1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers >
1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 _Population
without double counting _: residents of multiple communes (e.g.,
students and military personnel) only counted once.
GRENOBLE (/ɡrəˈnoʊbəl/ ; French pronunciation: ; Arpitan :
_Grenoblo_) is a city in southeastern
France , at the foot of the
French Alps where the river Drac joins the
Isère . Located in the
Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region ,
Grenoble is the capital of the
Isère and plays the role of an important scientific
centre of Europe. The city advertises itself as the "Capital of the
Alps", due to its size and its proximity to the mountains.
Grenoble's history goes back more than 2,000 years, to a time when it
was a small Gallic village. It gained somewhat in stature by becoming
the capital of the
Dauphiné in the 11th century, but Grenoble
remained for most of its history a modest parliamentary and garrison
city on the borders of the kingdom of
Industrial development increased the prominence of Grenoble, through
several periods of economic expansion over the last three centuries.
This started with a booming glove industry in the 18th and 19th
centuries, continued with the development of a strong hydropower
industry in the late 19th to early 20th centuries, and ended with a
World War II
World War II economic boom symbolized by the holding of the X
Olympic Winter Games in 1968. The city has grown to be one of Europe's
most important research, technology, and innovation centers, with each
fifth inhabitant working directly in these domains.
The population of the city (commune) of
Grenoble was 160,215 at the
2013 census, while the population of the
Grenoble metropolitan area
(French: _aire urbaine de Grenoble_ or "agglomération grenobloise")
was 664,832. The residents of the city are called "Grenoblois".
The many communes that make up the metropolitan area include three
suburbs with populations exceeding 20,000, Saint-Martin-d\'Hères ,
Échirolles , and Fontaine .
* 1 History
* 1.1 Antiquity
* 1.3 Renaissance
* 1.4 From
Louis XIV to the
* 1.5 19th century
* 1.6 20th century
* 2 Geography
* 2.1 Climate
* 3 Population
* 4 Urbanism and architecture
* 5 Main sights
* 5.1 La Bastille
* 5.2 Palace of the
Museum of Grenoble
* 5.4 Archaeological museums
* 6 Education and science
* 6.1 Secondary level
* 6.2 Higher education
* 6.2.1 Science and engineering
* 6.3 Knowledge and innovation community
* 6.4 Weekend education
* 7 Economy
* 7.1 Industry
* 7.2 Companies
* 7.3 Media
* 8 Sport
* 9 Transport
* 10 Culture
* 11 People from
* 12 International relations
Twin towns and sister cities
* 13 Gallery
* 14 See also
* 15 References
* 15.1 Notes
* 16 Bibliography
* 17 External links
Timeline of Grenoble _For the ecclesiastical history, see
It has been suggested that this section be split out into another
History of Grenoble _. (Discuss ) _(November 2015)_
Remnants of the Roman Walls
The first references to
Grenoble date back to 43 BC.
Cularo was at
that time a small Gallic village of the
Allobroges tribe, near a
bridge across the
Isère River. Three centuries later and with
insecurity rising in the late
Roman empire , a strong wall was built
around the small town in 286 AD.
Cularo and, touched by the people's
welcome, made the village a Roman city. In honour of this,
renamed GRATIANOPOLIS ("city of Gratian") in 381 (leading to
Graignovol during the Middle Age and then Grenoble).
Christianity spread to the region during the 4th century, and the
Grenoble was founded in 377 AD. From that time on, the
bishops exercised significant political power over the city. Until the
French Revolution , they styled themselves the "bishops and princes of
After the collapse of the
Roman Empire , the city was part of the
first Burgundian kingdom in the 5th century and the second Burgundian
Kingdom of Arles until 1032, when it was integrated into the Holy
Roman Empire . Arletian rule was interrupted between 942 and 970 due
to Arabic rule based in
Grenoble grew significantly in the 11th century when the Counts of
Albon chose the city as the capital of their territories. At the time,
their possessions were a patchwork of several territories sprawled
across the region. The central position of
Grenoble allowed the
Counts to strengthen their authority. When they later took the title
of "Dauphins ",
Grenoble became the capital of the State of Dauphiné
Despite their status, the Counts had to share authority over the city
with the Bishop of Grenoble. One of the most famous of those was Saint
Hugh . Under his rule, the city's bridge was rebuilt, and both a
regular hospital and a leper one were built. Coat of arms of the
Dauphiné after becoming a province of
The inhabitants of
Grenoble took advantage of the conflicts between
the Counts and the bishops and obtained the recognition of a Charter
of Customs that guaranteed their rights. That charter was confirmed
Louis XI in 1447 and Francis I in 1541.
In 1336 the last Dauphin Humbert II founded a court of justice, the
Conseil delphinal (fr), which settled at
Grenoble in 1340. He also
University of Grenoble in 1339. Aging and heirless,
Humbert sold his state to
France in 1349, on the condition that the
heir to the French crown used the title of _Dauphin ._ The first one,
the future Charles V , spent nine months in Grenoble. The city
remained the capital of the Dauphiné, henceforth a province of France
, and the Estates of
Dauphiné were created.
