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The Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
(/ˌhænsɪˈætɪk/; Middle Low German: Hanse, Deutsche Hanse, Hansa, Hansa Teutonica or Liga Hanseatica) was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and their market towns. Growing from a few North German towns in the late 1100s, the league came to dominate Baltic maritime trade for three centuries along the coast of Northern Europe. It stretched from the Baltic to the North Sea
North Sea
and inland during the Late Middle Ages
Late Middle Ages
and declined slowly after 1450. Hanse, later spelled as Hansa, was the Middle Low German
Middle Low German
word for a convoy, and this word was applied to bands of merchants traveling between the Hanseatic cities whether by land or by sea. The league was created to protect the guilds' economic interests and diplomatic privileges in their affiliated cities and countries, as well as along the trade routes the merchants visited. The Hanseatic cities had their own legal system and furnished their own armies for mutual protection and aid. Despite this, the organization was not a state, nor could it be called a confederation of city-states; only a very small number of the cities within the league enjoyed autonomy and liberties comparable to those of a free imperial city.[1]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Foundation and formation 1.2 Commercial expansion 1.3 Zenith 1.4 Rise of rival powers 1.5 End of the Hansa

2 Modern Hanseatic connections 3 Organization

3.1 Quarters

4 Lists of former Hansa cities

4.1 Hansa Proper 4.2 Kontore 4.3 Ports with Hansa trading posts 4.4 Other cities with a Hansa community

5 Modern "City League The Hanse" 6 Historical maps 7 See also 8 Notes 9 Further reading

9.1 Historiography

10 External links

History[edit] Historians generally trace the origins of the Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
to the rebuilding of the north German town of Lübeck
Lübeck
in 1159 by the powerful Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony and Bavaria, after he had captured the area from Adolf II, Count of Schauenburg
Count of Schauenburg
and Holstein. Exploratory trading adventures, raids, and piracy had occurred earlier throughout the Baltic region—the sailors of Gotland
Gotland
sailed up rivers as far away as Novgorod, for example—but the scale of international trade in the Baltic area remained insignificant before the growth of the Hanseatic League.[citation needed] German cities achieved domination of trade in the Baltic with striking speed during the 13th century, and Lübeck
Lübeck
became a central node in the seaborne trade that linked the areas around the North and Baltic seas. The hegemony of Lübeck
Lübeck
peaked during the 15th century. Foundation and formation[edit]

Foundation of the alliance between Lübeck
Lübeck
and Hamburg

Lübeck
Lübeck
became a base for merchants from Saxony and Westphalia
Westphalia
trading eastward and northward. Well before the term Hanse appeared in a document in 1267,[citation needed] merchants in different cities began to form guilds, or Hansa, with the intention of trading with towns overseas, especially in the economically less-developed eastern Baltic. This area was a source of timber, wax, amber, resins, and furs, along with rye and wheat brought down on barges from the hinterland to port markets. The towns raised their own armies, with each guild required to provide levies when needed. The Hanseatic cities came to the aid of one another, and commercial ships often had to be used to carry soldiers and their arms. Visby
Visby
functioned as the leading centre in the Baltic before the Hansa. Sailing east, Visby
Visby
merchants established a trading post at Novgorod called Gutagard (also known as Gotenhof) in 1080.[2] Merchants from northern Germany
Germany
also stayed in the early period of the Gotlander settlement. Later they established their own trading station in Novgorod, known as Peterhof, which was further up river, in the first half of the 13th century.[3] In 1229, German merchants at Novgorod were granted certain privileges that made their positions more secure.[4] Hansa societies worked to remove restrictions to trade for their members. Before the official foundation of the league in 1356, the word Hanse did not occur in the Baltic language. Gotlanders used the word varjag. The earliest remaining documentary mention, although without a name, of a specific German commercial federation is from London
London
in 1157.[citation needed] That year, the merchants of the Hansa in Cologne
Cologne
convinced Henry II, King of England, to free them from all tolls in London
London
and allow them to trade at fairs throughout England. The "Queen of the Hansa", Lübeck, where traders were required to trans-ship goods between the North Sea
North Sea
and the Baltic, gained imperial privileges to become a free imperial city in 1227, as its potential trading partner Hamburg
Hamburg
had in 1189. In 1241, Lübeck, which had access to the Baltic and North seas' fishing grounds, formed an alliance—a precursor to the league—with Hamburg, another trading city, that controlled access to salt-trade routes from Lüneburg. The allied cities gained control over most of the salt-fish trade, especially the Scania Market; Cologne
Cologne
joined them in the Diet of 1260. In 1266, Henry III of England
Henry III of England
granted the Lübeck and Hamburg
Hamburg
Hansa a charter for operations in England, and the Cologne Hansa joined them in 1282 to form the most powerful Hanseatic colony in London. Much of the drive for this co-operation came from the fragmented nature of existing territorial governments, which failed to provide security for trade. Over the next 50 years the Hansa itself emerged with formal agreements for confederation and co-operation covering the west and east trade routes. The principal city and linchpin remained Lübeck; with the first general diet of the Hansa held there in 1356, the Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
acquired an official structure.[5] Commercial expansion[edit]

Main trading routes of the Hanseatic League

Lübeck's location on the Baltic provided access for trade with Scandinavia
Scandinavia
and Kievan Rus', putting it in direct competition with the Scandinavians who had previously controlled most of the Baltic trade routes. A treaty with the Visby
Visby
Hansa put an end to this competition: through this treaty the Lübeck
Lübeck
merchants also gained access to the inland Russian port of Novgorod, where they built a trading post or Kontor
Kontor
(literally: "office"). Although such alliances formed throughout the Holy Roman Empire, the league never became a closely managed formal organisation. Assemblies of the Hanseatic towns met irregularly in Lübeck
Lübeck
for a Hansetag (Hanseatic diet), from 1356 onwards, but many towns chose not to attend nor to send representatives and decisions were not binding on individual cities.[citation needed] Over the period, a network of alliances grew to include a flexible roster of 70 to 170 cities.[6] The league succeeded in establishing additional Kontors in Bruges (Flanders), Bergen
Bergen
(Norway), and London
London
(England). These trading posts became significant enclaves. The London
London
Kontor, established in 1320, stood west of London Bridge
London Bridge
near Upper Thames Street, the site now occupied by Cannon Street station. It grew into a significant walled community with its own warehouses, weighhouse, church, offices and houses, reflecting the importance and scale of trading activity on the premises. The first reference to it as the Steelyard
Steelyard
(der Stahlhof) occurs in 1422.

Imports and exports, 18 Mar 1368 – 10 Mar 1369 (in thousands of Port Lübeck
Lübeck
marks)

Imports

Origin, Destination Exports

Total %

150

London/Hamburg 38

188 34.4

44

Livonian towns: 51

95 17.4

10 Riga

14

34 Reval (Tallinn)

14.3

- Pernau

22.7

49.4

Skania 32.6

82 15

52

Gotland, Sweden 29.4

81.4 14.9

19

Prussian towns: 29.5

48.5 8.9

16 Danzig

22.8

3 Elbing

6.6

17.2

Wendish & Pomeranian towns: 25.2

42.4 7.8

5.5 Stettin

7

4 Stralsund

7.5

2.2 Rostock

4.6

5.5 Wismar

6.1

4.3

Bergen –

4.3 0.8

3

Small Baltic ports 1.2

4.2 0.8

338.9

Total 206.9

545.8 100[7]

Starting with trade in coarse woollen fabrics, the Hanseatic League had the effect of bringing both commerce and industry to northern Germany.[8] As trade increased, newer and finer woollen and linen fabrics, and even silks, were manufactured in northern Germany. The same refinement of products out of cottage industry occurred in other fields, e.g. etching, wood carving, armour production, engraving of metals, and wood-turning. The century-long monopolization of sea navigation and trade by the Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
ensured that the Renaissance
Renaissance
arrived in northern Germany
Germany
long before the rest of Europe.[8] In addition to the major Kontors, individual Hanseatic ports had a representative merchant and warehouse. In England this happened in Boston, Bristol, Bishop's Lynn (now King's Lynn, which features the sole remaining Hanseatic warehouse in England), Hull, Ipswich, Norwich, Yarmouth (now Great Yarmouth), and York. The league primarily traded timber, furs, resin (or tar), flax, honey, wheat, and rye from the east to Flanders and England with cloth (and, increasingly, manufactured goods) going in the other direction. Metal ore (principally copper and iron) and herring came southwards from Sweden. German colonists in the 12th and 13th centuries settled in numerous cities on and near the east Baltic coast, such as Elbing (Elbląg), Thorn (Toruń), Reval (Tallinn), Riga, and Dorpat (Tartu), which became members of the Hanseatic League, and some of which still retain many Hansa buildings and bear the style of their Hanseatic days. Most were granted Lübeck
Lübeck
law (Lübisches Recht), after the league's most prominent town. The law provided that they had to appeal in all legal matters to Lübeck's city council. The Livonian Confederation incorporated modern-day Estonia
Estonia
and parts of Latvia
Latvia
and had its own Hanseatic parliament (diet); all of its major towns became members of the Hanseatic League. The dominant language of trade was Middle Low German, a dialect with significant impact for countries involved in the trade, particularly the larger Scandinavian languages, Estonian, and Latvian. Zenith[edit] The league had a fluid structure, but its members shared some characteristics; most of the Hansa cities either started as independent cities or gained independence through the collective bargaining power of the league, though such independence remained limited. The Hanseatic free cities owed allegiance directly to the Holy Roman Emperor, without any intermediate family tie of obligation to the local nobility.

