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The GREAT HUNGARIAN PLAIN (also known as _Alföld_ or _Great Alföld_, Hungarian : _Alföld, Nagy Alföld_) is a plain occupying the southern and eastern part of Hungary
Hungary
, some parts of the Eastern Slovak Lowland (_Východoslovenská nížina_), southwestern Ukraine
Ukraine
, the Transcarpathian Lowland (_Zakarpats'ka nyzovyna_), western Romania (various names), northern Serbia
Serbia
(various names), and eastern Croatia (various names). It is the largest part of the Pannonian Plain .

In Hungarian , the plain is known as _Alföld_ , in Slovak as _Veľká dunajská kotlina_, in Romanian as _Câmpia Tisei_ or _Câmpia de Vest_, in Croatian as _Panonska nizina_, in Serbian as _Panonska nizija_, and in Ukrainian as _Тисо-Дунайська низовина_. Alföld

CONTENTS

* 1 Boundaries

* 2 Geography

* 2.1 Plain in Hungary
Hungary
* 2.2 Plain in Serbia
Serbia
* 2.3 Plain in Croatia
Croatia
* 2.4 Plain in Slovakia * 2.5 Plain in Ukraine
Ukraine
* 2.6 Plain in Romania
Romania

* 3 Prehistoric culture * 4 Genomic analysis of prehistoric populations * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links

BOUNDARIES

Hydrography of the Pannonian basin
Pannonian basin
before the river and lake regulations in the 19th century. Wells in the Hortobágy National Park Puszta, with a stable

Its boundaries are the Carpathians in the north and east, the Transdanubian Mountains and Croatian mountains in the southwest, and approximately the Sava
Sava
river in the south.

GEOGRAPHY

PLAIN IN HUNGARY

The territory of the GHP in Hungary.

Its territory is 52,000 km² within Hungary, which includes approximately 56% of the total (93,000 km²). The highest point of the plain is Hoportyó (183 m), and the lowest point is the Tisza
Tisza
River. The terrain ranges from flat to rolling plains.

The most important Hungarian writers inspired by and associated with the plain are Ferenc Móra and Zsigmond Móricz , as well as the poets Sándor Petőfi
Sándor Petőfi
and Gyula Juhász .

Hungarian scientists born on the plain include Zoltán Bay , physicist; János Irinyi , chemist, inventor of the noiseless match; János Kabay , pharmacologist; Gábor Kátai , physician and pharmacist; and Frigyes Korányi , physician and pulmonologist.

The most important river of the plain is Tisza
Tisza
.

The notable cities and towns with medicinal baths are Berekfürdő , Cserkeszőlő , Gyula , Hajdúszoboszló , Szentes and Szolnok .

Among the cultural festivals and programmes characteristic of the region are the _Csángófesztivál_ ( Csángó Festival) in Jászberény , the _Cseresznyefesztivál_ (Sweet Cherry
Cherry
Festival) in Nagykörű , the _Gulyásfesztivál_ ( Goulash Festival) in Szolnok , the _Hídi Vásár_ (Bridge Fair) in Hortobágy National Park , the _Hunniális_ at Ópusztaszer , the _Szabadtéri Játékok_ (Open-air Games) in Szeged
Szeged
, the _Várjátékok_ (Castle Games) in Gyula , the _Virágkarnevál_ (Flower Carnival) in Debrecen and the _Bajai Halászléfőző Népünnepély_ (Fisherman's Soup Boiling Festival) in Baja . _ A farm in Great Hungarian Plain, 19th century, by Géza Mészöly Hortobágy National Park on the Great Hungarian Plain with Racka
Racka
_ sheep

The part of the plain located in Hungary
Hungary
comprises the following areas:

* Mezőföld * Sárrét * Sárköz * Drávamellék * Kiskunság * Jászság * Pest Plain * Heves Plain * Borsodi-Mezőség * Bodrogköz * Tiszahát * Szatmár Plain * Maros-Körös köze * Körös-vidék * Nagykunság * Hortobágy National Park * Hajdúság * Nyírség

PLAIN IN SERBIA

The term is being used in Serbia
Serbia
to denote Hungarian portion of the Pannonian plain .

Pannonian plain in Serbia
Serbia
is mostly divided into 3 large geographical areas: Bačka , Banat and Srem ( Syrmia ), most of which are located in the Vojvodina province.

PLAIN IN CROATIA

The term is rarely used in Croatia, and is usually associated with the geography of Hungary.

Parts of Pannonian Croatia
Croatia
can be considered an extension of _Alföld_, particularly eastern Slavonia and the connected parts of Syrmia .

PLAIN IN SLOVAKIA

Part of the plain located in Slovakia is known as Eastern Slovak Lowland .

PLAIN IN UKRAINE

Part of the plain located in Ukraine
Ukraine
is known as Transcarpathian Lowland .