The only Dauphin who really governed his province was
Louis XI ,
whose "reign" lasted from 1447 to 1456. It was only under his rule
Dauphiné properly joined the Kingdom of France. The Old Conseil
Delphinal became a
Parlement (the third in
France after the
Paris and Toulouse), strengthening the status of
Grenoble as a Provincial capital. He also ordered the construction of
the Palais du
Parlement (finished under Francis I ) and ensured that
the Bishop pledged allegiance, thus forging the political union of the
At that time,
Grenoble was a crossroads between
Vienne , Geneva,
Savoy . It was the industrial centre of the
the biggest city of the province, but nonetheless a rather small one.
François de Bonne, duc de Lesdiguières
Owing to Grenoble's geographical situation, French troops were
garrisoned in the city and its region during the
Italian Wars .
Charles VIII ,
Louis XII , and Francis I went several times to
Grenoble. Its people consequently had to suffer from the exactions of
The nobility of the region took part in various battles (Marignano ,
Pavia ) and in doing so gained significant prestige. The best-known
of its members was Bayard , "the knight without fear and beyond
Grenoble suffered as a result of the
French Wars of Religion . The
Dauphiné was indeed an important settlement for Protestants and
therefore experienced several conflicts. The baron des Adrets , the
leader of the
Huguenots , pillaged the Cathedral of
destroyed the tombs of the former Dauphins.
In August 1575, Lesdiguières became the new leader of the
Protestants and, thanks to the accession of Henry IV to the throne of
France, allied himself with the governor and the lieutenant general of
the Dauphiné. But this alliance did not bring an end to the
conflicts. Indeed, a Catholic movement, the _Ligue_, which took
Grenoble in December 1590, refused to make peace. After months of
assaults, Lesdiguières defeated the Ligue and took back Grenoble. He
became the leader of the entire province.
Lesdiguières became the lieutenant-general of the
administered the Province from 1591 to 1626. He began the construction
of the Bastille in order to protect the city and ordered the
construction of new walls, increasing the city's size. He also
constructed the Hôtel Lesdiguières, built new fountains, and dug
In 1689, the bishop
Étienne Le Camus launched the construction of
Saint-Louis Church .
FROM LOUIS XIV TO THE FRENCH REVOLUTION
The day of the Tiles
The revocation of the
Edict of Nantes by
Louis XIV caused the
departure of 2,000 Protestants from Grenoble, weakening the city's
economy. However, it also weakened the glove industry of
leaving the glove factories of
Grenoble without any competition. This
allowed a stronger economic development for the city during the 18th
century. For example, at the beginning of that century, only 12
glovers made 15,000 dozen gloves each year; however, by 1787, 64
glovers made 160,000 dozen gloves each year.
The city gained some notoriety on 7 June 1788 when the townspeople
assaulted troops of
Louis XVI in the "
Day of the Tiles ". The people
attacked the royal troops to prevent an expulsion of the notables of
the city, which would have seriously endangered the economic
prosperity of Grenoble. Following these events, the Assembly of
Vizille took place. Its members organized the meeting of the old
Estates General , thus beginning the
French Revolution . During the
Grenoble was represented in
Paris by two illustrious
Jean Joseph Mounier and
Antoine Barnave .
In 1790, the
Dauphiné was divided into three departments , and
Grenoble became the _chef-lieu_ of the
Isère department . The city
was renamed _Grelibre_ to avoid association with out of fashion
nobility, and only took back its previous name only under
Only two abbeys were executed at
Grenoble during the
Reign of Terror .
Pius VI , prisoner of France, spent three days at
1799 before going to Valence where he died.
Ramparts close to the Porte Saint Laurent
The establishment of the Empire was overwhelmingly approved (in
Isère, the results showed 82,084 yes and only 12 no). Grenoble
welcomed for the second time a prisoner
Pope in 1809.
Pius VII spent
10 days in the city en route to his exile in
Grenoble was under threat from the Austrian army, which
Savoy . The well-defended city contained the
Austrian attacks, and the French army defeated the Austrians, forcing
them to withdraw at
Geneva . However, the later invasion of
1814 resulted in the capitulation of the troops and the occupation of
During his return from the island of
Elba in 1815,
Napoleon took a
road that led him near
Laffrey . There he met the royalist
fifth Infantry Regiment of
Louis XVIII .
Napoleon stepped towards the
soldiers and said these famous words: "If there is among you a soldier
who wants to kill his Emperor, here I am." The soldiers all joined his
cause. After that,
Napoleon was acclaimed at
Grenoble and General Jean
Gabriel Marchand could not prevent
Napoleon from entering the city
through the Bonne gate. He said later: "From
Cannes to Grenoble, I
still was an adventurer; in that last city, I came back a sovereign".