Town Hall of Reval (now Tallinn, Estonia)

Stargard
Stargard
Mill Gate, Pomerania, Poland

Another similarity involved the cities' strategic locations along trade routes. At the height of its power in the late 14th century, the merchants of the Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
succeeded in using their economic clout, and sometimes their military might—trade routes required protection and the league's ships sailed well-armed—to influence imperial policy. The league also wielded power abroad. Between 1361 and 1370, it waged war against Denmark. Initially unsuccessful, Hanseatic towns in 1368 allied in the Confederation of Cologne, sacked Copenhagen
Copenhagen
and Helsingborg, and forced Valdemar IV, King of Denmark, and his son-in-law Haakon VI, King of Norway, to grant the league 15% of the profits from Danish trade in the subsequent peace treaty of Stralsund in 1370, thus gaining an effective trade and economic monopoly in Scandinavia. This favourable treaty marked the height of Hanseatic power. After the Danish-Hanseatic War (1426–1435)
Danish-Hanseatic War (1426–1435)
and the Bombardment of Copenhagen
Copenhagen
(1428), the commercial privileges were renewed in the Treaty of Vordingborg in 1435.[9][10][11] The Hansa also waged a vigorous campaign against pirates. Between 1392 and 1440, maritime trade of the league faced danger from raids of the Victual Brothers
Victual Brothers
and their descendants, privateers hired in 1392 by Albert of Mecklenburg, King of Sweden, against Margaret I, Queen of Denmark. In the Dutch–Hanseatic War
Dutch–Hanseatic War
(1438–41), the merchants of Amsterdam
Amsterdam
sought and eventually won free access to the Baltic and broke the Hanseatic monopoly. As an essential part of protecting their investment in the ships and their cargoes, the League trained pilots and erected lighthouses. Most foreign cities confined the Hanseatic traders to certain trading areas and to their own trading posts. They seldom interacted with the local inhabitants, except when doing business. Many locals, merchant and noble alike, envied the power of the league and tried to diminish it. For example, in London, the local merchants exerted continuing pressure for the revocation of privileges. The refusal of the Hansa to offer reciprocal arrangements to their English counterparts exacerbated the tension. King Edward IV of England
Edward IV of England
reconfirmed the league's privileges in the Treaty of Utrecht (1474)
Treaty of Utrecht (1474)
despite the latent hostility, in part thanks to the significant financial contribution the league made to the Yorkist side during the Wars of the Roses. In 1597, Queen Elizabeth I of England
Elizabeth I of England
expelled the league from London, and the Steelyard
Steelyard
closed the following year. Ivan III of Russia
Ivan III of Russia
closed the Hanseatic Kontor
Kontor
at Novgorod
Novgorod
in 1494. The very existence of the league and its privileges and monopolies created economic and social tensions that often crept over into rivalries between league members.[12] Rise of rival powers[edit] The economic crises of the late 15th century did not spare the Hansa. Nevertheless, its eventual rivals emerged in the form of the territorial states, whether new or revived, and not just in the west: Poland
Poland
triumphed over the Teutonic Knights
Teutonic Knights
in 1466; Ivan III, Grand Prince of Moscow, ended the entrepreneurial independence of Hansa's Novgorod
Novgorod
Kontor
Kontor
in 1478—it closed completely and finally in 1494.[13] New vehicles of credit were imported from Italy, where double-entry booking was invented in 1492, and outpaced the Hansa economy, in which silver coins changed hands rather than bills of exchange.

Georg Giese
Georg Giese
from Danzig, 34-year-old German Hanseatic merchant at the Steelyard, painted in London
London
by Hans Holbein

In the 15th century, tensions between the Prussian region and the "Wendish" cities ( Lübeck
Lübeck
and its eastern neighbours) increased. Lübeck
Lübeck
was dependent on its role as centre of the Hansa, being on the shore of the sea without a major river. It was on the entrance of the land route to Hamburg, but this land route could be bypassed by sea travel around Denmark and through the Kattegat. Prussia's main interest, on the other hand, was the export of bulk products like grain and timber, which were very important for England, the Low Countries, and, later on, also for Spain and Italy. In 1454, the year of the marriage of Elisabeth of Austria to the Jagiellonian king, the towns of the Prussian Confederation
Prussian Confederation
rose up against the dominance of the Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
and asked Casimir IV, King of Poland, for help. Gdańsk
Gdańsk
(Danzig), Thorn and Elbing became part of the Kingdom of Poland, (from 1466–1569 referred to as Royal Prussia, region of Poland) by the Second Peace of Thorn (1466). Poland
Poland
in turn was heavily supported by the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
through family connections and by military assistance under the Habsburgs. Kraków, then the capital of Poland, had a loose association with the Hansa.[14] The lack of customs borders on the River Vistula
Vistula
after 1466 helped to gradually increase Polish grain exports, transported to the sea down the Vistula, from 10,000 short tons (9,100 t) per year, in the late 15th century, to over 200,000 short tons (180,000 t) in the 17th century.[15] The Hansa-dominated maritime grain trade made Poland
Poland
one of the main areas of its activity, helping Danzig
Danzig
to become the Hansa's largest city. The member cities took responsibility for their own protection. In 1567, a Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
agreement reconfirmed previous obligations and rights of league members, such as common protection and defense against enemies.[16] The Prussian Quartier cities of Thorn, Elbing, Königsberg
Königsberg
and Riga
Riga
and Dorpat also signed. When pressed by the King of Poland–Lithuania, Danzig
Danzig
remained neutral and would not allow ships running for Poland
Poland
into its territory. They had to anchor somewhere else, such as at Pautzke (Puck).

The old and rich port city of Danzig. View of the Krantor (crane gate)

Hanseatic museum in Bergen, Norway

A major economic advantage for the Hansa was its control of the shipbuilding market, mainly in Lübeck
Lübeck
and in Danzig. The Hansa sold ships everywhere in Europe, including Italy. They drove out the Dutch, because Holland wanted to favour Bruges
Bruges
as a huge staple market at the end of a trade route. When the Dutch started to become competitors of the Hansa in shipbuilding, the Hansa tried to stop the flow of shipbuilding technology from Hanseatic towns to Holland. Danzig, a trading partner of Amsterdam, attempted to forestall the decision. Dutch ships sailed to Danzig
Danzig
to take grain from the city directly, to the dismay of Lübeck. Hollanders also circumvented the Hanseatic towns by trading directly with north German princes in non-Hanseatic towns. Dutch freight costs were much lower than those of the Hansa, and the Hansa were excluded as middlemen. When Bruges, Antwerp
Antwerp
and Holland all became part of the Duchy of Burgundy they actively tried to take over the monopoly of trade from the Hansa, and the staples market from Bruges
Bruges
was transferred to Amsterdam. The Dutch merchants aggressively challenged the Hansa and met with much success. Hanseatic cities in Prussia, Livonia, supported the Dutch against the core cities of the Hansa in northern Germany. After several naval wars between Burgundy and the Hanseatic fleets, Amsterdam
Amsterdam
gained the position of leading port for Polish and Baltic grain from the late 15th century onwards. The Dutch regarded Amsterdam's grain trade as the mother of all trades (Moedernegotie). Nuremberg
Nuremberg
in Franconia
Franconia
developed an overland route to sell formerly Hansa-monopolised products from Frankfurt
Frankfurt
via Nuremberg
Nuremberg
and Leipzig
Leipzig
to Poland
Poland
and Russia, trading Flemish cloth and French wine
French wine
in exchange for grain and furs from the east. The Hansa profited from the Nuremberg
Nuremberg
trade by allowing Nurembergers to settle in Hanseatic towns, which the Franconians exploited by taking over trade with Sweden
Sweden
as well. The Nuremberger merchant Albrecht Moldenhauer was influential in developing the trade with Sweden
Sweden
and Norway, and his sons Wolf Moldenhauer and Burghard Moldenhauer established themselves in Bergen and Stockholm, becoming leaders of the local Hanseatic activities. End of the Hansa[edit]

