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The HANSEATIC LEAGUE (also known as the HANSE or HANSA; Middle Low German : Hanse, Dudesche Hanse, Latin : Hansa, Hansa Teutonica or Liga Hanseatica) was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and their market towns. Growing from a few North German towns in the late 1100s, the league came to dominate Baltic maritime trade for three centuries along the coast of Northern Europe. It stretched from the Baltic to the North Sea
North Sea
and inland during the Late Middle Ages and early modern period (c. 15th to 19th centuries). Hanse, later spelled as Hansa, was the Middle Low German word for a convoy, and this word was applied to bands of merchants traveling between the Hanseatic cities whether by land or by sea.

The league was created to protect the guilds' economic interests and diplomatic privileges in their affiliated cities and countries, as well as along the trade routes the merchants visited. The Hanseatic cities had their own legal system and furnished their own armies for mutual protection and aid. Despite this, the organization was not a state , nor can it be called a confederation of city-states; only a very small number of the cities within the league enjoyed autonomy and liberties comparable to those of a free imperial city .

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Foundation and formation * 1.2 Commercial expansion * 1.3 Zenith * 1.4 Rise of rival powers * 1.5 End of the Hansa

* 2 Modern Hanseatic connections

* 3 Organization

* 3.1 Quarters

* 4 Lists of former Hansa cities

* 4.1 Hansa Proper * 4.2 Kontore * 4.3 Ports with Hansa trading posts * 4.4 Other cities with a Hansa community

* 5 Modern "City League The Hanse" * 6 Historical maps * 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 Further reading * 10 External links

HISTORY

Historians generally trace the origins of the Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
to the rebuilding of the north German town of Lübeck in 1159 by the powerful Henry the Lion , Duke of Saxony and Bavaria , after he had captured the area from Adolf II , Count of Schauenburg and Holstein . Exploratory trading adventures, raids , and piracy had occurred earlier throughout the Baltic region – the sailors of Gotland
Gotland
sailed up rivers as far away as Novgorod
Novgorod
, for example – but the scale of international trade in the Baltic area remained insignificant before the growth of the Hanseatic League.

German cities achieved domination of trade in the Baltic with striking speed during the 13th century, and Lübeck became a central node in the seaborne trade that linked the areas around the North and Baltic seas . The hegemony of Lübeck peaked during the 15th century.

FOUNDATION AND FORMATION

Foundation of the alliance between Lübeck and Hamburg
Hamburg

Lübeck became a base for merchants from Saxony and Westphalia trading eastward and northward. Well before the term Hanse appeared in a document in 1267, merchants in different cities began to form guilds , or Hansa, with the intention of trading with towns overseas, especially in the economically less-developed eastern Baltic. This area was a source of timber, wax, amber, resins , and furs, along with rye and wheat brought down on barges from the hinterland to port markets. The towns raised their own armies, with each guild required to provide levies when needed. The Hanseatic cities came to the aid of one another, and commercial ships often had to be used to carry soldiers and their arms.

Visby functioned as the leading centre in the Baltic before the Hansa. Sailing east, Visby merchants established a trading post at Novgorod
Novgorod
called Gutagard (also known as Gotenhof) in 1080. Merchants from northern Germany
Germany
also stayed in the early period of the Gotlander settlement. Later they established their own trading station in Novgorod, known as Peterhof, which was further up river, in the first half of the 13th century. In 1229, German merchants at Novgorod
Novgorod
were granted certain privileges that made their positions more secure.

Hansa societies worked to remove restrictions to trade for their members. Before the official foundation of the league in 1356, the word Hanse did not occur in the Baltic language. Gotlanders used the word varjag. The earliest remaining documentary mention, although without a name, of a specific German commercial federation is from London
London
in 1157. That year, the merchants of the Hansa in Cologne convinced Henry II, King of England , to free them from all tolls in London
London
and allow them to trade at fairs throughout England. The "Queen of the Hansa", Lübeck, where traders were required to trans-ship goods between the North Sea
North Sea
and the Baltic, gained imperial privileges to become a free imperial city in 1227, as its potential trading partner Hamburg
Hamburg
had in 1189.

In 1241, Lübeck, which had access to the Baltic and North seas' fishing grounds, formed an alliance—a precursor to the league—with Hamburg, another trading city, that controlled access to salt-trade routes from Lüneburg
Lüneburg
. The allied cities gained control over most of the salt-fish trade, especially the Scania Market ; Cologne
Cologne
joined them in the Diet of 1260. In 1266, Henry III of England
Henry III of England
granted the Lübeck and Hamburg
Hamburg
Hansa a charter for operations in England, and the Cologne
Cologne
Hansa joined them in 1282 to form the most powerful Hanseatic colony in London. Much of the drive for this co-operation came from the fragmented nature of existing territorial governments, which failed to provide security for trade. Over the next 50 years the Hansa itself emerged with formal agreements for confederation and co-operation covering the west and east trade routes . The principal city and linchpin remained Lübeck; with the first general diet of the Hansa held there in 1356, the Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
acquired an official structure.

COMMERCIAL EXPANSION

Main trading routes of the Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League

Lübeck 's location on the Baltic provided access for trade with Scandinavia
Scandinavia
and Kievan Rus\' , putting it in direct competition with the Scandinavians who had previously controlled most of the Baltic trade routes. A treaty with the Visby Hansa put an end to this competition: through this treaty the Lübeck merchants also gained access to the inland Russian port of Novgorod
Novgorod
, where they built a trading post or Kontor (literally: "office"). Although such alliances formed throughout the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
, the league never became a closely managed formal organisation. Assemblies of the Hanseatic towns met irregularly in Lübeck for a Hansetag (Hanseatic diet), from 1356 onwards, but many towns chose not to attend nor to send representatives and decisions were not binding on individual cities. Over the period, a network of alliances grew to include a flexible roster of 70 to 170 cities.

The league succeeded in establishing additional Kontors in Bruges (Flanders ), Bergen
Bergen
(Norway), and London
London
(England). These trading posts became significant enclaves . The London
London
Kontor, established in 1320, stood west of London Bridge
London Bridge
near Upper Thames Street, the site now occupied by Cannon Street station
Cannon Street station
. It grew into a significant walled community with its own warehouses, weighhouse, church, offices and houses, reflecting the importance and scale of trading activity on the premises. The first reference to it as the Steelyard (der Stahlhof) occurs in 1422.

Imports and exports, 18 Mar 1368 – 10 Mar 1369 (in thousands of Port Lübeck marks) IMPORTS

ORIGIN, DESTINATION EXPORTS

TOTAL %

150

London/Hamburg 38

188 34.4

44

Livonian towns: 51

95 17.4

10 Riga

14

34 Reval (Tallinn)

14.3

- Pernau

22.7

49.4

Skania 32.6

82 15

52

Gotland, Sweden 29.4

81.4 14.9

19

Prussian towns: 29.5

48.5 8.9

16 Danzig

22.8

3 Elbing

6.6

17.2

Wendish all of its major towns became members of the Hanseatic League. The dominant language of trade was Middle Low German , a dialect with significant impact for countries involved in the trade, particularly the larger Scandinavian languages , Estonian , and Latvian .

ZENITH

The league had a fluid structure, but its members shared some characteristics; most of the Hansa cities either started as independent cities or gained independence through the collective bargaining power of the league, though such independence remained limited. The Hanseatic free cities owed allegiance directly to the Holy Roman Emperor , without any intermediate family tie of obligation to the local nobility. Town Hall of Reval (now Tallinn
Tallinn
, Estonia) Stargard Mill Gate , Pomerania , Poland
Poland

Another similarity involved the cities' strategic locations along trade routes. At the height of its power in the late 14th century, the merchants of the Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
succeeded in using their economic clout, and sometimes their military might, — trade routes required protection and the league's ships sailed well-armed — to influence imperial policy.

