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(i)

1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 _Population without double counting _: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

GRENOBLE (/ɡrəˈnoʊbəl/ ; French pronunciation: ​ ; Arpitan : _Grenoblo_) is a city in southeastern France
France
, at the foot of the French Alps where the river Drac joins the Isère . Located in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region , Grenoble
Grenoble
is the capital of the department of Isère and plays the role of an important scientific centre of Europe. The city advertises itself as the "Capital of the Alps", due to its size and its proximity to the mountains.

Grenoble's history goes back more than 2,000 years, to a time when it was a small Gallic village. It gained somewhat in stature by becoming the capital of the Dauphiné in the 11th century, but Grenoble remained for most of its history a modest parliamentary and garrison city on the borders of the kingdom of France
France
.

Industrial development increased the prominence of Grenoble, through several periods of economic expansion over the last three centuries. This started with a booming glove industry in the 18th and 19th centuries, continued with the development of a strong hydropower industry in the late 19th to early 20th centuries, and ended with a post- World War II
World War II
economic boom symbolized by the holding of the X Olympic Winter Games in 1968. The city has grown to be one of Europe's most important research, technology, and innovation centers, with each fifth inhabitant working directly in these domains.

The population of the city (commune) of Grenoble
Grenoble
was 160,215 at the 2013 census, while the population of the Grenoble
Grenoble
metropolitan area (French: _aire urbaine de Grenoble_ or "agglomération grenobloise") was 664,832. The residents of the city are called "Grenoblois".

The many communes that make up the metropolitan area include three suburbs with populations exceeding 20,000, Saint-Martin-d\'Hères , Échirolles , and Fontaine .

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Antiquity * 1.2 Middle Ages
Middle Ages
* 1.3 Renaissance * 1.4 From Louis XIV
Louis XIV
to the French Revolution * 1.5 19th century * 1.6 20th century

* 2 Geography

* 2.1 Climate

* 3 Population * 4 Urbanism and architecture

* 5 Main sights

* 5.1 La Bastille * 5.2 Palace of the Parliament
Parliament
of Dauphiné * 5.3 Museum of Grenoble * 5.4 Archaeological museums

* 6 Education and science

* 6.1 Secondary level

* 6.2 Higher education

* 6.2.1 Science and engineering

* 6.3 Knowledge and innovation community * 6.4 Weekend education

* 7 Economy

* 7.1 Industry * 7.2 Companies * 7.3 Media

* 8 Sport * 9 Transport * 10 Culture * 11 People from Grenoble
Grenoble

* 12 International relations

* 12.1 Twin towns and sister cities

* 13 Gallery * 14 See also

* 15 References

* 15.1 Notes

* 16 Bibliography * 17 External links

HISTORY

See also: Timeline of Grenoble _For the ecclesiastical history, see Bishopric of Grenoble
Grenoble
._

_ It has been suggested that this section be split out into another article titled History of Grenoble _. (Discuss ) _(November 2015)_

ANTIQUITY

Remnants of the Roman Walls

The first references to Grenoble
Grenoble
date back to 43 BC. Cularo was at that time a small Gallic village of the Allobroges tribe, near a bridge across the Isère River. Three centuries later and with insecurity rising in the late Roman empire
Roman empire
, a strong wall was built around the small town in 286 AD.

The Emperor Gratian visited Cularo and, touched by the people's welcome, made the village a Roman city. In honour of this, Cularo was renamed GRATIANOPOLIS ("city of Gratian") in 381 (leading to Graignovol during the Middle Age and then Grenoble).

Christianity spread to the region during the 4th century, and the diocese of Grenoble
Grenoble
was founded in 377 AD. From that time on, the bishops exercised significant political power over the city. Until the French Revolution , they styled themselves the "bishops and princes of Grenoble".

MIDDLE AGES

After the collapse of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
, the city was part of the first Burgundian kingdom in the 5th century and the second Burgundian Kingdom of Arles until 1032, when it was integrated into the Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. Arletian rule was interrupted between 942 and 970 due to Arabic rule based in Fraxinet .

Grenoble
Grenoble
grew significantly in the 11th century when the Counts of Albon chose the city as the capital of their territories. At the time, their possessions were a patchwork of several territories sprawled across the region. The central position of Grenoble
Grenoble
allowed the Counts to strengthen their authority. When they later took the title of "Dauphins ", Grenoble
Grenoble
became the capital of the State of Dauphiné .

Despite their status, the Counts had to share authority over the city with the Bishop of Grenoble. One of the most famous of those was Saint Hugh . Under his rule, the city's bridge was rebuilt, and both a regular hospital and a leper one were built. Coat of arms of the Dauphiné after becoming a province of France
France

The inhabitants of Grenoble
Grenoble
took advantage of the conflicts between the Counts and the bishops and obtained the recognition of a Charter of Customs that guaranteed their rights. That charter was confirmed by Kings Louis XI in 1447 and Francis I in 1541.

In 1336 the last Dauphin Humbert II founded a court of justice, the Conseil delphinal (fr), which settled at Grenoble
Grenoble
in 1340. He also established the University of Grenoble in 1339. Aging and heirless, Humbert sold his state to France
France
in 1349, on the condition that the heir to the French crown used the title of _Dauphin ._ The first one, the future Charles V , spent nine months in Grenoble. The city remained the capital of the Dauphiné, henceforth a province of France , and the Estates of Dauphiné were created.

The only Dauphin who really governed his province was Louis XI , whose "reign" lasted from 1447 to 1456. It was only under his rule that Dauphiné properly joined the Kingdom of France. The Old Conseil Delphinal became a Parlement
Parlement
(the third in France
France
after the Parliaments of Paris
Paris
and Toulouse), strengthening the status of Grenoble
Grenoble
as a Provincial capital. He also ordered the construction of the Palais du Parlement
Parlement
(finished under Francis I ) and ensured that the Bishop pledged allegiance, thus forging the political union of the city.