But after the defeat of Waterloo , the region suffered from a new
invasion of Austrian and Sardinian troops. Fountain of the Three
The 19th century saw significant industrial development of Grenoble.
The glove factories reached their Golden Age, and their products were
exported to the
United States , the
United Kingdom , and
General Haxo transformed the Bastille fortress, which took on its
present aspect between 1824 and 1848. The Second Empire saw the
construction of the French railway network, and the first trains
Grenoble in 1858. Shortly thereafter
widespread destruction by extensive flooding in 1859,.
In 1869 engineer Aristide Bergès played a major role in
industrializing hydroelectricity production. With the development of
his paper mills, he accelerated the economic development of the
Grésivaudan valley and Grenoble.
On 4 August 1897, a stone and bronze fountain was inaugurated in
Grenoble to commemorate the pre-revolutionary events of June 1788.
Built by the sculptor
Henri Ding , the Fountain of the Three Orders,
which represents three characters, is located on the Place Notre-Dame.
Grenoble interpret these characters as follows: "Is it
raining?" inquires the third estate ; "Please heaven it had rained",
lament the clergy ; and "It will rain", proclaims the nobility .
World War I
World War I accelerated Grenoble's economic development. In order to
sustain the war effort, new hydroelectric industries developed along
the various rivers of the region, and several existing companies moved
into the armaments industry (for example in
Electro-chemical factories were also established in the area
surrounding Grenoble, initially to produce chemical weapons. This
development resulted in significant immigration to Grenoble,
particularly from Italian workers who settled in the Saint-Laurent
neighborhood. Gate of the exposition in 1925
The economic development of the city was highlighted by the
organization of the International Exhibition of
Hydropower and Tourism
in 1925, which was visited by more than 1 million people. The
organization of this exhibition forced the military to remove the old
city walls and allowed expansion of the city to the south. This
exhibition also highlighted the city's hydropower industry and the
region's tourist attractions.
The site of the exhibition became an urban park in 1926, named Parc
Paul Mistral after the death of the mayor in 1932. The only building
of this exhibition remaining in the park is the crumbling Tour Perret
, which has been closed to the public since 1960 due to its very poor
state of maintenance.
During World War II, at the
Battle of the Alps , the Nazi invasion
was stopped near
Voreppe by the forces of General Cartier
in June 1940. The French forces resisted until the armistice. Grenoble
was then part of the
French State , before an Italian occupation from
1942 to 1943. The relative mercy of the Italian occupiers towards the
Jewish populations resulted in a significant number moving to the
region from the German-occupied parts of France.
Grenoble was extremely active in the Résistance against the
occupation. Its action was symbolized by figures such as Eugène
Chavant , Léon Martin, and Marie Reynoard. The University of
Grenoble supported the clandestine operations and provided false
documentation for young people to prevent them from being assigned to
In September 1943, German troops occupied Grenoble, escalating the
conflict with the clandestine movements. On 11 November 1943 (the
anniversary of the armistice of 1918 ) massive strikes and
demonstrations took place in front of the local collaboration offices.
In response, the occupiers arrested 400 demonstrators in the streets.
On 13 November, the resistance blew up the artillery at the Polygon,
which was a psychological shock for an enemy who then intensified the
repression. On 25 November, the occupiers killed 11 members of the
Résistance organizations of Grenoble. This violent crackdown was
nicknamed "Grenoble's Saint-Bartholomew ". From these events,
Grenoble was styled by the
Free French Forces the title of _Capital of
the Maquis _ on the antennas of the BBC .
This event only intensified the activities of Grenoble's resistance
movements. The Germans could not prevent the destruction of their new
arsenal on 2 December at the Bonne Barracks. After the Normandy
landing , resistance operations reached their peak, with numerous
attacks considerably hampering the activity of German troops. With the
landing in Provence , German troops evacuated the city on 22 August
1944. On 5 November 1944, General
Charles de Gaulle came to Grenoble
and bestowed on the city the _Compagnon de la Libération _ in order
to recognise "a heroic city at the peak of the French resistance and
combat for the liberation".
In 1955, future physics Nobel prize laureate
Louis Néel created the
Grenoble Center for Nuclear Studies (CENG), resulting in the birth of
Grenoble model, a combination of research and industry. The first
stone was laid in December 1956.
Grenoble hosted the Xth Olympic Winter Games . This event
helped modernize the city with the development of infrastructure such
as an airport, motorways, a new town hall, and a new train station. It
also helped the development of ski resorts like
Chamrousse , Les Deux
Alpes , and
Grenoble with the
Grenoble is surrounded by mountains. To the north lies the Chartreuse
, to the south and west the Vercors , and to the east the Belledonne
Grenoble is regarded as the capital of the French Alps.
Except for a few dozen houses on the slopes of the Bastille hill,
Grenoble is exclusively built on the alluvial plain of the
Drac rivers at an altitude of 214 metres (702 ft). As a result, the
city itself is extremely flat. Mountain sports are an important
tourist attraction in summer and winter. Twenty large and small ski
resorts surround the city, the nearest being Le Sappey-en-Chartreuse,
which is about 15 minutes' drive away.
