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HO or H0 is a rail transport modelling scale using a 1:87 scale (3.5 mm to 1 foot). It is the most popular scale of model railway in the world.[1][2] The rails are spaced 16.5 mm (0.650 in) apart for modelling 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge tracks and trains in HO.[3] The name HO comes from 1:87 scale being half that of O scale, which was previously the smallest of the series of older and larger 0, 1, 2 and 3 gauges introduced by Märklin
Märklin
around 1900. In most English-speaking markets it is pronounced "aitch-oh" and written with the letters HO today, but in other markets remains written with the letter H and number 0 (zero), so in German it is pronounced as "hah-null".

Contents

1 History

1.1 Controls 1.2 Scale 1.3 Track

1.3.1 Construction

1.4 Models

2 Comparison to other scales 3 Manufacturers 4 See also 5 References 6 External links

History[edit]

H O scale
O scale
model of a CSX
CSX
locomotive

After the First World War there were several attempts to introduce a model railway about half the size of 0 scale that would be more suitable for smaller home layouts and cheaper to manufacture. H0 was created to meet these aims. For this new scale, a track width of 16.5 mm was designed to represent prototypical standard gauge track, and a model scale of 1:87 was chosen. By as early as 1922 the firm Bing in Nuremberg, Germany, had been marketing a "tabletop railway" for several years. This came on a raised, quasi-ballasted track with a gauge of 16.5 mm, which was described at that time either as 00 or H0. The trains initially had a clockwork drive, but from 1924 were driven electrically. Accessory manufacturers, such as Kibri, marketed buildings in the corresponding scale. At the 1935 Leipzig Spring Fair, an electric tabletop railway, Trix Express, was displayed to a gauge described as "half nought gauge", which was then abbreviated as gauge 00 ("nought-nought"). Märklin, another German firm, followed suit with its 00 gauge railway for the 1935 Leipzig Autumn Fair. The Märklin
Märklin
00 gauge track that appeared more than ten years after Bing's tabletop railway had a very similar appearance to the previous Bing track. On the Märklin
Märklin
version, however, the rails were fixed to the tin 'ballast' as in the prototype, whilst the Bing tracks were simply stamped into the ballast, so that track and ballast were made of single sheet of metal. H O scale
O scale
trains elsewhere were developed in response to the economic pressures of the Great Depression.[4] The trains first appeared in the United Kingdom, originally as an alternative to 00 gauge, but could not make commercial headway against the established 00 gauge. However, it became very popular in the United States, where it took off in the late 1950s after interest in model railroads as toys began to decline and more emphasis began to be placed on realism in response to hobbyist demand.[4] While H O scale
O scale
is by nature more delicate than 0 scale, its smaller size allows modelers to fit more details and more scale miles into a comparable area. In the 1950s HO began to challenge the market dominance of 0 gauge and, in the 1960s, as it began to overtake 0 scale in popularity, even the stalwarts of other sizes, including Gilbert (makers of American Flyer) and Lionel Corporation
Lionel Corporation
began manufacturing HO trains. Today, HO locomotives, rolling stock (cars or carriages), buildings, and scenery are available from a large number of manufacturers in a variety of price brackets.[5] Controls[edit] Most modern HO trains run on two-rail track powered by direct current (varying the voltage applied to the rails to change the speed, and polarity to change direction), or by Digital Command Control
Digital Command Control
(DCC) (sending digital commands to a decoder in each locomotive to set the speed, change direction and activate sounds and lights while power comes from the track which is always energised). Other trains, such as those manufactured by Märklin, run on alternating current and use a "third rail" of small protruding studs between the running rails. On simple, usually temporary layouts, power is supplied by a power pack consisting of a transformer and rectifier (DC), a rheostat for regulating power to the track (and thus train speed), and reversing to control model direction. On permanent layouts, multiple power supplies are traditionally used, with the trackage divided into electrically isolated sections called blocks; toggle or rotary switches (sometimes relays) are used to select which power supply controls the train in a particular block. With the advent of digital command control, block divisions are largely eliminated, as the computerized controllers can control any train anywhere on the track at any time. Scale[edit]

H O scale
O scale
steam locomotives at the N&W RR museum in Crewe, Virginia.

For Europe it is defined in the Normen Europäischer Modellbahnen standard NEM 010 published by MOROP as exactly 1:87.[6] For North America the National Model Railroad Association
National Model Railroad Association
(NMRA) standard S-1.2 defines H O scale
O scale
3.5 mm (0.1378 in) as representing 1 real foot (304.8 mm)—a ratio of 1:87.0857142, usually rounded to 1:87.1.[7] The precise definition of HO or H0 scale
H0 scale
varies slightly by country and manufacturer. HO is the most popular model railroad scale in both continental Europe and North America, whereas O O scale
O scale
(4 mm:foot or 1:76.2 with 16.5 mm track) is still dominant in Britain. There are some modellers in Great Britain who use HO scale, and the British 1:87 Scale Society was formed in 1994.