At that time, Grenoble
Grenoble
was a crossroads between Vienne
Vienne
, Geneva, Italy, and Savoy
Savoy
. It was the industrial centre of the Dauphiné and the biggest city of the province, but nonetheless a rather small one.

RENAISSANCE

François de Bonne, duc de Lesdiguières

Owing to Grenoble's geographical situation, French troops were garrisoned in the city and its region during the Italian Wars
Italian Wars
. Charles VIII , Louis XII , and Francis I went several times to Grenoble. Its people consequently had to suffer from the exactions of the soldiers.

The nobility of the region took part in various battles (Marignano , Pavia ) and in doing so gained significant prestige. The best-known of its members was Bayard , "the knight without fear and beyond reproach".

Grenoble
Grenoble
suffered as a result of the French Wars of Religion . The Dauphiné was indeed an important settlement for Protestants and therefore experienced several conflicts. The baron des Adrets , the leader of the Huguenots
Huguenots
, pillaged the Cathedral of Grenoble
Grenoble
and destroyed the tombs of the former Dauphins.

In August 1575, Lesdiguières became the new leader of the Protestants and, thanks to the accession of Henry IV to the throne of France, allied himself with the governor and the lieutenant general of the Dauphiné. But this alliance did not bring an end to the conflicts. Indeed, a Catholic movement, the _Ligue_, which took Grenoble
Grenoble
in December 1590, refused to make peace. After months of assaults, Lesdiguières defeated the Ligue and took back Grenoble. He became the leader of the entire province.

Lesdiguières became the lieutenant-general of the Dauphiné and administered the Province from 1591 to 1626. He began the construction of the Bastille in order to protect the city and ordered the construction of new walls, increasing the city's size. He also constructed the Hôtel Lesdiguières, built new fountains, and dug sewers.

In 1689, the bishop Étienne Le Camus launched the construction of Saint-Louis Church .

FROM LOUIS XIV TO THE FRENCH REVOLUTION

The day of the Tiles

The revocation of the Edict of Nantes by Louis XIV
Louis XIV
caused the departure of 2,000 Protestants from Grenoble, weakening the city's economy. However, it also weakened the glove industry of Grasse , leaving the glove factories of Grenoble
Grenoble
without any competition. This allowed a stronger economic development for the city during the 18th century. For example, at the beginning of that century, only 12 glovers made 15,000 dozen gloves each year; however, by 1787, 64 glovers made 160,000 dozen gloves each year.

The city gained some notoriety on 7 June 1788 when the townspeople assaulted troops of Louis XVI
Louis XVI
in the " Day of the Tiles ". The people attacked the royal troops to prevent an expulsion of the notables of the city, which would have seriously endangered the economic prosperity of Grenoble. Following these events, the Assembly of Vizille took place. Its members organized the meeting of the old Estates General , thus beginning the French Revolution . During the Revolution, Grenoble
Grenoble
was represented in Paris
Paris
by two illustrious notables, Jean Joseph Mounier and Antoine Barnave .

In 1790, the Dauphiné was divided into three departments , and Grenoble
Grenoble
became the _chef-lieu_ of the Isère department . The city was renamed _Grelibre_ to avoid association with out of fashion nobility, and only took back its previous name only under Napoleon
Napoleon
. Only two abbeys were executed at Grenoble
Grenoble
during the Reign of Terror . Pope
Pope
Pius VI , prisoner of France, spent three days at Grenoble
Grenoble
in 1799 before going to Valence where he died.

19TH CENTURY

Ramparts close to the Porte Saint Laurent

The establishment of the Empire was overwhelmingly approved (in Isère, the results showed 82,084 yes and only 12 no). Grenoble welcomed for the second time a prisoner Pope
Pope
in 1809. Pius VII
Pius VII
spent 10 days in the city en route to his exile in Fontainebleau .

In 1813 Grenoble
Grenoble
was under threat from the Austrian army, which invaded Switzerland
Switzerland
and Savoy
Savoy
. The well-defended city contained the Austrian attacks, and the French army defeated the Austrians, forcing them to withdraw at Geneva
Geneva
. However, the later invasion of France
France
in 1814 resulted in the capitulation of the troops and the occupation of the city.

During his return from the island of Elba
Elba
in 1815, Napoleon
Napoleon
took a road that led him near Grenoble
Grenoble
at Laffrey . There he met the royalist fifth Infantry Regiment of Louis XVIII
Louis XVIII
. Napoleon
Napoleon
stepped towards the soldiers and said these famous words: "If there is among you a soldier who wants to kill his Emperor, here I am." The soldiers all joined his cause. After that, Napoleon
Napoleon
was acclaimed at Grenoble
Grenoble
and General Jean Gabriel Marchand could not prevent Napoleon
Napoleon
from entering the city through the Bonne gate. He said later: "From Cannes
Cannes
to Grenoble, I still was an adventurer; in that last city, I came back a sovereign". But after the defeat of Waterloo , the region suffered from a new invasion of Austrian and Sardinian troops. Fountain of the Three Orders (1897)

The 19th century saw significant industrial development of Grenoble. The glove factories reached their Golden Age, and their products were exported to the United States
United States
, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, and Russia
Russia
.

General Haxo transformed the Bastille fortress, which took on its present aspect between 1824 and 1848. The Second Empire saw the construction of the French railway network, and the first trains arrived at Grenoble
Grenoble
in 1858. Shortly thereafter Grenoble
Grenoble
experienced widespread destruction by extensive flooding in 1859,.