Grenoble and the surrounding areas were sites of
heavy industry and mining. Abandoned mills and factories can be found
in small towns and villages, and a few have been converted to tourist
attractions, such as the coal mine at
La Mure .
Grenoble itself has an oceanic climate (Köppen climate
classification Cfb) with no dry season.
CLIMATE DATA FOR GRENOBLE-ST GEOIRS (1981–2010 AVERAGES)
RECORD HIGH °C (°F)
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F)
RECORD LOW °C (°F)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS
AVERAGE SNOWY DAYS
AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%)
MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS
Source #1: Météo
Source #2: Infoclimat.fr (humidity, snowy days 1961–1990)
URBANISM AND ARCHITECTURE
The Bouchayer-Viallet site is a powerful symbol of Grenoble's
industrial past. It is now converted into a dual-purpose area more
closely linked to the Berriat neighbourhood. Innovative business
Apple Inc. co-exist with housing, sporting facilities,
contemporary music venue and arts centres as
Le Magasin . At the
entrance to the Bouchayer-Viallet site, Square des Fusillés has been
redeveloped and extended taking over an old car park, to facilitate
access from the tramway stop and Cours Berriat.
Redevelopment of the former De Bonne barracks was an important step
in the drive to launch sustainable housing in France. In 2009, the
site of De Bonne was distinguished as the best eco-neighborhood in
France. A shopping mall contains 53 shops arranged around an inner
concourse, with one side opening onto the park and the other
connecting to the town.
The Bastille from downtown, with the Memorial at the back, on
the top of the hill
The Bastille , an ancient series of fortifications on the
Grenoble on the northern side is visible from
many points in the city. The Bastille is one of Grenoble's most
visited tourist attractions and provides a good vantage point over the
town below and the surrounding mountains. "Les Bulles": the cable
Although the Bastille was begun in the
Middle Ages , later years saw
extensive additions, including a semi-underground defense network. The
Bastille has been credited as the most extensive example of early
18th-century fortifications in all of
France and then held an
important strategic point on the Alpine frontier with the Kingdom of
The first cable transport system, installed on the Bastille in 1875,
was built by the Porte de
France Cement Company for freight. This
cable transport system connected a quarry on Mount Jalla, just over
the bastille, and Grenoble. It was abandoned in the early 20th century
Since 1934, the Bastille has been the destination of the
Grenoble-Bastille Cable Car ". This system of egg-shaped cable cars
known to locals as "Les Bulles" (the bubbles) provides the occupants
with an excellent view over the
Isère River . At the top are two
restaurants and installed in the casemates of the fort itself since
June 2006, the Bastille Art Centre allows visitors to see contemporary
art exhibitions. There is also a small military museum on mountain
troops (Musée des troupes de montagne) and, since 2000, a memorial to
the mountain troops (Mémorial national des troupes de montagne)
further along the road, on top of the hill.
PALACE OF THE PARLIAMENT OF DAUPHINé
Palace of the
Parliament of Dauphiné.
This palace was constructed Place Saint André, around 1500 and
extended in 1539. It was the location of the
Parlement of Dauphiné
French Revolution . It then became a courthouse until 2002.
The left wing of the palace was extended in 1897. The front of the
former seat of the nearby
Parlement combines elements from a
gothic chapel and a Renaissance façade.
The building now belongs to the
Isère Council (Conseil Général de
l'Isère). An ongoing renovation project will give this building a new
life whilst preserving its patrimonial character and adding a modern
MUSEUM OF GRENOBLE
The city's most prized museum, the
Museum of Grenoble ((in French)
_Musée de Grenoble_), welcomes 200,000 visitors a year. It is
primarily renowned for its extensive paintings collection, which
covers all artistic evolutions. In the early 20th century the Museum
Grenoble became the first French museum to open its collections to
modern art, and its collection of modern and contemporary art has
grown to become one of the largest in Europe. The painting holdings
include works by painters such as Veronese ,
Ingres , Delacroix , Renoir , Gauguin , Signac , Monet ,
Picasso , Kandinsky ,
Joan Miró ,
Paul Klee ,
Giorgio de Chirico and
Andy Warhol . The museum also presents a few Egyptian antiquities as
well as Greek and Roman artifacts. The Sculpture collection features
Auguste Rodin ,
Alberto Giacometti and Alexander
Calder . In April 2010, the _prophetess of Antinoe_, a 6th-century
mummy discovered in 1907 in the Coptic necropolis of Antinoe in Middle
Egypt, returned to the Museum of Grenoble, after more than fifty years
of absence and an extensive restoration.
