HOME
The Info List - Henry Sidgwick


--- Advertisement ---



Henry Sidgwick
Henry Sidgwick
(/ˈsɪdʒwɪk/; 31 May 1838 – 28 August 1900) was an English utilitarian philosopher and economist;[1] he held the Knightbridge Professor of Moral Philosophy from the year 1883 until his death.[2] He was one of the founders and first president of the Society for Psychical Research
Society for Psychical Research
and a member of the Metaphysical Society and promoted the higher education of women. His work in economics has also had a lasting influence. He also founded Newnham College
Newnham College
in 1875, a women-only constituent college of the University of Cambridge. It was the second Cambridge college to admit women after Girton College. The co-founder of the college was Millicent Garrett Fawcett. He joined the Cambridge
Cambridge
Apostles intellectual secret society in 1856.

Contents

1 Biography 2 Exposure of fraud of Palladino 3 Opinions 4 Bibliography 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links

Biography[edit] He was born at Skipton
Skipton
in Yorkshire, where his father, the Reverend W. Sidgwick (d. 1841), was headmaster of the local grammar school, Ermysted's Grammar School. His mother was Mary Sidgwick, née Crofts (1807–1879). Henry himself was educated at Rugby (where his cousin, subsequently his brother-in-law, Edward White Benson, later Archbishop of Canterbury, was a master), and at Trinity College, Cambridge. While at Trinity, Sidgwick became a member of the Cambridge
Cambridge
Apostles. In 1859, he was senior classic, 33rd wrangler, chancellor's medallist and Craven scholar. In the same year, he was elected to a fellowship at Trinity and soon afterwards he became a lecturer in classics there, a post he held for ten years.[3] The Sidgwick Site, home to several of the university's arts and humanities faculties, is named after him. In 1869, he exchanged his lectureship in classics for one in moral philosophy, a subject to which he had been turning his attention. In the same year, deciding that he could no longer in good conscience declare himself a member of the Church of England, he resigned his fellowship. He retained his lectureship and in 1881 he was elected an honorary fellow. In 1874 he published The Methods of Ethics (6th ed. 1901, containing emendations written just before his death), by common consent a major work, which made his reputation outside the university. John Rawls
John Rawls
called it the "first truly academic work in moral theory, modern in both method and spirit".[4] In 1875, he was appointed praelector on moral and political philosophy at Trinity, and in 1883 he was elected Knightbridge Professor of Philosophy. In 1885, the religious test having been removed, his college once more elected him to a fellowship on the foundation. Besides his lecturing and literary labours, Sidgwick took an active part in the business of the university and in many forms of social and philanthropic work. He was a member of the General Board of Studies from its foundation in 1882 to 1899; he was also a member of the Council of the Senate of the Indian Civil Service
Indian Civil Service
Board and the Local Examinations and Lectures Syndicate and chairman of the Special
Special
Board for Moral Science.[citation needed] He married Eleanor Mildred Balfour, who was a member of the Ladies Dining Society in Cambridge, with 11 other members, and was sister to Arthur Balfour. A 2004 biography of Sidgwick by Bart Schultz
Bart Schultz
sought to establish that Sidgwick was a lifelong homosexual, but it is unknown whether he ever consummated his inclinations. According to the biographer, Sidgwick struggled internally throughout his life with issues of hypocrisy and openness in connection with his own forbidden desires.[5][6] He was one of the founders and first president of the Society for Psychical Research, and was a member of the Metaphysical Society. He also took in promoting the higher education of women. He helped to start the higher local examinations for women, and the lectures held at Cambridge
Cambridge
in preparation for these. It was at his suggestion and with his help that Anne Clough
Anne Clough
opened a house of residence for students, which developed into Newnham College, Cambridge. When, in 1880, the North Hall was added, Sidgwick, who, in 1876, had married Eleanor Mildred Balfour
Eleanor Mildred Balfour
