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Guimarães
Guimarães
(Portuguese pronunciation: [ɡimɐˈɾɐ̃jʃ]) is a city and municipality located in northern Portugal, in the district of Braga. Its historic town centre is listed as UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site since 2001, in recognition for being an "exceptionally well-preserved and authentic example of the evolution of a medieval settlement into a modern town" in Europe. Guimarães
Guimarães
is also a part of the Ave Subregion
Ave Subregion
(one of the most industrialised subregions in the country), as well as the historical Minho Province. The city has a population of 52,181 inhabitants.[1] The population of the municipality in 2011 was 158,124,[2] in an area of 240.95 square kilometres (93.03 sq mi).[3] The current Mayor is Domingos Bragança, of the Socialist Party. The municipality is bordered to the north by the municipality of Póvoa de Lanhoso, to the east by Fafe, to the south by Felgueiras, Vizela
Vizela
and Santo Tirso, to the west by Vila Nova de Famalicão
Vila Nova de Famalicão
and the northwest by Braga. The city was settled in the 9th century, at which time it was called Vimaranes. This denomination might have had its origin in the warrior Vímara Peres, who chose this area as the main government seat for the County of Portugal
Portugal
which he conquered for the Kingdom of Galicia. Guimarães
Guimarães
has a significant historical importance due to the role it played in the foundation of Portugal. The city is often referred to as the "birthplace of the Portuguese nationality" or "the cradle city" (Cidade Berço in Portuguese) because it is widely believed that Portugal's first King, Afonso Henriques, was born there, and also due to the fact that the Battle of São Mamede
Battle of São Mamede
- which is considered the seminal event for the foundation of the Kingdom of Portugal
Portugal
- was fought in the vicinity of the city.[4] For some decades, Guimarães
Guimarães
was the capital of the County of Portugal, however, shortly after the Battle of São Mamede
Battle of São Mamede
(1128), and due to the needs of the Reconquista, Coimbra
Coimbra
became the kingdom's capital.[5] The inhabitants of Guimarães
Guimarães
are often called "Vimaranenses" and "Conquistadores" (the Conquerors) in relation with the historical heritage of the conquest initiated in Guimarães. Guimarães, along with Maribor, Slovenia, was the European Capital of Culture in 2012.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Pre- and protohistory 1.2 From the foundation of Guimarães
Guimarães
to the foundation of Portugal 1.3 Middle Ages 1.4 Modern and contemporary

2 Geography

2.1 Geology 2.2 Orography and hydrography 2.3 Climate 2.4 Fauna 2.5 Parishes 2.6 Demographics

3 Culture

3.1 Gastronomy 3.2 Traditions and festivities 3.3 Museums, cultural spaces and art galleries 3.4 Sports

4 Society

4.1 Newspapers 4.2 Radios 4.3 Television

5 Economy

5.1 Transport

6 International relations 7 Notable people

7.1 Medieval and Early Modern 7.2 Late Modern 7.3 Sports

8 External links 9 References

History[edit]

The Oliveira square, in the historical center of Guimarães, with the Padrão do Salado on the left

The History of Guimarães
Guimarães
is associated with the foundation and identity of the Portuguese nationality. Guimarães, as well as other settlements, precedes the foundation of Portugal
Portugal
and because of its role in the foundation of the country it is known as the "cradle of the Portuguese nationality". In 1128, major political and military events that would lead to the independence and the birth of a new nation took place in Guimarães. For this reason, in one of the old towers of the city's old wall it is written "Aqui nasceu Portugal" ( Portugal
Portugal
was born here). Pre- and protohistory[edit] According to archeological findings in Citânia (Castro) of Briteiros and Sabroso and Penha's archeologic site, the area in which Guimarães is located has had permanent settlements since the late Chalcolithic period. There is also evidence of Roman occupation, and a stone dedicated to the Roman emperor Trajan
Trajan
found in Caldas das Taipas
Caldas das Taipas
suggests that this was already a spa town in Roman times.[6] From the foundation of Guimarães
Guimarães
to the foundation of Portugal[edit]

Statue of Mumadona Dias, in front of the city court.

