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Graz
Graz
(German pronunciation: [ˈɡʁaːt͡s]) is the capital of Styria and the second-largest city in Austria
Austria
after Vienna. On 1 January 2018, it had a population of 325,021 (of which 289,440 had principal residence status).[2] In 2015, the population of the Graz
Graz
larger urban zone who had principal residence status stood at 633,168.[3] Graz
Graz
has a long tradition as seat of universities: its six universities have almost 60,000 students. Its historic centre is one of the best-preserved city centres in Central Europe.[4] For centuries, Graz
Graz
(Slovene: Gradec) was more important to Slovenes, both politically and culturally, than the capital of Slovenia, Ljubljana, and it remains influential to this day.[5] In 1999, Graz
Graz
was added to the UNESCO
UNESCO
list of World Cultural Heritage Sites, and the site was extended in 2010 with Eggenberg Palace (German: Schloss Eggenberg). Graz
Graz
was sole Cultural Capital of Europe for 2003 and got the title of a City of Culinary Delights in 2008.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Geography

2.1 Neighbouring municipalities 2.2 Districts

3 History 4 Population development 5 Climate 6 Slovenes
Slovenes
and Graz 7 Main sights

7.1 Old Town 7.2 Outside the Old Town 7.3 Greater Graz
Graz
area

8 Culture

8.1 Museums 8.2 Architecture 8.3 Sports 8.4 Styriarte

9 Transport 10 Health 11 International relations

11.1 Twin towns and sister cities

12 Notable residents 13 See also 14 References 15 Further reading 16 External links

Etymology[edit] The name of the city, Graz, formerly spelled Gratz,[6] most likely stems from the Slavic gradec, "small castle". Some archaeological finds point to the erection of a small castle by Alpine Slavic people, which over time became a heavily defended fortification.[citation needed] In literary Slovene, gradec still means "small castle", forming a hypocoristic derivative of Proto-West-South Slavic *gradьcъ, whichs descends via liquid metathesis from Common Slavic *gardьcъ and via the Slavic third palatalisation from Proto-Slavic *gardiku, originally denoting "small town, settlement". The name thus follows the common South Slavic pattern for naming settlements as grad. The German name 'Graz' first appears in records in 1128. Geography[edit]

Aerial photography showing the historic city center of Graz

Graz
Graz
is situated on the Mur river in southeast Austria. It is about 200 km (120 mi) southwest of Vienna. The nearest larger urban centre is Maribor
Maribor
in Slovenia
Slovenia
which is about 50 km (31 mi) away. Graz
Graz
is the capital and largest city in Styria, a green and heavily forested area. Neighbouring municipalities[edit] These towns and villages border Graz:

to the north: Gratkorn, Stattegg, Weinitzen to the east: Kainbach bei Graz, Hart bei Graz, Raaba to the south: Gössendorf, Feldkirchen bei Graz, Seiersberg to the west: Attendorf, Thal, Judendorf-Straßengel

Districts[edit] The city of Graz
Graz
is divided into 17 districts:

I. Innere Stadt
Innere Stadt
(3,389) II. St. Leonhard (16,122) III. Geidorf
Geidorf
(25,168) IV. Lend (31,753) V. Gries (29,308) VI. Jakomini
Jakomini
(33,554) VII. Liebenau (14,562) VIII. St. Peter (15,291) IX. Waltendorf
Waltendorf
(12,066)

X. Ries (5,886) XI. Mariatrost
Mariatrost
(9,737) XII. Andritz (19,129) XIII. Gösting
Gösting
(11,309) XIV. Eggenberg (20,801) XV. Wetzelsdorf
Wetzelsdorf
(15,779) XVI. Straßgang
Straßgang
(16,341) XVII. Puntigam
Puntigam
(8,745)

History[edit] See also: Timeline of Graz

Graz, Georg Matthäus Vischer (1670)

Graz,1830 – Lith. J.F. Kaiser

Neutor in 1883

University of Graz

The oldest settlement on the ground of the modern city of Graz
Graz
dates back to the Copper Age. However, no historical continuity exists of a settlement before the Middle Ages. During the 12th century, dukes under Babenberg
Babenberg
rule made the town into an important commercial center. Later, Graz
Graz
came under the rule of the Habsburgs, and in 1281, gained special privileges from King Rudolph I. In the 14th century, Graz
Graz
became the city of residence of the Inner Austrian line of the Habsburgs. The royalty lived in the Schlossberg castle and from there ruled Styria, Carinthia, most of today's Slovenia, and parts of Italy
Italy
(Carniola, Gorizia and Gradisca, Trieste). In the 16th century, the city's design and planning were primarily controlled by Italian Renaissance architects and artists. One of the most famous buildings built in this style is the Landhaus, designed by Domenico dell'Allio, and used by the local rulers as a governmental headquarters.