Advertising gift of a Mercedes bus in HO

In other hobbies, the term HO is often used more loosely than in railroad modeling. In slot car racing, HO does not denote a precise scale of car, but a general size of track on which the cars can range from 1:87 to approximately 1:64 scale. Small plastic model soldiers are often popularly referred to as HO size if they are close to one inch (25 mm) high, though the actual scale is usually 1:76 or 1:72. Even in model railroading, the term HO can be stretched. Some British producers have marketed railway accessories such as detail items and figures, as "HO/OO" in an attempt to make them attractive to modelers in either scale. Sometimes the actual scale was OO, sometimes it split the difference (about 1:82). These items may be marketed as HO, especially in the US. In addition, some manufacturers or importers tend to label any small-scale model, regardless of exact scale, as HO scale in order to increase sales to railroad modelers. The sizes of "HO" automobiles, for example, from different manufacturers, can vary greatly. Track[edit] The "gauge" of a rail system is the distance between the inside edges of the railheads. It is distinct from the concept of "scale", though the terms are often used interchangeably in rail modelling. "Scale" describes the size of a modeled object relative to its prototype. Prototype rail systems use a variety of track gauges, so several different gauges can be modeled at the same scale. The gauges used in H O scale
O scale
are a selection of standard and narrow gauges. The standards for these gauges are defined by the NMRA
NMRA
(in North America) and the NEM (in Continental Europe). While the standards are in practice interchangeable, there are minor differences.

Track gauges used in HO/ H0 scale
H0 scale
modelling

Track gauge NEM[6] NMRA Prototype gauge Notes

16.5 mm (0.65 in) H0 HO Standard gauge The most common gauge. The 16.5 mm (0.65 in) gauge is additionally used for standard gauge trains in British 1:76 OO gauge, and for narrow gauges by 1:64 Sn3½, 1:48 On30, On2½ and 1:22.5 Gn15.

12 mm (0.472 in) H0m HOn3½ Metre gauge
Metre gauge
and 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) gauge Metre gauge
Metre gauge
is common in southern Switzerland, west and east Africa, parts of other countries and many tram lines. 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) gauge is used in southern Africa, Australia (Queensland, Tasmania, and Western Australia), New Zealand, and also non- Shinkansen
Shinkansen
JR lines in Japan. H0m and HOn3½ use commercially available TT scale
TT scale
track.

10.5 mm (0.413 in)

HOn3 3 ft (914 mm) gauge 3 ft (914 mm) gauge once common to American mining railroads and shortlines, particularly in the Western States

9 mm (0.354 in) H0e HOn30 2 ft 6 in (762 mm) gauge Typically used for lines in 2 ft (610 mm)-2 ft 6 in (762 mm) gauge. Uses commercially available N scale
N scale
track.

6.5 or 7 mm (0.26 or 0.28 in) H0f/H0i HOn2 15 in (381 mm)–2 ft (610 mm) gauge H0f uses commercially available Z scale
Z scale
track. Defined in NEM 010 for modelling 400–650-millimetre (16–26 in) gauge including Feldbahn
Feldbahn
and 2 ft and 600 mm gauge systems.[6] HOn2 uses 7 mm (0.276 in).

4.5 mm (0.177 in) H0p

12 in (305 mm)‒15 in (381 mm) "Park". Defined in NEM 010 for modelling 300–400-millimetre (10–15 in) gauge ridable miniature railways.[6]

