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Guntur
Guntur
( pronunciation (help·info)); is a city within the Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
Capital Region.[6] Located 24 km (15 mi) away from the state capital Amaravati, Guntur
Guntur
city is the administrative headquarters of Guntur
Guntur
district, of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.[7] It is a municipal corporation and also the headquarters of Guntur mandal
Guntur mandal
in Guntur
Guntur
revenue division.[8][9] It is situated on the plains at a distance of 40 miles (64 km) to north of the Bay of Bengal. The city is the third most populous settlement in the state with a population of 743,654 as per 2011 census of India.[3][10] Guntur
Guntur
is classified as a Y-grade city as per the Seventh Central Pay Commission.[11] It forms a part of Vishakhapatnam- Guntur
Guntur
Industrial Region, a major industrial corridor in the country.[12] The city is known for chilli export and has the largest chilli market yard in Asia.[13]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History 3 Geography

3.1 Climate

4 Demographics 5 Governance

5.1 Civic administration 5.2 Utility services 5.3 Law and order 5.4 Healthcare

6 Economy 7 Culture

7.1 Cuisine 7.2 Cityscape

8 Transportation 9 Education and research 10 Media 11 Sports 12 See also 13 References 14 External links

Etymology[edit] The earliest reference to the present name of the city can be dated back to the period of Ammaraja–I (922-929 CE), the Vengi Eastern Chalukyan King. It also has its appearance in another two inscriptions dated 1147 AD and 1158 AD.[14] In Sanskrit, the name of Guntur
Guntur
was referred as Garthapuri. Garthapuri or Guntlapuri translates to a place surrounded by water ponds.[15][16] The settlement might have been near a pond (gunta in Telugu) and hence, gunta uru refers to pond village. Another one refers to kunta (land measuring unit) which transformed to kunta uru and later to Guntur.[17] History[edit]

Inscriptions at Sivalayam

The earliest recorded reference of Guntur
Guntur
comes from the Idern plates of Ammaraja I (922–929 CE), the Vengi Chalukyan king.[citation needed] French astronomer, Pierre Janssen
Pierre Janssen
observed the Solar eclipse of 18 August 1868 and discovered helium, from Guntur
Guntur
in Madras State, British India.[18][19] The inscriptions stones in the Agastyeshwara temple in 'Naga Lipi' (an ancient script) dates back to about 1100 CE. It is considered one of the most famous temples in the city. It is said that Agastya
Agastya
built the temple in the last Treta Yuga around the swayambhu linga and hence it has this name. The 'Nagas' were said to have ruled the region at that time. The region has been historically known for Buddhism
Buddhism
and the first Kalachakra
Kalachakra
ceremony performed by Gautama Buddha
Gautama Buddha
himself.[20] The place of Sitanagaram and the Guttikonda caves are referred in the ancient texts (Vedic puranas) going back to the Treta Yuga and Dwapara Yuga
Dwapara Yuga
(Traditional time scale: 1.7 to 0.5 million years ago, Ref).[21] With the arrival of the Europeans in the late sixteenth century the city attained national and international significance. The French shifted their headquarters from Kondavid Fort
Kondavid Fort
to here in 1752, probably because of the ample availability of water due to the two large tanks. This settlement formed the nucleus of the modern city. The Nizams and Hyder Ali
Hyder Ali
also ruled the city until it came under British rule in 1788. It was made the headquarters of a district named after it that was abolished in 1859, only to be reconstituted in 1904. The city rapidly became a major market for agricultural produce from the surrounding countryside due to the opening of the railway link in 1890. The expansion continued post independence as well and was concentrated in what is now called "New Guntur", with many urban areas such as Brodipet, Arundalpet and suburban areas like Pattabhipuram, Chandramouli Nagar, Sita Rama nagar, Brindavan Gardens, etc. Geography[edit]

Guntur
Guntur
Region from a satellite.

