The Info List - Greek Language

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GREEK ( Modern Greek
Modern Greek
: ελληνικά , _elliniká_, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα (_ listen ), ellinikí glóssa_, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean . It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B
Linear B
and the Cypriot syllabary
Cypriot syllabary
, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin
, Cyrillic
, Armenian , Coptic , Gothic and many other writing systems.

The Greek language
Greek language
holds an important place in the history of the Western world
Western world
and Christianity
; the canon of ancient Greek literature includes seminal works in the Western canon such as the epic poems _ Iliad
_ and _ Odyssey
_. Greek is also the language in which many of the foundational texts in science, especially astronomy, mathematics and logic, and Western philosophy
Western philosophy
, such as the Platonic dialogues and the works of Aristotle
, are composed; the New Testament
New Testament
of the Christian Bible
was written in Koiné Greek
Koiné Greek
. Together with the Latin texts and traditions of the Roman world
Roman world
, the study of the Greek texts and society of antiquity constitutes the discipline of Classics

During antiquity , Greek was a widely spoken lingua franca in the Mediterranean world and many places beyond. It would eventually become the official parlance of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
and develop into Medieval Greek
Medieval Greek
. In its modern form , the Greek language
Greek language
is the official language in two countries, Greece
and Cyprus, a recognised minority language in seven other countries, and is one of the 24 official languages of the European Union
European Union
. The language is spoken by at least 13.2 million people today in Greece, Cyprus, Italy, Albania, Turkey, and the Greek diaspora
Greek diaspora

Greek roots are often used to coin new words for other languages; Greek and Latin
are the predominant sources of international scientific vocabulary . Idealised portrayal of Homer


* 1 History

* 1.1 Periods * 1.2 Diglossia
* 1.3 Historical unity

* 2 Geographic distribution

* 2.1 Official status

* 3 Characteristics

* 3.1 Phonology

* 3.2 Morphology

* 3.2.1 Nouns and adjectives * 3.2.2 Verbs

* 3.3 Syntax
* 3.4 Vocabulary
* 3.5 Greek loanwords in other languages

* 4 Classification

* 5 Writing system
Writing system

* 5.1 Linear B
Linear B
* 5.2 Cypriot syllabary
Cypriot syllabary

* 5.3 Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet

* 5.3.1 Diacritics * 5.3.2 Punctuation

* 5.4 Latin

* 6 See also

* 7 References

* 7.1 Sources

* 8 Further reading

* 9 External links

* 9.1 General background * 9.2 Language learning * 9.3 Dictionaries * 9.4 Literature


Main article: History of Greek

Greek has been spoken in the Balkan peninsula since around the 3rd millennium BC, or possibly earlier. The earliest written evidence is a Linear B
Linear B
clay tablet found in Messenia
that dates to between 1450 and 1350 BC, making Greek the world's oldest recorded living language . Among the Indo-European languages, its date of earliest written attestation is matched only by the now extinct Anatolian languages
Anatolian languages


Proto-Greek -speaking area according to linguist Vladimir I. Georgiev .

The Greek language
Greek language
is conventionally divided into the following periods:

* PROTO-GREEK : the unrecorded but assumed last ancestor of all known varieties of Greek. The unity of Proto-Greek would have ended as Hellenic migrants entered the Greek peninsula sometime in the Neolithic
era or the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
. * MYCENAEAN GREEK : the language of the Mycenaean civilisation . It is recorded in the Linear B
Linear B
script on tablets dating from the 15th century BC onwards. * ANCIENT GREEK : in its various dialects , the language of the Archaic and Classical periods of the ancient Greek civilisation . It was widely known throughout the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
fell into disuse in western Europe in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, but remained officially in use in the Byzantine world and was reintroduced to the rest of Europe with the Fall of Constantinople
Fall of Constantinople
and Greek migration to western Europe. * KOINE GREEK : The fusion of Ionian with Attic , the dialect of Athens
, began the process that resulted in the creation of the first common Greek dialect, which became a lingua franca across the Eastern Mediterranean and Near East
Near East
. Koine Greek
Koine Greek
can be initially traced within the armies and conquered territories of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
and after the Hellenistic colonisation of the known world, it was spoken from Egypt
to the fringes of India
. After the Roman conquest of Greece, an unofficial bilingualism of Greek and Latin
was established in the city of Rome
and Koine Greek
Koine Greek
became a first or second language in the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. The origin of Christianity
can also be traced through Koine Greek, because the Apostles used this form of the language to spread Christianity. It is also known as HELLENISTIC GREEK, NEW TESTAMENT GREEK, and sometimes BIBLICAL GREEK because it was the original language of the New Testament
New Testament
and the Old Testament was translated into the same language via the Septuagint