Archaeological museum with the vestiges protected by a new cover
of glass and metal (Place Saint-Laurent)
Situated on the right bank of the Isère, on Place Saint-Laurent, the
Grenoble Archaeological Museum presents the archaeological excavations
done on its location. The vestiges date back all the way to the 3rd
century AD and provide a timeline of the history of Christianity in
the region. The museum is situated below a 12th-century Benedictine
church, under which
Jacques Joseph Champollion-Figeac , brother of
Jean-François Champollion , discovered a Roman
church in 1803. It was one of the first classified monuments in France
thanks to the intervention of
Prosper Mérimée , historic monument
inspector. Systematic excavations were conducted from 1978 to 2011,
as part of a regional research program on the evolution of churches
during the Middle Ages. After eight years of work, the museum reopened
6 May 2011.
The Musée de l\'Ancien Évêché is the second archaeological museum
of the city, and located near the
Grenoble Cathedral . Installed in
1998, it houses the first baptistery of the city
Grenoble townhall hosts a bust of Stendhal by sculptor Pierre
EDUCATION AND SCIENCE
The large community of both foreign students and foreign researchers
prompted the creation of an international school. The Cité Scolaire
Internationale Europole (CSI Europole) was formerly housed within the
Lycée Stendhal _ across from the _
Maison du Tourisme _, but later
moved to its own building in the Europole (fr) district. In the
centre of the city, two schools have provided education to the
isérois for more than three centuries. The oldest one, the Lycée
Stendhal , was founded in 1651 as a Jesuit College. An astronomical
and astrological sundial created in the main building of the college
in 1673 can still be visited today. The second-oldest higher education
Grenoble is the
Lycée Champollion , completed in
1887 to offer excellent education to both high school students and
students of preparatory classes.
Grenoble\'s university campus.
In a 1339 pontificial bull ,
Benedict XII commissioned the
establishment of the
University of Grenoble .
From 1965, the university relocated to a main campus outside of the
city in Saint Martin d\'Hères (with some parts in
Gières ). However,
smaller campuses remain downtown and in the northwestern part of the
city known as the _
Polygone Scientifique _ ("Scientific Polygon").
From 1970 to 2015, the university consists of four separate
institutions sharing the campus grounds, some buildings and
laboratories, and even part of their administration:
Grenoble I –
Joseph Fourier University (sciences, health,
Grenoble II – Pierre Mendès-
France University (social sciences)
* which includes the Institute of political studies
Grenoble III –
Stendhal University (humanities)
Grenoble Institute of Technology
Grenoble Institute of Technology (INPG or Grenoble-INP) is a
federation of engineering colleges.
In 2016, the first three of those merged to form
Campuses of the much smaller École nationale de l\'aviation civile
(French civil aviation university), École d'Architecture de Grenoble
( School of Architecture of Grenoble) and
Grenoble École de
Management (management and business administration) are also located
The city is an important university centre with over 54,000 students
in 2013, of whom 16% arrive from abroad. As of 1 January 2016, the
first three institutions re-merged to become
Grenoble Alpes University
Science And Engineering
_ Site of
European Synchrotron Radiation Facility , Institut
European Molecular Biology Laboratory
European Molecular Biology Laboratory at the Western
end of the
Polygone Scientifique _
Grenoble is also a major scientific centre, especially in the fields
of physics , computer science , and applied mathematics : Universite
Joseph Fourier (UJF) is one of the leading French scientific
universities while the
Grenoble Institute of Technology
Grenoble Institute of Technology trains more
than 5,000 engineers every year in key technology disciplines.
Grenoble's high tech expertise is organized mainly around three
domains: information technology, biotechnologies and new technologies
Many fundamental and applied scientific research laboratories are
conjointly managed by Joseph Fourier University,
Grenoble Institute of
Technology, and the French _National Centre for Scientific Research _
(CNRS). Numerous other scientific laboratories are managed
independently or in collaboration with the CNRS and the French
_National Institute for Research in Computer Science and Control _
Other research centres in or near
Grenoble include the European
Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), the Institut Laue-Langevin
European Molecular Biology Laboratory
European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), the Institut
de radioastronomie millimétrique , one of the main research
facilities of the Commissariat à l\'Énergie Atomique (Nuclear Energy
Commission, CEA), the
LNCMI and the European branch of
(whose most notable center was PARC ). Leti and the recent development
Minatec , a centre for innovation in micro- and nano-technology,
only increases Grenoble's position as a European scientific centre.
Biotechnologies are also well represented in the
Grenoble region with
the molecular biology research center
BioMérieux , the Clinatec
center, the regional center NanoBio and many ramifications of the
global competitiveness cluster Lyonbiopôle.
Grenoble has large laboratories related to space and to
the understanding and observation of the universe as the Institut de
radioastronomie millimétrique , the Institut de planétologie et
Grenoble , the Laboratoire de physique
subatomique et de cosmologie de
Grenoble , the
Institut Néel but also
to a lesser extent the Institut des sciences de la Terre (part of the
Observatoire des Sciences de l\'Univers de
In order to foster this technological cluster university institutions
and research organizations united to create the GIANT (Grenoble
Innovation for Advanced New Technologies) Campus with the aim at
becoming one of the world's top campuses in research, higher
education, and high tech.