The league also wielded power abroad. Between 1361 and 1370, it waged war against Denmark. Initially unsuccessful, Hanseatic towns in 1368 allied in the Confederation of Cologne , sacked Copenhagen
Copenhagen
and Helsingborg , and forced Valdemar IV, King of Denmark , and his son-in-law Haakon VI, King of Norway
Norway
, to grant the league 15% of the profits from Danish trade in the subsequent peace treaty of Stralsund in 1370, thus gaining an effective trade and economic monopoly in Scandinavia. This favourable treaty marked the height of Hanseatic power. After the Danish-Hanseatic War (1426–1435) and the Bombardment of Copenhagen
Copenhagen
(1428) , the commercial privileges were renewed in the Treaty of Vordingborg in 1435.

The Hansa also waged a vigorous campaign against pirates. Between 1392 and 1440, maritime trade of the league faced danger from raids of the Victual Brothers and their descendants, privateers hired in 1392 by Albert of Mecklenburg, King of Sweden
Sweden
, against Margaret I, Queen of Denmark . In the Dutch–Hanseatic War (1438–41), the merchants of Amsterdam
Amsterdam
sought and eventually won free access to the Baltic and broke the Hanseatic monopoly. As an essential part of protecting their investment in the ships and their cargoes, the League trained pilots and erected lighthouses.

Most foreign cities confined the Hanseatic traders to certain trading areas and to their own trading posts. They seldom interacted with the local inhabitants, except when doing business. Many locals, merchant and noble alike, envied the power of the league and tried to diminish it. For example, in London, the local merchants exerted continuing pressure for the revocation of privileges. The refusal of the Hansa to offer reciprocal arrangements to their English counterparts exacerbated the tension. King Edward IV of England reconfirmed the league's privileges in the Treaty of Utrecht (1474) despite the latent hostility, in part thanks to the significant financial contribution the league made to the Yorkist side during the Wars of the Roses . In 1597, Queen Elizabeth I of England expelled the league from London, and the Steelyard closed the following year. Ivan III of Russia
Ivan III of Russia
closed the Hanseatic Kontor at Novgorod
Novgorod
in 1494. The very existence of the league and its privileges and monopolies created economic and social tensions that often crept over into rivalries between league members.

RISE OF RIVAL POWERS

The economic crises of the late 15th century did not spare the Hansa. Nevertheless, its eventual rivals emerged in the form of the territorial states , whether new or revived, and not just in the west: Poland
Poland
triumphed over the Teutonic Knights
Teutonic Knights
in 1466; Ivan III, Grand Prince of Moscow , ended the entrepreneurial independence of Hansa's Novgorod
Novgorod
Kontor in 1478 – it closed completely and finally in 1494. New vehicles of credit were imported from Italy, where double-entry booking was invented in 1492, and outpaced the Hansa economy, in which silver coins changed hands rather than bills of exchange . Georg Giese from Danzig, 34-year-old German Hanseatic merchant at the Steelyard , painted in London
London
by Hans Holbein

In the 15th century, tensions between the Prussian region and the "Wendish" cities ( Lübeck and its eastern neighbours) increased. Lübeck was dependent on its role as centre of the Hansa, being on the shore of the sea without a major river. It was on the entrance of the land route to Hamburg, but this land route could be bypassed by sea travel around Denmark and through the Kattegat . Prussia's main interest, on the other hand, was the export of bulk products like grain and timber, which were very important for England, the Low Countries , and, later on, also for Spain and Italy.

In 1454, the year of the marriage of Elisabeth of Austria to the Jagiellonian king, the towns of the Prussian Confederation
Prussian Confederation
rose up against the dominance of the Teutonic Order and asked Casimir IV, King of Poland
Poland
, for help. Gdańsk (Danzig), Thorn and Elbing became part of the Kingdom of Poland
Poland
, (from 1466–1569 referred to as Royal Prussia , region of Poland) by the Second Peace of Thorn (1466)
Second Peace of Thorn (1466)
. Poland
Poland
in turn was heavily supported by the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
through family connections and by military assistance under the Habsburgs . Kraków
Kraków
, then the capital of Poland, had a loose association with the Hansa. The lack of customs borders on the River Vistula after 1466 helped to gradually increase Polish grain exports, transported to the sea down the Vistula, from 10,000 short tons (9,100 t) per year, in the late 15th century, to over 200,000 short tons (180,000 t) in the 17th century. The Hansa-dominated maritime grain trade made Poland one of the main areas of its activity, helping Danzig to become the Hansa's largest city.

The member cities took responsibility for their own protection. In 1567, a Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
agreement reconfirmed previous obligations and rights of league members, such as common protection and defense against enemies. The Prussian Quartier cities of Thorn, Elbing, Königsberg
Königsberg
and Riga
Riga
and Dorpat also signed. When pressed by the King of Poland– Lithuania
Lithuania
, Danzig remained neutral and would not allow ships running for Poland
Poland
into its territory. They had to anchor somewhere else, such as at Pautzke (Puck). The old and rich port city of Danzig. View of the Krantor (crane gate) Hanseatic museum in Bergen
Bergen
, Norway
Norway

A major economic advantage for the Hansa was its control of the shipbuilding market, mainly in Lübeck and in Danzig. The Hansa sold ships everywhere in Europe, including Italy. They drove out the Dutch, because Holland wanted to favour Bruges
Bruges
as a huge staple market at the end of a trade route. When the Dutch started to become competitors of the Hansa in shipbuilding, the Hansa tried to stop the flow of shipbuilding technology from Hanseatic towns to Holland. Danzig, a trading partner of Amsterdam, attempted to forestall the decision. Dutch ships sailed to Danzig to take grain from the city directly, to the dismay of Lübeck. Hollanders also circumvented the Hanseatic towns by trading directly with north German princes in non-Hanseatic towns. Dutch freight costs were much lower than those of the Hansa, and the Hansa were excluded as middlemen.

When Bruges, Antwerp
Antwerp
and Holland all became part of the Duchy of Burgundy they actively tried to take over the monopoly of trade from the Hansa, and the staples market from Bruges
Bruges
was transferred to Amsterdam. The Dutch merchants aggressively challenged the Hansa and met with much success. Hanseatic cities in Prussia, Livonia, supported the Dutch against the core cities of the Hansa in northern Germany. After several naval wars between Burgundy and the Hanseatic fleets, Amsterdam
Amsterdam
gained the position of leading port for Polish and Baltic grain from the late 15th century onwards. The Dutch regarded Amsterdam's grain trade as the mother of all trades (Moedernegotie).

Nuremberg
Nuremberg
in Franconia
Franconia
developed an overland route to sell formerly Hansa-monopolised products from Frankfurt
Frankfurt
via Nuremberg
Nuremberg
and Leipzig
Leipzig
to Poland
Poland
and Russia, trading Flemish cloth and French wine
French wine
in exchange for grain and furs from the east. The Hansa profited from the Nuremberg
Nuremberg
trade by allowing Nurembergers to settle in Hanseatic towns, which the Franconians exploited by taking over trade with Sweden
Sweden
as well. The Nuremberger merchant Albrecht Moldenhauer was influential in developing the trade with Sweden
Sweden
and Norway, and his sons Wolf Moldenhauer and Burghard Moldenhauer established themselves in Bergen and Stockholm, becoming leaders of the local Hanseatic activities.