_ Distribution of varieties of Greek in Anatolia
, 1910. Demotic in yellow. Pontic in orange. Cappadocian Greek
Cappadocian Greek
in green, with green dots indicating individual Cappadocian Greek
Cappadocian Greek

* MEDIEVAL GREEK , also known as BYZANTINE GREEK: the continuation of Koine Greek
Koine Greek
in Byzantine Greece
, up to the demise of the Byzantine Empire in the 15th century. Medieval Greek_ is a cover phrase for a whole continuum of different speech and writing styles, ranging from vernacular continuations of spoken Koine that were already approaching Modern Greek
Modern Greek
in many respects, to highly learned forms imitating classical Attic. Much of the written Greek that was used as the official language of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
was an eclectic middle-ground variety based on the tradition of written Koine. * MODERN GREEK (Neo-Hellenic): Stemming from Medieval Greek, Modern Greek usages can be traced in the Byzantine period, as early as the 11th century. It is the language used by the modern Greeks, and, apart from Standard Modern Greek, there are several dialects of it.


Main article: Greek language question
Greek language question

In the modern era, the Greek language
Greek language
entered a state of diglossia : the coexistence of vernacular and archaizing written forms of the language. What came to be known as the Greek language question
Greek language question
was a polarization between two competing varieties of Modern Greek
Modern Greek
: Dimotiki , the vernacular form of Modern Greek
Modern Greek
proper, and Katharevousa, meaning 'purified', a compromise between Dimotiki and Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
, which was developed in the early 19th century and was used for literary and official purposes in the newly formed Greek state. In 1976, Dimotiki was declared the official language of Greece, having incorporated features of Katharevousaand giving birth to Standard Modern Greek
Modern Greek
, which is used today for all official purposes and in education.


The distribution of major modern Greek dialect areas.

The historical unity and continuing identity between the various stages of the Greek language
Greek language
is often emphasised. Although Greek has undergone morphological and phonological changes comparable to those seen in other languages, never since classical antiquity has its cultural, literary, and orthographic tradition been interrupted to the extent that one can speak of a new language emerging. Greek speakers today still tend to regard literary works of ancient Greek as part of their own rather than a foreign language. It is also often stated that the historical changes have been relatively slight compared with some other languages. According to one estimation, " Homeric Greekis probably closer to demotic than 12-century Middle English is to modern spoken English."


Further information: Greeks
and Greek diaspora
Greek diaspora
Greek language road sign, A27 Motorway, Greece
Spread of Greek in the United States.

Greek is spoken by about 13 million people, mainly in Greece
, Albania
and Cyprus
, but also worldwide by the large Greek diaspora
Greek diaspora
. There are traditional Greek-speaking settlements and regions in the neighbouring countries of Albania
, Bulgaria
, and Turkey
, as well as in several countries in the Black Sea
Black Sea
area, such as Ukraine
, Russia
, Romania
, Georgia , Armenia
, and Azerbaijan
, and around the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
, Southern Italy
Southern Italy
, Syria
, Israel
, Egypt
, Lebanon , Libya
and ancient coastal towns along the Levant
. The language is also spoken by Greek emigrant communities in many countries in Western Europe , especially the United Kingdom and Germany, Canada, the United States, Australia
, Argentina
, Brazil
, Chile
, South Africa
South Africa
and others.