The city benefits from the highest concentration of strategic jobs in
France after Paris, with 14% of the employments, 35,186 jobs, 45% of
which specialized in design and research.
Grenoble is also the
largest research center in
Paris with 22,800 jobs (11,800
in public research, 7,500 in private research and 3,500 PhD students).
Grenoble is also renowned for the excellence of its academic research
in humanities and political sciences. Its universities, alongside
public scientific institutions, host some of the largest research
France (in fields such as political science, urban planning
or the sociology of organizations ).
KNOWLEDGE AND INNOVATION COMMUNITY
Grenoble is one of the co-location centres of the European Institute
of Innovation and Technology 's Knowledge and Innovation Communities
for sustainable energy .
The _École Compleméntaire de Grenoble_
(グルノーブル補習授業校 _Gurunōburu Hoshū Jugyō Kō_), a
part-time Japanese supplementary school , is held in the _École
Élémentaire Mi-Plaine_ in
Meylan , near Grenoble.
Grenoble is one of the leading European cities in term of high-tech
industries, especially biotechnology and nanotechnology .
World-renowned enterprises have settled in
Grenoble and in the
surrounding area such as
Schneider Electric ,
Hewlett Packard ,
STMicroelectronics . Since 2011, the presence
Grenoblix , first green data center, allows connected members to
exchange traffic in order to avoid passing by faraway infrastructures.
Grenoble can be considered as an international city thanks
World Trade Center of Grenoble .
The town was once famous for glove manufacturing, for which Xavier
Jouvin (fr) introduced an innovative technique in the 19th century.
A few small companies keep producing gloves for a very high end
Head office of Glénat
In 2011, the largest employers in the
Grenoble metropolitan area
Number of employees
Grenoble and Crolles
Semiconductor manufacturing, R&D
Schneider Electric ,
Electrical equipment, R&D
Grenoble and Echirolles
Construction of heavy equipment
France , Eybens
Becton Dickinson , Pont-de-Claix
R"> The railway station and a tram (lightrail).
A comprehensive bus and tram service operates 26 bus routes and five
tram lines and serves much of greater Grenoble. Being essentially
Grenoble is also a bicycle-friendly city.
Gare de Grenoble is served by the
TGV rail network, with frequent
high-speed services (3 hours) to and from
Paris-Gare de Lyon , usually
with a stop at
Lyon Saint-Exupéry Airport . While
Grenoble is not
directly on any high-speed line, TGVs can run at reduced speeds on the
classic network and enable such connections. Local rail services
Lyon , and less frequently to
Geneva and to
destinations to the West and South. Valence and
Lyon to the west
provides connections with
TGV services along the Rhône Valley. Rail
and road connections to the south are less developed.
Grenoble can be accessed by air from Grenoble-
Isère Airport , Lyon
Saint-Exupéry Airport and
Geneva International Airport , with the
airport bus connections being most frequent to
Grenoble to the other major cities in the area
A48 autoroute to the northwest toward
Lyon , the A49 to
the southwest toward the Rhone valley via Valence , the A41 to the
Chambéry , the Alps, and
Italy and Switzerland.
A partial ring road around the south of the city, the Rocade Sud,
connects the motorway arriving from the northwest (A48) with that
arriving from the northeast (A41). A project to complete the ring
road, with a tunnel under the Bastille as part of the likely routes,
was rejected after its environmental impact studies.
Since 1 October 2014, the city of
Grenoble has been testing the
rental of seventy I-Road electric vehicles. In 2016, the speed limit
was lowered to 30 km/h (18.6 mph) in 80% of the streets of Grenoble
and forty-two neighboring municipalities, to both improve safety and
reduce pollution levels,. The limit however remains 50 km/h on the
Grenoble hosts several festivals: the Détours de Babel in March,
the Open Air Short Film Festival in early July, and the _Cabaret
Frappé _ music festival at the end of July.
The Summum is the biggest concert hall in Grenoble, and the most
famous artists produce there. Another big hall, _Le grand angle_, is
located nearby in
Voiron . Smaller halls in the city include the
_Salle Olivier Messiaen_ in the Minim Monastery .
The main cultural center of the city is called MC2 (for _Maison de la
culture, version 2_), which hosts music, theater, and dance
Conservatory of Grenoble is founded in 1935.
There are several theaters in Grenoble, the main one being Grenoble
Municipal Theatre (_Théatre de Grenoble_). Others are the _Théâtre
de Création_, the _Théâtre Prémol_, and the _Théâtre 145._
Grenoble also hosts Upstage Productions , which performs once a year
through an exclusively English speaking troupe.
There are two main art centres in Grenoble: the _Centre national
d'Art contemporain_ (also called _Le Magasin_) and the _Centre d'art
Grenoble is known for its walnuts , Noix de
Grenoble (fr) which
enjoy an _appellation_ of controlled origin .