END OF THE HANSA

Heinrich Sudermann
Heinrich Sudermann

At the start of the 16th century, the league found itself in a weaker position than it had known for many years. The rising Swedish Empire had taken control of much of the Baltic Sea. Denmark had regained control over its own trade, the Kontor in Novgorod
Novgorod
had closed, and the Kontor in Bruges
Bruges
had become effectively moribund. The individual cities making up the league had also started to put self-interest before their common Hanseatic interests. Finally, the political authority of the German princes had started to grow, constraining the independence of the merchants and Hanseatic towns.

The league attempted to deal with some of these issues: it created the post of Syndic
Syndic
in 1556 and elected Heinrich Sudermann
Heinrich Sudermann
as a permanent official with legal training, who worked to protect and extend the diplomatic agreements of the member towns. In 1557 and 1579 revised agreements spelled out the duties of towns and some progress was made. The Bruges
Bruges
Kontor moved to Antwerp
Antwerp
and the Hansa attempted to pioneer new routes. However the league proved unable to prevent the growing mercantile competition, and so a long decline commenced. The Antwerp
Antwerp
Kontor closed in 1593, followed by the London
London
Kontor in 1598. The Bergen
Bergen
Kontor continued until 1754; of all the Kontore, only its buildings, the Bryggen , survive. Modern, faithful painting of the Adler von Lübeck —the world's largest ship in its time

The gigantic Adler von Lübeck warship was constructed for military use against Sweden
Sweden
during the Northern Seven Years\' War (1563–70) but was never put to military use, epitomizing the vain attempts of Lübeck to uphold its long-privileged commercial position in a changing economic and political climate.

By the late 16th century, the league had imploded and could no longer deal with its own internal struggles. The social and political changes that accompanied the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
included the rise of Dutch and English merchants and the incursion of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
upon the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
and its trade routes. Only nine members attended the last formal meeting in 1669 and only three (Lübeck, Hamburg
Hamburg
and Bremen) remained as members until it demise in 1862, with the creation of the German Empire
German Empire
under Kaiser Wilhelm I . Hence, only Lübeck, Hamburg, and Bremen
Bremen
retain the words "Hanseatic City" in their official German titles.

MODERN HANSEATIC CONNECTIONS

Despite its collapse, several cities still maintained the link to the Hanseatic League. Dutch cities including Groningen
Groningen
, Deventer , Kampen and Zutphen , and a number of German cities including Bremen
Bremen
, Demmin , Greifswald
Greifswald
, Hamburg, Lübeck, Lüneburg
Lüneburg
, Rostock, Stade
Stade
, Stralsund
Stralsund
and Wismar
Wismar
still call themselves Hanse cities (their car license plates are prefixed H, e.g. -HB- for "Hansestadt Bremen"). Hamburg
Hamburg
and Bremen
Bremen
continue to style themselves officially as "free Hanseatic cities.", with Lübeck named "Hanseatic City" (Rostock's football team is named F.C. Hansa Rostock in memory of the city's trading past). For Lübeck in particular, this anachronistic tie to a glorious past remained especially important in the 20th century. In 1937, the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
removed this privilege through the Greater Hamburg
Hamburg
Act possibly because the Senat of Lübeck did not permit Adolf Hitler to speak in Lübeck during his 1932 election campaign. He held the speech in Bad Schwartau
Bad Schwartau
, a small village on the outskirts of Lübeck. Subsequently, he referred to Lübeck as "the small city close to Bad Schwartau."

After the EU enlargement to the East in May 2004 there were some experts who wrote about the resurrection of the Baltic Hansa.

The legacy of the Hansa is remembered today in several names: the German airline Lufthansa
Lufthansa
(i.e., "Air Hansa"); F.C. Hansa Rostock ; the Hanze University of Applied Sciences, Groningen
Groningen
, in the Netherlands; the Hanze oil production platform (also in the Netherlands); the Hansa Brewery in Bergen; the Hansabank in the Baltic states
Baltic states
(now known as Swedbank ); and the Hanse Sail in Rostock. DDG Hansa
DDG Hansa
was a major German shipping company from 1881 until its bankruptcy in 1980.

There are two museums in Europe dedicated specifically to the history of the Hanseatic League: the European Hansemuseum in Lübeck and the Hanseatic Museum and Schøtstuene in Bergen.

ORGANIZATION

Hanseatic Seal of Elbing Hanseatic Seal of Stralsund
Stralsund

The members of the Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
were Low German merchants, whose towns were, with the exception of Dinant , where these merchants held citizenship. Not all towns with Low German merchant communities were members of the league (e.g., Emden
Emden
, Memel (today Klaipėda ), Viborg (today Vyborg
Vyborg
) and Narva
Narva
never joined). However, Hanseatic merchants could also come from settlements without German town law
German town law
—the premise for league membership was birth to German parents, subjection to German law, and a commercial education. The league served to advance and defend the common interests of its heterogeneous members: commercial ambitions such as enhancement of trade, and political ambitions such as ensuring maximum independence from the noble territorial rulers. :10–11

Decisions and actions of the Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
were the consequence of a consensus-based procedure. If an issue arose, the league's members were invited to participate in a central meeting, the Tagfahrt ("meeting ride", sometimes also referred to as Hansetag, since 1358). The member communities then chose envoys (Ratssendeboten) to represent their local consensus on the issue at the Tagfahrt. Not every community sent an envoy, delegates were often entitled to represent a set of communities. Consensus-building on local and Tagfahrt levels followed the Low Saxon tradition of Einung, where consensus was defined as absence of protest: after a discussion, the proposals which gained sufficient support were dictated aloud to the scribe and passed as binding Rezess if the attendees did not object; those favouring alternative proposals unlikely to get sufficient support were obliged to remain silent during this procedure. If consensus could not be established on a certain issue, it was found instead in the appointment of a number of league members who were then empowered to work out a compromise. :70–72

The Hanseatic Kontore each had their own treasury, court and seal. Like the guilds, the Kontore were led by Ältermänner ("eldermen", or English aldermen ). The Stalhof Kontor, as a special case, had a Hanseatic and an English Ältermann. In 1347, the Kontor of Brussels modified its statute to ensure an equal representation of the league's members. To that end, member communities from different regions were pooled into three circles (Drittel ("third "): the Wendish and Saxon Drittel, the Westphalian and Prussian Drittel as well as the Gothlandian , Livonian and Swedish Drittel. The merchants from their respective Drittel would then each choose two Ältermänner and six members of the Eighteen Men's Council (Achtzehnmännerrat) to administer the Kontor for a set period of time. In 1356, during a Hanseatic meeting in preparation of the first Tagfahrt, the league confirmed this statute. The division into Drittel was gradually adopted and institutionalized by the league in general (see table). :62–63;

DRITTEL (1356–1554) REGIONS CHIEF CITY (VORORT)

Wendish-Saxon Holstein , Saxony , Mecklenburg
Mecklenburg
, Pomerania , Brandenburg Lübeck

Westphalian-Prussian Westphalia , Rhineland
Rhineland
, Prussia Dortmund
Dortmund
, later Cologne
Cologne

Gothlandian-Livonian-Swedish Gotland
Gotland
, Livonia
Livonia
, Sweden
Sweden
Visby , later Rīga

The Tagfahrt or Hansetag were the only central institutions of the Hanseatic League. However, with the division in Drittel, the members of the respective subdivisions frequently held a Dritteltage ("Drittel meeting") to work out common positions which could then be presented at a Tagfahrt. On a more local level, league members also met, and while such regional meetings were never formalized into a Hanseatic institution, they gradually gained importance in the process of preparing and implementing Tagfahrt decisions.