Heinrich Sudermann

At the start of the 16th century, the league found itself in a weaker position than it had known for many years. The rising Swedish Empire had taken control of much of the Baltic Sea. Denmark had regained control over its own trade, the Kontor
Kontor
in Novgorod
Novgorod
had closed, and the Kontor
Kontor
in Bruges
Bruges
had become effectively moribund. The individual cities making up the league had also started to put self-interest before their common Hanseatic interests. Finally, the political authority of the German princes had started to grow, constraining the independence of the merchants and Hanseatic towns. The league attempted to deal with some of these issues: it created the post of Syndic
Syndic
in 1556 and elected Heinrich Sudermann
Heinrich Sudermann
as a permanent official with legal training, who worked to protect and extend the diplomatic agreements of the member towns. In 1557 and 1579 revised agreements spelled out the duties of towns and some progress was made. The Bruges
Bruges
Kontor
Kontor
moved to Antwerp
Antwerp
and the Hansa attempted to pioneer new routes. However the league proved unable to prevent the growing mercantile competition, and so a long decline commenced. The Antwerp Kontor
Kontor
closed in 1593, followed by the London
London
Kontor
Kontor
in 1598. The Bergen
Bergen
Kontor
Kontor
continued until 1754; of all the Kontore, only its buildings, the Bryggen, survive.

Modern, faithful painting of the Adler von Lübeck – the world's largest ship in its time

The gigantic Adler von Lübeck
Lübeck
warship was constructed for military use against Sweden
Sweden
during the Northern Seven Years' War
Northern Seven Years' War
(1563–70) but was never put to military use, epitomizing the vain attempts of Lübeck
Lübeck
to uphold its long-privileged commercial position in a changing economic and political climate. By the late 16th century, the league had imploded and could no longer deal with its own internal struggles. The social and political changes that accompanied the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
included the rise of Dutch and English merchants and the incursion of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
upon the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
and its trade routes. Only nine members attended the last formal meeting in 1669 and only three (Lübeck, Hamburg
Hamburg
and Bremen) remained as members until its demise in 1862, with the creation of the German Empire
German Empire
under Kaiser Wilhelm I.[17][18] Hence, only Lübeck, Hamburg, and Bremen
Bremen
retain the words "Hanseatic City" in their official German titles. Modern Hanseatic connections[edit] Despite its collapse, several cities still maintained the link to the Hanseatic League. Dutch cities including Groningen, Deventer, Kampen, Zutphen
Zutphen
and Zwolle, and a number of German cities including Bremen, Demmin, Greifswald, Hamburg, Lübeck, Lüneburg, Rostock, Stade, Stralsund
Stralsund
and Wismar
Wismar
still call themselves Hanse cities (their car license plates are prefixed H, e.g. –HB– for "Hansestadt Bremen"). Hamburg
Hamburg
and Bremen
Bremen
continue to style themselves officially as "free Hanseatic cities", with Lübeck
Lübeck
named "Hanseatic City" (Rostock's football team is named F.C. Hansa Rostock
F.C. Hansa Rostock
in memory of the city's trading past). For Lübeck
Lübeck
in particular, this anachronistic tie to a glorious past remained especially important in the 20th century. In 1937, the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
removed this privilege through the Greater Hamburg
Hamburg
Act possibly because the Senat of Lübeck
Lübeck
did not permit Adolf Hitler to speak in Lübeck
Lübeck
during his 1932 election campaign.[19] He held the speech in Bad Schwartau, a small village on the outskirts of Lübeck. Subsequently, he referred to Lübeck
Lübeck
as "the small city close to Bad Schwartau." After the EU enlargement to the East in May 2004 there were some experts who wrote about the resurrection of the Baltic Hansa.[20] The legacy of the Hansa is remembered today in several names: the German airline Lufthansa
Lufthansa
(i.e., "Air Hansa"); F.C. Hansa Rostock; the Hanze University of Applied Sciences, Groningen, in the Netherlands; the Hanze oil production platform (also in the Netherlands); the Hansa Brewery in Bergen; the Hansabank
Hansabank
in the Baltic states
Baltic states
(now known as Swedbank); and the Hanse Sail
Hanse Sail
in Rostock. DDG Hansa
DDG Hansa
was a major German shipping company from 1881 until its bankruptcy in 1980. There are two museums in Europe dedicated specifically to the history of the Hanseatic League: the European Hansemuseum
European Hansemuseum
in Lübeck
Lübeck
and the Hanseatic Museum and Schøtstuene
Hanseatic Museum and Schøtstuene
in Bergen. Organization[edit]

Hanseatic Seal of Elbing

Hanseatic Seal of Stralsund

The members of the Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
were Low German merchants, whose towns were, with the exception of Dinant, where these merchants held citizenship. Not all towns with Low German merchant communities were members of the league (e.g., Emden, Memel (today Klaipėda), Viborg (today Vyborg) and Narva
Narva
never joined). However, Hanseatic merchants could also come from settlements without German town law—the premise for league membership was birth to German parents, subjection to German law, and a commercial education. The league served to advance and defend the common interests of its heterogeneous members: commercial ambitions such as enhancement of trade, and political ambitions such as ensuring maximum independence from the noble territorial rulers.[21]:10–11 Decisions and actions of the Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
were the consequence of a consensus-based procedure. If an issue arose, the league's members were invited to participate in a central meeting, the Tagfahrt ("meeting ride", sometimes also referred to as Hansetag, since 1358). The member communities then chose envoys (Ratssendeboten) to represent their local consensus on the issue at the Tagfahrt. Not every community sent an envoy, delegates were often entitled to represent a set of communities. Consensus-building on local and Tagfahrt levels followed the Low Saxon tradition of Einung, where consensus was defined as absence of protest: after a discussion, the proposals which gained sufficient support were dictated aloud to the scribe and passed as binding Rezess if the attendees did not object; those favouring alternative proposals unlikely to get sufficient support were obliged to remain silent during this procedure. If consensus could not be established on a certain issue, it was found instead in the appointment of a number of league members who were then empowered to work out a compromise.[21]:70–72 The Hanseatic Kontore, which operated like an early stock exchange,[22] each had their own treasury, court and seal. Like the guilds, the Kontore were led by Ältermänner ("eldermen", or English aldermen). The Stalhof
Stalhof
Kontor, as a special case, had a Hanseatic and an English Ältermann. In 1347 the Kontor
Kontor
of Brussels modified its statute to ensure an equal representation of the league's members. To that end, member communities from different regions were pooled into three circles (Drittel ("third [part]"): the Wendish and Saxon Drittel, the Westphalian and Prussian Drittel as well as the Gothlandian, Livonian and Swedish Drittel. The merchants from their respective Drittel would then each choose two Ältermänner and six members of the Eighteen Men's Council (Achtzehnmännerrat) to administer the Kontor
Kontor
for a set period of time. In 1356, during a Hanseatic meeting in preparation of the first Tagfahrt, the league confirmed this statute. The league in general gradually adopted and institutionalized the division into Drittel (see table).[21]:62–63[23][24][25]

Drittel (1356–1554) Regions Chief city (Vorort)

Wendish-Saxon Holstein, Saxony, Mecklenburg, Pomerania, Brandenburg Lübeck

Westphalian-Prussian Westphalia, Rhineland, Prussia Dortmund, later Cologne

Gothlandian-Livonian-Swedish Gotland, Livonia, Sweden Visby, later Rīga

The Tagfahrt or Hansetag was the only central institution of the Hanseatic League. However, with the division into Drittel, the members of the respective subdivisions frequently held a Dritteltage ("Drittel meeting") to work out common positions which could then be presented at a Tagfahrt. On a more local level, league members also met, and while such regional meetings were never formalized into a Hanseatic institution, they gradually gained importance in the process of preparing and implementing Tagfahrt decisions.[26] Quarters[edit] From 1554, the division into Drittel was modified to reduce the circles' heterogeneity, to enhance the collaboration of the members on a local level and thus to make the league's decision-making process more efficient.[27] The number of circles rose to four, so they were called Quartiere (quarters):[23]