In 1869 engineer Aristide Bergès played a major role in industrializing hydroelectricity production. With the development of his paper mills, he accelerated the economic development of the Grésivaudan valley and Grenoble.

On 4 August 1897, a stone and bronze fountain was inaugurated in Grenoble
Grenoble
to commemorate the pre-revolutionary events of June 1788. Built by the sculptor Henri Ding , the Fountain of the Three Orders, which represents three characters, is located on the Place Notre-Dame. People in Grenoble
Grenoble
interpret these characters as follows: "Is it raining?" inquires the third estate ; "Please heaven it had rained", lament the clergy ; and "It will rain", proclaims the nobility .

20TH CENTURY

World War I
World War I
accelerated Grenoble's economic development. In order to sustain the war effort, new hydroelectric industries developed along the various rivers of the region, and several existing companies moved into the armaments industry (for example in Livet-et-Gavet ). Electro-chemical factories were also established in the area surrounding Grenoble, initially to produce chemical weapons. This development resulted in significant immigration to Grenoble, particularly from Italian workers who settled in the Saint-Laurent neighborhood. Gate of the exposition in 1925

The economic development of the city was highlighted by the organization of the International Exhibition of Hydropower
Hydropower
and Tourism in 1925, which was visited by more than 1 million people. The organization of this exhibition forced the military to remove the old city walls and allowed expansion of the city to the south. This exhibition also highlighted the city's hydropower industry and the region's tourist attractions.

The site of the exhibition became an urban park in 1926, named Parc Paul Mistral after the death of the mayor in 1932. The only building of this exhibition remaining in the park is the crumbling Tour Perret , which has been closed to the public since 1960 due to its very poor state of maintenance.

During World War II, at the Battle of the Alps , the Nazi invasion was stopped near Grenoble
Grenoble
at Voreppe by the forces of General Cartier in June 1940. The French forces resisted until the armistice. Grenoble was then part of the French State , before an Italian occupation from 1942 to 1943. The relative mercy of the Italian occupiers towards the Jewish populations resulted in a significant number moving to the region from the German-occupied parts of France.

Grenoble
Grenoble
was extremely active in the Résistance against the occupation. Its action was symbolized by figures such as Eugène Chavant , Léon Martin, and Marie Reynoard. The University of Grenoble
Grenoble
supported the clandestine operations and provided false documentation for young people to prevent them from being assigned to STO .

In September 1943, German troops occupied Grenoble, escalating the conflict with the clandestine movements. On 11 November 1943 (the anniversary of the armistice of 1918 ) massive strikes and demonstrations took place in front of the local collaboration offices. In response, the occupiers arrested 400 demonstrators in the streets. On 13 November, the resistance blew up the artillery at the Polygon, which was a psychological shock for an enemy who then intensified the repression. On 25 November, the occupiers killed 11 members of the Résistance organizations of Grenoble. This violent crackdown was nicknamed "Grenoble's Saint-Bartholomew ". From these events, Grenoble
Grenoble
was styled by the Free French Forces the title of _Capital of the Maquis _ on the antennas of the BBC .

This event only intensified the activities of Grenoble's resistance movements. The Germans could not prevent the destruction of their new arsenal on 2 December at the Bonne Barracks. After the Normandy landing , resistance operations reached their peak, with numerous attacks considerably hampering the activity of German troops. With the landing in Provence , German troops evacuated the city on 22 August 1944. On 5 November 1944, General Charles de Gaulle came to Grenoble and bestowed on the city the _Compagnon de la Libération _ in order to recognise "a heroic city at the peak of the French resistance and combat for the liberation".

In 1955, future physics Nobel prize laureate Louis Néel created the Grenoble
Grenoble
Center for Nuclear Studies (CENG), resulting in the birth of the Grenoble
Grenoble
model, a combination of research and industry. The first stone was laid in December 1956.

In 1968 Grenoble
Grenoble
hosted the Xth Olympic Winter Games . This event helped modernize the city with the development of infrastructure such as an airport, motorways, a new town hall, and a new train station. It also helped the development of ski resorts like Chamrousse , Les Deux Alpes , and Villard-de-Lans .

GEOGRAPHY

Grenoble
Grenoble
with the Dauphiné Alps
Alps

Grenoble
Grenoble
is surrounded by mountains. To the north lies the Chartreuse , to the south and west the Vercors , and to the east the Belledonne range . Grenoble
Grenoble
is regarded as the capital of the French Alps.

Except for a few dozen houses on the slopes of the Bastille hill, Grenoble
Grenoble
is exclusively built on the alluvial plain of the Isère and Drac rivers at an altitude of 214 metres (702 ft). As a result, the city itself is extremely flat. Mountain sports are an important tourist attraction in summer and winter. Twenty large and small ski resorts surround the city, the nearest being Le Sappey-en-Chartreuse, which is about 15 minutes' drive away.

Historically, both Grenoble
Grenoble
and the surrounding areas were sites of heavy industry and mining. Abandoned mills and factories can be found in small towns and villages, and a few have been converted to tourist attractions, such as the coal mine at La Mure .

CLIMATE

Grenoble
Grenoble
itself has an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification Cfb) with no dry season.