(sister of A. J. Balfour), lived there for two years. His wife became principal of the college after Clough's death in 1892, and they lived there for the rest of his life. During this whole period, Sidgwick took the deepest interest in the welfare of the college. In politics, he was a liberal, and became a Liberal Unionist (a party that later effectively merged with the Conservative party) in 1886. Early in 1900 he was forced by ill-health to resign his professorship, and died a few months later.[citation needed] Sidgwick, who died an agnostic,[7] is buried in Terling
Terling
All Saints Churchyard, Terling, Essex, with his wife. Exposure of fraud of Palladino[edit] In July 1895, the medium Eusapia Palladino
Eusapia Palladino
was invited to England to Frederic William Henry Myers's house in Cambridge
Cambridge
for a series of investigations into her mediumship. According to reports by the investigators, Myers and Oliver Lodge, all the phenomena observed in the Cambridge
Cambridge
sittings were the result of trickery. Her fraud was so clever, according to Myers, that it "must have needed long practice to bring it to its present level of skill."[8] In the Cambridge
Cambridge
sittings, the results proved disastrous for her mediumship. During the séances, Palladino was caught cheating to free herself from the physical controls of the experiments.[9] Palladino was found liberating her hands by placing the hand of the controller on her left on top of the hand of the controller on her right. Instead of maintaining any contact with her, the observers on either side were found to be holding each other's hands, which made it possible for her to perform tricks.[10] Richard Hodgson had observed Palladino free a hand to move objects and use her feet to kick pieces of furniture in the room. Because of the discovery of fraud, the British SPR investigators such as Sidgwick and Frank Podmore
Frank Podmore
considered Palladino's mediumship to be permanently discredited and because of her fraud she was banned from any further experiments with the SPR in Britain.[10] In the British Medical Journal
British Medical Journal
on 9 November 1895 an article was published titled Exit Eusapia!. The article questioned the scientific legitimacy of the SPR for investigating Palladino, a medium who had a reputation of being a fraud and imposture.[11] Part of the article read: "It would be comic if it were not deplorable to picture this sorry Egeria surrounded by men like Professor Sidgwick, Professor Lodge, Mr. F. H. Myers, Dr. Schiaparelli, and Professor Richet, solemnly receiving her pinches and kicks, her finger skiddings, her sleight of hand with various articles of furniture as phenomena calling for serious study."[11] This caused Sidgwick to respond in a published letter to the British Medical Journal, 16 November 1895. According to Sidgwick SPR members had exposed the fraud of Palladino at the Cambridge
Cambridge
sittings, Sidgwick wrote "Throughout this period we have continually combated and exposed the frauds of professional mediums, and have never yet published in our Proceedings, any report in favour of the performances of any of them."[12] The response from the Journal questioned why the SPR wastes time investigating phenomena that are the "result of jugglery and imposture" and not urgently concerning the welfare of mankind.[12] In 1898, Myers was invited to a series of séances in Paris with Charles Richet. In contrast to the previous séances in which he had observed fraud, he claimed to have observed convincing phenomena.[13] Sidgwick reminded Myers of Palladino's trickery in the previous investigations as "overwhelming" but Myers did not change his position. That enraged Richard Hodgson, then editor of SPR publications, to ban Myers from publishing anything on his recent sittings with Palladino in the SPR journal. Hodgson was convinced Palladino was a fraud and supported Sidgwick in the "attempt to put that vulgar cheat Eusapia beyond the pale".[13] It was only in the 1908 sittings in Naples that the SPR reopened the Palladino file.[14] Opinions[edit]

Part of a series on

Utilitarianism

Predecessors

Epicurus David Hume Claude Adrien Helvétius William Godwin Francis Hutcheson William Paley

Key proponents

Jeremy Bentham John Stuart Mill Henry Sidgwick Richard Mervyn Hare Peter Singer

Types of utilitarianism

Negative Rule Act Two-level Total Average Prior existence Preference Classical

Key concepts

Pain Suffering Pleasure Utility Happiness Eudaimonia Consequentialism Felicific calculus