Greek is the official language of Greece, where it is spoken by almost the entire population. It is also the official language of Cyprus
(nominally alongside Turkish ). Because of the membership of Greece
and Cyprus
in the European Union, Greek is one of the organization's 24 official languages . Furthermore, Greek is officially recognised as a minority language in parts of Italy
and official in Dropull
and Himara
( Albania
) and as a minority language all over Albania
, as well as in Lebanon
, Syria
, Armenia
, Romania , and Ukraine
as a regional or minority language in the framework of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages
European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages
. Greeks
are also a recognised ethnic minority in Hungary


See also: Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
grammar , Koine Greek
Koine Greek
grammar , and Modern Greek grammar

The phonology , morphology , syntax and vocabulary of the language show both conservative and innovative tendencies across the entire attestation of the language from the ancient to the modern period. The division into conventional periods is, as with all such periodisations, relatively arbitrary, especially because at all periods, Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
has enjoyed high prestige, and the literate borrowed heavily from it.


See also: Modern Greek
Modern Greek

Across its history, the syllabic structure of Greek has varied little: Greek shows a mixed syllable structure, permitting complex syllabic onsets but very restricted codas. It has only oral vowels and a fairly stable set of consonantal contrasts. The main phonological changes occurred during the Hellenistic and Roman period (see Koine Greek phonology for details):

* replacement of the pitch accent with a stress accent . * simplification of the system of vowels and diphthongs : loss of vowel length distinction, monophthongisation of most diphthongs and several steps in a chain shift of vowels towards /i/ (iotacism ). * development of the voiceless aspirated plosives /pʰ/ and /tʰ/ to the voiceless fricatives /f/ and /θ/, respectively; the similar development of /kʰ/ to /x/ may have taken place later (the phonological changes are not reflected in the orthography, and both earlier and later phonemes are written with φ , θ , and χ ). * development of the voiced plosives /b/, /d/, and /ɡ/ to their voiced fricative counterparts /β/ (later /v/), /ð/, and /ɣ/.


In all its stages, the morphology of Greek shows an extensive set of productive derivational affixes, a limited but productive system of compounding and a rich inflectional system. Although its morphological categories have been fairly stable over time, morphological changes are present throughout, particularly in the nominal and verbal systems. The major change in the nominal morphology since the classical stage was the disuse of the dative case (its functions being largely taken over by the genitive). The verbal system has lost the infinitive, the synthetically-formed future and perfect tenses and the optative mood. Many have been replaced by periphrastic (analytical) forms.

Nouns And Adjectives

Pronouns show distinctions in person (1st, 2nd, and 3rd), number (singular, dual, and plural in the ancient language; singular and plural alone in later stages), and gender (masculine, feminine, and neuter) and decline for case (from six cases in the earliest forms attested to four in the modern language). Nouns, articles and adjectives show all the distinctions except for person. Both attributive and predicative adjectives agree with the noun.


The inflectional categories of the Greek verb have likewise remained largely the same over the course of the language's history but with significant changes in the number of distinctions within each category and their morphological expression. Greek verbs have synthetic inflectional forms for:


PERSON first, second and third also second person formal

Number singular, dual and plural singular and plural

TENSE present , past and future past and non-past (future is expressed by a periphrastic construction)

ASPECT imperfective , perfective (traditionally called _aorist _) and perfect (sometimes also called _perfective_; see note about terminology ) imperfective and perfective/aorist (perfect is expressed by a periphrastic construction)

MOOD indicative , subjunctive , imperative and optative indicative, subjunctive, and imperative (other modal functions are expressed by periphrastic constructions)

VOICE active , middle , and passive active and medio-passive


Many aspects of the syntax of Greek have remained constant: verbs agree with their subject only, the use of the surviving cases is largely intact (nominative for subjects and predicates, accusative for objects of most verbs and many prepositions, genitive for possessors), articles precede nouns, adpositions are largely prepositional, relative clauses follow the noun they modify and relative pronouns are clause-initial. However, the morphological changes also have their counterparts in the syntax, and there are also significant differences between the syntax of the ancient and that of the modern form of the language . Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
made great use of participial constructions and of constructions involving the infinitive, and the modern variety lacks the infinitive entirely (instead having a raft of new periphrastic constructions) and uses participles more restrictively. The loss of the dative led to a rise of prepositional indirect objects (and the use of the genitive to directly mark these as well). Ancient Greek tended to be verb-final, but neutral word order in the modern language is VSO or SVO.


