Potter, D.S. (2009). Rome
Rome
in the Ancient World: From Romulus
Romulus
to Justinian. London: Thames & Hudson. p. 10. ISBN 9780500251522.  ^ Hooper, John (13 April 2014). "Archaeologists' findings may prove Rome
Rome
a century older than thought". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 November 2014.  ^ "Science: Rome: Older Than Ever – TIME". Content.time.com. 1960-11-21. Retrieved 2015-07-23.  ^ http://www.archaeology.org/issues/132-1405/trenches/1982-reexcavation-rome-earliest-temple ^ Livy, Ab Urbe Condita I, 7 ^ Livy, Ab urbe condita, 1:8 ^ Livy, Ab urbe condita, 1:9–13 ^ Livy, Ab urbe condita, 1:8, 13 ^ Cf. Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
and his "The Social Contract", Book IV, Chapter IV, written in 1762, where he writes in a footnote that the word for Rome
Rome
is Greek in origin and means force. "There are writers who say that the name 'Rome' is derived from 'Romulus'. It is in fact Greek and means force." ^ This has been deduced from the name of a figure painted in the François Tomb
François Tomb
at Vulci, inscribed in Etruscan Cneve Tarchunies Rumach, interpreted as Gnaeus Tarquinius of Rome. http://www.mysteriousetruscans.com/francois.html ^ Ismarmed.com (2011). "History of Rome
Rome
(Italy)". ismarmed.com. Retrieved 7 July 2011.  ^ Dionysius of Halicarnassus. "Book 1.11". Roman Antiquities. But the most learned of the Roman historians, among whom is Porcius Cato, who compiled with the greatest care the "origins" of the Italian cities, Gaius Sempronius and a great many others, say that they [Aborigines] were Greeks, part of those who once dwelt in Achaia, and that they migrated many generations before the Trojan war. But they do not go on to indicate either the Greek tribe to which they belonged or the city from which they removed, or the date or the leader of the colony, or as the result of what turns of fortune they left their mother country; and although they are following a Greek legend, they have cited no Greek historian as their authority. It is uncertain, therefore, what the truth of the matter is.  ^ Dionysius of Halicarnassus. "Book I.14". Roman Antiquities. Twenty-four stades from the afore-mentioned city stood Lista, the mother-city of the Aborigines, which at a still earlier time the Sabines
Sabines
had captured by a surprise attack, having set out against it from Amiternum by night.  ^ Larissa Bonfante:Etruscan Inscriptions and Etruscan Religion in The Religion of the Etruscans
Etruscans
– University of Texas Press 2006, page 9 ^ According to Félix Gaffiot'sDictionnaire Illustré Latin
Latin
Français, the term Tusci was used by the major authors of the Roman Republic: Livy, Cicero, Horace, et al. A number of cognate words developed, including Tuscia and Tusculanensis. Tusci was clearly the principal term used to designate things Etruscan. Etrusci and Etrūria were used less often, mainly by Cicero
Cicero
and Horace, and they lack cognates. According to the Online Etymological Dictionary, the English use of Etruscan dates from 1706. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. Retrieved 2015-07-23.  ^ Guerber, H. A. (2011). "Heritage History eBook Reader". heritage-history.com. Archived from the original on 3 October 2011. Retrieved 7 July 2011.  ^ Roman-Empire.net (2009). "Religion". roman-empire.net. Retrieved 7 July 2011.  ^ The Architecture of Roman Temples: The Republic to the Middle Empire, p. 6, at Google Books ^ Asimov, Isaac. Asimov's Chronology of the World. New York: HarperCollins, 1991. p. 69. ^ T.J. Cornell, The beginnings of Rome, 1990, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415015967 ^ Hooker, Richard (1999). "Rome: The Conquest of the Hellenistic Empires". public.wsu.edu. Archived from the original on 26 June 2011. Retrieved 8 July 2011.  ^ Krimkevich, Alexander (2008). "IHUM-Krimkevich.pdf (application/pdf Object)" (PDF). bootheprize.stanford.edu. Retrieved 8 July 2011.  ^ Ellis, "The Celts: A History." pp. 61–64. Running Press, London, 2004. ^ Plutarch, Lives:Wikisource Life of Camillus. ^ UNVR.com (2011). "Roman Timeline of the 4th Century BC". unrv.com. Retrieved 7 July 2011.  ^ JRank.org (2009). "The Dominance of Greece and Rome
Rome
– polis, chora, acropolis, agora, latifundia, Atlas of the Roman World – Empire, Roman, Greek, Classical, Greeks, and Century". jrank.org. Retrieved 7 July 2011.  ^ Abbott, 28 ^ Fields 2007, p. 15. ^ Plutarch
Plutarch
Life of Crassus 8 ^ Smith, A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, "Servus", p. 1038; details the legal and military means by which people were enslaved. ^ BBC History (2011). "BBC – History – The Fall of the Roman Republic". bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 8 July 2011.  ^ The Roman Republic
Roman Republic
was never restored; but nor was it abolished, so the event which signaled its transition to Roman Empire
Roman Empire
is a matter of interpretation. Historians have variously proposed the appointment of Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
as perpetual dictator in 44 BC, the defeat of Mark Antony at the Battle of Actium
Actium
in 31 BC, and the Roman Senate's grant of extraordinary powers to Octavian
Octavian