CLIMATE DATA FOR GRENOBLE-ST GEOIRS (1981–2010 AVERAGES)

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 17.3 (63.1) 20.7 (69.3) 25.3 (77.5) 28.0 (82.4) 31.3 (88.3) 37.0 (98.6) 38.3 (100.9) 39.5 (103.1) 33.6 (92.5) 28.1 (82.6) 24.8 (76.6) 19.5 (67.1) 39.5 (103.1)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 5.9 (42.6) 7.8 (46) 12.0 (53.6) 15.3 (59.5) 19.9 (67.8) 23.8 (74.8) 26.9 (80.4) 26.4 (79.5) 21.8 (71.2) 16.9 (62.4) 10.2 (50.4) 6.4 (43.5) 16.2 (61.2)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) −1.2 (29.8) −0.4 (31.3) 2.0 (35.6) 4.4 (39.9) 8.9 (48) 12.0 (53.6) 14.2 (57.6) 14.0 (57.2) 10.9 (51.6) 7.8 (46) 2.7 (36.9) −0.1 (31.8) 6.3 (43.3)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) −27.1 (−16.8) −19.4 (−2.9) −18.2 (−0.8) −7.9 (17.8) −2.3 (27.9) 2.1 (35.8) 4.8 (40.6) 3.8 (38.8) −1.2 (29.8) −5.3 (22.5) −10.9 (12.4) −20.2 (−4.4) −27.1 (−16.8)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 61.3 (2.413) 51.6 (2.031) 66.3 (2.61) 83.0 (3.268) 104.1 (4.098) 75.2 (2.961) 59.3 (2.335) 67.2 (2.646) 105.7 (4.161) 105.8 (4.165) 87.7 (3.453) 67.1 (2.642) 934.3 (36.783)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS 9.4 8.0 9.4 9.7 11.0 8.5 6.2 7.4 7.7 10.1 9.6 9.5 106.4

AVERAGE SNOWY DAYS 7.7 6.0 4.5 2.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 2.6 4.9 28.0

AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 83 80 76 73 75 74 70 72 79 83 84 84 77.8

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 95.0 111.7 169.8 183.0 219.2 255.4 289.8 255.5 193.1 137.5 84.5 71.6 2,065.9

Source #1: Météo France
France

Source #2: Infoclimat.fr (humidity, snowy days 1961–1990)

POPULATION

YEAR 1793 1800 1806 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1872 1881 1891 1901 1911 1921

POPULATION 20,019 20,654 22,129 23,629 24,888 30,824 31,340 34,726 42,660 51,371 60,439 68,615 77,438 77,409

% - +3.2% +7.1% +6.8% +5.3% +23.9% +1.7% +10.8% +22.8% +20.4% +17.7% +13.5% +12.9% -0.0%

YEAR 1946 1954 1962 1968 1975 1982 1990 1999 2006 2011 2013 2014

POPULATION 102,161 116,640 156,707 161,616 166,037 156,637 150,768 153,317 156,107 157,424 160,215 160,779

% +32.0% +14.0% +34.6% +3.1% +2.7% -5.7% -3.7% +1.7% +1.8% +0.8% +1.8% +0.3%

URBANISM AND ARCHITECTURE

The Bouchayer-Viallet site is a powerful symbol of Grenoble's industrial past. It is now converted into a dual-purpose area more closely linked to the Berriat neighbourhood. Innovative business activities as Apple Inc. co-exist with housing, sporting facilities, contemporary music venue and arts centres as Le Magasin . At the entrance to the Bouchayer-Viallet site, Square des Fusillés has been redeveloped and extended taking over an old car park, to facilitate access from the tramway stop and Cours Berriat.

Redevelopment of the former De Bonne barracks was an important step in the drive to launch sustainable housing in France. In 2009, the site of De Bonne was distinguished as the best eco-neighborhood in France. A shopping mall contains 53 shops arranged around an inner concourse, with one side opening onto the park and the other connecting to the town.

MAIN SIGHTS

The Bastille from downtown, with the Memorial at the back, on the top of the hill

LA BASTILLE

The Bastille , an ancient series of fortifications on the mountainside overlooking Grenoble
Grenoble
on the northern side is visible from many points in the city. The Bastille is one of Grenoble's most visited tourist attractions and provides a good vantage point over the town below and the surrounding mountains. "Les Bulles": the cable cars

Although the Bastille was begun in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, later years saw extensive additions, including a semi-underground defense network. The Bastille has been credited as the most extensive example of early 18th-century fortifications in all of France
France
and then held an important strategic point on the Alpine frontier with the Kingdom of Savoy
Savoy
.

The first cable transport system, installed on the Bastille in 1875, was built by the Porte de France
France
Cement Company for freight. This cable transport system connected a quarry on Mount Jalla, just over the bastille, and Grenoble. It was abandoned in the early 20th century

Since 1934, the Bastille has been the destination of the " Grenoble-Bastille Cable Car ". This system of egg-shaped cable cars known to locals as "Les Bulles" (the bubbles) provides the occupants with an excellent view over the Isère River . At the top are two restaurants and installed in the casemates of the fort itself since June 2006, the Bastille Art Centre allows visitors to see contemporary art exhibitions. There is also a small military museum on mountain troops (Musée des troupes de montagne) and, since 2000, a memorial to the mountain troops (Mémorial national des troupes de montagne) further along the road, on top of the hill.

PALACE OF THE PARLIAMENT OF DAUPHINé

Palace of the Parliament
Parliament
of Dauphiné.

This palace was constructed Place Saint André, around 1500 and extended in 1539. It was the location of the Parlement
Parlement
of Dauphiné until the French Revolution . It then became a courthouse until 2002. The left wing of the palace was extended in 1897. The front of the former seat of the nearby Dauphiné Parlement
Parlement
combines elements from a gothic chapel and a Renaissance façade.

The building now belongs to the Isère Council (Conseil Général de l'Isère). An ongoing renovation project will give this building a new life whilst preserving its patrimonial character and adding a modern touch.