Landhaus

Hauptplatz

Karl-Franzens-Universität, also called the University of Graz, is the city's oldest university, founded in 1585 by Archduke Karl II. For most of its existence, it was controlled by the Catholic church, and was closed in 1782 by Joseph II in an attempt to gain state control over educational institutions. Joseph II transformed it into a lyceum where civil servants and medical personnel were trained. In 1827 it was re-instituted as a university by Emperor Franz I, thus gaining the name 'Karl-Franzens Universität,' meaning 'Charles-Francis University.' Over 30,000 students currently study at this university. The astronomer Johannes Kepler
Johannes Kepler
lived in Graz
Graz
for a short period. There, he worked as a math teacher and was a professor of mathematics at the University of Graz, but still found time to study astronomy. He left Graz
Graz
to go to Prague
Prague
when Lutherans were banned from the city. Ludwig Boltzmann
Ludwig Boltzmann
was Professor for Mathematical Physics from 1869 to 1890. During that time, Nikola Tesla
Nikola Tesla
studied electrical engineering at the Polytechnic in 1875. Nobel Laureate Otto Loewi
Otto Loewi
taught at the University of Graz
University of Graz
from 1909 until 1938. Ivo Andric, the 1961 Nobel Prize for Literature Laureate obtained his doctorate at the University of Graz. Erwin Schrödinger
Erwin Schrödinger
was briefly chancellor of the University of Graz
Graz
in 1936. Graz
Graz
lies in Styria, or Steiermark in German. Mark is an old German word indicating a large area of land used as a defensive border, in which the peasantry is taught how to organize and fight in the case of an invasion. With a strategic location at the head of the open and fertile Mur valley, Graz
Graz
was often assaulted (unsuccessfully), e.g. by the Hungarians under Matthias Corvinus
Matthias Corvinus
in 1481, and by the Ottoman Turks in 1529 and 1532. Apart from the Riegersburg Castle, the Schlossberg was the only fortification in the region that never fell to the Ottoman Turks. Graz
Graz
is home to the region's provincial armory, which is the world's largest historical collection of late medieval and Renaissance weaponry. It has been preserved since 1551, and displays over 30,000 items. From the earlier part of the 15th century, Graz
Graz
was the residence of the younger branch of the Habsburgs, which succeeded to the imperial throne in 1619 in the person of Emperor Ferdinand II, who moved the capital to Vienna. New fortifications were built on the Schlossberg at the end of the 16th century. Napoleon's army occupied Graz
Graz
in 1797. In 1809, the city withstood another assault by the French army. During this attack, the commanding officer in the fortress was ordered to defend it with about 900 men against Napoleon's army of about 3,000. He successfully defended the Schlossberg against eight attacks, but they were forced to give up after the Grande Armée occupied Vienna and the Emperor ordered to surrender. Following the defeat of Austria by Napoleonic forces at the Battle of Wagram
Battle of Wagram
in 1809, the fortifications were demolished using explosives, as stipulated in the Peace of Schönbrunn of the same year. The belltower and the civic clock tower, often used as the symbol of Graz, were spared after the people of Graz
Graz
paid a ransom for their preservation.[7] Archduke Karl II of Inner Austria
Austria
had 20,000 Protestant
Protestant
books burned in the square of what is now a mental hospital, and succeeded in returning Styria
Styria
to the authority of the Holy See. Archduke Franz Ferdinand was born in Graz, in what is now the Stadtmuseum (city museum). Population development[edit]

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1900 168,808 —    

1951 226,476 +34.2%

1961 237,080 +4.7%

1971 249,089 +5.1%

1981 243,166 −2.4%

1991 237,810 −2.2%

2001 226,244 −4.9%

2006 250,099 +10.5%

2008 252,852 +1.1%

2014 269,997 +6.8%

2015 274,207 +1.6%

2016 280,200 +2.2%

The more recent population figures do not give the whole picture as only people with principal residence status are counted and people with secondary residence status are not. Most of the people with secondary residence status in Graz
Graz
are students. At the end of 2016 there were 33,473 people with secondary residence status in Graz.[8][9]

Largest groups of foreign residents[10]

Nationality Population (2017)

 Romania 8,093

 Germany 7,761

 Croatia 7,119

 Bosnia and Herzegovina 6,790

 Turkey 5,247

 Hungary 4,020

 Slovenia 2,849

 Afghanistan 2,110

 Italy 2,087

Nationality Population (2017)

 Russia 2,061

 Slovakia 1,985

 Kosovo 1,705

 Serbia 1,641

 Syria 1,316

 Nigeria 1,028

 Poland 962

 Bulgaria 924

Climate[edit] Due to its position southeast of the Alps, Graz
Graz
is shielded from the prevailing westerly winds that bring weather fronts in from the North Atlantic to northwestern and central Europe. The weather in Graz
Graz
is thus influenced by the Mediterranean, and it has more hours of sunshine per year than Vienna
Vienna
or Salzburg
Salzburg
and also less wind or rain. Graz
Graz
lies in a basin that is only open to the south, causing the climate to be warmer than would be expected at that latitude.[11] Plants are found in Graz
Graz
that normally grow much further south.