Guntur
Guntur
is located at 16°17′N 80°26′E / 16.29°N 80.43°E / 16.29; 80.43.[22] It has an average elevation of 33 m (108 ft) and is situated on the plains. There are few hills in the surrounding suburban areas and Perecherla Reserve Forest on the north west. The city is around 40 miles (64 km) to the west of the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
on the east coast of India. The Krishna delta lies partly in the Guntur
Guntur
district. There are other smaller rivers and channels in the region such as Guntur
Guntur
Channel, Chandravanka, Naagileru, Guntur
Guntur
Branch Canal[23] etc. As quoted in NASA's website "it is typical of the wider deltas along the southeast coast of India
India
(known as the Coromandel Coast).[24] The braided stream channels, broad floodplain, and extensive sandbars suggest that this part of the Krishna River
Krishna River
flows through relatively flat terrain and carries a substantial amount of sediment, especially during the monsoon season." Climate[edit] As per Köppen-Geiger climate classification system
Köppen-Geiger climate classification system
the climate in Guntur
Guntur
is tropical (Aw). The average temperature is warm to hot year-round. The summer season (especially during May/June) has the highest temperatures, but these are usually followed by monsoon rains. The winter season (from November to February) is the most enjoyable with a pleasant climate. Winter months are usually dry, with little to no rainfall. The wettest month is July. The average annual temperature is 28.5 C and annual rain fall is about 905 mm. Rain storms and cyclones are common in the region during the rainy season, which starts with the monsoons in early June. Cyclones may occur any time of the year, but occur more commonly between May and November.

Climate data for Guntur
Guntur
City

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 29.8 (85.6) 32.2 (90) 34.7 (94.5) 36.8 (98.2) 39.3 (102.7) 37.5 (99.5) 33.3 (91.9) 32.9 (91.2) 32.8 (91) 31.7 (89.1) 30.3 (86.5) 29.2 (84.6) 33.38 (92.07)

Daily mean °C (°F) 24.4 (75.9) 26.2 (79.2) 28.7 (83.7) 31.4 (88.5) 33.6 (92.5) 32.6 (90.7) 29.5 (85.1) 29.2 (84.6) 29 (84) 28 (82) 25.7 (78.3) 24.1 (75.4) 28.53 (83.33)

Average low °C (°F) 19 (66) 20.3 (68.5) 22.8 (73) 25.8 (78.4) 28 (82) 27.7 (81.9) 25.7 (78.3) 25.5 (77.9) 25.3 (77.5) 24.2 (75.6) 21.1 (70) 19 (66) 23.7 (74.59)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 1 (0.04) 4 (0.16) 6 (0.24) 14 (0.55) 56 (2.2) 115 (4.53) 171 (6.73) 161 (6.34) 151 (5.94) 159 (6.26) 58 (2.28) 10 (0.39) 906 (35.66)

Source: Climate-Data.org (altitude: 26 m)[25]

Demographics[edit] In the 1961 census, Guntur
Guntur
had a population of 187,122 and increased to 516,461 in 2001, which shows a considerable growth during the last 5 decades. As of 2011[update] census, the city had a population of 651,382. It then increased to 7,43,354 after expansion, constituting 371,727 males and 3,71,612 females —a sex ratio of approximately 1000 females per 1000 males, higher than the national average of 940 per 1000.[3][26] The urban agglomeration population of the city is projected to be approximately, 1,028,667.[27] Hinduism
Hinduism
is the major religion in Guntur.[28] Telugu is the main language of communication in the city. One of the earlier forms of Telugu language
Telugu language
can be noticed in this region.[29] Most of the Muslims in the city speak Urdu
Urdu
as their mother tongue.[30] One of the purportedly lost tribes of Israel
Israel
called Bene Ephraim, has its presence in Guntur, with a Jewish synagogue as well.[31][32] Governance[edit]