MUSEUM OF GRENOBLE

The city's most prized museum, the Museum of Grenoble ((in French) _Musée de Grenoble_), welcomes 200,000 visitors a year. It is primarily renowned for its extensive paintings collection, which covers all artistic evolutions. In the early 20th century the Museum of Grenoble
Grenoble
became the first French museum to open its collections to modern art, and its collection of modern and contemporary art has grown to become one of the largest in Europe. The painting holdings include works by painters such as Veronese , Rubens
Rubens
, Zurbarán , Ingres
Ingres
, Delacroix , Renoir , Gauguin , Signac , Monet , Matisse
Matisse
, Picasso
Picasso
, Kandinsky , Joan Miró , Paul Klee
Paul Klee
, Giorgio de Chirico and Andy Warhol . The museum also presents a few Egyptian antiquities as well as Greek and Roman artifacts. The Sculpture collection features works by Auguste Rodin
Auguste Rodin
, Matisse
Matisse
, Alberto Giacometti and Alexander Calder . In April 2010, the _prophetess of Antinoe_, a 6th-century mummy discovered in 1907 in the Coptic necropolis of Antinoe in Middle Egypt, returned to the Museum of Grenoble, after more than fifty years of absence and an extensive restoration.

ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUMS

Archaeological museum with the vestiges protected by a new cover of glass and metal (Place Saint-Laurent)

Situated on the right bank of the Isère, on Place Saint-Laurent, the Grenoble Archaeological Museum presents the archaeological excavations done on its location. The vestiges date back all the way to the 3rd century AD and provide a timeline of the history of Christianity in the region. The museum is situated below a 12th-century Benedictine church, under which Jacques Joseph Champollion-Figeac , brother of famed egyptologist Jean-François Champollion , discovered a Roman church in 1803. It was one of the first classified monuments in France thanks to the intervention of Prosper Mérimée , historic monument inspector. Systematic excavations were conducted from 1978 to 2011, as part of a regional research program on the evolution of churches during the Middle Ages. After eight years of work, the museum reopened 6 May 2011.

The Musée de l\'Ancien Évêché is the second archaeological museum of the city, and located near the Grenoble Cathedral . Installed in 1998, it houses the first baptistery of the city

The Grenoble
Grenoble
townhall hosts a bust of Stendhal by sculptor Pierre Charles Lenoir

EDUCATION AND SCIENCE

SECONDARY LEVEL

The large community of both foreign students and foreign researchers prompted the creation of an international school. The Cité Scolaire Internationale Europole (CSI Europole) was formerly housed within the _ Lycée Stendhal _ across from the _ Maison du Tourisme _, but later moved to its own building in the Europole (fr) district. In the centre of the city, two schools have provided education to the isérois for more than three centuries. The oldest one, the Lycée Stendhal , was founded in 1651 as a Jesuit College. An astronomical and astrological sundial created in the main building of the college in 1673 can still be visited today. The second-oldest higher education establishment of Grenoble
Grenoble
is the Lycée Champollion , completed in 1887 to offer excellent education to both high school students and students of preparatory classes.

HIGHER EDUCATION

Grenoble\'s university campus.

In a 1339 pontificial bull , Pope
Pope
Benedict XII commissioned the establishment of the University of Grenoble .

From 1965, the university relocated to a main campus outside of the city in Saint Martin d\'Hères (with some parts in Gières ). However, smaller campuses remain downtown and in the northwestern part of the city known as the _ Polygone Scientifique _ ("Scientific Polygon").

From 1970 to 2015, the university consists of four separate institutions sharing the campus grounds, some buildings and laboratories, and even part of their administration:

* Grenoble
Grenoble
I – Joseph Fourier University (sciences, health, technologies)

* Grenoble
Grenoble
II – Pierre Mendès- France
France
University (social sciences)

* which includes the Institute of political studies

* Grenoble
Grenoble
III – Stendhal University (humanities) * Grenoble Institute of Technology
Grenoble Institute of Technology
(INPG or Grenoble-INP) is a federation of engineering colleges.

In 2016, the first three of those merged to form Grenoble
Grenoble
Alpes University .

Campuses of the much smaller École nationale de l\'aviation civile (French civil aviation university), École d'Architecture de Grenoble ( School of Architecture of Grenoble) and Grenoble
Grenoble
École de Management (management and business administration) are also located in Grenoble.

The city is an important university centre with over 54,000 students in 2013, of whom 16% arrive from abroad. As of 1 January 2016, the first three institutions re-merged to become Grenoble
Grenoble
Alpes University .

Science And Engineering

_ Site of European Synchrotron Radiation Facility , Institut Laue-Langevin and European Molecular Biology Laboratory
European Molecular Biology Laboratory
at the Western end of the Polygone Scientifique _

Grenoble
Grenoble
is also a major scientific centre, especially in the fields of physics , computer science , and applied mathematics : Universite Joseph Fourier (UJF) is one of the leading French scientific universities while the Grenoble Institute of Technology
Grenoble Institute of Technology
trains more than 5,000 engineers every year in key technology disciplines. Grenoble's high tech expertise is organized mainly around three domains: information technology, biotechnologies and new technologies of energy.

Many fundamental and applied scientific research laboratories are conjointly managed by Joseph Fourier University, Grenoble
Grenoble
Institute of Technology, and the French _National Centre for Scientific Research _ (CNRS). Numerous other scientific laboratories are managed independently or in collaboration with the CNRS and the French _National Institute for Research in Computer Science and Control _ (INRIA).

Other research centres in or near Grenoble
Grenoble
include the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL), the European Molecular Biology Laboratory
European Molecular Biology Laboratory
(EMBL), the Institut de radioastronomie millimétrique , one of the main research facilities of the Commissariat à l\'Énergie Atomique (Nuclear Energy Commission, CEA), the LNCMI and the European branch of Xerox Research (whose most notable center was PARC ). Leti and the recent development of Minatec , a centre for innovation in micro- and nano-technology, only increases Grenoble's position as a European scientific centre. Biotechnologies are also well represented in the Grenoble
Grenoble
region with the molecular biology research center BioMérieux , the Clinatec center, the regional center NanoBio and many ramifications of the global competitiveness cluster Lyonbiopôle.