Quartier (since 1554) Chief city (Vorort)

Wendish and Pomeranian[28] Lübeck[28]

Saxon, Thuringian and Brandenburg[28] Brunswick,[28] Magdeburg[citation needed]

Prussia, Livonia
Livonia
and Sweden[28] – or East Baltic[29]:120 Danzig
Danzig
(now Gdańsk)[28]

Rhine, Westphalia
Westphalia
and The Netherlands[28] Cologne[28]

This division was however not adopted by the Kontore, who, for their purposes (like Ältermänner elections), grouped the league members in different ways (e.g., the division adopted by the Stahlhof
Stahlhof
in London in 1554 grouped the league members into Dritteln, whereby Lübeck merchants represented the Wendish, Pomeranian Saxon and several Westphalian towns, Cologne
Cologne
merchants represented the Cleves, Mark, Berg and Dutch towns, while Danzig
Danzig
merchants represented the Prussian and Livonian towns).[30] Lists of former Hansa cities[edit]

Map of the Hanseatic League, showing principal Hanseatic cities

The names of the Quarters have been abbreviated in the following table:

Wendish: Wendish and Pomeranian[28] (or just Wendish)[29]:120 Quarter Saxon: Saxon, Thuringian and Brandenburg[28] (or just Saxon)[29]:120 Quarter Baltic: Prussian, Livonian and Swedish[28] (or East Baltic)[29]:120 Quarter Westphalian: Rhine-Westphalian and Netherlands
Netherlands
(including Flanders)[28] (or Rhineland)[29]:120 Quarter

Kontor: The Kontore were foreign trading posts of the League, not cities that were Hanseatic members, and are set apart in a separate table below. The remaining column headings are as follows:

"City" is the name, with any variants. "Territory" indicates the jurisdiction to which the city was subject at the time of the League. "Now" indicates the modern nation-state in which the city is located. "From" and "Until" record the dates at which the city joined and/or left the league.

Hansa Proper[edit]

Quarter City Territory Now From Until Notes Refs

Wendish Lubeck !

Lübeck Free imperial city
Free imperial city
!

Free City of Lübeck  Germany

Capital of the Hanseatic League, capital of the Wendish and Pomeranian Circle [25][28][29]:47, 120[31][32]:74, 82[33]

Wendish Hamburg
Hamburg
!

Hamburg Free imperial city
Free imperial city
!

Free City of Hamburg  Germany

[25][29]:47[31][32]:82[34]

Wendish Luneburg !

Lüneburg Brunswick-Luneburg !

Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg  Germany

[25][31][33][34][35]

Wendish Wismar
Wismar
!

Wismar Mecklenburg
Mecklenburg
!

Duchy of Mecklenburg  Germany

Joined the 10-year Rostock Peace Treaty (Rostocker Landfrieden) in 1283, which was the predecessor of the federation of Wendish towns (1293 onwards). [25][31][32]:82[33][34][36]

Wendish Rostock
Rostock
!

Rostock Mecklenburg
Mecklenburg
!

Duchy of Mecklenburg  Germany

Joined the 10-year Rostock Peace Treaty in 1283, which was the predecessor of the federation of Wendish towns (1293 onwards). [25][31][32]:82[33][34][36][37]

Wendish Stralsund
Stralsund
!

Stralsund Rugen !

Principality of Rügen  Germany 7003129300000000000♠1293

Rügen was a fief of the Danish crown to 1325. Stralsund
Stralsund
joined the 10-year Rostock Peace Treaty in 1283, which was the predecessor of the federation of Wendish towns (1293 onwards). From 1339 to the 17th century, Stralsund
Stralsund
was a member of the Vierstädtebund with Greifswald, Demmin
Demmin
and Anklam. [25][31][33][34][36][38]

Wendish Demmin
Demmin
!

Demmin Pomerania
Pomerania
!

Duchy of Pomerania  Germany

Joined the 10-year Rostock Peace Treaty in 1283, which was the predecessor of the federation of Wendish towns (1293 onwards). From 1339 to the 17th century, Demmin
Demmin
was a member of the Vierstädtebund with Stralsund, Greifswald
Greifswald
and Anklam. [25][33][36][39]

Wendish Greifswald
Greifswald
!

Greifswald Pomerania
Pomerania
!

Duchy of Pomerania  Germany

Joined the 10-year Rostock Peace Treaty in 1283, which was the predecessor of the federation of Wendish towns (1293 onwards). From 1339 to the 17th century, Greifswald
Greifswald
was a member of the Vierstädtebund with Stralsund, Demmin
Demmin
and Anklam. [25][33][34][36][39]

Wendish Anklam
Anklam
!

Anklam Pomerania
Pomerania
!

Duchy of Pomerania  Germany

Joined the 10-year Rostock Peace Treaty in 1283, which was the predecessor of the federation of Wendish towns (1293 onwards). From 1339 to the 17th century, Anklam
Anklam
was a member of the Vierstädtebund with Stralsund, Greifswald
Greifswald
and Demmin. [25][33][36][39]

Wendish Stettin !

Stettin (Szczecin) Pomerania
Pomerania
!

Duchy of Pomerania  Poland 7003127800000000000♠1278

Joined the 10-year Rostock Peace Treaty in 1283, which was the predecessor of the federation of Wendish towns (1293 onwards); since the 14th century gradually adopted the role of a chief city for the Pomeranian Hanseatic towns to its east [25][29]:120[31][33][35][36]

Wendish Pasewalk
Pasewalk
!

Pasewalk Pomerania
Pomerania
!

Duchy of Pomerania  Germany

Wendish Kolberg !

Kolberg (Kołobrzeg) Pomerania
Pomerania
!

Duchy of Pomerania  Poland

[25][33][35][39]

Wendish Rugenwalde !

Rügenwalde (Darłowo) Pomerania
Pomerania
!

Duchy of Pomerania  Poland

[25][33][34][35][39]

Wendish Stolp !

Stolp (Słupsk) Pomerania
Pomerania
!

Duchy of Pomerania  Poland

[33][35][39]

Baltic Visby
Visby
!

Visby Sweden
Sweden
!

Kingdom of Sweden  Sweden

7003147000000000000♠1470 In 1285 at Kalmar, the League agreed with Magnus III, King of Sweden, that Gotland
Gotland
be joined with Sweden.[citation needed] In 1470, Visby's status was rescinded by the League, with Lübeck
Lübeck
razing the city's churches in May 1525. [25][31][33][40]

Baltic Stockholm
Stockholm
!

Stockholm Sweden
Sweden
!

Kingdom of Sweden  Sweden

[31][33]

Saxon Brunswick !

Brunswick Saxony !

Duchy of Saxony  Germany 7003120000000000000♠ 13th century 7003160000000000000♠ 17th century Capital of the Saxon, Thuringian and Brandenburg Circle [25][28][31][33][34][35]

Saxon Bremen
Bremen
!

Bremen Free imperial city
Free imperial city
!

Free City of Bremen  Germany 7003126000000000000♠1260

[25][31][33][34][37]

Saxon Magdeburg
Magdeburg
!

Magdeburg Magdeburg
Magdeburg
!

Archbishopric of Magdeburg  Germany 7003120000000000000♠ 13th century

Capital of the Saxon, Thuringian and Brandenburg Circle [25][31][33][34][35]

Saxon Goslar
Goslar
!

Goslar Goslar
Goslar
!

Imperial City of Goslar  Germany 7003126700000000000♠1267 7003156600000000000♠1566 Goslar
Goslar
was a fief of Saxony until 1280. [25][31][33][34][35]

Saxon Erfurt
Erfurt
!

Erfurt Mainz !

Archbishopric of Mainz  Germany

[25][31][33]

Saxon Stade
Stade
!

Stade Bremen
Bremen
!

Archbishopric of Bremen  Germany

[25][34]

Saxon Berlin
Berlin
!

Berlin Brandenburg !

Margraviate of Brandenburg  Germany

7003144200000000000♠1442 Brandenburg was raised to an Electorate in 1356. Elector Frederick II caused all the Brandenburg cities to leave the League in 1442. [29]:120[31][32]:32[33][35]

Saxon Frankfurt
Frankfurt
Oder !