The Collectorate complex of Guntur

Civic administration[edit] In 1866, Guntur
Guntur
was made a municipality with a population of about 25,000. It was upgraded to III (1891), I Grade (1917), special grade (1952) and selection grade in 1960. Later, in 1994 it was made a "Municipal Corporation". In 1995, the first election of the Municipal Corporation was conducted.[33] In the year 2012, the city limits were expanded by merging ten surrounding villages into the Guntur
Guntur
Municipal Corporation.[34] The present commissioner is Smt. C Anuradha.[35] The corporation budget is ₹973.24 crore (US$150 million).[36] Recently the corporation topped the charts in property tax collections in the state.[37] The city is one among the 31 cities in the state to be a part of water supply and sewerage services mission known as Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT).[38] In 2015, as per the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan
Swachh Bharat Abhiyan
of the Ministry of Urban Development, Guntur Municipal Corporation was ranked 70th in the country.[39] The Guntur Municipal Corporation received the open defecation free city certificate as part of Swacch Bharat Mission.[40] Utility services[edit] River Krishna
River Krishna
is the main source of water for the city through channels and tributaries.[41] Law and order[edit]

City Court

The High Court was in Guntur
Guntur
after the separation from the erstwhile Madras State,[42] which was later moved to Hyderabad
Hyderabad
after the formation of Andhra Pradesh.[43][44] Guntur
Guntur
Urban and Rural police offices oversees the law and order for the city and the rural areas surrounding it.[45] The city is also the headquarters for Agricultural Marketing Department,[46] NCC Group[47][45] and also hosts one of the Indian Army
Indian Army
recruitment and training centers.[48]

A trauma care center in Guntur

Healthcare[edit] The Government General Hospital provides free health care to people across the district.[49] Economy[edit]

Main market

The city is headquarters to Agricultural Marketing Department.[46] Agriculture Market Committee Market Yard, the largest chilly yard of Asia, generates an income of up to ₹100 crore (US$15 million) during trading season.[50][13] The spiciest Guntur
Guntur
chillies are exported to foreign countries and in terms of trade the city stands second, next to Mexico.[51] Commercial activities are concentrated mostly on outlets such as, cinema halls, malls, jewellery, fertilisers etc.[51] Culture[edit]

South Indian
South Indian
Breakfast

The city residents are referred as Gunturians.[52] Traditional drama and theatrical events also have their presence in the city.[53] The city observes many festivals such as Rama Navami,[54] Maha Sivaratri,[55] Vinayaka Chavithi,[56] Vijaya Dasami,[57] Deepawali,[58] Holi,[59] Ugadi,[60] Eid,[61] Krishnastami,[62] Christmas.[63] Cuisine[edit] The South Indian
South Indian
breakfast varieties such as, Idli, Dosa, Puri
Puri
etc., are preferred mostly.[64] The Red chilli biryani is one of the native dish from the area.[65] Guntur
Guntur
Sannam, a chilli variety was registered as one of the geographical indication from Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
under the Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999.[66] Cityscape[edit]

A residential area

Archaeological Museum

The major commercial and residential areas in the city include the Arundelpet, Lakshmipuram and Brodipet.Koretapadu, Navabharath Nagar, Pattabhipuram, Shyamla Nagar and Vidya Nagar etc., are some of the other areas in the city.[67] Autonagar, Gorantla, Peda Palakaluru, Nallapadu, Chennai Highway etc. are some of the other areas of the city.[68] The city has many parks, museums, temples, nature conservation sites, forts, resorts and caves. The Jinnah Tower
Jinnah Tower
is one of the iconic structure on Mahatma Gandhi Road, one of the important centre of the city.[69] There are seventeen parks in the city with some of them maintained by the municipal corporation.[70] Larger city parks like Nagara-Vanam are being developed on the outskirts of the city.[71]

Transportation[edit]