Following the Reconquista
Reconquista
policy promoted by the Kingdom of Galicia
Kingdom of Galicia
in the 9th century, the medieval foundations of the actual city have roots in the 10th century. At this point, the Countess
Countess
Mumadona Dias, erected a monastery in her property of Vimaranes, which originated the fixation of people in the area known as "vila baixa" (downtown). At the same time, she ordered the construction of a castle on the hill area which became known as "vila alta" (uptown), to defend the settlement. To connect these to other areas, the Rua de Santa Maria was built. The monastery became the "Real Colegiada" (Royal Collegiate church) and throughout time acquired importance due to the privileges and donations given to it by nobles and kings and it became a famous pilgrimage site. Henry, Count of Portugal
Portugal
approved the first national foral possibly in 1096 (but not confirmed). The foral proves the growing importance of the village of Guimarães
Guimarães
at that time, which was chosen as the capital of the County of Portugal. On 24 June 1128, the "Batalha de São Mamede" (Battle of São Mamede) took place in Guimarães. Middle Ages[edit] During the reign of king Denis, as the village was expanding, it was partially surrounded by a defensive wall. Meanwhile, mendicant orders settled in Guimarães
Guimarães
and helped to mold the shape of the emerging city. Later, during the reign of John I, the wall was torn down and the two parts of the city (uptown and downtown) were finally united and the city began to expand outside its old walls. Modern and contemporary[edit] Until the 19th century the structure of the city did not suffer many transformations besides the construction of a few more churches, convents and palaces. It was by the ending of the 19th century that new urbanistic ideas of hygiene and symmetry that the village, that was promoted to city by the Queen Maria II
Maria II
on 23 June 1853 had its greatest changes. The complete demolition of the city walls was authorized and the creation of many streets and avenues could start at that point. The controlled process of urbanization permitted the conservation of the city's magnificent historical center. Geography[edit]

Couros river, near Guimarães
Guimarães
Youth Hostel

Red-legged Partridge

Geology[edit] Granite
Granite
rock formations occupy the majority of the municipality but schist rocks can also be found in certain zones in the northwest of the municipality. On the southeast, clay can be found in stream bed of the Ave, Vizela
Vizela
and Selho rivers. Orography and hydrography[edit] The municipality is delimited at north by the "Senhora do Monte" (Senhora hill), at northwest by the hills of Falperra, Sameiro, Outeiro and Penedice. To the south by the Penha hill which with height of 613 meters, it is the highest point of the municipality. Guimarães
Guimarães
is part of the drainage basin of Ave river
Ave river
which divides the municipality in half. The Ave river
Ave river
has as tributaries the Vizela river, Torto river, Febras river and inside the city, the Selho river, the Couros river and the Santa Lúzia stream. Climate[edit] Guimarães
Guimarães
is located in a valley and surrounded by hills, and because there is some distance to the sea, the winter is normally cold and rainy and the summer is hot and lightly humid. The average annual temperature is 14 °C. Fauna[edit] There is not much diversity, specially in the urban areas, but the municipality has some species of cynegetic interest such as: the red fox, the wild boar, the turtle dove, the thrush, the pigeon and the red-legged partridge. In the green areas of the city, the most common species are rodents, especially squirrels. Parishes[edit] Administratively, the municipality is divided into 48 civil parishes (freguesias):[7]

Abação e Gémeos Airão Santa Maria, Airão São João e Vermil Aldão Arosa e Castelões Atães e Rendufe Azurém Balazar Barco Briteiros Salvador e Briteiros Santa Leocádia Briteiros Santo Estêvão e Donim Brito Caldas das Taipas
Caldas das Taipas
(Caldelas) Candoso (São Martinho) Candoso São Tiago e Mascotelos Conde e Gandarela Costa Creixomil Fermentões Gonça Gondar Guardizela Infantas Leitões, Oleiros e Figueiredo Longos Lordelo Mesão Frio Moreira de Cónegos Nespereira Oliveira, São Paio e São Sebastião Pencelo Pinheiro Polvoreira Ponte Prazins (Santa Eufémia) Prazins Santo Tirso
Santo Tirso
e Corvite Ronfe Sande São Lourenço e Balazar Sande (São Martinho) Sande Vila Nova e Sande São Clemente São Torcato Selho (São Cristóvão) Selho (São Jorge) Selho São Lourenço e Gominhães Serzedelo Serzedo e Calvos Silvares Souto Santa Maria, Souto São Salvador e Gondomar Tabuadelo e São Faustino Urgezes

Demographics[edit] In 2001, the population of the municipality was 159 576. In 2010, it is estimated that the population will reach 188 178 inhabitants. The population is constituted by 78 436 males and 81 140 females. Guimarães
Guimarães
is the 13th biggest city in the country in terms of population.