Frankfurt
Frankfurt
an der Oder Brandenburg !

Margraviate of Brandenburg  Germany 7003143000000000000♠1430 7003144200000000000♠1442 Elector Frederick II caused all the Brandenburg cities to leave the League in 1442. [31][32]:32[33][35]

Baltic Danzig
Danzig
!

Gdańsk
Gdańsk
- Danzig
Danzig
(Gdańsk) Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
!

Teutonic Order  Poland 7003135800000000000♠1358

Capital of the Prussian, Livonian and Swedish (or East Baltic) Circle. Danzig
Danzig
had been first a part of the Duchy of Pomerelia, a fief of the Polish Crown, with Polish-Kashubian population, then part of the State of the Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
from 1308 until 1457. After the Second Peace of Thorn (1466), Royal Prussia
Royal Prussia
including Gdańsk
Gdańsk
was part of the Kingdom of Poland. [25][28][29]:120[31][32]:81[33][34][35][41]:403

Baltic Elbing !

Elbing (Elbląg) Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
!

Teutonic Order  Poland 7003135800000000000♠1358

Elbing had originally been part of the territory of the Old Prussians, until the 1230s when it became part of the State of the Teutonic Order. After the Second Peace of Thorn (1466), Royal Prussia, including Elbląg
Elbląg
was part of the Kingdom of Poland. [25][31][33][34][35][41]:452

Baltic Thorn !

Thorn (Toruń) Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
!

Teutonic Order  Poland 7003128000000000000♠1280

Toruń
Toruń
was part of the State of the Teutonic Order
State of the Teutonic Order
from 1233 until 1466. After the Second Peace of Thorn (1466), Royal Prussia, including Toruń, was part of the Kingdom of Poland. [25][31][33][35][41]:436

Baltic Krakow !

Kraków Poland
Poland
!

Kingdom of Poland  Poland 7003137000000000000♠c. 1370 7003150000000000000♠c. 1500 Kraków
Kraków
was the capital of the Kingdom of Poland, 1038–1596/1611. It adopted Magdeburg
Magdeburg
town law and 5000 Poles and 3500 Germans lived within the city proper in the 15th century; Poles steadily rose in the ranks of guild memberships reaching 41% of guild members in 1500. It was very loosely associated with Hansa, and paid no membership fees, nor sent representatives to League meetings. [14][31][33][35][42][43][44]

Baltic Breslau !

Breslau, (Wrocław) Silesia !

Kingdom of Bohemia  Poland 7003138700000000000♠1387 7003147400000000000♠1474 Breslau, a part of the Duchy of Breslau and the Kingdom of Bohemia, was only loosely connected to the League and paid no membership fees nor did its representatives take part in Hansa meetings [31][33][35][45][46]

Baltic Konigsberg !

Königsberg
Königsberg
(Kaliningrad) Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
!

Teutonic Order  Russia 7003134000000000000♠1340

Königsberg
Königsberg
was the capital of the Teutonic Order, becoming the capital of Ducal Prussia
Ducal Prussia
on the Order's secularisation in 1466. Ducal Prussia was a German principality that was a fief of the Polish crown until gaining its independence in the 1660 Treaty of Oliva. The city was renamed Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
in 1946 after East Prussia
East Prussia
was divided between the People's Republic of Poland
Poland
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
at the Potsdam Conference. [25][31][33][35]

Baltic Riga
Riga
!

Rīga Livonia
Livonia
!

Terra Mariana
Terra Mariana
(Livonia)  Latvia 7003128200000000000♠1282

During the Livonian War
Livonian War
(1558–83), Riga
Riga
became a Free imperial city until the 1581 Treaty of Drohiczyn ceded Livonia
Livonia
to the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
until the city was captured by Sweden in the Polish–Swedish War (1621–1625). [25][31][32]:82[33][34][35][47]:20

Baltic Reval !

Reval (Tallinn) Livonia
Livonia
!

Terra Mariana
Terra Mariana
(Livonia)  Estonia 7003128500000000000♠1285

On joining the Hanseatic League, Reval was a Danish fief, but was sold, with the rest of northern Estonia, to the Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
in 1346. After the Livonian War
Livonian War
(1558–83), northern Estonia
Estonia
became a part of the Swedish Empire. [24][25][29]:47[31][32]:81[33][35]

Baltic Dorpat !

Dorpat (Tartu) Livonia
Livonia
!

Terra Mariana
Terra Mariana
(Livonia)  Estonia 7003128000000000000♠ 1280s

The Bishopric of Dorpat
Bishopric of Dorpat
gained increasing autonomy within the Terra Mariana. During the Livonian War
Livonian War
(1558–83), Dorpat fell under the rule of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, with the 1581 Treaty of Drohiczyn definitively ceding Livonia
Livonia
to the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth until the city was captured by Sweden
Sweden
in the Polish–Swedish War (1621–1625). [24][25][31][33][35]

Westphalian Cologne
Cologne
!

Cologne Cologne
Cologne
!

Imperial City of Cologne  Germany

7003166900000000000♠1669 Capital of the Rhine-Westphalian and Netherlands
Netherlands
Circle until after the Anglo-Hanseatic War
Anglo-Hanseatic War
(1470–74), when the city was prosecuted in 1475 with temporary trade sanctions (German: Verhanst) for some years for having supported England; Dortmund
Dortmund
was made capital of the Circle. Cologne
Cologne
also was called "Electorate of Cologne" (German: Kurfürstentum Köln or Kurköln). In June 1669 the last Hanseday was held in the town of Lübeck
Lübeck
by the last remaining Hanse members, amongst others Cologne. [25][28][29]:120[31][33][34]

Westphalian Dortmund
Dortmund
!

Dortmund Dortmund
Dortmund
!

Imperial City of Dortmund  Germany

After Cologne
Cologne
was excluded after the Anglo-Hanseatic War
Anglo-Hanseatic War
(1470–74), Dortmund
Dortmund
was made capital of the Rhine-Westphalian and Netherlands Circle. [25][31][32]:82[33][34][35]

Westphalian Deventer
Deventer
!

Deventer Utrecht !

Bishopric of Utrecht  Netherlands 7003100000000000000♠1000 7003150000000000000♠1500

[25][31][33][34][37][48][49][50]:438

Westphalian Kampen !

Kampen Utrecht !

Bishopric of Utrecht  Netherlands 7003144100000000000♠1441

[25][31][33][34][49][50]:433

Westphalian Groningen
Groningen
!

Groningen Friesland
Friesland
!

Friesland  Netherlands

[25][31][33][37]

Westphalian Munster !

Münster Munster !

Prince-Bishopric of Münster  Germany

[25][32]:82[33][34][35]

Westphalian Osnabruck !

Osnabrück Osnabruck !

Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück  Germany 7003110000000000000♠ 12th century

[25][31][33][34][35]

Westphalian Soest !

Soest Soest !

Imperial City of Soest  Germany

7003160900000000000♠1609 The city was a part of the Electorate of Cologne
Cologne
until acquiring its freedom in 1444–49, after which it aligned with the Duchy of Cleves. [25][31][32]:82[33][34][35]

Kontore[edit]

Quarter City Territory Now From Until Notes Refs

Kontor Novgorod
Novgorod
!

Novgorod: Peterhof Novgorod
Novgorod
!

Novgorod
Novgorod
Republic  Russia

7003150000000000000♠ 1500s Novgorod
Novgorod
was one of the principal Kontore of the League and the easternmost. In 1499, Ivan III, Grand Prince of Moscow, closed the Peterhof; it was reopened a few years later, but the League's Russian trade never recovered. [28][29]:47[31][32]:26, 82[37][48]

Kontor Bergen
Bergen
!

Bergen: Bryggen Norway
Norway
!

Kingdom of Norway  Norway 7003136000000000000♠1360 7003177500000000000♠1775 Bryggen
Bryggen
was one of the principal Kontore of the League. It was razed by accidental fire in 1476. In 1560, administration of Bryggen
Bryggen
was placed under Norwegian administration. [28][31][32]:82[37][48][51][52]

Kontor Bruges
Bruges
!

Bruges: Hanzekantoor Flanders !

County of Flanders  Belgium

Bruges
Bruges
was one of the principal Kontore of the League until the 15th century, when the seaway to the city silted up; trade from Antwerp benefiting from Bruges's loss. [29]:47[31][32]:80[37][48][50]:134, 176

Kontor London
London
!

London: Steelyard England !