Meanwhile, Grenoble
Grenoble
has large laboratories related to space and to the understanding and observation of the universe as the Institut de radioastronomie millimétrique , the Institut de planétologie et d\'astrophysique de Grenoble
Grenoble
, the Laboratoire de physique subatomique et de cosmologie de Grenoble
Grenoble
, the Institut Néel but also to a lesser extent the Institut des sciences de la Terre (part of the Observatoire des Sciences de l\'Univers de Grenoble
Grenoble
).

In order to foster this technological cluster university institutions and research organizations united to create the GIANT (Grenoble Innovation for Advanced New Technologies) Campus with the aim at becoming one of the world's top campuses in research, higher education, and high tech.

The city benefits from the highest concentration of strategic jobs in France
France
after Paris, with 14% of the employments, 35,186 jobs, 45% of which specialized in design and research. Grenoble
Grenoble
is also the largest research center in France
France
after Paris
Paris
with 22,800 jobs (11,800 in public research, 7,500 in private research and 3,500 PhD students).

Grenoble
Grenoble
is also renowned for the excellence of its academic research in humanities and political sciences. Its universities, alongside public scientific institutions, host some of the largest research centres in France
France
(in fields such as political science, urban planning or the sociology of organizations ).

KNOWLEDGE AND INNOVATION COMMUNITY

Grenoble
Grenoble
is one of the co-location centres of the European Institute of Innovation and Technology 's Knowledge and Innovation Communities for sustainable energy .

WEEKEND EDUCATION

The _École Compleméntaire de Grenoble_ (グルノーブル補習授業校 _Gurunōburu Hoshū Jugyō Kō_), a part-time Japanese supplementary school , is held in the _École Élémentaire Mi-Plaine_ in Meylan , near Grenoble.

ECONOMY

Grenoble
Grenoble
is one of the leading European cities in term of high-tech industries, especially biotechnology and nanotechnology . World-renowned enterprises have settled in Grenoble
Grenoble
and in the surrounding area such as Schneider Electric , Hewlett Packard , Caterpillar
Caterpillar
, Xerox and STMicroelectronics . Since 2011, the presence of Grenoblix , first green data center, allows connected members to exchange traffic in order to avoid passing by faraway infrastructures. Since 1993 Grenoble
Grenoble
can be considered as an international city thanks to the World Trade Center of Grenoble .

INDUSTRY

The town was once famous for glove manufacturing, for which Xavier Jouvin (fr) introduced an innovative technique in the 19th century. A few small companies keep producing gloves for a very high end market.

COMPANIES

Head office of Glénat

In 2011, the largest employers in the Grenoble
Grenoble
metropolitan area were:

ENTERPRISE, LOCATION Number of employees SECTOR

STMicroelectronics , Grenoble
Grenoble
and Crolles 5,979 Semiconductor
Semiconductor
manufacturing, R&D

Schneider Electric , Grenoble
Grenoble
agglomeration 4,915 Electrical equipment, R&D

Caterpillar
Caterpillar
France
France
, Grenoble
Grenoble
and Echirolles 1,865 Construction of heavy equipment

Hewlett Packard France
France
, Eybens 1,814 Computer science

Becton Dickinson , Pont-de-Claix 1,736 R"> The railway station and a tram (lightrail).

A comprehensive bus and tram service operates 26 bus routes and five tram lines and serves much of greater Grenoble. Being essentially flat, Grenoble
Grenoble
is also a bicycle-friendly city.

The Gare de Grenoble is served by the TGV
TGV
rail network, with frequent high-speed services (3 hours) to and from Paris-Gare de Lyon , usually with a stop at Lyon
Lyon
Saint-Exupéry Airport . While Grenoble
Grenoble
is not directly on any high-speed line, TGVs can run at reduced speeds on the classic network and enable such connections. Local rail services connect Grenoble
Grenoble
with Lyon
Lyon
, and less frequently to Geneva
Geneva
and to destinations to the West and South. Valence and Lyon
Lyon
to the west provides connections with TGV
TGV
services along the Rhône Valley. Rail and road connections to the south are less developed.

Grenoble
Grenoble
can be accessed by air from Grenoble- Isère Airport , Lyon Saint-Exupéry Airport and Geneva
Geneva
International Airport , with the airport bus connections being most frequent to Lyon
Lyon
Saint-Exupéry. I-Road in Grenoble
Grenoble

Highways link Grenoble
Grenoble
to the other major cities in the area including the A48 autoroute to the northwest toward Lyon
Lyon
, the A49 to the southwest toward the Rhone valley via Valence , the A41 to the northeast toward Chambéry , the Alps, and Italy
Italy
and Switzerland.

A partial ring road around the south of the city, the Rocade Sud, connects the motorway arriving from the northwest (A48) with that arriving from the northeast (A41). A project to complete the ring road, with a tunnel under the Bastille as part of the likely routes, was rejected after its environmental impact studies.

Since 1 October 2014, the city of Grenoble
Grenoble
has been testing the rental of seventy I-Road electric vehicles. In 2016, the speed limit was lowered to 30 km/h (18.6 mph) in 80% of the streets of Grenoble and forty-two neighboring municipalities, to both improve safety and reduce pollution levels,. The limit however remains 50 km/h on the main arteries.

CULTURE

Grenoble
Grenoble
hosts several festivals: the Détours de Babel in March, the Open Air Short Film Festival in early July, and the _Cabaret Frappé _ music festival at the end of July.

The Summum is the biggest concert hall in Grenoble, and the most famous artists produce there. Another big hall, _Le grand angle_, is located nearby in Voiron . Smaller halls in the city include the _Salle Olivier Messiaen_ in the Minim Monastery .