PLAIN IN ROMANIA

In Romania, the plain (Rom. câmp or câmpia, from Lat. campus) includes various regions like Banat and Crişana . Here, its name is Câmpia de Vest (The Western Plain).

PREHISTORIC CULTURE

During the prehistoric era, the Great Hungarian Plain
Great Hungarian Plain
was a place of cultural and technological changes, as well as an important meeting point of cultures of Eastern and Western Europe. It is a region of great archaeological importance to major European cultural transitions.

Agriculture
Agriculture
began in the Great Hungarian Plain
Great Hungarian Plain
with the Early Neolithic
Neolithic
Körös culture , located in present-day Serbia, 6.000-5.500 B.C.E. followed 5.500 B.C.E. by the Linear Pottery culture (LBK) which later became the dominant agricultural culture of Europe. The LBK was followed by the Lengyel culture in the Late Neolithic 5000-3400 BC.

During the Early Bronze Age
Bronze Age
(2.800 - 1.800 BC), the growing demand for metal ores in Europe resulted in the new pan-European and intercontinental trade networks. During that period cultures of the Great Hungarian Plain
Great Hungarian Plain
incorporated many elements from the other cultures of Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Near Eastern, Steppe and Central Europe

During the early Iron Age
Iron Age
(first millennium BC), a variant of the Central European Hallstatt culture inhabited Transdanubia
Transdanubia
, while pre- Scythian
Scythian
and later Scythian
Scythian
cultures were found in the eastern region of the Great Hungarian Plain.

GENOMIC ANALYSIS OF PREHISTORIC POPULATIONS

In 2014, a major study of DNA from burials in the Great Hungarian Plain was published. The 5,000-year record indicated significant genomic shifts at the beginning of the Neolithic, Bronze and Iron Ages, with periods of stability in between. The earliest Neolithic genome was similar to other European hunter-gatherers and surprisingly there was no evidence of lactase persistence at that period. The most recent samples, from the Iron Age, showed an eastern genomic influence contemporary with introduced Steppe burial rites. There was also a transition towards lighter pigmentation.

SEE ALSO

* Little Hungarian Plain * Eurasian Steppe * Steppe Route * Pannonian Basin
Pannonian Basin
* Vienna Basin
Vienna Basin
* Puszta
Puszta

REFERENCES

* ^ Gábor Gercsák (2002). "Hungarian geographical names in English language publications" (PDF). _Studia Cartologica_. Eötvös Loránd University . Retrieved 30 April 2011. * ^ Gábor Gercsák (2005). "Magyar tájnevek angol fordítása" (PDF). _Fasciculi Linguistici / Series Lexicographica_ (in Hungarian). Eötvös Loránd University . Retrieved 30 April 2011. * ^ Heršak, Emil; Nikšić, Boris (September 2007). "Hrvatska etnogeneza: pregled komponentnih etapa i interpretacija (s naglaskom na euroazijske/nomadske sadržaje)" . _Migration and Ethnic Themes_ (in Croatian). Zagreb: Institute for Migration and Ethnic Studies. 23 (3): 255. ISSN 1848-9184 . U velikoj mađarskoj nizini Alföld zapadno od Karpata tradicionalno su se smještale euroazijske nomadske skupine, a dio panonske Hrvatske može se smatrati ekstenzijom tog područja, osobito istočna Slavonija i s njome povezani dijelovi Srijema. * ^ Milisauskas, S. (2011). _European Prehistory: a Survey_. Springer. * ^ Whittle, A. (1996). _Europe in the Neolithic: the Creation of New Worlds_. Cambridge University Press. * ^ Kalicz, N.; Makkay, J. (1977). _Die Linienbandkeramik in der Großen Ungarischen_. Akadémiai Kiadó. * ^ Sherratt, A. (1997). _Economy and Society in Prehistoric Europe. Changing Perspectives_. Edinburgh University Press. * ^ Oross, K.; Bánffy, E. (2009). "Three successive waves of Neolithisation: LBK development in Transdanubia". _Doc. Praehist_. 36: 175–189. * ^ McIntosh, J. (2009). _Handbook to Life in Prehistoric Europe_. Oxford University Press. * ^ Gamba, Cristina; Jones, Eppie R.; Teasdale, Matthew D.; McLaughlin, Russell L.; Gonzalez-Fortes, Gloria; Mattiangeli, Valeria; Domboróczki, László; Kővári, Ivett; Pap, Ildikó; Anders, Alexandra; Whittle, Alasdair; Dani, János; Raczky, Pál; Higham, Thomas F. G.; Hofreiter, Michael; Bradley, Daniel G.; Pinhasi, Ron (2014). "Genome flux and stasis in a five millennium transect of European prehistory". _Nature Communications_. 5: 5257. ISSN 2041-1723 . doi :10.1038/ncomms6257 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to GREAT HUNGARIAN PLAIN _.

* Great Hungarian Plain
Great Hungarian Plain
travel guide from Wikivoyage * Körös Regional

.