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The GREAT HUNGARIAN PLAIN (also known as Alföld or Great Alföld, Hungarian : Alföld, Nagy Alföld) is a plain occupying the southern and eastern part of Hungary
Hungary
, some parts of the Eastern Slovak Lowland (Východoslovenská nížina), southwestern Ukraine
Ukraine
, the Transcarpathian Lowland (Zakarpats'ka nyzovyna), western Romania (various names), northern Serbia
Serbia
(various names), and eastern Croatia (various names). It is the largest part of the Pannonian Plain .

In Hungarian , the plain is known as Alföld , in Slovak as Veľká dunajská kotlina, in Romanian as Câmpia Tisei or Câmpia de Vest, in Croatian as Panonska nizina, in Serbian as Panonska nizija, and in Ukrainian as Тисо-Дунайська низовина. Alföld

CONTENTS

* 1 Boundaries

* 2 Geography

* 2.1 Plain in Hungary
Hungary
* 2.2 Plain in Serbia
Serbia
* 2.3 Plain in Croatia
Croatia
* 2.4 Plain in Slovakia * 2.5 Plain in Ukraine
Ukraine
* 2.6 Plain in Romania
Romania

* 3 Prehistoric culture * 4 Genomic analysis of prehistoric populations * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links

BOUNDARIES

Hydrography of the Pannonian basin
Pannonian basin
before the river and lake regulations in the 19th century. Wells in the Hortobágy National Park Puszta, with a stable

Its boundaries are the Carpathians in the north and east, the Transdanubian Mountains and Croatian mountains in the southwest, and approximately the Sava
Sava
river in the south.

GEOGRAPHY

PLAIN IN HUNGARY

The territory of the GHP in Hungary.

Its territory is 52,000 km² within Hungary, which includes approximately 56% of the total (93,000 km²). The highest point of the plain is Hoportyó (183 m), and the lowest point is the Tisza
Tisza
River. The terrain ranges from flat to rolling plains.

The most important Hungarian writers inspired by and associated with the plain are Ferenc Móra and Zsigmond Móricz , as well as the poets Sándor Petőfi
Sándor Petőfi
and Gyula Juhász .

Hungarian scientists born on the plain include Zoltán Bay , physicist; János Irinyi
János Irinyi
, chemist, inventor of the noiseless match; János Kabay , pharmacologist; Gábor Kátai , physician and pharmacist; and Frigyes Korányi , physician and pulmonologist.

The most important river of the plain is Tisza
Tisza
.

The notable cities and towns with medicinal baths are Berekfürdő , Cserkeszőlő , Gyula , Hajdúszoboszló , Szentes
Szentes
and Szolnok
Szolnok
.

Among the cultural festivals and programmes characteristic of the region are the Csángófesztivál ( Csángó Festival) in Jászberény , the Cseresznyefesztivál (Sweet Cherry
Cherry
Festival) in Nagykörű , the Gulyásfesztivál ( Goulash Festival) in Szolnok
Szolnok
, the Hídi Vásár (Bridge Fair) in Hortobágy National Park
Hortobágy National Park
, the Hunniális at Ópusztaszer , the Szabadtéri Játékok (Open-air Games) in Szeged
Szeged
, the Várjátékok (Castle Games) in Gyula , the Virágkarnevál (Flower Carnival) in Debrecen
Debrecen
and the Bajai Halászléfőző Népünnepély (Fisherman's Soup Boiling Festival) in Baja . A farm in Great Hungarian Plain, 19th century, by Géza Mészöly Hortobágy National Park
Hortobágy National Park
on the Great Hungarian Plain
Great Hungarian Plain
with Racka
Racka
sheep

The part of the plain located in Hungary
Hungary
comprises the following areas:

* Mezőföld * Sárrét * Sárköz * Drávamellék * Kiskunság * Jászság * Pest Plain * Heves Plain * Borsodi-Mezőség * Bodrogköz * Tiszahát * Szatmár Plain * Maros-Körös köze * Körös-vidék * Nagykunság * Hortobágy National Park
Hortobágy National Park
* Hajdúság * Nyírség

PLAIN IN SERBIA

The term is being used in Serbia
Serbia
to denote Hungarian portion of the Pannonian plain .

Pannonian plain in Serbia
Serbia
is mostly divided into 3 large geographical areas: Bačka , Banat
Banat
and Srem
Srem
( Syrmia
Syrmia
), most of which are located in the Vojvodina
Vojvodina
province.

PLAIN IN CROATIA

The term is rarely used in Croatia, and is usually associated with the geography of Hungary.

Parts of Pannonian Croatia
Croatia
can be considered an extension of Alföld, particularly eastern Slavonia
Slavonia
and the connected parts of Syrmia
Syrmia
.

PLAIN IN SLOVAKIA

Part of the plain located in Slovakia is known as Eastern Slovak Lowland .

PLAIN IN UKRAINE

Part of the plain located in Ukraine
Ukraine
is known as Transcarpathian Lowland .