The main cultural center of the city is called MC2 (for _Maison de la culture, version 2_), which hosts music, theater, and dance performances. The Conservatory of Grenoble is founded in 1935.

There are several theaters in Grenoble, the main one being Grenoble Municipal Theatre (_Théatre de Grenoble_). Others are the _Théâtre de Création_, the _Théâtre Prémol_, and the _Théâtre 145._ Grenoble
Grenoble
also hosts Upstage Productions , which performs once a year through an exclusively English speaking troupe.

There are two main art centres in Grenoble: the _Centre national d'Art contemporain_ (also called _Le Magasin_) and the _Centre d'art Bastille._

Grenoble
Grenoble
is known for its walnuts , Noix de Grenoble
Grenoble
(fr) which enjoy an _appellation_ of controlled origin .

The town also hosts a well-known comics publisher, Glénat .

PEOPLE FROM GRENOBLE

Further information: List of people from Grenoble

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in France
France

After World War I, one street in the centre of Smederevska Palanka (Serbia) was named French street (Francuska ulica) and one street in Grenoble
Grenoble
was named Palanka street(Rue de Palanka). There is also a Belgrade Street (Rue de Belgrade) near the Isère River.

TWIN TOWNS AND SISTER CITIES

Grenoble
Grenoble
is twinned with:

* Catania
Catania
, Italy, since 1961 * Innsbruck
Innsbruck
, Austria, since 1963 * Essen
Essen
, Germany, since 1976 * Halle , Germany, since 1976 * Chişinău , Moldova, since 1977

* Oxford
Oxford
, United Kingdom, since 1977 * Rehovot , Israel, since 1977 * Phoenix , United States, since 1990 * Pécs , Hungary, since 1992 * Bethlehem
Bethlehem
, Palestinian Authority , since 1995

* Kaunas , Lithuania, since 1997 * Sfax , Tunisia, since 1998 * Constantine , Algeria, since 1999 * Corato , Italy, since 2002 * Sevan , Armenia, since 2009

GALLERY

Grenoble
Grenoble
(west side) from la Bastille. Grenoble
Grenoble
from the Vercors ranges. Grenoble
Grenoble
at night from la Bastille.

SEE ALSO

* Arboretum Robert Ruffier-Lanche * Bishopric of Grenoble
Grenoble
* Couvent des Minimes de Grenoble * Grand\'Place * List of mayors of Grenoble * Route Napoléon * Saint Roch Cemetery

REFERENCES

* INSEE commune file * _ This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Grenoble". Catholic Encyclopedia _. New York: Robert Appleton. * _ This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "article name needed". Encyclopædia Britannica _ (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.

NOTES

* ^ "Grenoble". Collins Dictionary. n.d. Retrieved 24 September 2014. * ^ _A_ _B_ Graff, James (22 August 2004). "Secret Capitals". _Time_. New York. Retrieved 29 October 2009. * ^ _A_ _B_ Pentland, William (9 July 2013). "World\'s 15 Most Inventive Cities". _Forbes_. New York. Retrieved 16 July 2013. * ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ya5M3mJzRFA * ^ "Insee – Populations légales 2006". Insee.fr. Retrieved 29 October 2009. * ^ _Petite histoire du Dauphiné_ , Félix Vernay, 1933, p18 * ^ Louis, Jaucourt de chevalier (1757). _Grenoble_. p. 942. * ^ "Musée Dauphinois". Metrodoc.la-metro.org. Retrieved 12 May 2010. * ^ _Petite histoire du Dauphiné_, Félix Vernay, 1933, p. 40. * ^ _Petite histoire du Dauphiné_, Félix Vernay, 1933, p. 9. * ^ _Petite histoire du Dauphiné_, Félix Vernay, 1933, p. 27. * ^ _Petite histoire du Dauphiné_, Félix Vernay, 1933, p. 32. * ^ _Petite histoire du Dauphiné_, Félix Vernay, 1933, p. 58. * ^ _Petite histoire du Dauphiné_, Félix Vernay, 1933, p78 * ^ _Petite Histoire du Dauphiné_ , Félix Vernay, 1933, p88 * ^ Histoire de Grenoble, Vidal Chaumel, Editions Privat, p.68,123,126,223 * ^ _Petite histoire du Dauphiné_, Félix Vernay, 1933, p97 * ^ _A_ _B_ _Petite histoire du Dauphiné_ , Félix Vernay, 1933, p98 * ^ "Il y a 250 ans naissait Joseph Chanrion (1756-1830)" (PDF). Union de Quartier Mutualité-Préfecture. * ^ _Petite Histoire du Dauphiné_, Félix Vernay, 1933, p115 * ^ _Petite histoire du Dauphiné_ , Félix Vernay, 1933, p120 * ^ _L’histoire de l' Isère en BD_, Tome 5, Gilbert Bouchard, 2004 * ^ Grenoble, cœur de pierre, Françoise Goyet, Edi Loire, 1996, (ISBN 2840840464 ) * ^ _L’histoire de l' Isère en BD_, Tome 5, Gilbert Bouchard, 2004, p40 * ^ fr:Exposition internationale de la houille blanche#Les chiffres * ^ _L’histoire…_, Tome 5, Gilbert Bouchard, 2004, p45 * ^ _A_ _B_ "Order of the Liberation". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 20 October 2007. Retrieved 12 May 2010. * ^ "Ordre de la Libération". Web.archive.org. 25 February 2008. Archived from the original on 25 February 2008. Retrieved 12 May 2010.