QUARTERS

From 1554, the division into Drittel was modified to reduce the circles' heterogeneity, enhance the collaboration of the members on a local level and thus make the league's decision-making process more efficient. The number of circles rose to four, so they were called Quartiere (quarters):

QUARTIER (SINCE 1554) CHIEF CITY (VORORT)

Wendish and Pomeranian Lübeck

Saxon, Thuringian and Brandenburg Brunswick , Magdeburg
Magdeburg

Prussia, Livonia
Livonia
and Sweden
Sweden
—or East Baltic :120 Danzig (now Gdańsk)

Rhine, Westphalia and The Netherlands
Netherlands
Cologne
Cologne

This division was however not adopted by the Kontore, who, for their purposes (like Ältermänner elections), grouped the league members in different ways (e.g., the division adopted by the Stahlhof in London in 1554 grouped the league members into Dritteln, whereby Lübeck merchants represented the Wendish, Pomeranian Saxon and several Westphalian towns, Cologne
Cologne
merchants represented the Cleves , Mark , Berg and Dutch towns, while Danzig merchants represented the Prussian and Livonian towns).

LISTS OF FORMER HANSA CITIES

Map of the Hanseatic League, showing principal Hanseatic cities

The names of the Quarters have been abbreviated in the following table:

* WENDISH: Wendish and Pomeranian (or just Wendish) :120 Quarter * SAXON: Saxon, Thuringian and Brandenburg (or just Saxon) :120 Quarter * BALTIC: Prussian, Livonian and Swedish (or East Baltic) :120 Quarter * WESTPHALIAN: Rhine-Westphalian and Netherlands
Netherlands
(including Flanders) (or Rhineland) :120 Quarter

KONTOR: The Kontore were foreign trading posts of the League, not cities that were Hanseatic members, and are set apart in a separate table below.

The remaining column headings are as follows:

* "City" is the name, with any variants. * "Territory" indicates the jurisdiction to which the city was subject at the time of the League. * "Now" indicates the modern nation-state in which the city is located. * "From" and "Until" record the dates at which the city joined and/or left the league.

HANSA PROPER

QUARTER CITY TERRITORY NOW FROM UNTIL NOTES REFS

Wendish Lubeck ! Lübeck Free imperial city
Free imperial city
! Free City of Lübeck Germany
Germany

CAPITAL OF THE HANSEATIC LEAGUE, capital of the Wendish and Pomeranian Circle :47, 120; :74, 82;

Wendish Hamburg
Hamburg
! Hamburg
Hamburg
Free imperial city
Free imperial city
! Free City of Hamburg
Hamburg
Germany
Germany

:47; :82;

Wendish Luneburg ! Lüneburg
Lüneburg
Brunswick-Luneburg ! Duchy of Brunswick- Lüneburg
Lüneburg
Germany
Germany

Wendish Wismar
Wismar
! Wismar
Wismar
Mecklenburg
Mecklenburg
! Duchy of Mecklenburg Germany
Germany

Joined the 10-year Rostock Peace Treaty (Rostocker Landfrieden) in 1283, which was the predecessor of the federation of Wendish towns (1293 onwards). :82;

Wendish Rostock
Rostock
! Rostock
Rostock
Mecklenburg
Mecklenburg
! Duchy of Mecklenburg Germany
Germany

Joined the 10-year Rostock Peace Treaty in 1283, which was the predecessor of the federation of Wendish towns (1293 onwards). :82;

Wendish Stralsund
Stralsund
! Stralsund
Stralsund
Rugen ! Principality of Rügen Germany
Germany
7003129300000000000♠1293

Rügen was a fief of the Danish crown to 1325. Stralsund
Stralsund
joined the 10-year Rostock Peace Treaty in 1283, which was the predecessor of the federation of Wendish towns (1293 onwards). From 1339 to the 17th century, Stralsund
Stralsund
was a member of the Vierstädtebund with Greifswald, Demmin
Demmin
and Anklam.

Wendish Demmin
Demmin
! Demmin
Demmin
Pomerania ! Duchy of Pomerania Germany
Germany

Joined the 10-year Rostock Peace Treaty in 1283, which was the predecessor of the federation of Wendish towns (1293 onwards). From 1339 to the 17th century, Demmin
Demmin
was a member of the Vierstädtebund with Stralsund, Greifswald
Greifswald
and Anklam.

Wendish Greifswald
Greifswald
! Greifswald
Greifswald
Pomerania ! Duchy of Pomerania Germany
Germany

Joined the 10-year Rostock Peace Treaty in 1283, which was the predecessor of the federation of Wendish towns (1293 onwards). From 1339 to the 17th century, Griefswald was a member of the Vierstädtebund with Stralsund, Demmin
Demmin
and Anklam.

Wendish Anklam ! Anklam Pomerania ! Duchy of Pomerania Germany
Germany

Joined the 10-year Rostock Peace Treaty in 1283, which was the predecessor of the federation of Wendish towns (1293 onwards). From 1339 to the 17th century, Anklam was a member of the Vierstädtebund with Stralsund, Greifswald
Greifswald
and Demmin.

Wendish Stettin ! Stettin ( Szczecin
Szczecin
) Pomerania ! Duchy of Pomerania Poland
Poland
7003127800000000000♠1278

Joined the 10-year Rostock Peace Treaty in 1283, which was the predecessor of the federation of Wendish towns (1293 onwards); since the 14th century gradually adopted the role of a chief city for the Pomeranian Hanseatic towns to its east :120;

Wendish Pasewalk ! Pasewalk Pomerania ! Duchy of Pomerania Germany
Germany

Wendish Kolberg ! Kolberg ( Kołobrzeg
Kołobrzeg
) Pomerania ! Duchy of Pomerania Poland
Poland

Wendish Rugenwalde ! Rügenwalde ( Darłowo ) Pomerania ! Duchy of Pomerania Poland
Poland

Wendish Stolp ! Stolp ( Słupsk
Słupsk
) Pomerania ! Duchy of Pomerania Poland
Poland

Baltic Visby ! Visby Sweden
Sweden
! Kingdom of Sweden
Sweden
Sweden
Sweden

7003147000000000000♠1470 In 1285 at Kalmar
Kalmar
, the League agreed with Magnus III, King of Sweden
Sweden
, that Gotland
Gotland
be joined with Sweden
Sweden
. In 1470, Visby's status was rescinded by the League, with Lübeck razing the city's churches in May 1525.

Baltic Stockholm
Stockholm
! Stockholm
Stockholm
Sweden
Sweden
! Kingdom of Sweden
Sweden
Sweden
Sweden

Saxon Brunswick ! Brunswick Saxony ! Duchy of Saxony Germany
Germany
7003120000000000000♠ 13th century 7003160000000000000♠ 17th century Capital of the Saxon, Thuringian and Brandenburg Circle

Saxon Bremen
Bremen
! Bremen
Bremen
Free imperial city
Free imperial city
! Free City of Bremen
Bremen
Germany
Germany
7003126000000000000♠1260

Saxon Magdeburg
Magdeburg
! Magdeburg
Magdeburg
Magdeburg
Magdeburg
! Archbishopric of Magdeburg
Magdeburg
Germany
Germany
7003120000000000000♠ 13th century

Capital of the Saxon, Thuringian and Brandenburg Circle

Saxon Goslar ! Goslar Goslar ! Imperial City of Goslar Germany
Germany
7003126700000000000♠1267 7003156600000000000♠1566 Goslar was a fief of Saxony until 1280.