Evolution of the population of the municipality of Guimarães (1801–2011)

Evolution of the population in the city center (1864–2011)

Culture[edit]

Nossa Senhora da Consolação e dos Santos Passos Church, Guimarães, Portugal

Guimarães
Guimarães
is an average size city but with a booming cultural life. Besides its museums, monuments, cultural associations, art galeries and popular festivities, it has since September 2005, an important cultural space, the Vila Flor Cultural Center. This cultural center has two auditoria, exhibition center and a concert-cafe. Guimarães was the European Capital of Culture
European Capital of Culture
in 2012, together with Maribor. Guimarães
Guimarães
was elected by the New York Times
New York Times
one of the 41 places to go in 2011 and NYT called it one of the Iberian peninsula's emerging cultural spots.[8] Gastronomy[edit]

Joanina fair in Guimarães, where old activities are recreated such as the production of meat "cake"

The fact that since its beginning, Guimarães
Guimarães
had a feminine monastery made much influence over its regional gastronomy, specially its confectionery. "Tortas de Guimarães" (Guimarães' pies) and "Toucinho do céu" (normally translated as bacon from heaven) are a good example. Besides the customary Minho gastronomy, the so-called "meat" cake is made here, which is a kind of bread in a pizza shape served with pig, sardines or other toppings. Traditions and festivities[edit]

"Festas Gualterianas" (Gualteriana festival), in honor of Saint Gualter, take place since 1906 in the first weekend of August. The "Cortejo do Linho" (Linen parade) and the "Batalha das Flores" (Battle of the Flowers) are part of the festivities which are ended by the "Marcha Gualteriana" (Gualteriana march). "Nicolinas" are the festivities of the students of Guimarães, celebrated in honor of Saint Nicholas. The festivities start on 29 November and finish 7 December. They are composed of different celebrations; the "Pinheiro" is most widely attended. After a restaurant dinner, the participants parade the streets of Guimarães playing the "Toques Nicolinos" tune on drums. Latelly, it has been suggested that the "Nicolinas" should be a contender to be UNESCO intangible cultural heritage. The Santa Luzia festivities in honor of honor Saint Lucy
Saint Lucy
take place annually on 13 December, near to the chapel of Santa Luzia. The selling of traditional cakes made of rye and sugar, which are called "Sardão" and "Passarinha" (these names have sexual connotations in Portuguese). According to the tradition, a boy should offer a "Sardão", which has a phallic form, to the girl and if the girl was interested in dating the boy, she should reply with a "Passarinha". The "Big Romaria
Romaria
of São Torcato" is one of the biggest romarias in Minho, takes place annually in July in the village of São Torcato.

Museums, cultural spaces and art galleries[edit]

Centro Cultural Vila Flor

The city of Guimarães
Guimarães
has several cultural spaces of reference at a regional and national level. Among the several museums of the city, the Alberto Sampaio museum is the one that stands out. Founded in 1928, it opened its doors to the public in 1931; it is located in the old site of the Canon the Collegiate of Our Lady of Oliveira (Cabido da Colegiada de Nossa Senhora da Oliveira in Portuguese). It contains a rich collection of pieces from the 14th, 15th and 16th century, including one rare vest that was used by the king John I.