(Augustus) under the first settlement in 27 BC, as candidates for the defining pivotal event ending the Republic. ^ Rodgers, Nigel. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Roman Empire, Lorenz Books, ISBN 978-0-7548-1911-0 (p.281) ^ Aldrete, Gregory S. (2004). Daily life in the Roman city: Rome, Pompeii and Ostia. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. p. 22. ISBN 0-313-33174-X. Retrieved 8 July 2011.  ^ Tacitus, AnnalsXV.40 ^ Fordham.edu (2009). "Ancient History Sourcebook: Dio Cassius: Nero and the Great Fire 64 AD". fordham.edu. Retrieved 8 July 2011.  ^ Oates, W. J. (09, June 30). Population of Rome. Retrieved March 11, 16, from http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Journals/CP/29/2/Population_of_Rome*.html ^ "BBC NEWS UK England Gloucestershire 'Plague' killed Roman grave dead". BBC News. 30 April 2008. Retrieved 22 December 2008.  ^ Graeme Clarke, "Third-Century Christianity," in Cambridge Ancient History: The Crisis of Empire (Cambridge University Press, 2005), vol. 12, p. 616; W.H.C. Frend, "Persecutions: Genesis and Legacy," Cambridge History of Christianity: Origins to Constantine (Cambridge University Press, 2006), vol. 1, p. 510. See also: Timothy D. Barnes, "Legislation Against the Christians," Journal of Roman Studies 58 (1968) 32–50; G.E.M de Sainte-Croix, "Why Were the Early Christians Persecuted?" Past & Present 26 (1963) 6–38; Herbert Musurillo, The Acts of the Christian Martyrs (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1972), pp. lviii–lxii; and A.N. Sherwin-White, "The Early Persecutions and Roman Law Again", Journal of Theological Studies 3.2 (1952) 199–213. ^ " Pliny the Younger
Pliny the Younger
on Christ". Mesacc.edu. Retrieved 2015-07-23.  ^ Suetonius, Life of Nero
Nero
16.2: afflicti suppliciis Christiani, genus hominum superstitionis novae ac maleficae. ^ Tacitus, Annals XV.44 ^ Routery, Michael (1997) The First Missionary War. The Church take over of the Roman Empire, Ch. 4, The Serapeum of Alexandria
Alexandria
Archived 31 May 2010 at the Wayback Machine. ^ History Stack (2011). "455 Sack of Rome
Rome
– historystack". historystack.posterous.com. Retrieved 8 July 2011.  ^ Encyclopaedia2 (2011). "Alaric, King of the Visigoths definition of Alaric, King of the Visigoths in the Free Online Encyclopedia". encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com. Retrieved 8 July 2011.  ^ St Jerome, Letter CXXVII. To Principia, s:Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers: Series II/Volume VI/The Letters of St. Jerome/Letter 127 paragraph 12. ^ Arnold HM Jones The Decline of the Ancient World, Lonmans, Green and Co. Ltd, London
London
1966 ^ Boorsch, Suzanne (Winter 1982–1983). "The Building of the Vatican: The Papacy and Architecture". The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin. 40 (3): 4–8.  ^ a b Bury, J. B. (2011). "J. B. Bury: History of the Later Roman Empire,§4 • Vol. I Chap. XII". penelope.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 8 July 2011.  ^ A Traveller In Rome
Rome
– H V Morton. Books.google.com. 2009-04-01. ISBN 0786730706. Retrieved 2015-07-23.  ^ P. Llewellyn, Rome
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in the Dark Ages ( London
London
1993), p. 97. ^ Catholic Online (2011). " Pope
Pope
Saint Martin I – Saints & Angels – Catholic Online". catholic.org. Retrieved 8 July 2011.  ^ Catholic Encyclopaedia (2009). "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPAEDIA: Pope
Pope
Saint Martin I". newadvent.org. Retrieved 8 July 2011.  ^ Oliver J. Thatcher and Edgar Holmes McNeal, eds., Source Book for Mediæval History (New York: Scribners, 1905; reprint AMS Press, 1971). ^ Third Millennium Library (2010). "THE LAWS OF LIUTPRAND". third-millennium-library.com. Retrieved 8 July 2011.  ^ Third Millennium Library (2010). "THE SITUATION IN THE TIME OF KING LIUTPRAND". third-millennium-library.com. Retrieved 8 July 2011.  ^ from Oliver J. Thatcher, and Edgar Holmes McNeal, eds., A Source Book for Medieval
Medieval
History, (New York: Scribners, 1905), p. 102 ^ " Medieval
Medieval
Sourcebook: Einhard: The Life of Charlemagne". Fordham.edu. Retrieved 2015-07-23.  ^ " Medieval
Medieval
Sourcebook: The Donation of Constantine". Fordham.edu. Retrieved 22 December 2008.  ^ In many manuscripts, including the oldest one, which dates from the 9th century, the document bears the title Constitutum domini Constantini imperatoris. Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Donation of Constantine". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  ^ Wilkes Jr., Donald E. (2011). "The Cadaver Synod: Strangest Trial in History". digitalcommons.law.uga.edu. Retrieved 8 July 2011.  ^ "Nor was he Sergius III content with thus dishonouring the dead Pope Formosus, but he drags his carcass again out of the grave, beheads it as if it had been alive, and then throws it into the Tiber, as unworthy the honour of human burial." Platina, Bartolomeo. "The Lives of the Popes From The Time Of Our Saviour Jesus Christ to the Accession of Gregory VII". I. London: Griffith Farran & Co.: 243. Retrieved 8 January 2008  ^ Brusher, Joseph (1959). "Sergius III". Popes Through the Ages. Neff-Kane. Retrieved 2 January 2008  ^ Milman, Henry Hart (1867). "History of Latin
Latin
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Library resources about History of Rome

