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Harland & Wolff Heavy Industries is a heavy industrial company, specialising in ship repair, conversion, and offshore construction, located in Belfast, Northern Ireland. Harland & Wolff is famous for having built the majority of the ships intended for the White Star Line.[1] Well known ships built by Harland & Wolff include the Olympic Class trio: RMS Titanic, RMS Olympic and RMS Britannic, the Royal Navy's HMS Belfast, Royal Mail Line's Andes, Shaw Savill's Southern Cross, Union-Castle's RMS Pendennis Castle, and P&O's Canberra. Harland and Wolff's official history, Shipbuilders to the World, was published in 1986.[2] As of 2011, the expanding offshore wind power industry has been the prime focus, and 75% of the company's work is based on offshore renewable energy.[3]

Launch of RMS Olympic

RMS Britannic
RMS Britannic
launching postcard

Launch of RMS Titanic

Contents

1 Early history 2 The war years 3 Post-war period 4 Restructuring and current operations 5 Archives 6 List of ships built 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links

Early history[edit]

Workers leaving the shipyard at Queens Road in early 1911. RMS Titanic is in the background, beneath the Arrol gantry. The bow of SS Nomadic
SS Nomadic
is at the far left.

Statue of Edward James Harland in the grounds of Belfast
Belfast
City Hall

Harland & Wolff was formed in 1861 by Edward James Harland (1831–95) and Hamburg-born Gustav Wilhelm Wolff
Gustav Wilhelm Wolff
(1834–1913, came to the UK from age 14). In 1858 Harland, then general manager, bought the small shipyard on Queen's Island from his employer Robert Hickson.

Harland & Wolff's Belfast
Belfast
drawing offices early in the 20th century

After buying Hickson's shipyard, Harland made his assistant Wolff a partner in the company. Wolff was the nephew of Gustav Schwabe, Hamburg, who was heavily invested in the Bibby Line, and the first three ships that the newly incorporated shipyard built were for that line. Harland made a success of the business through several innovations, notably replacing the wooden upper decks with iron ones which increased the strength of the ships; and giving the hulls a flatter bottom and squarer cross section, which increased their capacity. When Harland died in 1895, William James Pirrie became the chairman of the company until his death in 1924. Thomas Andrews also became the general manager and head of the draughting department in 1907. It was in this period that the company built Olympic and the two other ships in her class Titanic and Britannic between 1909 and 1914, commissioning Sir William Arrol & Co. to construct a massive twin gantry and slipway structure for the project. In 1912, due primarily to increasing political instability in Ireland, the company acquired another shipyard at Govan
Govan
in Glasgow, Scotland. It bought the former London & Glasgow
Glasgow
Engineering & Iron Shipbuilding
Shipbuilding
Co's Middleton and Govan
Govan
New shipyards in Govan
Govan
and Mackie & Thomson's Govan
Govan
Old yard, which had been owned by William Beardmore and Company. The three neighbouring yards were amalgamated and redeveloped to provide a total of seven building berths, a fitting-out basin and extensive workshops. Harland & Wolff specialised in building tankers and cargo ships at Govan. The nearby shipyard of A. & J. Inglis was also purchased by Harland & Wolff in 1919, along with a stake in the company's primary steel supplier, David Colville & Sons. Harland & Wolff also established shipyards at Bootle
Bootle
in Liverpool, North Woolwich
North Woolwich
in London and Southampton. However, these shipyards were all eventually closed from the early 1960s when the company opted to consolidate its operations in Belfast. The war years[edit]

A burner operating at night on the deck of a ship at Harland and Wolff's Liverpool
Liverpool
yard (27 October 1944).