Greek is a language distinguished by an extensive vocabulary . Most of the vocabulary of Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
was inherited, but it includes a number of borrowings from the languages of the populations that inhabited Greece
before the arrival of Proto-Greeks. Words of non-Indo-European origin can be traced into Greek from as early as Mycenaean times; they include a large number of Greek toponyms . The vast majority of Modern Greek
Modern Greek
vocabulary is directly inherited from Ancient Greek, but in some cases, words have changed meanings. Loanwords (words of foreign origin) have entered the language mainly from Latin
, Venetian and Turkish . During the older periods of Greek, loanwords into Greek acquired Greek inflections, thus leaving only a foreign root word. Modern borrowings (from the 20th century on), especially from French and English , are typically not inflected.


For more details on this topic, see Greek and Latin
roots in English .

Greek words have been widely borrowed into other languages, including English: _mathematics _, _physics _, _astronomy _, _democracy _, _philosophy _, _athletics, theatre , rhetoric _, _baptism _, _evangelist_, etc. Moreover, Greek words and word elements continue to be productive as a basis for coinages: _anthropology _, _photography _, _telephony _, _isomer _, _biomechanics _, _cinematography _, etc. and form, with Latin
words , the foundation of international scientific and technical vocabulary like all words ending with _–logy_ ("discourse"). There are many English words of Greek origin .


Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European language family . The ancient language most closely related to it may be ancient Macedonian , which many scholars suggest may have been a dialect of Greek itself, but it is so poorly attested that it is difficult to conclude anything about it. Independently of the Macedonian question, some scholars have grouped Greek into Graeco-Phrygian, as Greek and the extinct Phrygian share features that are not found in other Indo-European languages. Among living languages, some Indo-Europeanists suggest that Greek may be most closely related to Armenian (see Graeco-Armenian
) or the Indo-Iranian languages
Indo-Iranian languages
(see Graeco-Aryan
), but little definitive evidence has been found for grouping the living branches of the family. In addition, Albanian has also been considered somewhat related to Greek and Armenian by some linguists. If proven and recognised, the three languages would form a new Balkan sub-branch with other dead European languages.



Αα Alpha
Νν Nu

Ββ Beta
Ξξ Xi

Γγ Gamma
Οο Omicron

Δδ Delta Ππ Pi

Εε Epsilon
Ρρ Rho

Ζζ Zeta
Σσς Sigma

Ηη Eta
Ττ Tau

Θθ Theta
Υυ Upsilon

Ιι Iota
Φφ Phi

Κκ Kappa
Χχ Chi

Λλ Lambda
Ψψ Psi

Μμ Mu Ωω Omega


Archaic local variants

* * * * * *

* Diacritics * Ligatures


* ϛ (6) * ϟ (90) * ϡ (900)


* Bactrian * Coptic * Albanian


* Use as scientific symbols

* Book
* Category

* Commons

* v * t * e

See also: Greek Braille


Main article: Linear B
Linear B

Linear B
Linear B
, attested as early as the late 15th century BC, was the first script used to write Greek. It is basically a syllabary , which was finally deciphered by Michael Ventris
Michael Ventris
and John Chadwickin the 1950s (its precursor, Linear A
Linear A
, has not been deciphered to this day). The language of the Linear B
Linear B
texts, Mycenaean Greek
Mycenaean Greek
, is the earliest known form of Greek.


Main article: Cypriot syllabary
Cypriot syllabary

Another similar system used to write the Greek language
Greek language
was the Cypriot syllabary
Cypriot syllabary
(also a descendant of Linear A
Linear A
via the intermediate Cypro-Minoan syllabary
Cypro-Minoan syllabary
), which is closely related to Linear B
Linear B
but uses somewhat different syllabic conventions to represent phoneme sequences. The Cypriot syllabary
Cypriot syllabary
is attested in Cyprus
from the 11th century BC until its gradual abandonment in the late Classical period, in favor of the standard Greek alphabet.


Main articles: Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
and Greek orthography Ancient epichoric variants of the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
from Euboea
, Ionia
, Athens , and Corinth comparing to modern Greek.

Greek has been written in the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
since approximately the 9th century BC. It was created by modifying the Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
, with the innovation of adopting certain letters to represent the vowels . The variant of the alphabet in use today is essentially the late Ionic variant, introduced for writing classical Attic in 403 BC. In classical Greek, as in classical Latin, only upper-case letters existed. The lower-case Greek letters were developed much later by medieval scribes to permit a faster, more convenient cursive writing style with the use of ink and quill .

The Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
consists of 24 letters, each with an uppercase (majuscule ) and lowercase (minuscule ) form. The letter sigma has an additional lowercase form (ς) used in the final position:




α β γ δ ε ζ η θ ι κ λ μ ν ξ ο π ρ σ ς τ υ φ χ ψ ω


Main article: Greek diacritics
Greek diacritics

In addition to the letters, the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
features a number of diacritical signs : three different accent marks (acute , grave , and circumflex ), originally denoting different shapes of pitch accent on the stressed vowel; the so-called breathing marks (rough and smooth breathing ), originally used to signal presence or absence of word-initial /h/; and the diaeresis , used to mark full syllabic value of a vowel that would otherwise be read as part of a diphthong. These marks were introduced during the course of the Hellenistic period. Actual usage of the grave in handwriting saw a rapid decline in favor of uniform usage of the acute during the late 20th century, and it has only been retained in typography .

After the writing reform of 1982, most diacritics are no longer used. Since then, Greek has been written mostly in the simplified monotonic orthography (or monotonic system), which employs only the acute accent and the diaeresis. The traditional system, now called the polytonic orthography (or polytonic system), is still used internationally for the writing of Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek


In Greek, the question mark is written as the English semicolon, while the functions of the colon and semicolon are performed by a raised point (•), known as the _ano teleia _ (άνω τελεία). In Greek the comma also functions as a silent letter in a handful of Greek words, principally distinguishing ό,τι (_ó,ti_, "whatever") from ότι (_óti_, "that").


Greek has occasionally been written in the Latin script
Latin script
, especially in areas under Venetian rule or by Greek Catholics . The term _Frankolevantinika_ / Φραγκολεβαντίνικα applies when the Latin script
Latin script
is used to write Greek in the cultural ambit of Catholicism (because _Frankos_ / Φράγκος is an older Greek term for _Roman Catholic_). _Frankochiotika_ / Φραγκοχιώτικα (meaning "Catholic Chiot") alludes to the significant presence of Catholic missionaries based on the island of Chios
. Additionally the term Greeklishis often used when the Greek language
Greek language
is written in a Latin script
Latin script
in online communications.


* Greece
portal * Language portal

* Modern Greek
Modern Greek
* Varieties of Modern Greek
Modern Greek
* Medieval Greek
Medieval Greek
* Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
* Hellenic languages * List of Greek and Latin
roots in English * List of medical roots, suffixes and prefixes