Saxon Erfurt
Erfurt
! Erfurt
Erfurt
Mainz ! Archbishopric of Mainz Germany
Germany

Saxon Stade
Stade
! Stade
Stade
Bremen
Bremen
! Archbishopric of Bremen
Bremen
Germany
Germany

Saxon Berlin
Berlin
! Berlin
Berlin
Brandenburg ! Margraviate of Brandenburg Germany
Germany

7003144200000000000♠1442 Brandenburg was raised to an Electorate in 1356. Elector Frederick II caused all the Brandenburg cities to leave the League in 1442. :120; :32;

Saxon Frankfurt
Frankfurt
Oder ! Frankfurt
Frankfurt
an der Oder Brandenburg ! Margraviate of Brandenburg Germany
Germany
7003143000000000000♠1430 7003144200000000000♠1442 Elector Frederick II caused all the Brandenburg cities to leave the League in 1442. :32

Baltic Danzig ! Gdańsk - Danzig ( Gdańsk ) Teutonic Order ! Teutonic Order Poland
Poland
7003135800000000000♠1358

Capital of the Prussian, Livonian and Swedish (or East Baltic) Circle. Danzig had been first a part of the Duchy of Pomerelia, a fief of the Polish Crown, with Polish-Kashubian population , then part of the State of the Teutonic Order from 1308 until 1457. After the Second Peace of Thorn (1466) , Royal Prussia
Royal Prussia
including Gdańsk was part of the Kingdom of Poland
Poland
. :120; :81; :403

Baltic Elbing ! Elbing ( Elbląg ) Teutonic Order ! Teutonic Order Poland
Poland
7003135800000000000♠1358

Elbing had originally been part of the territory of the Old Prussians , until the 1230s when it became part of the State of the Teutonic Order . After the Second Peace of Thorn (1466)
Second Peace of Thorn (1466)
, Royal Prussia , including Elbląg was part of the Kingdom of Poland
Poland
. :452

Baltic Thorn ! Thorn ( Toruń
Toruń
) Teutonic Order ! Teutonic Order Poland
Poland
7003128000000000000♠1280

Toruń
Toruń
was part of the State of the Teutonic Order from 1233 until 1466. After the Second Peace of Thorn (1466)
Second Peace of Thorn (1466)
, Royal Prussia
Royal Prussia
, including Toruń, was part of the Kingdom of Poland
Poland
. :436

Baltic Krakow ! Kraków
Kraków
Poland
Poland
! Kingdom of Poland
Poland
Poland
Poland
7003137000000000000♠c. 1370 7003150000000000000♠c. 1500 Kraków
Kraków
was the capital of the Kingdom of Poland
Poland
, 1038–1596/1611. It adopted Magdeburg
Magdeburg
town law and 5000 Poles and 3500 Germans lived within the city proper in the 15th century; Poles steadily rose in the ranks of guild memberships reaching 41% of guild members in 1500. It was very loosely associated with Hansa, and paid no membership fees, nor sent representatives to League meetings.

Baltic Breslau ! Breslau, ( Wrocław
Wrocław
) Silesia ! Kingdom of Bohemia
Kingdom of Bohemia
Poland
Poland
7003138700000000000♠1387 7003147400000000000♠1474 Breslau, a part of the Duchy of Breslau and the Kingdom of Bohemia , was only loosely connected to the League and paid no membership fees nor did its representatives take part in Hansa meetings

Baltic Konigsberg ! Königsberg
Königsberg
( Kaliningrad ) Teutonic Order ! Teutonic Order Russia
Russia
7003134000000000000♠1340

Königsberg
Königsberg
was the capital of the Teutonic Order , becoming the capital of Ducal Prussia on the Order's secularisation in 1466. Ducal Prussia was a German principality that was a fief of the Polish crown until gaining its independence in the 1660 Treaty of Oliva . The city was renamed Kaliningrad in 1946 after East Prussia was divided between the People\'s Republic of Poland
Poland
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
at the Potsdam Conference .

Baltic Riga
Riga
! Rīga Livonia
Livonia
! Terra Mariana
Terra Mariana
(Livonia) Latvia
Latvia
7003128200000000000♠1282

During the Livonian War
Livonian War
(1558–83), Riga
Riga
became a Free imperial city until the 1581 Treaty of Drohiczyn ceded Livonia
Livonia
to the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
until the city was captured by Sweden in the Polish–Swedish War (1621–1625) . :82; :20

Baltic Reval ! Reval ( Tallinn
Tallinn
) Livonia
Livonia
! Terra Mariana
Terra Mariana
(Livonia) Estonia
Estonia
7003128500000000000♠1285

On joining the Hanseatic League, Reval was a Danish fief, but was sold, with the rest of northern Estonia, to the Teutonic Order in 1346. After the Livonian War
Livonian War
(1558–83), northern Estonia
Estonia
became a part of the Swedish Empire . :47; :81;

Baltic Dorpat ! Dorpat ( Tartu
Tartu
) Livonia
Livonia
! Terra Mariana
Terra Mariana
(Livonia) Estonia
Estonia
7003128000000000000♠ 1280s

The Bishopric of Dorpat gained increasing autonomy within the Terra Mariana . During the Livonian War
Livonian War
(1558–83), Dorpat fell under the rule of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
, with the 1581 Treaty of Drohiczyn definitively ceding Livonia
Livonia
to the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth until the city was captured by Sweden
Sweden
in the Polish–Swedish War (1621–1625) .

Westphalian Cologne
Cologne
! Cologne
Cologne
Cologne
Cologne
! Imperial City of Cologne
Cologne
Germany
Germany

7003166900000000000♠1669 Capital of the Rhine-Westphalian and Netherlands
Netherlands
Circle until after the Anglo-Hanseatic War (1470–74), when the city was prosecuted in 1475 with temporary trade sanctions (German: Verhanst) for some years for having supported England ; Dortmund
Dortmund
was made capital of the Circle. Cologne
Cologne
also was called "Electorate of Cologne" (German: Kurfürstentum Köln or Kurköln). In June 1669 the last Hanseday was held in the town of Lübeck by the last remaining Hanse members, amongst others Cologne. :120;

Westphalian Dortmund
Dortmund
! Dortmund
Dortmund
Dortmund
Dortmund
! Imperial City of Dortmund
Dortmund
Germany
Germany

After Cologne
Cologne
was excluded after the Anglo-Hanseatic War (1470–74), Dortmund
Dortmund
was made capital of the Rhine-Westphalian and Netherlands
Netherlands
Circle. :82;

Westphalian Deventer ! Deventer Utrecht ! Bishopric of Utrecht Netherlands
Netherlands
7003100000000000000♠1000 7003150000000000000♠1500

:438

Westphalian Kampen ! Kampen Utrecht ! Bishopric of Utrecht Netherlands
Netherlands
7003144100000000000♠1441

:433

Westphalian Groningen
Groningen
! Groningen
Groningen
Friesland
Friesland
! Friesland
Friesland
Netherlands
Netherlands

Westphalian Munster ! Münster
Münster
Munster ! Prince-Bishopric of Münster
Münster
Germany
Germany

:82;

Westphalian Osnabruck ! Osnabrück
Osnabrück
Osnabruck ! Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück
Osnabrück
Germany
Germany
7003110000000000000♠ 12th century

Westphalian Soest ! Soest Soest ! Imperial City of Soest Germany
Germany

7003160900000000000♠1609 The city was a part of the Electorate of Cologne
Cologne
until acquiring its freedom in 1444–49, after which it aligned with the Duchy of Cleves . :82;