Construction[edit] The earliest "pre-gauged" track available in the 1940s had steel rails clipped to a fiber tie base. This was called flexible track as it could be "flexed" around any curve in a continuous fashion. The sections were sold as three-foot lengths, and the rail ends were connected with a sheet metal track connector that was soldered to the base of the rail. As brass became more readily available, the steel rail was phased out, along with its corrosion problems. Brass
Brass
flex-track continued to be available long after sectional track was introduced, as the three-foot lengths of rail reduced the number of joints. The biggest disadvantage of flex-track was that it had to be fastened to a roadbed. In the late 1940s, Tru-Scale made milled wood roadbed sections, simulating ballast, tie plates and milled ties with a gauged, grooved slot with simulated tie plates. Bulk HO code 100 rail was spiked in place with HO spikes. This was available in straight lengths and curves, from 18-inch radius to 36-inch radius. It was up to the user to stain the wood for the tie colors prior to laying the brass track, and then adding scale ballast between the ties. Tru-Scale made preformed wood roadbed sections, simulating ballast, that the flextrack would be fastened with tiny steel spikes. These spikes were shaped much like real railroad spikes, and were fitted through holes pre-drilled in the fiber flextrack ties base. An improvement was made when "sectional track" became available in a variety of standardized lengths, such as the ubiquitous 9 in (228.6 mm) straight and curved tracks of 15 in (381.0 mm), 18 in (457.2 mm), and 22 in (558.8 mm) radii. These are representative of curves as tight as 108 feet (32.9 m), which in the real world would only be found on some industrial spurs and light rail systems. Sectional track was an improvement in setting up track on a living room floor because the rail was attached to a rigid plastic tie base, and could withstand rough handling from children and pets without suffering much damage. With flex track, which can be bent to any desired shape (within reason), it became possible to create railroads with broader curves, and with them more accurate models. Individual rails are available for those that wish to spike their own rails to ties. Individual ties can be glued to a sound base, or pre-formed tie and ballast sections milled from wood can be used for a more durable, if somewhat artificially uniform, look is preferred. There are a variety of preassembled track sections made by Märklin using their three-rail system. This trackwork is a little bulkier looking than true to scale, but it is considered quite trouble-free, and is preferred by many that are interested in reducing much of the operational problems that come with H O scale
O scale
railroading. As with other preformed track, it is also available in several radius configurations. Generally speaking very sharp radius curves are only suitable for single unit operation, such as trolley cars, or for short-coupled cars and locos such as found around industrial works. Longer wheelbase trucks (bogies) and longer car and loco overhangs require the use of broader radius curves. Today many six-axle diesels and full-length passenger cars will not run on curves less than 24 in (610 mm) in radius. H O scale
O scale
track was originally manufactured with steel rails on fiber ties, then brass rail on fiber ties, then brass rail on plastic tie. Over time, track made of nickel silver (an alloy of nickel and brass) became more common due to its superior resistance to corrosion. Today, almost all H O scale
O scale
track is of nickel silver, although Bachmann, Life-Like
Life-Like
and Model Power continue to manufacture steel track. In America, Atlas gained an early lead in track manufacturing, and their sectional, flex, and turnout track dominates the US market. In the UK, Peco's line of flex track and "Electrofrog" (powered frog) and "Insulfrog" (insulated frog) turnouts are more common. Atlas, Bachmann, and Life-Like
Life-Like
all manufacture inexpensive, snap-together track with integral roadbed. Kato also manufactures a full line of "HO Unitrack", however it has not yet caught on as their N scale
N scale
Unitrack has. Rail height is measured in thousandths of an inch; "code 83" track has a rail which is .083" high. As HO's commonly available rail sizes, especially the popular "code 100", are somewhat large (representative of extremely heavily trafficked lines), many modelers opt for hand-laid finescale track with individually laid wooden sleepers and crossties and rails secured by very small railroad spikes. In Australia, many club-owned layouts employ code 100 track so that club members can also run OO-scale models and older rolling stock with coarse (deep) wheel flanges. Models[edit] Because of the scale's popularity, a huge array of models, kits and supplies are manufactured. The annual H O scale
O scale
catalog by Wm. K. Walthers, North America's largest model railroad supplier, lists more than 1,000 pages of products in that scale alone. Models are generally available in three varieties:

Ready-to-run models are fully ready for use right out of the box. Generally this means couplers, trucks (bogies), and other integral parts are installed at the factory, although some super detailing parts may still need to be attached. Shake-the-box kits are simple, easy-to-assemble kits; a freight car might include a one-piece body, a chassis, trucks, couplers, and a weight, while a structure kit might include walls, windows, doors, and glazing. The name derives from the joke that no skill was required – shake the box, and the kit falls together. A common synonym is screwdriver kit as many can be assembled with a screwdriver and tweezers. Craftsman kits require a much higher level of skill to assemble and can include several hundred parts.

In addition to these kits, numerous manufacturers sell individual supplies for super detailing, scratch building, and kitbashing. Quality varies extremely. Toylike, ready-to-run trains using plastic molds which are well over 50 years old are still sold; at the other are highly detailed limited-edition locomotive models made of brass by companies based in Japan and South Korea. A popular locomotive such as the F7/F9 may be available in thirty different versions with prices ranging from twenty to several thousand dollars or euros. Comparison to other scales[edit] HO scale's popularity lies somewhat in its middle-of-the-road status. It is large enough to accommodate a great deal of detail in finer models, more so than the smaller N and Z scales, and can also be easily handled by children without as much fear of swallowing small parts. Models are usually less expensive than the smaller scales because of more exacting manufacturing process in N and Z, and also less expensive than S, O and G scales because of the smaller amount of material; the larger audience and the resultant economy of scale also drives HO prices down. The size lends itself to elaborate track plans in a reasonable amount of room space, not as much as N but considerably more than S or 0. In short, H O scale
O scale
provides the balance between the detail of larger scales and the lower space requirements of smaller scales. Manufacturers[edit]

This transport-related list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.