In the First World War, Harland and Wolff
Harland and Wolff
built monitors and cruisers, including the 15-inch gun armed "large light cruiser" HMS Glorious. In 1918, the company opened a new shipyard on the eastern side of the Musgrave Channel which was named the East Yard. This yard specialised in mass-produced ships of standard design developed in the First World War. The company started an aircraft manufacturing subsidiary with Short Brothers, called Short & Harland Limited in 1936. Its first order was for 189 Handley Page Hereford
Handley Page Hereford
bombers built under licence from Handley Page for the Royal Air Force. In the Second World War, this factory built Short Stirling
Short Stirling
bombers as the Hereford was removed from service. The shipyard was busy in the Second World War, building six aircraft carriers, two cruisers (including HMS Belfast) and 131 other naval ships; and repairing over 22,000 vessels. It also manufactured tanks and artillery components. It was in this period that the company's workforce peaked at around 35,000 people. However, many of the vessels built in this era were commissioned right at the end of World War II, as Harland and Wolff
Harland and Wolff
were focused on ship repair in the first three years of the war. The yard on Queen's Island was heavily bombed by the Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe
in April and May 1941 causing considerable damage to the shipbuilding facilities and destroying the aircraft factory. Post-war period[edit] With the rise of the jet-powered airliner in the late 1950s, the demand for ocean liners declined. This, coupled with competition from Japan, led to difficulties for the British shipbuilding industry. The last liner that the company launched was MV Arlanza for Royal Mail Line in 1960, whilst the last liner completed was SS Canberra
SS Canberra
for P&O in 1961. In the 1960s, notable achievements for the yard included the tanker Myrina, which was the first supertanker built in the UK and the largest vessel ever launched down a slipway, as it was in the September of 1967. In the same period the yard also built the semi-submersible drilling rig Sea Quest which, due to its three-legged design, was launched down three parallel slipways. This was a first and only time this was ever done. In the mid-1960s, the British government
British government
started advancing loans and subsidies to British shipyards to preserve jobs. Some of this money was used to finance the modernisation of the yard, allowing it to build the much larger post-war merchant ships including one of 333,000 tonnes. However continuing problems led to the company's nationalisation, though not as part of British Shipbuilders, in 1977. In 1971, the Arrol Gantry complex, within which many ships were built until the early 1960s, was demolished. The nationalised company was sold by the British government
British government
in 1989 to a management/employee buy-out in partnership with the Norwegian shipping magnate Fred Olsen; leading to a new company called Harland & Wolff Holdings Plc. By this time, the number of people employed by the company had fallen to around 3,000. For the next few years, Harland & Wolff specialised in building standard Suezmax
Suezmax
oil tankers, and has continued to concentrate on vessels for the offshore oil and gas industry. It has made some forays outside this market. The company bid unsuccessfully tendered against Chantiers de l'Atlantique
Chantiers de l'Atlantique
for the construction of Cunard line's new Queen Mary 2.[4] In the late 1990s, the yard was part of the then British Aerospace's team for the Royal Navy's Future Carrier (CVF) programme. It was envisaged that the ship would be assembled at the Harland & Wolff dry-dock in Belfast. In 1999 BAE merged with Marconi Electronic Systems. The new company, BAE Systems Marine, included the former Marconi shipyards on the Clyde and at Barrow-in-Furness
Barrow-in-Furness
thus rendering H&W's involvement surplus to requirements. Restructuring and current operations[edit]

The Samson and Goliath gantry cranes have become city landmarks

Harland & Wolff is now a leading offshore fabrication and ship repair yard.