The town also hosts a well-known comics publisher, Glénat .
PEOPLE FROM GRENOBLE
List of people from Grenoble
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in
After World War I, one street in the centre of Smederevska Palanka
(Serbia) was named French street (Francuska ulica) and one street in
Grenoble was named Palanka street(Rue de Palanka). There is also a
Belgrade Street (Rue de Belgrade) near the
TWIN TOWNS AND SISTER CITIES
Grenoble is twinned with:
Catania , Italy, since 1961
Innsbruck , Austria, since 1963
Essen , Germany, since 1976
* Halle , Germany, since 1976
Chişinău , Moldova, since 1977
Oxford , United Kingdom, since 1977
Rehovot , Israel, since 1977
* Phoenix , United States, since 1990
Pécs , Hungary, since 1992
Palestinian Authority , since 1995
Kaunas , Lithuania, since 1997
Sfax , Tunisia, since 1998
* Constantine , Algeria, since 1999
Corato , Italy, since 2002
* Sevan , Armenia, since 2009
Grenoble (west side) from la Bastille.
the Vercors ranges.
Grenoble at night from la Bastille.
Arboretum Robert Ruffier-Lanche
* Bishopric of
Couvent des Minimes de Grenoble
List of mayors of Grenoble
Saint Roch Cemetery
* INSEE commune file
* _ This article incorporates text from a publication now in the
public domain : Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Grenoble". Catholic
Encyclopedia _. New York: Robert Appleton.
* _ This article incorporates text from a publication now in the
public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "article name needed".
Encyclopædia Britannica _ (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
* ^ "Grenoble". Collins Dictionary. n.d. Retrieved 24 September
* ^ _A_ _B_ Graff, James (22 August 2004). "Secret Capitals".
_Time_. New York. Retrieved 29 October 2009.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Pentland, William (9 July 2013). "World\'s 15 Most
Inventive Cities". _Forbes_. New York. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
* ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ya5M3mJzRFA
* ^ "Insee – Populations légales 2006". Insee.fr. Retrieved 29
* ^ _Petite histoire du Dauphiné_ , Félix Vernay, 1933, p18
* ^ Louis, Jaucourt de chevalier (1757). _Grenoble_. p. 942.
* ^ "Musée Dauphinois". Metrodoc.la-metro.org. Retrieved 12 May
* ^ _Petite histoire du Dauphiné_, Félix Vernay, 1933, p. 40.
* ^ _Petite histoire du Dauphiné_, Félix Vernay, 1933, p. 9.
* ^ _Petite histoire du Dauphiné_, Félix Vernay, 1933, p. 27.
* ^ _Petite histoire du Dauphiné_, Félix Vernay, 1933, p. 32.
* ^ _Petite histoire du Dauphiné_, Félix Vernay, 1933, p. 58.
* ^ _Petite histoire du Dauphiné_, Félix Vernay, 1933, p78
* ^ _Petite Histoire du Dauphiné_ , Félix Vernay, 1933, p88
* ^ Histoire de Grenoble, Vidal Chaumel, Editions Privat,
* ^ _Petite histoire du Dauphiné_, Félix Vernay, 1933, p97
* ^ _A_ _B_ _Petite histoire du Dauphiné_ , Félix Vernay, 1933,
* ^ "Il y a 250 ans naissait Joseph Chanrion (1756-1830)" (PDF).
Union de Quartier Mutualité-Préfecture.
* ^ _Petite Histoire du Dauphiné_, Félix Vernay, 1933, p115
* ^ _Petite histoire du Dauphiné_ , Félix Vernay, 1933, p120
* ^ _L’histoire de l'
Isère en BD_, Tome 5, Gilbert Bouchard,
* ^ Grenoble, cœur de pierre, Françoise Goyet, Edi Loire, 1996,
(ISBN 2840840464 )
* ^ _L’histoire de l'
Isère en BD_, Tome 5, Gilbert Bouchard,
* ^ fr:Exposition internationale de la houille blanche#Les chiffres
* ^ _L’histoire…_, Tome 5, Gilbert Bouchard, 2004, p45
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Order of the Liberation". Web.archive.org. Archived
from the original on 20 October 2007. Retrieved 12 May 2010.
* ^ "Ordre de la Libération". Web.archive.org. 25 February 2008.
Archived from the original on 25 February 2008. Retrieved 12 May 2010.
* ^ "
Grenoble en concurrence avec Lyon". Université
Retrieved 3 May 2012.
* ^ _Petite histoire du Dauphiné_, Félix Vernay, 1933, p. 67.
* ^ "Données climatiques de la station de Grenoble" (in French).
Meteo France. Retrieved December 27, 2015.
* ^ "Climat Rhône-Alpes" (in French). Meteo France. Retrieved
December 27, 2015.