* ^ Greek at _ Ethnologue_ (18th ed., 2015) Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
at _ Ethnologue_ (18th ed., 2015) Cappadocian Greek
Cappadocian Greek
at _ Ethnologue_ (18th ed., 2015) Mycenaean Greek
Mycenaean Greek
at _ Ethnologue_ (18th ed., 2015) Pontic at _ Ethnologue_ (18th ed., 2015) Tsakonian at _ Ethnologue_ (18th ed., 2015) (Additional references under 'Language codes' in the information box) * ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Greek". _ Glottolog2.7 _. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. * ^ "Greek language". _ Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
_. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 29 April 2014. * ^ Renfrew 2003 , p. 35; Georgiev 1981 , p. 192. * ^ Gray Atkinson & Gray 2006 , p. 102. * ^ "Ancient Tablet Found: Oldest Readable Writing in Europe". National Geographic Society
National Geographic Society
. 30 March 2011. Retrieved 22 November 2013. * ^ A comprehensive overview in J.T. Hooker's _Mycenaean Greece_ (Hooker 1976 , Chapter 2: "Before the Mycenaean Age", pp. 11–33 and passim); for a different hypothesis excluding massive migrations and favoring an autochthonous scenario, see Colin Renfrew's "Problems in the General Correlation of Archaeological and Linguistic Strata in Prehistoric Greece: The Model of Autochthonous Origin" (Renfrew 1973 , pp. 263–276, especially p. 267) in _ Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Migrations_ by R.A. Crossland and A. Birchall, eds. (1973). * ^ Dawkins & Halliday 1916 . * ^ Ethnologue * ^ Browning 1983 . * ^ Alexiou 1982 , pp. 156–192. * ^ "Greece". _ The World Factbook
The World Factbook
_. Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency
. Retrieved 23 January 2010. * ^ "The Constitution of Cyprus, App. D., Part 1, Art. 3". Archived from the original on 7 April 2012. states that _The official languages of the Republic are Greek and Turkish_. However, the official status of Turkish is only nominal in the Greek-dominated Republic of Cyprus; in practice, outside Turkish-dominated Northern Cyprus
, Turkish is little used; see A. Arvaniti (2006): Erasure as a Means of Maintaining Diglossia
in Cyprus, _San Diego Linguistics Papers_ 2: pp. 25–38, page 27. * ^ "The EU at a Glance – Languages in the EU". _Europa _. European Union
European Union
. Retrieved 30 July 2010. * ^ "Greek". Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. Archived from the original on 18 November 2008. Retrieved 8 December 2008. * ^ "List of Declarations Made with Respect to Treaty No. 148". Council of Europe
Council of Europe
. Retrieved 8 December 2008. * ^ Ralli 2001 , pp. 164–203. * ^ The four cases that are found in all stages of Greek are the nominative, genitive, accusative and vocative. The dative/locative of Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
disappeared in the late Hellenistic period, and the instrumental case of Mycenaean Greek
Mycenaean Greek
disappeared in the Archaic period. * ^ There is no particular morphological form that can be identified as 'subjunctive' in the modern language, but the term is sometimes encountered in descriptions even if the most complete modern grammar (Holton et al. 1997) does not use it and calls certain traditionally-'subjunctive' forms 'dependent'. Most Greek linguists advocate abandoning the traditional terminology (Anna Roussou and Tasos Tsangalidis 2009, in _Meletes gia tin Elliniki Glossa_, Thessaloniki, Anastasia Giannakidou 2009 "Temporal semantics and polarity: The dependency of the subjunctive revisited", Lingua); see Modern Greek
Modern Greek
grammar for explanation. * ^ Beekes 2009 . * ^ Scheler 1977 . * ^ Hamp 2013 , pp. 8–10, 13. * ^ Babiniotis 1992 , pp. 29–40; Dosuna 2012 , pp. 65–78. * ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Graeco-Phrygian". _ Glottolog2.7 _. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. * ^ Renfrew 1990 ; Gamkrelidze Renfrew 2003 , pp. 17–48; Gray & Atkinson 2003 , pp. 435–439. * ^ Holm 2008 , pp. 628–636. * ^ Nicolas, Nick (2005). "Greek Unicode
Issues: Punctuation". Archived from the original on 6 August 2012. Retrieved 7 October 2014.

* ^ Androutsopoulos 2009 , pp. 221–249.


* Alexiou, Margaret (1982). " Diglossia
in Greece". In Haas, William. _Standard Languages: Spoken and Written_. Manchester: Manchester University Press. pp. 156–192. ISBN 978-0-389-20291-2 . * Androutsopoulos, Jannis (2009). "'Greeklish': Transliteration Practice and Discourse in a Setting of Computer-Mediated Digraphia". In Georgakopoulou, Alexandra; Silk, Michael. _Standard Languages and Language Standards: Greek, Past and Present_ (PDF). Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing Limited. pp. 221–249. * Atkinson, Quentin D.; Gray, Russel D. (2006). "Chapter 8: How Old is the Indo-European Language Family? Illumination or More Moths to the Flame?". In Forster, Peter; Renfrew, Colin. _Phylogenetic Methods and the Prehistory of Languages_. Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research. pp. 91–109. ISBN 978-1-902937-33-5 . * Babiniotis, George (1992). "The Question of Mediae in Ancient Macedonian Greek Reconsidered". In Brogyanyi, Bela; Lipp, Reiner. _Historical Philology: Greek, Latin
and Romance_. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. pp. 29–40. * Beekes, Robert Stephen Paul (2009). _Etymological Dictionary of Greek_. Leiden and Boston: Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-17418-4 . * Browning, Robert (1983) . _Medieval and Modern Greek_. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-23488-3 . * Dawkins, Richard McGillivray; Halliday, William Reginald (1916). _ Modern Greek
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