KONTORE

QUARTER CITY TERRITORY NOW FROM UNTIL NOTES REFS

Kontor Novgorod
Novgorod
! Novgorod
Novgorod
: Peterhof Novgorod
Novgorod
! Novgorod
Novgorod
Republic Russia
Russia

7003150000000000000♠ 1500s Novgorod
Novgorod
was one of the principal Kontore of the League and the easternmost. In 1499, Ivan III, Grand Prince of Moscow , closed the Peterhof; it was reopened a few years later, but the League's Russian trade never recovered. :47; :26, 82;

Kontor Bergen
Bergen
! Bergen
Bergen
: Bryggen Norway
Norway
! Kingdom of Norway
Norway
Norway
Norway
7003136000000000000♠1360 7003177500000000000♠1775 Bryggen was one of the principal Kontore of the League. It was razed by accidental fire in 1476. In 1560, administration of Bryggen was placed under Norwegian administration. :82;

Kontor Bruges
Bruges
! Bruges
Bruges
: Hanzekantoor Flanders ! County of Flanders Belgium
Belgium

Bruges
Bruges
was one of the principal Kontore of the League until the 15th century, when the seaway to the city silted up; trade from Antwerp
Antwerp
benefiting from Bruges's loss. :47; :80; :134, 176

Kontor London
London
! London: Steelyard England ! Kingdom of England United Kingdom
United Kingdom
7003130300000000000♠1303 7003185300000000000♠1853 The Steelyard was one of the principal Kontore of the League. King Edward I granted a Carta Mercatoria in 1303. The Steelyard was destroyed in 1469 and Edward IV exempted Cologne
Cologne
merchants, leading to the Anglo-Hanseatic War (1470–74). The Treaty of Utrecht , sealing the peace, led to the League purchasing the Steelyard outright in 1475, with Edward having renewed the League's privileges without insisting on reciprocal rights for English merchants in the Baltic. London
London
merchants persuaded Elizabeth I to rescind the League's privileges on 13 January 1598; while the Steelyard was re-established by James I , the advantage never returned. Consulates continued however, providing communication during the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
, and the Hanseatic interest was only sold in 1853. :47; :26, 80–82; :95

Kontor Antwerp
Antwerp
! Antwerp
Antwerp
Brabant ! Duchy of Brabant
Duchy of Brabant
Belgium
Belgium

Antwerp
Antwerp
became a major Kontor of the League, particularly after the seaway to Bruges
Bruges
silted up in the 15th century, leading to its fortunes waning in Antwerp's favour, despite Antwerp's refusal to grant special privileges to the League's merchants. Between 1312 and 1406, Antwerp
Antwerp
was a margraviate , independent of Brabant. :80;

Kontor Lynn ! Bishop's Lynn (King\'s Lynn ) England ! Kingdom of England United Kingdom
United Kingdom

7003175100000000000♠1751 The Hanseatic Warehouse was constructed in 1475 as part of the Treaty of Utrecht , allowing the League to establish a trading depot in Lynn for the first time. It is the only surviving League building in England. :95

Kontor Ipswich
Ipswich
! Ipswich
Ipswich
England ! Kingdom of England United Kingdom
United Kingdom

Kontor Malmo ! Malmö Denmark ! Kingdom of Denmark Sweden
Sweden
7003140000000000000♠ 15th century

Skåne
Skåne
(Scania) was Danish until ceded to Sweden
Sweden
by the 1658 Treaty of Roskilde , during the Second Northern War .

Kontor Falsterbo ! Falsterbo Denmark ! Kingdom of Denmark Sweden
Sweden
7003140000000000000♠ 15th century

Skåne
Skåne
was Danish until ceded to Sweden
Sweden
by the 1658 Treaty of Roskilde , during the Second Northern War .

Kontor Kaunas
Kaunas
! Kaunas
Kaunas
Lithuania
Lithuania
! Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuania
Lithuania
7003144100000000000♠1441

In 1398 traders guild with close ties to Hanseatic league appeared in Kaunas
Kaunas
. Treaty with Hanseatic league was signed in 1441. Main office was located in House of Perkūnas from 1441 till 1532.

Kontor Pleskau ! Pleskau ( Pskov ) Pskov ! Pskov Republic Russia
Russia

In the 12th and 13th centuries, Pskov adhered to the Novgorod Republic . It was captured by the Teutonic Order in 1241 and liberated by a Lithuanian prince, becoming a de facto sovereign republic by the 14th century.

Kontor Polotsk
Polotsk
! Polotsk
Polotsk
Polotsk
Polotsk
! Principality of Polotsk
Polotsk
Belarus
Belarus

Polotsk
Polotsk
was an autonomous principality of Kievan Rus\' until gaining its independence in 1021. From 1240, it became a vassal of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
, being fully integrated into the Grand Duchy in 1307.

PORTS WITH HANSA TRADING POSTS

The Hanseatic Warehouse in King\'s Lynn is the only surviving League building in England The Oostershuis , a kontor in Antwerp
Antwerp

* Berwick-upon-Tweed
Berwick-upon-Tweed
* Bristol
Bristol
* Boston :95 * Damme
Damme
* Leith * Hull * Newcastle * Great Yarmouth
Great Yarmouth
* York
York

OTHER CITIES WITH A HANSA COMMUNITY

* Aberdeen
Aberdeen
* Åbo ( Turku
Turku
) * Arnhem
Arnhem
:432; * Avaldsnes * Bolsward
Bolsward
* Bordeaux
Bordeaux
* Brae * Doesburg :433 * Fellin ( Viljandi
Viljandi
) * Goldingen ( Kuldīga
Kuldīga
) * Göttingen
Göttingen
* Grindavík * Grundarfjörður * Gunnister * Haapsalu
Haapsalu
* Hafnarfjörður * Hamelin
Hamelin
* Hanover
Hanover
* Harlingen * Haroldswick
Haroldswick
* Hasselt
Hasselt
* Hattem * Herford :82; :391 * Hildesheim
Hildesheim
* Hindeloopen
Hindeloopen
(Hylpen) :397; * Kalmar
Kalmar
* Kokenhusen ( Koknese ) * á Krambatangi * Kumbaravogur * Kulm ( Chełmno ) * Leghorn :98 * Lemgo * Lemsal ( Limbaži ) * Lippe
Lippe
* Lisbon
Lisbon
* Lunna Wick * Messina
Messina
* Minden * Naples
Naples
* Nantes
Nantes
* Narva
Narva
* Nijmegen
Nijmegen
* Nordhausen
Nordhausen
* Nyborg
Nyborg
* Nyköping * Oldenzaal * Ommen * Paderborn
Paderborn
* Pernau ( Pärnu
Pärnu
) * Roermond * Roop ( Straupe
Straupe
) * Scalloway
Scalloway
* Smolensk
Smolensk
* Stargard ( Stargard Szczeciński ) :476 * Stavoren
Stavoren
(Starum) :398 * Tórshavn
Tórshavn
* Trondheim
Trondheim
* Tver
Tver
* Uelzen * Venlo * Vilnius
Vilnius
* Walk ( Valka ) * Weißenstein ( Paide
Paide
) * Wenden ( Cēsis ) :60 * Wesel
Wesel
* Wesenberg ( Rakvere ) * Windau ( Ventspils
Ventspils
) * Wolmar ( Valmiera ) * Zutphen :433 * Zwolle :433, 439

MODERN "CITY LEAGUE THE HANSE"

German language logo

In 1980, former Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
members established a "new Hanse" in Zwolle , the "City League The Hanse". This league is open to all former Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
members and cities that once hosted a Hanseatic kontor . The latter include twelve Russian cities, most notably Novgorod
Novgorod
, which was a major Russian trade partner of the Hansa in the Middle Ages. The "new Hanse" fosters and develops business links, tourism and cultural exchange.