Problems

Mere addition paradox Paradox of hedonism Utility monster

Related topics

Rational choice theory Game theory Social choice Neoclassical economics

Politics portal

v t e

Sidgwick was a famous teacher. He treated his pupils as fellow students. He was deeply interested in psychical phenomena, but his energies were primarily devoted to the study of religion and philosophy.[citation needed] Brought up in the Church of England, he drifted away from orthodox Christianity, and as early as 1862 he described himself as a theist, independent from established religion.[15] For the rest of his life, although he regarded Christianity as "indispensable and irreplaceable – looking at it from a sociological point of view," he found himself unable to return to it as a religion. In political economy he was a utilitarian on the lines of John Stuart Mill and Jeremy Bentham. His work was characterised by its careful investigation of first principles, as in his distinction of positive and normative reasoning, and by critical analysis, not always constructive. His influence was such that for example Alfred Marshall, founder of the Cambridge
Cambridge
School of economics, would describe him as his "spiritual mother and father."[16] In philosophy, he devoted himself to ethics, and especially to the examination of the ultimate intuitive principles of conduct and commonsense morality, which he probes with great depth and subtlety in his major work, The Methods of Ethics (1874). He adopted a position that may be described as ethical hedonism, according to which the criterion of goodness in any given action is that it produces the greatest possible amount of personal pleasure. The hedonism, however, is not confined to the self (egoistic), but involves a due regard to the pleasure of others, and is, therefore, distinguished further as universalistic (a version of utilitarianism). As Sidgwick sees it, one of the central issues of ethics is whether self-interest and duty always coincide. To a great extent they do, Sidgwick argues, but it cannot be proved that they never conflict, except by appeal to a divine system of punishments and rewards that Sidgwick believes is out of place in a work of philosophical ethics. The upshot is that there is a "dualism of practical reason." Bibliography[edit]

Arthur & Eleanor Mildred Sidgwick, Henry Sidgwick, 1906

The Ethics
Ethics
of Conformity and Subscription. 1870. The Methods of Ethics. London, 1874, 7th edition 1907. The Theory of Evolution in its application to Practice, in Mind, Volume I, Number 1 January 1876, 52–67, Principles of Political Economy. London, 1883, 3rd edition 1901. The Scope and Method of Economic Science. 1885. Outlines of the History of Ethics
Ethics
for English Readers. 1886 5th edition 1902 (enlarged from his article ethics in the Encyclopædia Britannica). The Elements of Politics. London, 1891, 4th edition 1919. "The Philosophy of Common Sense", in Mind, New Series, Volume IV, Number 14, April 1895, 145–158. Economic science and economics, Palgrave's Dictionary of Political Economy, 1896, v. 1, reprinted in The New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economics, 1987, v. 2, 58–59. Practical Ethics. London, 1898, 2nd edition 1909. Philosophy; its Scope and Relations. London, 1902. Lectures on the Ethics
Ethics
of T. H. Green, Mr Herbert Spencer and J. Martineau. 1902. The Development of European Polity. 1903, 3rd edition 1920 Miscellaneous Essays and Addresses. 1904. Lectures on the Philosophy of Kant and other philosophical lectures and essays. 1905. Sidgwick's writings available online

See also[edit]

People

Alfred Marshall Derek Parfit

Topics

Analytic philosophy Ethical intuitionism Palm Sunday Case

References[edit]