PLAIN IN ROMANIA

In Romania, the plain (Rom. câmp or câmpia, from Lat. campus) includes various regions like Banat
Banat
and Crişana
Crişana
. Here, its name is Câmpia de Vest (The Western Plain).

PREHISTORIC CULTURE

During the prehistoric era, the Great Hungarian Plain
Great Hungarian Plain
was a place of cultural and technological changes, as well as an important meeting point of cultures of Eastern and Western Europe. It is a region of great archaeological importance to major European cultural transitions.

Agriculture
Agriculture
began in the Great Hungarian Plain
Great Hungarian Plain
with the Early Neolithic
Neolithic
Körös culture , located in present-day Serbia, 6.000-5.500 B.C.E. followed 5.500 B.C.E. by the Linear Pottery culture (LBK) which later became the dominant agricultural culture of Europe. The LBK was followed by the Lengyel culture in the Late Neolithic 5000-3400 BC.

During the Early Bronze Age
Bronze Age
(2.800 - 1.800 BC), the growing demand for metal ores in Europe resulted in the new pan-European and intercontinental trade networks. During that period cultures of the Great Hungarian Plain
Great Hungarian Plain
incorporated many elements from the other cultures of Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Near Eastern, Steppe and Central Europe

During the early Iron Age
Iron Age
(first millennium BC), a variant of the Central European Hallstatt culture
Hallstatt culture
inhabited Transdanubia
Transdanubia
, while pre- Scythian and later Scythian cultures were found in the eastern region of the Great Hungarian Plain.

GENOMIC ANALYSIS OF PREHISTORIC POPULATIONS

In 2014, a major study of DNA from burials in the Great Hungarian Plain was published. The 5,000-year record indicated significant genomic shifts at the beginning of the Neolithic, Bronze and Iron Ages, with periods of stability in between. The earliest Neolithic genome was similar to other European hunter-gatherers and surprisingly there was no evidence of lactase persistence at that period. The most recent samples, from the Iron Age, showed an eastern genomic influence contemporary with introduced Steppe burial rites. There was also a transition towards lighter pigmentation.

SEE ALSO

* Little Hungarian Plain
Little Hungarian Plain
* Eurasian Steppe
Eurasian Steppe
* Steppe Route * Pannonian Basin
Pannonian Basin
* Vienna Basin * Puszta
Puszta

REFERENCES

* ^ Gábor Gercsák (2002). "Hungarian geographical names in English language publications" (PDF). Studia Cartologica. Eötvös Loránd University . Retrieved 30 April 2011. * ^ Gábor Gercsák (2005). "Magyar tájnevek angol fordítása" (PDF). Fasciculi Linguistici / Series Lexicographica (in Hungarian). Eötvös Loránd University
Eötvös Loránd University
. Retrieved 30 April 2011. * ^ Heršak, Emil; Nikšić, Boris (September 2007). "Hrvatska etnogeneza: pregled komponentnih etapa i interpretacija (s naglaskom na euroazijske/nomadske sadržaje)" . Migration and Ethnic Themes (in Croatian). Zagreb: Institute for Migration and Ethnic Studies. 23 (3): 255. ISSN 1848-9184 . U velikoj mađarskoj nizini Alföld zapadno od Karpata tradicionalno su se smještale euroazijske nomadske skupine, a dio panonske Hrvatske može se smatrati ekstenzijom tog područja, osobito istočna Slavonija i s njome povezani dijelovi Srijema. * ^ Milisauskas, S. (2011). European Prehistory: a Survey. Springer. * ^ Whittle, A. (1996). Europe in the Neolithic: the Creation of New Worlds. Cambridge University Press. * ^ Kalicz, N.; Makkay, J. (1977). Die Linienbandkeramik in der Großen Ungarischen. Akadémiai Kiadó. * ^ Sherratt, A. (1997). Economy and Society in Prehistoric Europe. Changing Perspectives. Edinburgh University Press. * ^ Oross, K.; Bánffy, E. (2009). "Three successive waves of Neolithisation: LBK development in Transdanubia". Doc. Praehist. 36: 175–189. * ^ McIntosh, J. (2009). Handbook to Life in Prehistoric Europe. Oxford University Press. * ^ Gamba, Cristina; Jones, Eppie R.; Teasdale, Matthew D.; McLaughlin, Russell L.; Gonzalez-Fortes, Gloria; Mattiangeli, Valeria; Domboróczki, László; Kővári, Ivett; Pap, Ildikó; Anders, Alexandra; Whittle, Alasdair; Dani, János; Raczky, Pál; Higham, Thomas F. G.; Hofreiter, Michael; Bradley, Daniel G.; Pinhasi, Ron (2014). "Genome flux and stasis in a five millennium transect of European prehistory". Nature Communications. 5: 5257. ISSN 2041-1723 . doi :10.1038/ncomms6257 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikimedia Commons has media related to GREAT HUNGARIAN PLAIN .

* Great Hungarian Plain
Great Hungarian Plain
travel guide from Wikivoyage * Körös Regional

.