Headquarters of the Martins Sarmento Society

The Martins Sarmento Society (Sociedade Martins Sarmento in Portuguese) is one of the country oldest institutions dedicated to the study and preservation of archaeological artifacts. The society owns two museums: the Archaeological Museum of the Martins Sarmento Society, which is known by its prehistory and protohistory collections and also its numismatics and epigraphy collections; and the Castro Culture Museum which is dedicated to the Castro culture. There is also: the Primitive Modern Arts Museum, located in the Domus Municipalis (the old city hall), which contains a collection of naïve art; the Museum of the Village of São Torcato, which is dedicated to the region and its relationship with the monastery and Saint Torcato (São Torcato in Portuguese); the Agriculture Museum of Fermentões, which exhibits collections of the traditional agricultural practices of the region; and the Museum of São Sebastião, inaugurated on 24 March 1984, which contains mainly sacred art. Other cultural venues include:

Vila Flor Cultural Center (Centro Cultural Vila Flor in Portuguese) is the main cultural venue in Guimarães. It was built in 2005, in a recovery of the old Vila Flor Palace and its surrounding area. It has two auditoriums, a concert-cafe and an exhibition gallery. The surrounding gardens of the old palace were also redone and in 2006, received an honorable mention in the Public Exterior Spaces category in the National Landscape Architecture Award. São Mamede - Guimarães
Guimarães
Arts and Shows Center. Raul Brandão Municipal Library has its headquarters in the city and also has branches in Pevidém, Caldas das Taipas
Caldas das Taipas
and Ronfe. It offers its mobile library services to 42 parishes and services the city schools and prison. The Art Laboratory (Laboratorio das Artes in Portuguese) was founded in 2004 by ESAP students. It is a cultural space for exhibitions, performances, music and art workshops. Alfredo Pimenta National Archive, founded in 1931, contains the archives for municipality of Guimarães
Guimarães
and also the Braga
Braga
district.

Sports[edit] Guimarães
Guimarães
has a major sports club, Vitória Sport Clube, whose football (soccer) team has been the city's representative in the Primeira Liga
Primeira Liga
for many years. Vitória SC also has basketball and volleyball squads competing in the top divisions of their sports. Society[edit]

The church in the Toural square, lit to celebrate UNESCO
UNESCO
heritage status

In 2008, the city ranked second in the index of most livable city in Portugal. It is also the second least polluted city in the country. In 2004, 89% of the population had running water; it was forecast that the number would raise to 95% by 2006. In 2001, 63.5% of the population had basic sanitation; it was forecast that the number would raise to 80% by 2008. In 2001, 100% of the population had access to waste management services. However, several people complain that the city, together with other cities of the Braga
Braga
district has had an unaesthetic and unorganized growth. Newspapers[edit] Guimarães
Guimarães
ranks fourth in the country for available newspapers. The oldest was the "Azemel Vimaranense", founded in 1822; it possibly had its publication halted by the Vilafrancada incidents. From 1856, other newspapers start to appear, amongst them "A Tesoura de Guimarães". Actually the city's newspapers are:

O Comércio de Guimarães O Cónego O Conquistador Desportivo de Guimarães Entrevillas O Expresso do Ave Jornal do Adepto Lordelo Jornal Notícias de Guimarães O Pilar O Povo de Guimarães Reflexo – O Espelho das Taipas]] Sport Jornal dos Desportos

Radios[edit] There are two stations headquartered in the town: Radio Fundação (95.8 FM) and Radio Santiago (98.0 FM). Television[edit] The Guimarães
Guimarães
TV transmission is made online since 24 July 2007; it is the result of a collaboration between the city's assembly and the Guimarães
Guimarães
Cybercenter. Its contents are feature in the Região Norte TV channel which is available through cable. The "canalguimarães" is another online channel that started operating in March 2010. It is the fruit of the effort put in by an arts association, the "Associação de Socorros Mútuos Artística Vimaranense", one of the oldest associations of the city. Economy[edit] Guimarães
Guimarães
is one of the most industrial municipalities in Portugal. Its primary industries are textiles, shoe industry and metalomechanics. Transport[edit] Guimarães
Guimarães
is linked to Porto
Porto
by the Guimarães
Guimarães
line. This railway line was originally built with narrow gauge track, then modernised and rebuilt to the broad Iberian gauge
Iberian gauge
in the first decade of the 21st century. The train service is operated by Comboios de Portugal
Portugal
(CP). Locally, Guimarães
Guimarães
is served by TUG (Transportes Urbanos de Guimarães) which operates 21 bus routes serving the city. International relations[edit]