* ^ " Grenoble
Grenoble
en concurrence avec Lyon". Université Lyon
Lyon
2. Retrieved 3 May 2012. * ^ _Petite histoire du Dauphiné_, Félix Vernay, 1933, p. 67. * ^ "Données climatiques de la station de Grenoble" (in French). Meteo France. Retrieved December 27, 2015. * ^ "Climat Rhône-Alpes" (in French). Meteo France. Retrieved December 27, 2015. * ^ "Normes et records 1961-1990: Grenoble-St Geoirs (38) - altitude 384m" (in French). Infoclimat. Retrieved December 27, 2015. * ^ lametro.fr, Bouchayer-Viallet // 2005-2014. (in French) * ^ www.atlantico.fr, Apple a choisi Grenoble
Grenoble
pour implanter son laboratoire de recherche sur l\'imagerie iPhone.(in French) * ^ lemonde.fr November 4, 2009, La caserne De Bonne, quartier modèle et économe du centre de Grenoble
Grenoble
(in French) * ^ "Bienvenue sur www.bastille-grenoble.com". Bastille-grenoble.fr. Retrieved 2014-04-09. * ^ isere patrimoine.fr (in French) * ^ General Council of the department of Isere (french) * ^ "Musée archéologique St Laurent". Musee-archeologique-grenoble.com. Retrieved 4 April 2011. * ^ "Tourism office - patrimoine religieux". Retrieved 14 March 2013. * ^ http://cache.media.enseignementsup-recherche.gouv.fr/file/Atlas_2012-2013/27/8/Atlas_1213_Web_316278.pdf * ^ "Pôles de compétitivité". Mairie de Grenoble. * ^ "See official website". Archived from the original on 29 December 2007. Retrieved 26 May 2009. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link ) * ^ drt-cea.com, GIANT, CAMPUS D\'INNOVATION À GRENOBLE (in French) * ^ "La mission de la sonde Rosetta prolongée jusqu\'en septembre 2016". francetvinfo.fr. 2015-06-29. Retrieved 2015-08-30. ] * ^ "Official website of the GIANT Innovation Campus". Giant-grenoble.org. Retrieved 2015-08-30. * ^ "Official website of Grenoble
Grenoble
École de Management". http://en.grenoble-em.com. Retrieved 2015-08-30. External link in publisher= (help ) * ^ "Insee – Territoire – Répartition géographique des emplois – Les grandes villes concentrent les fonctions intellectuelles, de gestion et de décision". Insee.fr. Retrieved 12 May 2010. * ^ "Chiffres clés Grenoble- Isère édition 2011" (PDF). AEPI. * ^ "European Institute of Innovation and Technology: Home". _Europa (web portal)_. Archived from the original on 28 March 2010. Retrieved 12 May 2010. * ^ "欧州の補習授業校一覧(平成25年4月15日現在)" (Archive). Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). Retrieved on May 10, 2014. "Ecole Complementaire de Grenoble
Grenoble
École Elementaire Mi-Plaine 12 Rue des Aiguinarcls 38240 Meylan, FRANCE" * ^ greenunivers.com april 2011, L’eau d’une nappe phréatique verdit un datacenter grenoblois (in French) * ^ A. Doyon, Xavier Jouvin, inventeur grenoblois et sa famille, Paris, Dayez ed., 1976 * ^ "Les entreprises récompensées". Grenoble.cci.fr. Retrieved 2012-07-26. * ^ "Comptable à Grenoble, Isère (38)". Comptable-grenoble.com. Retrieved 29 October 2009. * ^ americanschollgrenoble.com * ^ "Grenoble, France\'s Second Largest English Speaking Community". Retrieved 2016-07-08. * ^ "Mentions obligatoires." Glénat . Retrieved on 1 May 2011. "GLENAT Editions SA 37, Rue Servan BP 177 38008 GRENOBLE CEDEX 1" * ^ Inovallée web site * ^ The web site of the Rocade Nord lists the two preferred routes, both of which pass under the Bastille in a long tunnel: http://www.rocade-nord.fr/index.php?id=163 * ^ Place Gre\'net, Circulation in Grenoble: 50 km/h the exception, 30 km/h the rule. * ^ Détours de Babel Festival * ^ Annecybernard – Conception et Design Olivier Bellon, Programmation Frederic Chatel. "Noix De Grenoble
Grenoble
AOC CING Comité Interprofessionnel". Aoc-noixdegrenoble.com. Retrieved 29 October 2009. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ _K_ _L_ _M_ _N_ _O_ _P_ Jérôme Steffenino, Marguerite Masson. "Ville de Grenoble
Grenoble
– Coopérations et villes jumelles". Grenoble.fr. Retrieved 16 May 2013.

* ^ "List of Twin Towns in the Ruhr District" (PDF). © 2009 Twins2010.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 November 2009. Retrieved 28 October 2009. External link in publisher= (help ) * ^ "Oraşe înfrăţite (Twin cities of Minsk) __" (in Romanian). Primăria Municipiului Chişinău. Archived from the original on 3 September 2012. Retrieved 2013-07-21. * ^ "Oxford\'s International Twin Towns". _ Oxford
Oxford
City Council_. Archived from the original on 2013-08-17. Retrieved 2013-09-03. * ^ "British towns twinned with French towns". _Archant Community Media Ltd_. Archived from the original on 5 July 2013. Retrieved 11 July 2013. * ^ "Phoenix Sister Cities". Phoenix Sister Cities. Archived from the original on 2013-07-24. Retrieved 2013-08-06.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

See also: Bibliography of the history of Grenoble
Grenoble

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Look up GRENOBLE _ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to GRENOBLE _.

_ Wikivoyage has a travel guide for GRENOBLE _.

* Grenoble
Grenoble
City website (in French) * Grenoble
Grenoble
Chamber of Commerce and Industry * Official tourism office of Grenoble
Grenoble
at the Wayback

.