NTR Bus Terminus

Guntur
Guntur
Junction Railway Station

The local transport preferred by the city commuters include, privately operated auto rickshaws, cabs, mini-buses and a few government run APSRTC
APSRTC
buses in specified routes.[72][73] The NTR bus station
NTR bus station
of the city operates suburban[74] and long distance services.[75] In the recent times, it has introduced city bus services to the nearby destinations of Pedakakani, Namburu, Yanamadala and Chebrolu.[76] As the city doesn't have dedicated city bus services, there is a proposal for a new city bus depot at Pedakakani
Pedakakani
for operating them.[77] The Rail Vikas Bhavan at Pattabhipuram in the city is the headquarters of Guntur
Guntur
railway division.[78][79] Guntur
Guntur
Junction and New Guntur railway stations of the city provides rail transport.[80] While, Nallapadu
Nallapadu
and Perecherla railway stations serves as satellite stations.[81] The Guntur
Guntur
railway station operates MEMU
MEMU
and local trains for the one lakh commuting population, including thousands of university students.[82] Though there was a proposal to build a no frills airport for the city,[83] the Vijayawada
Vijayawada
International Airport located at Gannavaram
Gannavaram
serves the air travel needs of the city commuters.[84] The city has a total road length of 853.00 km (530.03 mi).[85] The Mahatma Gandhi Inner Ring Road is an arterial road with a stretch of 6.34 km (3.94 mi), that encircles the city with its start and end points on NH 16.[86][87] The other arterial city roads include, the Grand Trunk Road, JKC College Road, Lakshmipuram Road, Pattabhipuram Road and Palakaluru Road etc.[88][76] The city is connected to major destinations by National highways, State highways
State highways
and district roads.[89] National Highway 16 bypasses the city, which is also a part of Asian Highway 45
Asian Highway 45
and Golden Quadrilateral.[90] The State Highway 2 connects the city with Macherla and Hyderabad. State Highway 48 with Bapatla
Bapatla
and Chirala.[91][92] The Guntur–Amaravati,[93] Guntur–Nandivelugu[94] and Guntur-Parchoor roads[95][96] are the district roads connecting their respective destinations. Education and research[edit]

Guntur
Guntur
Medical College

The primary and secondary school education is imparted by government, aided and private schools, under the School Education Department of the state.[97][98] As per the school information report for the academic year 2015–16, the city limits (including the merged villages) have more than one lakh students enrolled in over 400 schools.[99][100] The Central Board of Secondary Education, Secondary School Certificate or the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education are the different types of syllabus followed by different schools. The medium of instruction followed by schools are English, Telugu and Urdu.[101][102] The public library system is supported by the government with the central library located at Arundalpet.[103] Government colleges and institutions include, Guntur
Guntur
Medical College,[104] Government Junior College for Girls.[105] There exists one residential college under APRJC, ten private aided, two co-operative and many private unaided colleges.[105] Hindu College, A.C College are some of the older institutes in the city. JKC College, RVR & JC College of Engineering, Tellakula Jalayya Polisetty Somasundaram College (TJPS College), Government College for Women and St. Joseph's College of Education for Women are the autonomous colleges approved under Universities Grant Commission scheme.[106] The Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University
Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University
at Lam village near the city is administered from Gorantla area of the city.[107] Research centres related to different fields such as, Regional AGMARK laboratory,[108] regional station of Central Tobacco Research Institute of Indian Council of Agricultural Research are also present.[109] The city hosts many national, state level conferences and expos on many topics like economy, agriculture, technology etc.[110][111][112][113] Media[edit] As per the 58th annual report of Press India
India
2013–14, the major Telugu daily publications from Guntur
Guntur
are, Andhra Jyothy, Andhra Prabha, Eenadu, Sakshi, Suryaa, Telugu Jatiya Dinapatrika Vaartha. The English publications are, Deccan Chronicle, News Boom, The Fourth Voice, Views Observer.[114] Sports[edit]

Parade Ground

Sporting infrastructure of the city include several venues for many sports such as, Brahmananda Reddy stadium for Tennis, Badminton, Volleyball, Athletics, Gymnastics, Swimming;[115][116][117] NTR Municipal Indoor stadium for Table Tennis
Tennis
and Volleyball;[118][119] and also other sports such as Boxing.[120] The city has hosted sporting events such as, All India
India
Senior Tennis Association,[121] All India
India
Sub Junior Ranking Badminton Tournament,[122] All India
India
Invitation Volleyball
Volleyball
Tournament,[119] Ganta Sanjeeva Reddy Memorial Trophy,[123] Inter-district Master Aquatic Championship[124] etc. The city was also a host for Khelo India
India
programme for junior level national sports.[125] International sports personalities from the city include: cricketer Ambati Rayudu;[126] badminton player Srikanth Kidambi, who won the Super Series title in China[127] and also finished as a quarter finalist at the 2016 Summer Olympics.[128] See also[edit]

