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HARLAND & WOLFF HEAVY INDUSTRIES is a British heavy industrial company, specialising in shipbuilding and offshore construction , located in Belfast , Northern Ireland . Harland & Wolff is famous for having built the majority of the ships intended for the White Star Line . Well known ships built by Harland & Wolff include the Olympic Class trio: RMS _Titanic_ , RMS _Olympic_ and RMS _Britannic_ , the Royal Navy 's HMS _Belfast_ , Royal Mail Line 's _Andes_, Shaw Savill 's _Southern Cross_ , Union-Castle 's RMS _Pendennis Castle_ , and P">_ Launch of RMS Olympic_ _ RMS Britannic_ launching postcard _ Launch of RMS Titanic_

CONTENTS

* 1 Early history * 2 The war years * 3 Post-war period * 4 Restructuring and current operations * 5 Archives * 6 List of ships built * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links

EARLY HISTORY

_ Workers leaving the shipyard at Queens Road in early 1911. RMS Titanic_ is in the background, beneath the Arrol gantry. Statue of Edward James Harland in the grounds of Belfast City Hall

Harland "> Harland and giving the hulls a flatter bottom and squarer cross section, which increased their capacity.

When Harland died in 1895, William James Pirrie became the chairman of the company until his death in 1924. Thomas Andrews also became the general manager and head of the draughting department in 1907. It was in this period that the company built _Olympic_ and the two other ships in her class _Titanic_ and _Britannic_ between 1909 and 1914, commissioning Sir William Arrol & Co. to construct a massive twin gantry and slipway structure for the project.

In 1912, due primarily to increasing political instability in Ireland, the company acquired another shipyard at Govan in Glasgow , Scotland. It bought the former London & Glasgow Engineering & Iron Shipbuilding Co's Middleton and Govan New shipyards in Govan and Mackie & Thomson's Govan Old yard, which had been owned by William Beardmore and Company . The three neighbouring yards were amalgamated and redeveloped to provide a total of seven building berths, a fitting-out basin and extensive workshops. Harland & Wolff specialised in building tankers and cargo ships at Govan. The nearby shipyard of A. & J. Inglis was also purchased by Harland & Wolff in 1919, along with a stake in the company's primary steel supplier, David Colville & Sons . Harland "> A burner operating at night on the deck of a ship at Harland and Wolff's Liverpool yard (27 October 1944).

In the First World War , Harland and Wolff built monitors and cruisers , including the 15-inch gun armed "large light cruiser" HMS _Glorious_ . In 1918, the company opened a new shipyard on the eastern side of the Musgrave Channel which was named the East Yard. This yard specialised in mass-produced ships of standard design developed in the First World War.

The company started an aircraft manufacturing subsidiary with Short Brothers , called SHORT and repairing over 22,000 vessels. It also manufactured tanks and artillery components. It was in this period that the company's workforce peaked at around 35,000 people. However, many of the vessels built in this era were commissioned right at the end of World War II, as Harland and Wolff were focused on ship repair in the first three years of the war. The yard on Queen's Island was heavily bombed by the Luftwaffe in April and May 1941 causing considerable damage to the shipbuilding facilities and destroying the aircraft factory.

POST-WAR PERIOD

With the rise of the jet-powered airliner in the late 1950s, the demand for ocean liners declined. This, coupled with competition from Japan , led to difficulties for the British shipbuilding industry. The last liner that the company launched was MV _Arlanza_ for Royal Mail Line in 1960, whilst the last liner completed was SS _Canberra_ for P leading to a new company called HARLAND & WOLFF HOLDINGS PLC. By this time, the number of people employed by the company had fallen to around 3,000.

For the next few years, Harland & Wolff specialised in building standard Suezmax oil tankers , and has continued to concentrate on vessels for the offshore oil and gas industry. It has made some forays outside this market. The company bid unsuccessfully tendered against Chantiers de l\'Atlantique for the construction of Cunard line 's new _Queen Mary 2_ .

In the late 1990s, the yard was part of the then British Aerospace 's team for the Royal Navy 's Future Carrier (CVF) programme. It was envisaged that the ship would be assembled at the Harland & Wolff dry-dock in Belfast. In 1999 BAE merged with Marconi Electronic Systems . The new company, BAE Systems Marine , included the former Marconi shipyards on the Clyde and at Barrow-in-Furness thus rendering H">_ The Samson and Goliath gantry cranes have become city landmarks Harland "> Isle of Inishmore_ and _Jonathan Swift_ being refitted at Harland & Wolff in 2008

Faced with competitive pressures (especially as regards shipbuilding), Harland & Wolff sought to shift and broaden their portfolio, focusing less on shipbuilding and more on design and structural engineering, as well as ship repair, offshore construction projects and competing for other projects to do with metal engineering and construction. This led to Harland and Wolff constructing a series of bridges in Britain and also in the Republic of Ireland , such as the James Joyce Bridge and the restoration of Dublin 's Ha\'penny Bridge , building on the success of its first foray into the civil engineering sector with the construction of the Foyle Bridge in the 1980s.

Harland & Wolff's last shipbuilding project (to date) was MV _Anvil Point_, one of six near identical Point-class sealift ships built for use by the Ministry of Defence . The ship, built under licence from German shipbuilders Flensburger Schiffbau-Gesellschaft , was launched in 2003.

Harland and Wolff was nearly awarded the contract to build RMS _Queen Mary 2_ in 2003, but was not given the government guarantee necessary to do so. As a result, the contract was awarded to Chantiers de l\'Atlantique . The ship entered service in 2004.