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See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Portugal Guimarães
Guimarães
is twinned with:

Pleven, Bulgaria; Varaždin, Croatia; Mé-Zóchi, São Tomé and Príncipe; Brive-la-Gaillarde, France;

Igualada, Spain; Tacoronte, Spain; Lisbon, Portugal[9][10] Kaiserslautern, Germany;

Dijon, France; Colonia del Sacramento, Uruguay; Compiègne, France; Tourcoing, France; Ribeira Grande de Santiago, Cape Verde.

Notable people[edit] Medieval and Early Modern[edit]

Afonso I of Portugal
Portugal
(1111–1185) nicknamed "the Conqueror" by the Moors, whom he fought, was the first King of Portugal Paio Galvão (ca.1165—1230) a Leonese Cardinal and canon lawyer and a papal legate and leader of the Fifth Crusade Blanche of Portugal
Portugal
(1259–1321) an infanta, the firstborn child of King Afonso III of Portugal Gil Vicente
Gil Vicente
(c.1465–c.1536) known as the Trobadour, a Portuguese playwright and poet, acted and directed his own plays Agostinho Barbosa
Agostinho Barbosa
(1589–1649) a prolific Portuguese writer on canon law, consecrated Bishop of Ugento
Bishop of Ugento
in Italy in 1649

Late Modern[edit]

Alfredo Pimenta (1882–1950) was a Portuguese historian, poet and writer, especially of the Middle Ages Abel Salazar (1889-1946) a Portuguese physician, lecturer, researcher, writer and painter Duarte Freitas do Amaral (1909-1979) a Portuguese politician, was a Deputy to the National Assembly of Portugal Elisabete Matos
Elisabete Matos
(born 1964) a Portuguese soprano Luís Marques Mendes
Luís Marques Mendes
(born 1957) a Portuguese lawyer and politician and former Leader of the Social Democratic Party Pedro Chagas Freitas
Pedro Chagas Freitas
(born 1979) a writer, journalist, writing teacher and public speaker on leadership, self-confidence, peak performance and life management Marisa Ferreira (born 1983) a Portuguese artist whose work includes both public art and geometric art Sofia Escobar (born 1984) a soprano singer and actress, particularly in West End musicals, in London Renato Freitas (born 1996) stage name Lizzy's Husband
Lizzy's Husband
a Portuguese electronic music artist especially industrial electronica

Sports[edit]

Francisco "Xico" Ferreira (1919–1986) a Portuguese footballer who made 278 pro appearances Domingos Castro (born 1963) a former long-distance runner, competed in the 1988, 1992, 1996 and 2000 Summer Olympics Dionísio Castro (born 1963) a former long-distance runner, he competed at the 1988 and 1992 Summer Olympics Miguel Alberto Marques (born 1963) known as Miguel, is a Portuguese retired footballer, made 545 pro appearances Joaquim Alberto Ferreira Machado (born 1971) known as Quim Berto, is a former professional footballer, 451 pro appearances Domingos Alexandre Martins Costa (born 1979) known as Alex, is a former Portuguese footballer, 295 pro appearances Rui Jorge Faria Azevedo (born 1980) known as Faria, is a Portuguese goalkeeping footballer, over 250 pro appearances Ana Dulce Félix
Ana Dulce Félix
(born 1982) a long distance runner, competed in the 2012 and 2016 Summer Olympics
2016 Summer Olympics
marathon Custódio Castro
Custódio Castro
(born 1983) known as Custódio, is a Portuguese retired footballer, made 342 pro appearances Paulo Monteiro
Paulo Monteiro
(born 1985) a Portuguese footballer, has made 250 pro appearances Vieirinha
Vieirinha
(born 1986) a Portuguese footballer who plays in Greece João Sousa
João Sousa
(born 1989) a Portuguese professional tennis player, ranked 36th by the ATP, Portugal's greatest tennis player Tiago André Coelho Lopes (born 1989) known as Rabiola was a Portuguese professional footballer Rui Bragança (born 1991) a Portuguese taekwondo practitioner, competes in the men's −58 kg (flyweight) category. Carlos Miguel Ribeiro Dias (born 1993) known as Cafú is a Portuguese footballer who plays in France

External links[edit]

Portugal
Portugal
portal

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Guimarães.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Guimarães.