Isle of Inishmore and Jonathan Swift being refitted at Harland & Wolff in 2008

Faced with competitive pressures (especially as regards shipbuilding), Harland & Wolff sought to shift and broaden their portfolio, focusing less on shipbuilding and more on design and structural engineering, as well as ship repair, offshore construction projects and competing for other projects to do with metal engineering and construction. This led to Harland and Wolff
Harland and Wolff
constructing a series of bridges in Britain and also in the Republic of Ireland, such as the James Joyce Bridge
James Joyce Bridge
and the restoration of Dublin's Ha'penny Bridge, building on the success of its first foray into the civil engineering sector with the construction of the Foyle Bridge
Foyle Bridge
in the 1980s. Harland & Wolff's last shipbuilding project was MV Anvil Point,[5] one of six near identical Point-class sealift ships built for use by the Ministry of Defence. The ship, built under licence from German shipbuilders Flensburger Schiffbau-Gesellschaft, was launched in 2003. Harland and Wolff
Harland and Wolff
was nearly awarded the contract to build RMS Queen Mary 2 in 2003, but was not given the government guarantee necessary to do so. As a result, the contract was awarded to Chantiers de l'Atlantique. The ship entered service in 2004.[6] In recent years the company has indeed seen its ship-related workload increase slightly. Whilst Harland & Wolff has no involvement in any shipbuilding projects for the foreseeable future, the company is increasingly involved in overhaul, re-fitting and ship repair, as well as the construction and repair of off-shore equipment such as oil platforms. On 1 February 2011 it was announced that Harland & Wolff had won the contract to refurbish SS Nomadic, effectively rekindling its nearly 150-year association with the White Star Line. Structural steel work on the ship began on 10 February 2011 and was completed in time for the 2012 Belfast
Belfast
Titanic Festival. In July 2012 Harland & Wolff was to carry out the dry docking and service of the Husky Oil SeaRose FPSO
SeaRose FPSO
(Floating Production, Storage and Offloading) vessel. Belfast's skyline is still dominated today by Harland & Wolff's famous twin gantry cranes, Samson and Goliath, built in 1974 and 1969 respectively. There is also speculation about a resurgence in the prosperity of the shipyard thanks to the company's diversification into emerging technologies, particularly in renewable energy development, such as offshore wind turbine and tidal power construction, which may provide an opportunity to further improve the company's fortunes in the long term. For example, the United Kingdom planned to build 7,500 new offshore wind turbines between 2008 and 2020,[7] creating great demand for heavy assembly work. Unlike land-based wind turbines, where assembly occurs on site, offshore wind turbines have part of their assembly done in a shipyard, and then construction barges transport the tower sections, rotors, and nacelles to the site for final erection and assembly. As a result of this, in late 2007, the 'Goliath' gantry crane was re-commissioned, having been moth-balled in 2003 due to the lack of heavy-lifting work at the yard. In June 2008, assembly work at the Belfast
Belfast
yard was underway on 60 Vestas V90-3MW
Vestas V90-3MW
wind turbines for the Robin Rigg Wind Farm.[8] This was the second offshore wind farm assembled by the company for Vestas having completed the logistics for the Barrow Offshore Wind Farm
Barrow Offshore Wind Farm
in 2006. In August 2011 Harland and Wolff
Harland and Wolff
completed the logistics for the Ormonde Wind Farm
Ormonde Wind Farm
which consisted of 30 REpower 5MW turbines. In March 2008, the construction of the world's first commercial tidal stream turbine, for Marine Current Turbines, was completed at the Belfast
Belfast
yard. The installation of the 1.2MW SeaGen
SeaGen
Tidal System was begun in Strangford Lough
Strangford Lough
in April 2008.[9] In July 2010, Harland & Wolff secured a contract to make a prototype tidal energy turbine for Scotrenewables Ltd.[10] Manufacture of the SR250 device was completed in May 2011 and has been undergoing testing in Orkney since. As of April 2012, the booming offshore wind power industry has taken centre stage. Harland & Wolff are currently working on three innovative meteorological mast foundations for the Dogger Bank and Firth of Forth offshore wind farms, as well as putting the finishing touches to two Siemens substations for the Gwynt y Môr
Gwynt y Môr
offshore wind farm. Seventy-five per cent of the company's work is based on offshore renewable energy. Harland & Wolff is one of many UK and international companies profiting from the emergence of UK wind- and marine-generated electricity, which is attracting significant inward investment.[3] Archives[edit] The archives relating to the Harland & Wolff Heavy Industries are maintained by the Archives of the University of Glasgow
Glasgow
(GUAS). A collection of Harland & Wolff papers are held at Public Record Office of Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
(PRONI).[11] Their "Introduction to the Harland and Wolff
Harland and Wolff
Papers" issued 2007, notes "The Harland & Wolff archive in PRONI comprises c.2,000 files, c.200 volumes and c.16,000 documents, 1861–1987, documenting most aspects of the history of Belfast's famous shipbuilding firm". A further major archive is held at the Ulster Folk and Transport Museum
Ulster Folk and Transport Museum
(UFTM). This has a photographic collection and a ships' plans collection (i.e., technical drawings). Around 8,000 prints of Harland & Wolff built ships covering the period 1890-1945 are held in bound volumes in the UFTM's library. However the UFTM's collection of ships' plans is not currently available to the public nor is there a copy service.[12] Selected early ship's plans (dating from 1860 to 1882) are reproduced in a pictorial book by McCluskie (1998).[13] List of ships built[edit] See: List of ships built by Harland and Wolff See also: Category:Ships built by Harland and Wolff See also: Category:Ships built in Belfast References[edit]