In recent years the company has indeed seen its ship-related workload increase slightly. Whilst Harland & Wolff has no involvement in any shipbuilding projects for the foreseeable future, the company is increasingly involved in overhaul, re-fitting and ship repair, as well as the construction and repair of off-shore equipment such as oil platforms . On 1 February 2011 it was announced that Harland & Wolff had won the contract to refurbish SS _Nomadic_ , effectively rekindling its nearly 150-year association with the White Star Line. Structural steel work on the ship began on 10 February 2011 and was completed in time for the 2012 Belfast Titanic Festival. In July 2012 Harland & Wolff was to carry out the dry docking and service of the Husky Oil SeaRose FPSO (Floating Production, Storage and Offloading) vessel.

Belfast's skyline is still dominated today by Harland & Wolff's famous twin gantry cranes , Samson and Goliath , built in 1974 and 1969 respectively. There is also speculation about a resurgence in the prosperity of the shipyard thanks to the company's diversification into emerging technologies , particularly in renewable energy development , such as offshore wind turbine and tidal power construction, which may provide an opportunity to further improve the company's fortunes in the long term. For example, the United Kingdom planned to build 7,500 new offshore wind turbines between 2008 and 2020, creating great demand for heavy assembly work. Unlike land-based wind turbines, where assembly occurs on site, offshore wind turbines have part of their assembly done in a shipyard, and then construction barges transport the tower sections, rotors, and nacelles to the site for final erection and assembly. As a result of this, in late 2007, the 'Goliath' gantry crane was re-commissioned, having been moth-balled in 2003 due to the lack of heavy-lifting work at the yard.

In June 2008, assembly work at the Belfast yard was underway on 60 Vestas V90-3MW wind turbines for the Robin Rigg Wind Farm . This was the second offshore wind farm assembled by the company for Vestas having completed the logistics for the Barrow Offshore Wind Farm in 2006. In August 2011 Harland and Wolff completed the logistics for the Ormonde Wind Farm which consisted of 30 REpower 5MW turbines.

In March 2008, the construction of the world's first commercial tidal stream turbine, for Marine Current Turbines, was completed at the Belfast yard. The installation of the 1.2MW SeaGen Tidal System was begun in Strangford Lough in April 2008.

In July 2010, Harland & Wolff secured a contract to make a prototype tidal energy turbine for Scotrenewables Ltd. Manufacture of the SR250 device was completed in May 2011 and has been undergoing testing in Orkney since.

As of April 2012, the booming offshore wind power industry has taken centre stage. Harland & Wolff are currently working on three innovative meteorological mast foundations for the Dogger Bank and Firth of Forth offshore wind farms, as well as putting the finishing touches to two Siemens substations for the Gwynt y Môr offshore wind farm. Seventy-five per cent of the company's work is based on offshore renewable energy . Harland & Wolff is one of many UK and international companies profiting from the emergence of UK wind- and marine-generated electricity, which is attracting significant inward investment.

ARCHIVES

The archives relating to the Harland & Wolff Heavy Industries are maintained by the Archives of the University of Glasgow (GUAS) . A collection of Harland & Wolff papers are held at Public Record Office of Northern Ireland (PRONI). Their "Introduction Harland and Wolff Papers" issued 2007, notes "The Harland ">

* ^ http://www.nmni.com/titanic/Design-Build/Harland---Wolff/Belfasts-Titanic-Shipyard.aspx * ^ Moss, M; Hume, J.R. (1986). _Shipbuilders to the World: 125 years of Harland and Wolff, Belfast 1861–1986_. Belfast: Blackstaff Press. pp. xvii, 601 p. ISBN 0-85640-343-1 . * ^ _A_ _B_ "Britain could lead world in offshore wind power". _The Daily Telegraph _. London. 14 February 2011. * ^ Mullin, John (11 March 2000). "Harland & Wolff locks horns with DTI". _ The Guardian _. London. * ^ The Genesis of a Queen: Queen Mary 2. YouTube (2012-01-18). Retrieved on 2013-07-23. * ^ McCarthy, Michael (24 January 2008). "Britain will need 12,500 wind farms to satisfy EU targets". London: The Independent . Retrieved 7 October 2008. * ^ Harrison, Claire (2 June 2008). "Breath of fresh air for H&W with wind turbine venture". _ Belfast Telegraph _. Retrieved 7 October 2008. * ^ McDonald, Henry (31 March 2008). " Tidal power comes to Northern Ireland". _ The Guardian _. London. * ^ "Turbine contract boost for Harland and Wolff". _Inside Ireland_. Adman multimedia. * ^ "Harland & Wolff Archive, Public Record Office of Northern Ireland". _RASCAL: Research and Special Collections Available Locally (Ireland)_. Retrieved 15 December 2011. * ^ PRONI (2007). _Introduction Harland and Wolff Papers_ (PDF). * ^ McCluskie, Tom (1998). _Ships from the Archives of Harland & Wolff: Builders of the Titanic_. London: PRC Publishing Ltd. p. 160. ISBN 1 85648 467X .

FURTHER READING

* Johnston, Ian; Buxton, Ian (2013). _The Battleship Builders - Constructing and Arming British Capital Ships_ (Hardback)format= requires url= (help ). Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1-59114-027-6 . * McWhirter, George (1976). _Queen of the Sea, George McWhirter_. Ottawa: Oberon Press . ISBN 0-88750-198-2 . — poems about the Belfast