Currently active significant manufacturers and marketers of HO railroad equipment as of 2009, include, but are not limited to:

Accurail accurate lighting Acme Model Engineering Co. Albrae Models Arlo-Micromodel resin cast models and kits Athabasca Scale Models Athearn Atlas Model Railroad Auhagen Auscision Austrains AWM Bachmann Industries BGR Group BEMO (de) Blackstone Models (HOn3) Blair Line BLMA Models Bowser Manufacturing Brawa Brekina Broadway Limited Imports Busch Campbell Scale Models Century Foundry Electrotren (part of Hornby) Eureka Exactrail Faller Fleischmann (part of Modelleisenbahn GmbH) Frateschi Fulgurex Guetzold HAG

Heki Heljan Herpa Hobbytown of Boston Hodgdon Scale Models in Connecticut Hornby Railways Hunterline Craftsman Kits Ibertren InterMountain Railway International Hobby Corp Island Modelworks Jouef
Jouef
(part of Hornby) Kadee Kanamodel Products Kato Precision Railroad Models Katsumi Trains Kibri Kleinbahn Lego
Lego
(part of The Lego
Lego
Group)

Lego
Lego
HO 1:87 Vehicles

Lemaco Life-Like Liliput (part of Bachmann) Mantua Märklin Mehano Micro Metakit Model Power MTH Electric Trains MRmatiX Noch Norsk Modelljernbane (NMJ) Norev Northwest Short Line (NWSL)

Peco PIKO Powerline Models Precision Craft Models, Inc. Preiser Rapido Trains Inc (Canada). Rietze Rivarossi
Rivarossi
(part of Hornby) river point station Roco
Roco
(part of Modelleisenbahn GmbH) Sachsenmodelle (part of the Tillig group) Scale Trains SoundTraxx Spectrum (part of Bachmann) Stewart Hobbies spark models Summit USA Tenshodo Trix (part of the Märklin
Märklin
group) TMI Digital Tyco VK Viessmann Vollmer (company) Wiking Wm. K. Walthers Woodland Scenics 80M Model

Significant historical manufacturers and marketers of HO equipment which are no longer active in HO, include

Airfix American Railroad Models (American Beauty) Aristo-Craft Associated Hobby Manufacturers (AHM) Aurora Plastics Corporation Balboa L.M. Cox Globe Herkimer Kembel Ken Kidder Lima — bankrupt in 2004, later acquired by Hornby Lindberg Models Lindsay Products

Lionel Marx Olympic Express Pacific Fast Mail (PFM) Penn Line Manufacturing Powerline Models Revell Selley Train Miniature Trainorama Tru-Scale True Line Trains Trumpeter Tyco Toys Ulrich Varney Scale Models

See also[edit]

Free-mo Proto:87 Rail transport modelling
Rail transport modelling
scales Rail transport modelling
Rail transport modelling
scale standards Miniatur Wunderland

References[edit]

^ "Guide to model railroading scales and gauges". Model Railroader. 2 November 2011. Retrieved 2 October 2016.  ^ Johnson, Kent J., ed. (1998). Basic Model Railroading: Getting Started in the Hobby. Kalmbach Publishing, Co. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-89024-334-3. Retrieved 2017-10-24.  ^ NMRA. "Modeling Scales: Scale and Gauge". NMRA.org. December 2000. Retrieved 4 March 2010. ^ a b Johnson, Kent J. (Editor). Basic Model Railroading: Getting Started in the Hobby, p 6. Kalmbach Publishing, Co., 1998. at Google Books. Retrieved 12 March 2010. ^ Johnson, Kent J. (Editor). Basic Model Railroading: Getting Started in the Hobby, p 7. Kalmbach Publishing, Co., 1998. at Google Books. Retrieved 12 March 2010. ^ a b c d Maßstäbe, Nenngrößen, Spurweiten [Scales, nominal sizes, gauges] (Specification) (Report). Normen Europäischer Modellbahnen NEM (in German). 2011. p. 1. 1:87 … von 400 [mm] bis <650 [mm] … H0i … Im deutschen Sprachraum kann anstelle des Zusatzbuchstabens i (Industriebahn) auch der Buchstabe f (Feldbahn) angewendet werden.  ^ "S-1.2 Standards for Scale Models" (PDF). NMRA
NMRA
Standards. July 2009. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to H0 scale.

Layout Tours A-L and Layout Tours M-Z Tony Cook's HO-Scale Trains Resource Includes separate websites for many classic and contemporary HO-scale model train product lines of the past; online catalog resources; plus links to current manufacturers.

v t e

H0/HO modelling scale (1:87)

Rail track gauges

NEM

16.5 mm-H0 (standard) 12 mm-H0m (metre) 9 mm-H0e 6.5 mm-H0f

NMRA

16.5 mm-HO/Proto:87 (standard) 12 mm-HOn3½ 10.5 mm-HOn3 9 mm-HOn

.