Kingdom of England  United Kingdom 7003130300000000000♠1303 7003185300000000000♠1853 The Steelyard
Steelyard
was one of the principal Kontore of the League. King Edward I granted a Carta Mercatoria in 1303. The Steelyard
Steelyard
was destroyed in 1469 and Edward IV exempted Cologne
Cologne
merchants, leading to the Anglo-Hanseatic War
Anglo-Hanseatic War
(1470–74). The Treaty of Utrecht, sealing the peace, led to the League purchasing the Steelyard
Steelyard
outright in 1475, with Edward having renewed the League's privileges without insisting on reciprocal rights for English merchants in the Baltic. London
London
merchants persuaded Elizabeth I to rescind the League's privileges on 13 January 1598; while the Steelyard
Steelyard
was re-established by James I, the advantage never returned. Consulates continued however, providing communication during the Napoleonic Wars, and the Hanseatic interest was only sold in 1853. [12][29]:47[31][32]:26, 80–82[37][48][51][53]:95

Kontor Antwerp
Antwerp
!

Antwerp Brabant !

Duchy of Brabant  Belgium

Antwerp
Antwerp
became a major Kontor
Kontor
of the League, particularly after the seaway to Bruges
Bruges
silted up in the 15th century, leading to its fortunes waning in Antwerp's favour, despite Antwerp's refusal to grant special privileges to the League's merchants. Between 1312 and 1406, Antwerp
Antwerp
was a margraviate, independent of Brabant. [31][32]:80[48]

Kontor Lynn ! Bishop's Lynn (King's Lynn) England !

Kingdom of England  United Kingdom

7003175100000000000♠1751 The Hanseatic Warehouse was constructed in 1475 as part of the Treaty of Utrecht, allowing the League to establish a trading depot in Lynn for the first time. It is the only surviving League building in England. [31][48][53]:95

Kontor Ipswich
Ipswich
!

Ipswich England !

Kingdom of England  United Kingdom

[31][48]

Kontor Malmo !

Malmö Denmark !

Kingdom of Denmark  Sweden 7003140000000000000♠ 15th century

Skåne
Skåne
(Scania) was Danish until ceded to Sweden
Sweden
by the 1658 Treaty of Roskilde, during the Second Northern War. [31][48]

Kontor Falsterbo
Falsterbo
!

Falsterbo Denmark !

Kingdom of Denmark  Sweden 7003140000000000000♠ 15th century

Skåne
Skåne
was Danish until ceded to Sweden
Sweden
by the 1658 Treaty of Roskilde, during the Second Northern War. [31][48]

Kontor Kaunas
Kaunas
!

Kaunas Lithuania
Lithuania
!

Grand Duchy of Lithuania  Lithuania 7003144100000000000♠1441

In 1398 traders guild with close ties to Hanseatic league appeared in Kaunas. Treaty with Hanseatic league was signed in 1441. Main office was located in House of Perkūnas
House of Perkūnas
from 1441 till 1532. [24][31][48]

Kontor Pleskau !

Pleskau (Pskov) Pskov
Pskov
!

Pskov
Pskov
Republic  Russia

In the 12th and 13th centuries, Pskov
Pskov
adhered to the Novgorod Republic. It was captured by the Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
in 1241 and liberated by a Lithuanian prince, becoming a de facto sovereign republic by the 14th century. [31][48]

Kontor Polotsk
Polotsk
!

Polotsk Polotsk
Polotsk
!

Principality of Polotsk  Belarus

Polotsk
Polotsk
was an autonomous principality of Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
until gaining its independence in 1021. From 1240, it became a vassal of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, being fully integrated into the Grand Duchy in 1307. [31][48]

Ports with Hansa trading posts[edit]

The Hanseatic Warehouse in King's Lynn
King's Lynn
is the only surviving League building in England

The Oostershuis, a kontor in Antwerp

Berwick-upon-Tweed Bristol[31] Boston[31][37][48][53]:95 Damme[31] Leith[31][48] Hull[31][48] Newcastle[31][48] Great Yarmouth[31][48] York[31][48]

Other cities with a Hansa community[edit]

Aberdeen[54] Åbo (Turku)[48] Arnhem[50]:432[55] Avaldsnes[37][52] Bolsward[34][56] Bordeaux[48] Brae[48] Doesburg[49][50]:433 Elburg[49][50]:433

Fellin (Viljandi)[24][35] Goldingen (Kuldīga)[24] Göttingen[25][34][35][57] Grindavík[48] Grundarfjörður[48] Gunnister[48][52][58] Haapsalu[24] Hafnarfjörður[37][48][59] Hamelin[35] Hanover[25][34][35] Harderwijk Harlingen[citation needed] Haroldswick[48] Hasselt[25][33][49] Hattem[33][49] Herford[32]:82[33][34][35][53]:391 Hildesheim[25][34][35] Hindeloopen
Hindeloopen
(Hylpen)[50]:397[60] Kalmar[33][61] Kokenhusen (Koknese)[24][33][35][62][63][64] Krambatangi[37][52] Kumbaravogur[65] Kulm (Chełmno)[25][33][35] Leghorn[66]:98 Lemgo[25][33][34][35] Lemsal (Limbaži)[24][33][35] Lippe[25][34] Lisbon[67] Lunna Wick[48] Messina[68] Minden[25][33][34][35] Naples[68] Nantes[48] Narva[24][48] Nijmegen[33][34][37] Nordhausen[25][33] Nyborg[48] Nyköping[33] Oldenzaal[33] Ommen Paderborn[25][33][35] Pernau (Pärnu)[24][25][33][35] Roermond[citation needed] Roop (Straupe)[24] Scalloway Smolensk Stargard[25][31][33][35][41]:476 Stavoren
Stavoren
(Starum)[50]:398 Tórshavn[37][48] Trondheim[52] Tver Uelzen Venlo Vilnius[24][48] Walk (Valka)[24] Weißenstein (Paide)[24] Wenden (Cēsis)[24][33][35][47]:60 Wesel[33][34] Wesenberg (Rakvere)[24] Windau (Ventspils)[24][33] Wolmar (Valmiera)[24][33][35] Zutphen[25][33][34][49][50]:433 Zwolle[25][33][34][49][50]:433, 439

Modern "City League The Hanse"[edit]

German language logo

In 1980, former Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
members established a "new Hanse" in Zwolle, the "City League The Hanse". This league is open to all former Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
members and cities that once hosted a Hanseatic kontor. The latter include twelve Russian cities, most notably Novgorod, which was a major Russian trade partner of the Hansa in the Middle Ages. The "new Hanse" fosters and develops business links, tourism and cultural exchange.[69] The headquarters of the New Hansa is in Lübeck, Germany. The current President of the Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
of New Time is Bernd Saxe, Mayor of Lübeck.[69] Each year one of the member cities of the New Hansa hosts the Hanseatic Days of New Time
Hanseatic Days of New Time
international festival. In 2006 King's Lynn
King's Lynn
became the first English member of the newly formed modern Hanseatic League.[70] Hull also joined and Boston, Lincolnshire was considering an application in early 2013. Historical maps[edit]

Europe in 1097

Europe in 1430

Europe in 1470

Carta marina
Carta marina
of the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
region (1539)

See also[edit]

Baltic maritime trade (c. 1400-1800) Bay Fleet Brick Gothic Company of Merchant Adventurers of London Hanseatic Cross Hanseatic Days of New Time Hanseatic flags Hanseatic Museum and Schøtstuene Hanseatic Trade Center List of ships of the Hanseatic League Lufthansa Maritime republics Thalassocracy The Patrician

Notes[edit]