Amaravati List of cities in Andhra Pradesh

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AP State Portal". www.ap.gov.in. Archived from the original on 7 November 2016. Retrieved 7 November 2016.  ^ "School Information Report". Commissionerate of School Education. Government of Andhra Pradesh. Retrieved 8 November 2016.  ^ "Student Information Report". Commissionerate of School Education. Child info 2015–16, District School Education – Andhra Pradesh. Retrieved 8 November 2016.  ^ "74 GMC schools switch to English medium – Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 23 September 2016.  ^ Mallikarjun, Y. (29 February 2016). "Classrooms in State-run schools set to go digital". The Hindu. Retrieved 23 September 2016.  ^ "Public Libraries in Guntur". Retrieved 31 March 2017.  ^ Reporter, Staff (17 February 2016). "MCI team inspects Guntur Medical College". The Hindu. Retrieved 27 September 2016.  ^ a b "List of colleges in Guntur
Guntur
district" (PDF). Board of Intermediate Education. Retrieved 27 September 2016.  ^ "Autonomous colleges list" (PDF). Universities Grants Commission. Retrieved 27 September 2016.  ^ Reporter, Staff (14 June 2016). "Marketing Department moves to capital region". The Hindu. Retrieved 27 September 2016.  ^ "Information on Right to Information Act, 2005 Pertaining to Directorate of Marketing & Inspection". Agricultural Marketing. Retrieved 4 October 2016.  ^ Bureau, Our (22 September 2014). "Tobacco Board sets export target at Rs 10,000 cr". The Hindu
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External links[edit]

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Guntur
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Jinnah Tower

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Arundelpet Brodipet Budampadu Chowdavaram Gorantla Nallapadu Pedapalakaluru Reddypalem

Government and administration

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railway division Guntur
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List of hospitals in Guntur

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Mandals

Amaravati Bapatla Bhattiprolu Duggirala Guntur Kollipara Kollur Macherla Mangalagiri Narasaraopet Nizampatnam Pedakakani Repalle Sattenapalle Tadepalle Tenali Thullur Tsundur Vemuru

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Assembly constituencies

Bapatla Chilakaluripet Guntur
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West Gurajala Macherla Mangalagiri Narasaraopet Pedakurapadu Ponnur Prathipadu (SC) Repalle Sattenapalle Tadikonda
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Adoni Anantapur Bhimavaram Chilakaluripet Chittoor Dharmavaram Eluru Gudivada Guntakal Guntur Hindupur Kadapa Kakinada Kurnool Machilipatnam Madanapalle Nandyal Narasaraopet Nellore Ongole Proddatur Rajahmundry Srikakulam Tadepalligudem Tadpatri Tenali Tirupati Vijayawada Visakhapatnam Vizianagaram

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Portal: Andhra Pradesh

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Mandal headquarters in Guntur
Guntur
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Mandal Headquarters

Amaravathi Amruthalur Atchampeta Bapatla Bellamkonda Bhattiprolu Bollapalle Chebrolu Cherukupalle Chilakaluripet Dachepalle Duggirala Durgi Edlapadu Guntur Gurazala Ipur Kakumanu Kanamalapudi (Savalyapuram) Karempudi Karlapalem Kollipara Kollur Krosuru Machavaram Macherla Mangalagiri Medikonduru Muppalla Nagaram Nadendla Narasaraopet Nekarikallu Nizampatnam Nuzendla Pedakakani Pedakurapadu Pedanandipadu Piduguralla Pittalavanipalem Phirangipuram Ponnur Prathipadu Rajupalem Rentachintala Repalle Rompicherla Sattenapalle Tadepalle Tadikonda Tenali Thullur Tsundur Vatticherukuru Veldurth

.