^ "Titanic - Home". www.nmni.com. Retrieved 27 March 2018.  ^ Moss, M; Hume, J.R. (1986). Shipbuilders to the World: 125 years of Harland and Wolff, Belfast
Belfast
1861–1986. Belfast: Blackstaff Press. pp. xvii, 601 p. ISBN 0-85640-343-1.  ^ a b "Britain could lead world in offshore wind power". The Daily Telegraph. London. 14 February 2011.  ^ Mullin, John (11 March 2000). "Harland & Wolff locks horns with DTI". The Guardian. London.  ^ "List of Ships". theyard.info. Retrieved 12 March 2018.  ^ The Genesis of a Queen: Queen Mary 2. YouTube (2012-01-18). Retrieved on 2013-07-23. ^ McCarthy, Michael (24 January 2008). "Britain will need 12,500 wind farms to satisfy EU targets". London: The Independent. Retrieved 7 October 2008.  ^ Harrison, Claire (2 June 2008). "Breath of fresh air for H&W with wind turbine venture". Belfast
Belfast
Telegraph. Retrieved 7 October 2008.  ^ McDonald, Henry (31 March 2008). " Tidal power
Tidal power
comes to Northern Ireland". The Guardian. London.  ^ "Turbine contract boost for Harland and Wolff". Inside Ireland. Adman multimedia. [permanent dead link] ^ "Harland & Wolff Archive, Public Record Office of Northern Ireland". RASCAL: Research and Special
Special
Collections Available Locally (Ireland). Retrieved 14 September 2017.  ^ PRONI (2007). Introduction Harland and Wolff
Harland and Wolff
Papers (PDF).  ^ McCluskie, Tom (1998). Ships from the Archives of Harland & Wolff: Builders of the Titanic. London: PRC Publishing Ltd. p. 160. ISBN 1 85648 467X. 

Further reading[edit]

Johnston, Ian; Buxton, Ian (2013). The Battleship Builders - Constructing and Arming British Capital Ships (Hardback)format= requires url= (help). Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1-59114-027-6.  McWhirter, George (1976). Queen of the Sea, George McWhirter. Ottawa: Oberon Press. ISBN 0-88750-198-2.  — poems about the Belfast
Belfast
Shipyard

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Harland and Wolff.

Harland and Wolff
Harland and Wolff
Heavy Industries

Coordinates: 54°36′29″N 5°54′03″W / 54.6080°N 5.9008°W / 54.6080; -5.9008

v t e

Modern timeline of British shipbuilding companies, 1960-present

1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1

Hawthorn Leslie & Company

Caledon Sh'b. & Eng. Co. Robb Caledon Shipbuilding

Henry Robb

Harland and Wolff Harland & Wolff Heavy Industries

Ailsa Shipbuilding
Shipbuilding
Company

Ferguson Ailsa Ailsa & Perth

Ferguson Brothers

Ferguson Shipbuilders

Lithgows Scott Lithgow

Scott Lithgow

Scotts Sh'b. & Eng. Co.

Greenock Dockyard Co.

Swan Hunter
Swan Hunter
& Wigham Richardson Swan Hunter
Swan Hunter
Group

Swan Hunter

Smiths Dock Co.

John Readhead & Sons

Hall Russell & Co.

Hall Russell A&P

Austin & Pickersgill

North East Shipbuilders Ltd. A&P Appledore International A&P Group

William Doxford & Sons

Appledore Shipbuilders

DML Appledore Babcock Marine Appledore

Cammell Laird
Cammell Laird
& Company

VSEL Coastline Cammell Laird A&P Shiprepair NWSL CLSS

Vickers-Armstrongs Vickers Ltd. Shipbuilding

Marconi Marine (VSEL) BAE Systems Marine BAE Sub. Solutions

Yarrow & Co. Y'w. Sh'b. Ltd. Upper Clyde Shipbuilders YSL

Marconi Marine (YSL) BAE Surf. Flt. Solutions BVT Surface Fleet BAE Systems Surface Ships

Fairfield Sh'b. & Eng. Co.

Govan
Govan
Sh'b.

Kvaerner Govan

Charles Connell & Company Scotstoun Marine

John Brown & Company Marathon (Clydebank) UiE Scotland

Alexander Stephens & Sons

W. Denny & Bros.

A. & J. Inglis

Simons & Lobnitz

Barclay Curle

J. I. Thornycroft & Co. Vosper Thornycroft

Vosper Thornycroft VT Group

Vosper & Co.

British Hovercraft Corporation

Hoverwork Ltd. Griffon Hoverwork

Griffon Hovercraft Ltd.

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1

1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s

BSC = British Shipbuilders Corporation

v t e

Fred. Olsen & Co.

Holding companies

Bonheur Ganger Rolf

Companies

Fred. Olsen Cruise Lines Fred. Olsen Energy Fred. Olsen Express Fred. Olsen Production Fred. Olsen Renewables First Olsen Tankers Fred. Olsen Travel Harland and Wolff IT Fornebu (minority ownership) NHST Media Group (minority ownership) Timex Group

Former companies

Aker (company) Comarit Det Norske Luftfartselskap Fred. Olsen Airtransport Fred. Olsen Lines Sterling Airlines Tusenfryd Widerøe

People

Petter Olsen Sr Thomas Fredrik Olsen Thomas Fredrik Olsen Rudolf Olsen Fredrik Olsen Petter Olsen Anette S. Ols

.