The headquarters of the New Hansa is in Lübeck , Germany. The current President of the Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
of New Time is Bernd Saxe, Mayor of Lübeck.

Each year one of the member cities of the New Hansa hosts the Hanseatic Days of New Time international festival.

In 2006 King\'s Lynn became the first English member of the newly formed modern Hanseatic League. Hull also joined and Boston, Lincolnshire was considering an application in early 2013.

HISTORICAL MAPS

*

Europe in 1097 *

Europe in 1430 *

Europe in 1470 *

Carta marina
Carta marina
of the Baltic Sea region (1539)

SEE ALSO

* Baltic maritime trade (c. 1400-1800) * Brick Gothic
Brick Gothic
* Company of Merchant Adventurers of London * Hanseatic Cross * Hanseatic Days of New Time * Hanseatic flags * Hanseatic Museum and Schøtstuene * Hanseatic Trade Center * List of ships of the Hanseatic League * Lufthansa
Lufthansa
* Maritime republics * Thalassocracy * The Patrician

NOTES

* ^ Hansen, Mogens Herman (2000). A comparative study of thirty city-state cultures: an investigation. Royal Danish Academy of Sciences & Letters: Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Polis Centre (Historisk-filosofiske Skrifter 21). p. 305. * ^ The Cronicle of the Hanseatic League * ^ Justyna Wubs-Mrozewicz, Traders, ties and tensions: the interactions of Lübeckers, Overijsslers and Hollanders in Late Medieval Bergen, Uitgeverij Verloren, 2008 p. 111 * ^ Translation of the grant of privileges to merchants in 1229: "Medieval Sourcebook: Privileges Granted to German Merchants at Novgorod, 1229". Fordham.edu. Retrieved 20 July 2009. * ^ Atatüre, Süha (2008). "The Historical Roots of European Union: Integration, Characteristics, and Responsibilities for the 21st Century" (PDF). European Journal of Social Sciences. Eurojournal. 7 (2). Retrieved 26 July 2009. * ^ Braudel, Fernand (17 January 2002). The Perspective of the World. Volume 3: Civilization and Capitalism, 15th–18th century. Phoenix Press. ISBN 1-84212-289-4 . * ^ Hanseatic League, p.198, App.IV p.431 * ^ A B Frederick Engels "The Peasant War in Germany" contained in the Collected Works of Karl Marx and Frederick Engels: Volume 10 (International Publishers: New York, 1978) p. 400. * ^ Pulsiano, Phillip; Kirsten Wolf (1993). Medieval Scandinavia: An Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. p. 265. ISBN 0-8240-4787-7 . * ^ Stearns, Peter N; William Leonard Langer (2001). The Encyclopedia of World History: Ancient, Medieval, and Modern, Chronologically Arranged. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 265. ISBN 0-395-65237-5 . * ^ MacKay, Angus; David Ditchburn (1997). Atlas of Medieval Europe. Routledge. p. 171. ISBN 0-415-01923-0 . * ^ A B Dollinger, Philippe (2000). The German Hansa. Routledge. pp. 341–3. ISBN 978-0-415-19073-2 . Retrieved 30 April 2011. * ^ Meier, Dirk (2009). Seafarers, Merchants and Pirates in the Middle ages. Boyden Press. ISBN 978-1-84383-5-127 . , 145. * ^ A B Blumówna, Helena. Kraków
Kraków
jego dzieje i sztuka: Praca zbiorowa . Katowice: 1966. p. 93. * ^ Davies, Norman (1982). God's playground. A history of Poland, Volume 1: The Origins to 1795. Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
. ISBN 978-0-19-925339-5 . * ^ "Agreement of the Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
at Lübeck, 1557". Baltic Connections. Retrieved 5 May 2009. * ^ hansa.html * ^ GermanFoods.org – Bremen, Hamburg
Hamburg
and Luebeck: Culinary Treasures From The Hanseatic Cities * ^ "Guide to Lübeck". Europe à la Carte. Retrieved 20 July 2009.

* ^ "Travel to the Baltic Hansa". Europa Russia. * ^ A B C Hammel-Kiesow, Rolf (2008). Die Hanse (in German). Beck. ISBN 3-406-58352-0 . * ^ A B Pfeiffer, Hermannus (2009). Seemacht Deutschland. Die Hanse, Kaiser Wilhelm II. und der neue Maritime Komplex (in German). Ch. Links Verlag. p. 55. ISBN 3-86153-513-0 . * ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S Mills, Jennifer (May 1998). "The Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
in the Eastern Baltic". Encyclopedia of Baltic History (group research project) . University of Washington
University of Washington
. * ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z AA AB AC AD AE AF AG AH AI AJ AK AL AM AN AO AP AQ AR AS AT AU AV AW Falke, Dr Johannes (1863). Die Hansa als deutsche See- und Handelsmacht . Berlin: F Henschel. pp. 62–64. * ^ Distler, Eva-Marie (2006). Städtebünde im deutschen Spätmittelalter. Eine rechtshistorische Untersuchung zu Begriff, Verfassung und Funktion (in German). Vittorio Klostermann. pp. 55–57. ISBN 3-465-04001-5 . * ^ Fritze, Konrad; et al. (1985). Die Geschichte der Hanse (in German). p. 217. * ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R Natkiel, Richard (1989). Atlas of Maritime History. Smithmark Publishing. p. 33. ISBN 0-8317-0485-3 . * ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O Michael Keating,Regions and regionalism in Europe, 2004, Edward Elgar Publishing, pages 47 and 120 * ^ Reibstein, Ernst. "Das Völkerrecht der deutschen Hanse" (PDF) (in German). Max-Planck-Institut für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht. pp. 56–57 (print), pp. 19–20 in pdf numbering. Retrieved 30 April 2010. * ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z AA AB AC AD AE AF AG AH AI AJ AK AL AM AN AO AP AQ AR AS AT AU AV AW AX AY AZ BA Jotischky, Andrew; Caroline Hull (2005). The Penguin Historical Atlas of the Medieval World. Penguin Books
Penguin Books
. pp. 122–23. ISBN 978-0-14-101449-4 . * ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R Holborn, Hajo (1982). A History of Modern Germany: The Reformation. Princeton University Press. pp. 32, 74, 80–82. ISBN 0-691-00795-0 . * ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z AA AB AC AD AE AF AG AH AI AJ AK AL AM AN AO AP AQ AR AS AT AU AV AW AX AY AZ BA BB BC BD BE BF BG BH Dollinger, Philippe (2000). The German Hansa. Stanford University Press . pp. ix–x. ISBN 0-8047-0742-1 . Retrieved 15 May 2011. * ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z AA AB AC AD AE AF AG AH Barthold, Dr Friedrich Wilhelm (1862). Geschichte der Deutschen Hanse . Leizig: TD Weigel. pp. 35 and 496–7. * ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z AA AB AC AD AE AF AG AH AI AJ AK AL AM Schäfer, D (2010). Die deutsche Hanse . Reprint-Verlag-Leipzig. pp. page 37. ISBN 978-3-8262-1933-7 . * ^ A B C D E F G Wernicke, Horst (2007). "Die Hansestädte an der Oder". In Schlögel, Karl; Halicka, Beata. Oder-Odra. Blicke auf einen europäischen Strom (in German). Lang. pp. 137–48; here p. 142. ISBN 3-631-56149-0 . * ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N Mehler, Natascha (2009). "The Perception and Interpretation of Hanseatic Material Culture in the North Atlantic: Problems and Suggestions" (PDF). Journal of the North Atlantic ( Special
Special
Volume 1: Archaeologies of the Early Modern North Atlantic): 89–108. * ^ "Stralsund". Encyclopædia Britannica . 2011. Retrieved 28 December 2011. * ^ A B C D E F Buchholz, Werner; et al. (1999). Pommern (in German). Siedler. p. 120. ISBN 3-88680-272-8 . * ^ "Varför ruinerades Visby" . Goteinfo.com (in Swedish). Retrieved 30 April 2011. * ^ A B C D Bedford, Neil (2008). Poland. Lonely Planet
Lonely Planet
. pp. 403, 436, 452 and 476. ISBN 978-1-74104-479-9 . * ^ "Alma Mater" (109). Kraków: Jagiellonian University . 2008: 6.