^ Bryce, James (1903). "Henry Sidgwick". Studies in Contemporary Biography. New York: Macmillan. pp. 327–342.  ^ Schultz 2004 ^ "Sidgwick, Henry (SGWK855H)". A Cambridge
Cambridge
Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.  ^ Rawls, J. 1980. 'Kantian Constructivism in Moral Theory'. Journal of Philosophy 77 (1980). ^ Schultz, B. (2004). Henry Sidgwick, eye of the universe. Cambridge: Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press. ^ Schultz's book reviewed: Martha Nussbaum, "The Epistemology of the Closet." The Nation, 6 June 2005. ^ Christopher Nugent Lawrence Brooke, Damian Riehl Leader (1988). "1: Prologue". A History of the University of Cambridge: 1870–1990. Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press. p. 1. ISBN 9780521343503. In 1869 Henry Sidgwick, who had become a devout agnostic, made protest against the survival of religious tests in Cambridge
Cambridge
by resigning his Trinity fellowship.  ^ Joseph McCabe. (1920). Is Spiritualism Based on Fraud?: The Evidence Given by Sir A.C. Doyle and Others. London, Watts & Co. p. 14 ^ Walter Mann. (1919). The Follies and Frauds of Spiritualism. Rationalist Association. London: Watts & Co. pp. 115–130 ^ a b M. Brady Brower. (2010). Unruly Spirits: The Science of Psychic Phenomena in Modern France. University of Illinois Press. p. 62. ISBN 978-0252077517 ^ a b The British Medical Journal. (9 November 1895). Exit Eusapia!. Volume. 2, No. 1819. p. 1182. ^ a b The British Medical Journal. (16 November 1895). Exit Eusapia. Volume 2, No. 1820. pp. 1263–1264. ^ a b Janet Oppenheim. (1985). The Other World: Spiritualism and Psychical Research in England, 1850–1914. Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press. pp. 150–151. ISBN 978-0521265058 ^ Massimo Polidoro. (2003). Secrets of the Psychics: Investigating Paranormal Claims. Prometheus Books. p. 61. ISBN 978-1591020868 ^ "Losing My Religion":Sidgwick, Theism, and the Struggle for Utilitarian Ethics
Ethics
in Economic Analysis by Steven G. Medema: http://hope.dukejournals.org/cgi/reprint/40/5/189.pdf ^ Phyllis Deane, "Sidgwick, Henry," The New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economics, 1987, v. 4, pp. 328–29.

Further reading[edit]

Schultz, Bart. Henry Sidgwick: Eye of the Universe. An Intellectual Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press, 2004. Schultz, Bart. "Henry Sidgwick". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 5 October 2004. Blum, Deborah. Ghost
Ghost
Hunters. Arrow Books, 2007. Dawes, Ann. "Henry Sidgwick". Biograph, 2007 (in French) Geninet, Hortense. POLITIQUES COMPAREES, Henry Sidgwick
Henry Sidgwick
et la politique moderne dans les Éléments Politiques, Edited by Hortense Geninet, France, September 2009. ISBN 978-2-7466-1043-9 Nakano-Okuno, Mariko. Sidgwick and Contemporary Utilitarianism. Palgrave Macmillan, 2011. ISBN 978-0-230-32178-6 Phillips, David. Sidgwickian Ethics. Oxford University Press, 2011. Schneewind, Jerome. Sidgwick's Ethics
Ethics
and Victorian Moral Philosophy. Clarendon Press, 1977.

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Henry Sidgwick

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original works written by or about: Henry Sidgwick

Henry Sidgwick
Henry Sidgwick
Website Official website of the 2nd International congress : Henry Sidgwick Ethics, Psychics, Politics. University of Catania – Italy Henry Sidgwick. Comprehensive list of online writings by and about Sidgwick. Contains Sidgwick's "Methods of Ethics", modified for easier reading  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Sidgwick, Henry". Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
(11th ed.). Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press. 

v t e

Ethics

Theories

Casuistry Consequentialism Deontology

Kantian ethics

Ethics
Ethics
of care Existentialist ethics Meta-ethics Particularism Pragmatic ethics Role ethics Virtue
Virtue
ethics

Concepts

Autonomy Axiology Belief Conscience Consent Equality Care Free will Good and evil Happiness Ideal Justice Morality Norm Freedom Principles Suffering
Suffering
or Pain Stewardship Sympathy Trust Value Virtue Wrong full index...