^ Hansen, Mogens Herman (2000). A comparative study of thirty city-state cultures: an investigation. Royal Danish Academy of Sciences & Letters: Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Polis Centre (Historisk-filosofiske Skrifter 21). p. 305.  ^ The Cronicle of the Hanseatic League ^ Justyna Wubs-Mrozewicz, Traders, ties and tensions: the interactions of Lübeckers, Overijsslers and Hollanders in Late Medieval Bergen, Uitgeverij Verloren, 2008 p. 111 ^ Translation of the grant of privileges to merchants in 1229: "Medieval Sourcebook: Privileges Granted to German Merchants at Novgorod, 1229". Fordham.edu. Retrieved 20 July 2009.  ^ Atatüre, Süha (2008). "The Historical Roots of European Union: Integration, Characteristics, and Responsibilities for the 21st Century" (PDF). European Journal of Social Sciences. Eurojournal. 7 (2). Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 February 2009. Retrieved 26 July 2009.  ^ Braudel, Fernand (17 January 2002). The Perspective of the World. Volume 3: Civilization and Capitalism, 15th–18th century. Phoenix Press. ISBN 1-84212-289-4.  ^ Hanseatic League, p.198, App.IV p.431 ^ a b Frederick Engels "The Peasant War in Germany" contained in the Collected Works of Karl Marx and Frederick Engels: Volume 10 (International Publishers: New York, 1978) p. 400. ^ Pulsiano, Phillip; Kirsten Wolf (1993). Medieval Scandinavia: An Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. p. 265. ISBN 0-8240-4787-7.  ^ Stearns, Peter N; William Leonard Langer (2001). The Encyclopedia of World History: Ancient, Medieval, and Modern, Chronologically Arranged. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 265. ISBN 0-395-65237-5.  ^ MacKay, Angus; David Ditchburn (1997). Atlas of Medieval Europe. Routledge. p. 171. ISBN 0-415-01923-0.  ^ a b Dollinger, Philippe (2000). The German Hansa. Routledge. pp. 341–43. ISBN 978-0-415-19073-2. Retrieved 30 April 2011.  ^ Meier, Dirk (2009). Seafarers, Merchants and Pirates in the Middle ages. Boyden Press. ISBN 978-1-84383-5-127. , 145. ^ a b Blumówna, Helena. Kraków
Kraków
jego dzieje i sztuka: Praca zbiorowa [Krakow's history and art: Collective work]. Katowice: 1966. p. 93.  ^ Davies, Norman (1982). God's playground. A history of Poland, Volume 1: The Origins to 1795. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-925339-5.  ^ "Agreement of the Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
at Lübeck, 1557". Baltic Connections. Retrieved 5 May 2009.  ^ hansa.html ^ GermanFoods.org – Bremen, Hamburg
Hamburg
and Luebeck: Culinary Treasures From The Hanseatic Cities ^ "Guide to Lübeck". Europe à la Carte. Retrieved 20 July 2009.  ^ "Travel to the Baltic Hansa". Europa Russia.  ^ a b c Hammel-Kiesow, Rolf (2008). Die Hanse (in German). Beck. ISBN 3-406-58352-0.  ^ Northrup, Cynthia Clark, ed. (2015) [2005]. "Hanseatic Leage". Encyclopedia of World Trade: From Ancient Times to the Present. 2 (Reprint ed.). London: Routledge. p. 444. ISBN 9781317471530. Retrieved 2018-02-19. To facilitate trade in foreign countries, the Hansa established counters (Kontore) [...]. [...] The counters operated as the equivalent of an early stock exchange.  ^ a b Pfeiffer, Hermannus (2009). Seemacht Deutschland. Die Hanse, Kaiser Wilhelm II. und der neue Maritime Komplex (in German). Ch. Links Verlag. p. 55. ISBN 3-86153-513-0.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Mills, Jennifer (May 1998). "The Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
in the Eastern Baltic". Encyclopedia of Baltic History (group research project)  . University of Washington.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw Falke, Dr Johannes (1863). Die Hansa als deutsche See- und Handelsmacht [The Hansa as a German maritime and trading power]. Berlin: F Henschel. pp. 62–64.  ^ Distler, Eva-Marie (2006). Städtebünde im deutschen Spätmittelalter. Eine rechtshistorische Untersuchung zu Begriff, Verfassung und Funktion (in German). Vittorio Klostermann. pp. 55–57. ISBN 3-465-04001-5.  ^ Fritze, Konrad; et al. (1985). Die Geschichte der Hanse (in German). p. 217.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Natkiel, Richard (1989). Atlas of Maritime History. Smithmark Publishing. p. 33. ISBN 0-8317-0485-3.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Michael Keating,Regions and regionalism in Europe, 2004, Edward Elgar Publishing, pp. 47 and 120 ^ Reibstein, Ernst. "Das Völkerrecht der deutschen Hanse" (PDF) (in German). Max-Planck-Institut für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht. pp. 56–57 (print), pp. 19–20 in pdf numbering. Retrieved 30 April 2010.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba Jotischky, Andrew; Caroline Hull (2005). The Penguin Historical Atlas of the Medieval World. Penguin Books. pp. 122–23. ISBN 978-0-14-101449-4.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Holborn, Hajo (1982). A History of Modern Germany: The Reformation. Princeton University Press. pp. 32, 74, 80–82. ISBN 0-691-00795-0.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh Dollinger, Philippe (2000). The German Hansa. Stanford University Press. pp. ix–x. ISBN 0-8047-0742-1. Retrieved 15 May 2011.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah Barthold, Dr Friedrich Wilhelm (1862). Geschichte der Deutschen Hanse [History of the German Hansa]. Leizig: TD Weigel. pp. 35 and 496–97.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am Schäfer, D (2010). Die deutsche Hanse [The German Hanseatic League]. Reprint-Verlag-Leipzig. pp. 37. ISBN 978-3-8262-1933-7.  ^ a b c d e f g Wernicke, Horst (2007). "Die Hansestädte an der Oder". In Schlögel, Karl; Halicka, Beata. Oder-Odra. Blicke auf einen europäischen Strom (in German). Lang. pp. 137–48; here p. 142. ISBN 3-631-56149-0.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Mehler, Natascha (2009). "The Perception and Interpretation of Hanseatic Material Culture in the North Atlantic: Problems and Suggestions" (PDF). Journal of the North Atlantic ( Special
Special
Volume 1: Archaeologies of the Early Modern North Atlantic): 89–108. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 July 2011.  ^ "Stralsund". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2011. Retrieved 28 December 2011.  ^ a b c d e f Buchholz, Werner; et al. (1999). Pommern (in German). Siedler. p. 120. ISBN 3-88680-272-8.  ^ "Varför ruinerades Visby" [Why is Visby
Visby
ruined]. Goteinfo.com (in Swedish). Retrieved 30 April 2011.  ^ a b c d Bedford, Neil (2008). Poland. Lonely Planet. pp. 403, 436, 452 and 476. ISBN 978-1-74104-479-9.  ^ "Alma Mater" (109). Kraków: Jagiellonian University. 2008: 6.  ^ Carter, Francis W. (1994). Trade and urban development in Poland. An economic geography of Cracow, from its origins to 1795, Volume 20. Cambridge studies in historical geography. Cambridge University Press. pp. 70–71, 100–02. ISBN 0-521-41239-0.  ^ Jelicz, Antonina (1966). Życie codzienne w średniowiecznym Krakowie: wiek XIII–XV [Everyday life in medieval Krakow: 13th–15th century]. Państwowy Instytut Wydawniczy.  ^ Gilewska-Dubis, Janina (2000). Życie codzienne mieszczan wrocławskich w dobie średniowiecza [Everyday life of citizens of Wrocław
Wrocław
during medieval times]. Wydawnictwo Dolnośląskie. p. 160.  ^ Buśko, Cezary; Włodzimierz Suleja; Teresa Kulak (2001). Historia Wrocławia: Od pradziejów do końca czasów habsburskich [Wrocław History: From Prehistory to the end of the Habsburg
Habsburg
era]. Wydawnictwo Dolnośląskie. p. 152.  ^ a b Turnbull, Stephen R (2004). Crusader castles of the Teutonic Knights: The stone castles of Latvia
Latvia
and Estonia
Estonia
1185–1560. Osprey Publishing. pp. 20, 60. ISBN 978-1-84176-712-3.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag Mehler, Natascha (2011). "Hansefahrer im hohen Norden" (PDF). epoc (2): 16–25, particularly 20 and 21. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 July 2011.  ^ a b c d e f g h ver Berkmoes, Ryan; Karla Zimmerman (2010). The Netherlands. Lonely Planet. p. 255. ISBN 978-1-74104-925-1.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j McDonald, George (2009). Frommer's Belgium, Holland & Luxembourg, 11th Edition. Frommers. pp. 134, 176, 397, 432–38. ISBN 978-0-470-38227-1.  ^ a b  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Hanseatic League". Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
(11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.  ^ a b c d e Mehler, Natascha (April 2009). "HANSA: The Hanseatic Expansion in the North Atlantic". University of Vienna. Archived from the original on 27 July 2014. Retrieved 15 May 2011.  ^ a b c d Ward, Adolphus William. Collected Papers Historical, Literary, Travel and Miscellaneous. pp. 95, 391.  ^ Mitchell, Alex. "The Old Burghs Of Aberdeen". Aberdeen
Aberdeen
Civic Society. Archived from the original on 12 August 2011. Retrieved 1 May 2011.  ^ Merriam-Webster, Inc (1997). Merriam-Webster's geographical dictionary. Merriam-Webster, Inc. pp. 74–75. ISBN 978-0-87779-546-9.  ^ Miruß, Alexander (1838). Das See-Recht und die Fluß-Schifffahrt nach den Preußischen Gesetzen. Leipzig: JC Hinrichsschen Buchhandlung. p. 17. Retrieved 2 May 2011.  ^ "Göttingen". Encyclopædia Brittanica. Retrieved 2 May 2011.  ^ Gardiner, Mark; Natascha Mehler (2010). "The Hanseatic trading site at Gunnister Voe, Shetland" (PDF). Post-Medieval Archaeology. 44 (2): 347–49. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 July 2011.  ^ Bjarnadóttir, Kristín (2006), Mathematical Education in Iceland in Historical Context, Roskilde University, archived from the original (PDF) on 24 May 2016, retrieved 2 May 2011  ^ Wild, Albert (1862). Die Niederlande: ihre Vergangenheit und Gegenwart, Volume 2 [The Netherlands: its past and present, Volume 2]. Wigand. pp. 250.  ^ Dollinger, Philippe (2000). The German Hansa. Routledge. pp. 128, 352. ISBN 978-0-415-19073-2.  ^ "History of Koknese". Koknese
Koknese
official website. 10 January 2011. Retrieved 15 May 2011.  ^ "Collector Coin Koknese". National Bank of Latvia. Archived from the original on 26 September 2011. Retrieved 15 May 2011.  ^ Könnecke, Jochen; Vladislav Rubzov (2005). Lettland [Lithuania]. DuMont Reiseverlag. pp. 23, 26–7, 161. ISBN 978-3-7701-6386-1.  ^ Mehler, Natascha (October 2010). "The Operation of International Trade in Iceland and Shetland (c. 1400–1700)". University of Vienna. Archived from the original on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 15 May 2011.  ^ Walford, Cornelius. "An Outline History of the Hanseatic League, More Particularly in Its Bearings upon English Commerce". Transactions of the Royal Historical Society. Vol. 9 (1881), pp. 82–136. JSTOR 3677937. The following cities were also connected with the League, but did not have representation in the Diet, nor responsibility: (...) Leghorn, Lisbon, London, Marseilles, Messina, Naples
Naples
(...)  ^ Pohle, Jürgen (December 2010). "O estabelecimento dos mercadores-banqueiros alemães em Lisboa no início do século XVI" (PDF). Universidade Atlântica (Lisbon). Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 January 2016. Retrieved 28 December 2015.  ^ a b Cultus.hk ^ a b "City League The HANSE". Archived from the original on 17 August 2010.  ^ " King's Lynn
King's Lynn
Hanse Festival 2009". Borough Council of King's Lynn and West Norfolk. Archived from the original on 13 May 2010. Retrieved 23 August 2010. 