Online books Resources in your library Resources in other libraries

Further reading[edit]

Thomas W. Africa (January 1991). The immense majesty: a history of Rome
Rome
and the Roman Empire. Harlan Davidson. ISBN 978-0-88295-874-3. Retrieved 15 July 2011.  online edition Roloff Beny; Peter Gunn (1981). The churches of Rome. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-671-43447-2. Retrieved 15 July 2011.  Gary Forsythe (14 February 2005). A critical history of early Rome: from prehistory to the first Punic War. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-22651-7. Retrieved 15 July 2011.  Tenney Frank
Tenney Frank
(1 February 2006). An Economic History of Rome. Cosimo, Inc. ISBN 978-1-59605-647-3. Retrieved 15 July 2011.  online edition Michael Grant (author) (1 March 1987). The world of Rome. Meridian. ISBN 978-0-452-00849-6. Retrieved 15 July 2011.  online edition; excerpt and text search Grant, Michael. History of Rome
Rome
(1997), good survey Christopher Hibbert (1987). Rome: the biography of a city. Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-007078-1. Retrieved 15 July 2011.  (1985). 386 pp. good introduction Jenkyns, Richard; The Legacy of Rome: A New Appraisal (1992) online edition H. H. Scullard (1980). A History of the Roman World, 753 to 146 BC. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-415-30504-4. Retrieved 15 July 2011.  (1961), standard scholarly history online edition Scullard, H. H. From the Gracchi to Nero: A History of Rome
Rome
from 133 B.C. to A.D. 68 (1968), standard scholarly history online edition Duncan, Mike. "The History of Rome". Retrieved 2016-02-13. 

Imperial Rome[edit]

Matthew Bunson (2002). Encyclopedia of the Roman Empire. Infobase Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8160-4562-4.  (2002) 636pp, at Google Books J. B. Campbell (2002). War and society in imperial Rome, 31 BC-AD 284. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-27881-2. Retrieved 15 July 2011.  (2002) online edition Harvard University. Library (1975). Ancient history: classification schedule, classified listing by call number, chronological listing, author and title listing. Harvard University Library : distributed by Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-03312-2. Retrieved 15 July 2011.  (1951) online edition Walter A. Goffart (2006). Barbarian tides: the migration age and the later Roman Empire. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-3939-3. Retrieved 15 July 2011.  Volume 6, Issue 3, Pages 855–883 Online at Wiley-Interscience; historiography Adrian Keith Goldsworthy
Adrian Keith Goldsworthy
(2009). How Rome
Rome
fell: death of a superpower. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-13719-4. Retrieved 15 July 2011.  (2009), 560pp; by leading scholar excerpt and text search Grant, Michael. The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Imperial Rome
Rome
31 B.C.-A.D. 476 (1997) Heather, Peter. The Fall of the Roman Empire: A New History of Rome and the Barbarians (2006) 572pp Potter, David. The Roman Empire
Roman Empire
at Bay: AD 180–395 (2004). online edition Rodgers, Nigel. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Roman Empire: A complete history of the rise and fall of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(2008) Rostovtzeff, M. The Social and Economic History of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(2 vol 1957); famous classic vol 2 online Starr; Chester G. The Emergence of Rome
Rome
as Ruler of the Western World (1953) online edition Ward-Perkins, Bryan. The Fall of Rome
Rome
and the End of Civilization (2005) 239 pp.

Medieval, Renaissance, Early Modern[edit]

Blunt, Anthony. Guide to Baroque
Baroque
Rome
Rome
(1982) architecture 1621–1750 Brentano, Robert; Rome
Rome
before Avignon: A Social History of Thirteenth-Century Rome
Rome
(1974) online edition Habel, Dorothy Metzger. The Urban Development of Rome
Rome
in the Age of Alexander VII (2002) 424 pp. + 22

.