Philosophers

Laozi Plato Aristotle Diogenes Valluvar Cicero Confucius Augustine of Hippo Mencius Mozi Xunzi Thomas Aquinas Baruch Spinoza David Hume Immanuel Kant Georg W. F. Hegel Arthur Schopenhauer Jeremy Bentham John Stuart Mill Søren Kierkegaard Henry Sidgwick Friedrich Nietzsche G. E. Moore Karl Barth Paul Tillich Dietrich Bonhoeffer Philippa Foot John Rawls John Dewey Bernard Williams J. L. Mackie G. E. M. Anscombe William Frankena Alasdair MacIntyre R. M. Hare Peter Singer Derek Parfit Thomas Nagel Robert Merrihew Adams Charles Taylor Joxe Azurmendi Christine Korsgaard Martha Nussbaum more...

Applied ethics

Bioethics Business ethics Discourse ethics Engineering ethics Environmental ethics Legal ethics Media ethics Medical ethics Nursing ethics Professional ethics Sexual ethics Ethics
Ethics
of eating meat Ethics
Ethics
of technology

Related articles

Christian ethics Descriptive ethics Ethics
Ethics
in religion Evolutionary ethics Feminist ethics History of ethics Ideology Islamic ethics Jewish ethics Normative ethics Philosophy of law Political philosophy Population ethics Social philosophy

Portal Category

v t e

Parapsychology

Outline

Topics

Apparitional experience Astral projection Auras Bilocation Clairvoyance Deathbed phenomena Dermo-optical perception Dream telepathy Ectoplasm Electronic voice phenomenon Extrasensory perception Ganzfeld experiment Ghosts Kirlian photography Levitation Materialization Mediumship Near-death experience Orb Out-of-body experience Pam Reynolds case Parapsychology
Parapsychology
research at SRI Past life regression Plant perception (paranormal) Poltergeist Precognition Psychic Psychic
Psychic
detective Psychic
Psychic
reading Psychic
Psychic
surgery Psychokinesis Psychometry Pyrokinesis Reincarnation Remote viewing Retrocognition Second sight Sensory leakage Spoon bending Telepathy Thoughtography Xenoglossy Zener cards

Active organizations

American Society for Psychical Research Association for the Scientific Study of Anomalous Phenomena College of Psychic
Psychic
Studies Institut Métapsychique International Institute of Noetic Sciences International Association for Near-Death Studies Koestler Parapsychology
Parapsychology
Unit Parapsychological Association Parapsychology
Parapsychology
Foundation Rhine Research Center Society for Psychical Research The Ghost
Ghost
Club

Defunct organizations

American Psychical Institute British College of Psychic
Psychic
Science Cambridge
Cambridge
Ghost
Ghost
Society International Club for Psychical Research International Institute for Psychical Research London Dialectical Society Metropolitan Psychical Society National Laboratory of Psychical Research Oxford Phasmatological Society Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research Laboratory Society for the Study of Supernormal Pictures

People

List of parapsychologists Skeptics of parapsychology

Publications

An Experiment with Time Extrasensory Perception Irreducible Mind Journal of Near-Death Studies Journal of Parapsychology Journal of Scientific Exploration Life After Life (book) Life Before Life Mental Radio Old Souls: The Scientific Evidence For Past Lives Parapsychology: Frontier Science of the Mind The Roots of Coincidence Twenty Cases Suggestive of Reincarnation Varieties of Anomalous Experience

Category Commons

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 36986233 LCCN: n82064052 ISNI: 0000 0001 0888 155X GND: 118797050 SELIBR: 320063 SUDOC: 032065825 BNF: cb12316694f (data) NLA: 35498332 NDL: 00526181 NKC: vse2008449

.