Further reading[edit]

Brand, Hanno (2006). Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
Trade: Baltic Connections. Hanse Research Center.  Dollinger, P (2000). The German Hansa. Routledge. pp. 341–43. ISBN 978-0-415-19073-2.  Gade, John A. (1951). The Hanseatic Control of Norwegian Commerce During the Middle Ages. E.J. Brill.  Halliday, Stephen. "The First Common Market?" History Today 59 (2009): 31–37. Israel, I. Jonathan (1995). The Dutch Republic: It’s Rise, Greatness and Fall, 1477–1806. Oxford University Press.  Magnusson, Lars (2000). An Economic History of Sweden. Routledge.  Meier, Dirk (2009). Seafarers, Merchants and Pirates in the Middle Ages. Boyden Press. ISBN 978-1-84383-5-127.  Nash, Elizabeth Gee (1929). The Hansa: Its History and Romance. ISBN 1-56619-867-4.  Nedkvinte, Arnved (2013). The German Hansa and Bergen
Bergen
1100–1600. Böhlau Verlag. ISBN 9783412216825.  Schulte Beerbühl, Margrit (2012). Networks of the Hanseatic League. Mainz: Institute of European History. Retrieved 24 January 2012.  Thompson, James Westfall (1931). Economic and Social History of Europe in the Later Middle Ages
Middle Ages
(1300–1530). pp. 146–79. ASIN B000NX1CE2.  Wubs-Mrozewicz, Justyna, and Stuart Jenks, eds. The Hanse in Medieval and Early Modern Europe (Leiden: Koninklijke Brill NV, 2013).

Historiography[edit]

Cowan, Alexander. "Hanseatic League: Oxford Bibliographies Online Research Guide" (Oxford University Press, 2010) online Harrison, Gordon. "The Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
in Historical Interpretation." The Historian 33 (1971): 385–97. doi:10.1111/j.1540-6563.1971.tb01514.x. Szepesi, Istvan. "Reflecting the Nation: The Historiography of Hanseatic Institutions." Waterloo Historical Review 7 (2015). online

External links[edit]

Find more aboutHanseatic Leagueat's sister projects

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29th International Hansa Days in Novgorod 30th International Hansa Days 2010 in Parnu-Estonia NPG Social & Cultural Struggle for an Hanseatic Revival[permanent dead link] Chronology of the Hanseatic League Hanseatic Cities in The Netherlands Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
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Hanseatic League
related sources in the German Wikisource Colchester: a Hanseatic port – Gresham The Lost Port of Sutton: Maritime trade

v t e

Members of the Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
by Quarter

Chief cities shown in smallcaps. Free Imperial Cities of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
shown in italics.

Wendish

Lübeck

Anklam Demmin Greifswald Hamburg Kolberg (Kołobrzeg) Lüneburg Rostock Rügenwalde (Darłowo) Stettin (Szczecin) Stolp (Słupsk) Stockholm Stralsund Visby Wismar

Saxon

Brunswick Magdeburg

Berlin Bremen Erfurt Frankfurt
Frankfurt
an der Oder Goslar Mühlhausen Nordhausen

Baltic

Danzig (Gdańsk)

Breslau (Wrocław) Dorpat (Tartu) Elbing (Elbląg) Königsberg
Königsberg
(Kaliningrad) Cracow (Kraków) Reval (Tallinn) Riga
Riga
(Rīga) Thorn (Toruń)

Westphalian

Cologne
Cologne
1 Dortmund
Dortmund
1

Deventer Groningen Kampen Münster Osnabrück Soest

Kontore

Principal

Bryggen
Bryggen
(Bergen) Hanzekantoor

Bruges Antwerp2 

Steelyard
Steelyard
(London) Peterhof (Novgorod)

Subsidiary

Bishop's Lynn Falsterbo Ipswich Kaunas Malmö Polotsk Pskov

Other cities

Bristol Boston Damme Leith Herford Hull Newcastle Stargard Yarmouth York Zutphen Zwolle

1 Cologne
Cologne
and Dortmund
Dortmund
were both capital of the Westphalian Quarter at different times. 2 Antwerp
Antwerp
gained importance once Bruges
Bruges
became inaccessible due to the silting of the Zwin
Zwin
channel.

v t e

History of Europe

Prehistory

Paleolithic Europe Neolithic Europe Bronze Age Europe Iron Age Europe

Classical antiquity

Classical Greece Roman Republic Hellenistic period Roman Empire Early Christianity Crisis of the Third Century Fall of the Western Roman Empire Late antiquity

Middle Ages

Early Middle Ages Migration Period Christianization Francia Byzantine Empire Maritime republics Viking Age Kievan Rus' Holy Roman Empire High Middle Ages Feudalism Crusades Mongol invasion Late Middle Ages Hundred Years' War Kalmar
Kalmar
Union Renaissance

Early modern

Reformation Age of Discovery Baroque Thirty Years' War Absolute monarchy Ottoman Empire Portuguese Empire Spanish Empire Early modern France Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Swedish Empire Dutch Republic British Empire Habsburg
Habsburg
Monarchy Russian Empire Age of Enlightenment

Modern

Great Divergence Industrial Revolution French Revolution Napoleonic Wars Nationalism Revolutions of 1848 World War I Russian Revolution Interwar period World War II Cold War European integration

See also

Art of Europe Genetic history of Europe History of the Mediterranean region History of the European Union History of Western civilization Maritime history of Europe Military history of Europe

Authority control

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