* ^ "Normes et records 1961-1990: Grenoble-St Geoirs (38) -
altitude 384m" (in French). Infoclimat. Retrieved December 27, 2015.
* ^ lametro.fr, Bouchayer-Viallet // 2005-2014. (in French)
* ^ www.atlantico.fr, Apple a choisi
Grenoble pour implanter son
laboratoire de recherche sur l\'imagerie iPhone.(in French)
* ^ lemonde.fr November 4, 2009, La caserne De Bonne, quartier
modèle et économe du centre de
Grenoble (in French)
* ^ "Bienvenue sur www.bastille-grenoble.com".
Bastille-grenoble.fr. Retrieved 2014-04-09.
* ^ isere patrimoine.fr (in French)
* ^ General Council of the department of Isere (french)
* ^ "Musée archéologique St Laurent".
Musee-archeologique-grenoble.com. Retrieved 4 April 2011.
* ^ "Tourism office - patrimoine religieux". Retrieved 14 March
* ^ "Pôles de compétitivité". Mairie de Grenoble.
* ^ "See official website". Archived from the original on 29
December 2007. Retrieved 26 May 2009. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url
status unknown (link )
* ^ drt-cea.com, GIANT, CAMPUS D\'INNOVATION À GRENOBLE (in
* ^ "La mission de la sonde Rosetta prolongée jusqu\'en septembre
2016". francetvinfo.fr. 2015-06-29. Retrieved 2015-08-30. ]
* ^ "Official website of the GIANT Innovation Campus".
Giant-grenoble.org. Retrieved 2015-08-30.
* ^ "Official website of
Grenoble École de Management".
http://en.grenoble-em.com. Retrieved 2015-08-30. External link in
publisher= (help )
* ^ "Insee – Territoire – Répartition géographique des
emplois – Les grandes villes concentrent les fonctions
intellectuelles, de gestion et de décision". Insee.fr. Retrieved 12
* ^ "Chiffres clés Grenoble-
Isère édition 2011" (PDF). AEPI.
* ^ "European Institute of Innovation and Technology: Home".
_Europa (web portal)_. Archived from the original on 28 March 2010.
Retrieved 12 May 2010.
(Archive). Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and
Technology (MEXT). Retrieved on May 10, 2014. "Ecole Complementaire de
Grenoble École Elementaire Mi-Plaine 12 Rue des Aiguinarcls 38240
* ^ greenunivers.com april 2011, L’eau d’une nappe phréatique
verdit un datacenter grenoblois (in French)
* ^ A. Doyon, Xavier Jouvin, inventeur grenoblois et sa famille,
Paris, Dayez ed., 1976
* ^ "Les entreprises récompensées". Grenoble.cci.fr. Retrieved
* ^ "Comptable à Grenoble,
Isère (38)". Comptable-grenoble.com.
Retrieved 29 October 2009.
* ^ americanschollgrenoble.com
* ^ "Grenoble, France\'s Second Largest English Speaking
Community". Retrieved 2016-07-08.
* ^ "Mentions obligatoires." Glénat . Retrieved on 1 May 2011.
"GLENAT Editions SA 37, Rue Servan BP 177 38008 GRENOBLE CEDEX 1"
Inovallée web site
* ^ The web site of the Rocade Nord lists the two preferred routes,
both of which pass under the Bastille in a long tunnel:
* ^ Place Gre\'net, Circulation in Grenoble: 50 km/h the exception,
30 km/h the rule.
* ^ Détours de Babel Festival
* ^ Annecybernard – Conception et Design Olivier Bellon,
Programmation Frederic Chatel. "Noix De
Grenoble AOC CING Comité
Interprofessionnel". Aoc-noixdegrenoble.com. Retrieved 29 October
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ _K_ _L_ _M_ _N_ _O_ _P_
Jérôme Steffenino, Marguerite Masson. "Ville de
Coopérations et villes jumelles". Grenoble.fr. Retrieved 16 May 2013.
* ^ "List of Twin Towns in the Ruhr District" (PDF). © 2009
Twins2010.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 November 2009.
Retrieved 28 October 2009. External link in publisher= (help )
* ^ "Oraşe înfrăţite (Twin cities of Minsk) __" (in Romanian).
Primăria Municipiului Chişinău. Archived from the original on 3
September 2012. Retrieved 2013-07-21.
* ^ "Oxford\'s International Twin Towns". _
Oxford City Council_.
Archived from the original on 2013-08-17. Retrieved 2013-09-03.
* ^ "British towns twinned with French towns". _Archant Community
Media Ltd_. Archived from the original on 5 July 2013. Retrieved 11
* ^ "Phoenix Sister Cities". Phoenix Sister Cities. Archived from
the original on 2013-07-24. Retrieved 2013-08-06.
See also: Bibliography of the history of
Look up GRENOBLE _ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to GRENOBLE _.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for GRENOBLE _.
Grenoble City website (in French)
Grenoble Chamber of Commerce and Industry
* Official tourism office of
Grenoble at the Wayback