Municipality official website Tourism in Guimarães Photos from Guimarães Guimarães
Guimarães
2012 Guimarães
Guimarães
2012 - Cultural Programme on e-book format Guimarães: 2012 European Capital of Culture
European Capital of Culture
- Portugal, Portuguese American Journal

References[edit]

^ http://www.dgotdu.pt/PresentationLayer/ResourcesUser/DGOTDU/EstudosNaoPublicados/Guimaraes/GUIMARAES.pdf ^ Instituto Nacional de Estatística ^ Direção-Geral do Território Archived 29 September 2014 at Archive.is ^ História de Portugal
Portugal
- Battle of Sao Mamede Archived 9 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Condado Portucalense - História de Portugal
Portugal
(in Portuguese) ^ Portugal
Portugal
Romano - Ara de Trajano (in Portuguese) ^ Diário da República. "Law nr. 11-A/2013, pages 552 56-58" (pdf) (in Portuguese). Retrieved 23 July 2014.  ^ Wilder, Charly [1] "The New York Times", 9 January 2011 ^ "Lisboa - Geminações de Cidades e Vilas" [ Lisbon
Lisbon
- Twinning of Cities and Towns]. Associação Nacional de Municípios Portugueses [National Association of Portuguese Municipalities] (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2013-08-23.  ^ "Acordos de Geminação, de Cooperação e/ou Amizade da Cidade de Lisboa" [ Lisbon
Lisbon
- Twinning Agreements, Cooperation and Friendship]. Camara Municipal de Lisboa (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2013-08-23. 

v t e

Municipalities of Braga
Braga
District

Amares Barcelos Braga Cabeceiras de Basto Celorico de Basto Esposende Fafe Guimarães Póvoa de Lanhoso Terras de Bouro Vieira do Minho Vila Nova de Famalicão Vila Verde Vizela

v t e

European Capitals of Culture

1985 Athens 1986 Florence 1987 Amsterdam 1988 West Berlin 1989 Paris 1990 Glasgow 1991 Dublin 1992 Madrid 1993 Antwerp 1994 Lisbon 1995 Luxembourg City 1996 Copenhagen 1997 Thessaloniki 1998 Stockholm 1999 Weimar 2000 Reykjavík Bergen Helsinki Brussels Prague Kraków Santiago de Compostela Avignon Bologna 2001 Rotterdam Porto 2002 Bruges Salamanca 2003 Graz Plovdiv 2004 Genoa Lille 2005 Cork 2006 Patras 2007 Luxembourg City
Luxembourg City
and Greater Region Sibiu 2008 Liverpool Stavanger 2009 Linz Vilnius 2010 Ruhr Istanbul Pécs 2011 Turku Tallinn 2012 Maribor Guimarães 2013 Košice Marseille 2014 Umeå Riga 2015 Mons Plzeň 2016 San Sebastián Wrocław 2017 Aarhus Paphos 2018 Valletta Leeuwarden 2019 Plovdiv Matera 2020 Rijeka Galway 2021 Timișoara Elefsina Novi Sad 2022 Kaunas Esch-sur-Alzette

v t e

World Heritage Sites in Portugal

Norte

Alto Douro Wine Region Historic Centre of Guimarães Historic Centre of Porto Prehistoric Rock Art Sites in the Côa Valley and Siega Verde1

Centro

Alcobaça Monastery Batalha Monastery Convent
Convent
of Christ in Tomar University of Coimbra
Coimbra
– Alta and Sofia

Lisboa

Cultural Landscape of Sintra Monastery
Monastery
of the Hieronymites and Belém Tower

Alentejo

Historic Centre of Évora Garrison Border Town of Elvas and its Fortifications

Azores

Historic Centre of Angra do Heroísmo Landscape of the Pico Island Vineyard Culture

Madeira

Laurisilva

1 Shared with other region/s and Spain

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 145424

.