* ^ Carter, Francis W. (1994). Trade and urban development in Poland. An economic geography of Cracow, from its origins to 1795, Volume 20. Cambridge studies in historical geography. Cambridge University Press. pp. 70–71, 100–02. ISBN 0-521-41239-0 . * ^ Jelicz, Antonina (1966). Życie codzienne w średniowiecznym Krakowie: wiek XIII–XV . Państwowy Instytut Wydawniczy. * ^ Gilewska-Dubis, Janina (2000). Życie codzienne mieszczan wrocławskich w dobie średniowiecza . Wydawnictwo Dolnośląskie. p. 160. * ^ Buśko, Cezary; Włodzimierz Suleja; Teresa Kulak (2001). Historia Wrocławia: Od pradziejów do końca czasów habsburskich . Wydawnictwo Dolnośląskie. p. 152. * ^ A B Turnbull, Stephen R (2004). Crusader castles of the Teutonic Knights: The stone castles of Latvia
Latvia
and Estonia
Estonia
1185–1560. Osprey Publishing. pp. 20, 60. ISBN 978-1-84176-712-3 . * ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z AA AB AC AD AE AF AG Mehler, Natascha (2011). "Hansefahrer im hohen Norden" (PDF). epoc (2): 16–25, particularly 20 and 21. * ^ A B C D E F G ver Berkmoes, Ryan; Karla Zimmerman (2010). The Netherlands. Lonely Planet
Lonely Planet
. p. 255. ISBN 978-1-74104-925-1 . * ^ A B C D E F G H I McDonald, George (2009). Frommer's Belgium, Holland & Luxembourg, 11th Edition. Frommers . pp. 134, 176, 397, 432–38. ISBN 978-0-470-38227-1 . * ^ A B This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Hanseatic League". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. * ^ A B C D E Mehler, Natascha (April 2009). "HANSA: The Hanseatic Expansion in the North Atlantic". University of Vienna. Retrieved 15 May 2011. * ^ A B C D Ward, Adolphus William. Collected Papers Historical, Literary, Travel and Miscellaneous. pp. 95, 391. * ^ Mitchell, Alex. "The Old Burghs Of Aberdeen". Aberdeen
Aberdeen
Civic Society. Retrieved 1 May 2011. * ^ Merriam-Webster, Inc (1997). Merriam-Webster's geographical dictionary. Merriam-Webster, Inc. pp. 74–75. ISBN 978-0-87779-546-9 . * ^ Miruß, Alexander (1838). Das See-Recht und die Fluß-Schifffahrt nach den Preußischen Gesetzen. Leipzig: JC Hinrichsschen Buchhandlung. p. 17. Retrieved 2 May 2011. * ^ "Göttingen". Encyclopædia Brittanica. Retrieved 2 May 2011. * ^ Gardiner, Mark; Natascha Mehler (2010). "The Hanseatic trading site at Gunnister Voe, Shetland" (PDF). Post-Medieval Archaeology. 44 (2): 347–49. * ^ Bjarnadóttir, Kristín (2006), Mathematical Education in Iceland in Historical Context (PDF), Roskilde University
Roskilde University
, retrieved 2 May 2011 * ^ Wild, Albert (1862). Die Niederlande: ihre Vergangenheit und Gegenwart, Volume 2 . Wigand. pp. page 250. * ^ Dollinger, Philippe (2000). The German Hansa. Routledge. pp. 128, 352. ISBN 978-0-415-19073-2 . * ^ "History of Koknese". Koknese official website. 10 January 2011. Retrieved 15 May 2011. * ^ "Collector Coin Koknese". National Bank of Latvia
Latvia
. Retrieved 15 May 2011. * ^ Könnecke, Jochen; Vladislav Rubzov (2005). Lettland . DuMont Reiseverlag. pp. 23, 26–7, 161. ISBN 978-3-7701-6386-1 . * ^ Mehler, Natascha (October 2010). "The Operation of International Trade in Iceland and Shetland (c. 1400–1700)". University of Vienna
University of Vienna
. Retrieved 15 May 2011. * ^ Walford, Cornelius. "An Outline History of the Hanseatic League, More Particularly in Its Bearings upon English Commerce". Transactions of the Royal Historical Society. Vol. 9 (1881), pp. 82-136. JSTOR
JSTOR
3677937 . The following cities were also connected with the League, but did not have representation in the Diet, nor responsibility: (...) Leghorn, Lisbon, London, Marseilles, Messina, Naples
Naples
(...) Missing or empty url= (help ) * ^ Pohle, Jürgen (December 2010). "O estabelecimento dos mercadores-banqueiros alemães em Lisboa no início do século XVI" (PDF). Universidade Atlântica (Lisbon). Retrieved 28 December 2015. * ^ A B Cultus.hk * ^ A B "City League The HANSE". * ^ "King\'s Lynn Hanse Festival 2009". Borough Council of King\'s Lynn and West Norfolk . Retrieved 23 August 2010.

FURTHER READING

* Brand, Hanno (2006). Baltic Sea Trade: Baltic Connections. Hanse Research Center. * Dollinger, P (2000). The German Hansa. Routledge. pp. 341–3. ISBN 978-0-415-19073-2 . * Gade, John A. (1951). The Hanseatic Control of Norwegian Commerce During the Middle Ages. E.J. Brill. * Israel, I. Jonathan (1995). The Dutch Republic: It’s Rise, Greatness and Fall, 1477-1806. Oxford University Press. * Magnusson, Lars (2000). An Economic History of Sweden. Routledge. * Meier, Dirk (2009). Seafarers, Merchants and Pirates in the Middle Ages. Boyden Press. ISBN 978-1-84383-5-127 . * Nash, Elizabeth Gee (1929). The Hansa. ISBN 1-56619-867-4 . * Nedkvinte, Arnved (2013). The German Hansa and Bergen
Bergen
1100-1600. Böhlau Verlag. ISBN 9783412216825 . * Schulte Beerbühl, Margrit (2012). Networks of the Hanseatic League. Mainz: Institute of European History . Retrieved 24 January 2012. * Thompson, James Westfall (1931). Economic and Social History of Europe in the Later Middle Ages
Middle Ages
(1300–1530). pp. 146–79. ASIN B000NX1CE2 . * Wubs-Mrozewicz, Justyna (2008). Traders, Ties and Tensions: the interactions of Lübeckers, Overijsslers and Hollanders in Late Medieval Bergen. Verloren. ISBN 978-90-8704-041-3 .

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