average temperatures: Graz Airport
Graz Airport
8.7 °C (48 °F) / Karl-Franzens University
Karl-Franzens University
9.4 °C (49 °F) average rainfall: 818 mm (32 in) with on average 92 days of rain (Karl Franzens University) average hours of sunshine: 1,989 (Karl Franzens University)

Climate data for Graz
Graz
(1971–2000)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 21.0 (69.8) 20.5 (68.9) 25.1 (77.2) 28.8 (83.8) 34.1 (93.4) 34.3 (93.7) 38.1 (100.6) 38.1 (100.6) 32.0 (89.6) 26.4 (79.5) 23.0 (73.4) 19.2 (66.6) 35.5 (95.9)

Average high °C (°F) 2.8 (37) 5.8 (42.4) 10.7 (51.3) 15.3 (59.5) 20.5 (68.9) 23.4 (74.1) 25.3 (77.5) 24.7 (76.5) 20.4 (68.7) 14.6 (58.3) 7.7 (45.9) 3.6 (38.5) 14.6 (58.3)

Daily mean °C (°F) −1.0 (30.2) 1.0 (33.8) 5.1 (41.2) 9.6 (49.3) 14.6 (58.3) 17.7 (63.9) 19.5 (67.1) 18.9 (66) 14.7 (58.5) 9.4 (48.9) 3.7 (38.7) 0.1 (32.2) 9.4 (48.9)

Average low °C (°F) −3.8 (25.2) −2.9 (26.8) 1.0 (33.8) 4.9 (40.8) 9.5 (49.1) 12.7 (54.9) 14.7 (58.5) 14.3 (57.7) 10.6 (51.1) 5.9 (42.6) 0.9 (33.6) −2.3 (27.9) 5.5 (41.9)

Record low °C (°F) −20.2 (−4.4) −19.3 (−2.7) −17.2 (1) −5.5 (22.1) −1.3 (29.7) 3.6 (38.5) 6.3 (43.3) 4.9 (40.8) 0.8 (33.4) −6.4 (20.5) −12.7 (9.1) −17.5 (0.5) −19.3 (−2.7)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 23.9 (0.941) 30.4 (1.197) 44.1 (1.736) 49.0 (1.929) 86.0 (3.386) 117.8 (4.638) 125.1 (4.925) 113.0 (4.449) 81.1 (3.193) 61.7 (2.429) 51.9 (2.043) 34.9 (1.374) 818.9 (32.24)

Average snowfall cm (inches) 12.8 (5.04) 15.6 (6.14) 6.5 (2.56) 2.3 (0.91) 0.1 (0.04) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.2 (0.08) 9.1 (3.58) 15.5 (6.1) 62.1 (24.45)

Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 4.8 4.8 6.6 7.9 10.6 11.5 10.7 9.7 7.5 6.3 6.5 5.2 92.1

Average snowy days (≥ 1.0 cm) 15.6 10.0 4.1 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.8 9.1 42.1

Mean monthly sunshine hours 90.4 117.8 145.7 166.4 210.0 213.0 234.4 226.9 174.0 139.6 93.0 78.8 1,890

Source: Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics[12]

Slovenes
Slovenes
and Graz[edit] Politically, culturally, scientifically and religiously, Graz
Graz
was an important centre for all Slovenes, especially from the establishment of the University of Graz
University of Graz
in 1586 until the establishment of University of Ljubljana
Ljubljana
in 1919. In 1574, the first Slovene Catholic book (sl) was published in Graz, and in 1592, Hieronymus Megiser published in Graz
Graz
the book Dictionarium quatuor linguarum, the first multilingual dictionary of Slovene.[13] The Styrian Slovenes
Slovenes
did not consider Graz
Graz
a German city, but their own, a place to study while living at their relatives' homes and to fulfill one's career ambitions.[citation needed] The student associations in Graz
Graz
were a crucible of the Slovene identity and the Slovene students in Graz
Graz
were more nationally aware than some others. This led to fierce anti-Slovene efforts of German nationalists in Graz before and during World War II.[5] Many Slovenian Styrians study there. Slovenes
Slovenes
are among the professors at the Institute for Jazz in Graz. Numerous Slovenes
Slovenes
have found employment there, while being formally unemployed in Slovenia.[5] For the Slovene culture, Graz
Graz
remains permanently important due to its university and the Universalmuseum Joanneum
Universalmuseum Joanneum
archives containing numerous documents from the Slovenian Styria.[5] A symposium on the relation of Graz
Graz
and the Slovenes
Slovenes
was held in Graz in 2010, at the occasion of the 200th anniversary of the establishment of the first and oldest chair of Slovene. It was established at the Lyzeum of Graz
Graz
in July 1811 on the initiative of Janez Nepomuk Primic (sl).[14] A collection of lectures on the topic was published. The Slovenian Post commemorated the anniversary with a stamp.[15] Main sights[edit]

A panoramic view of the old town from the Grazer Schlossberg

For Graz's stint as Cultural Capital of Europe
Cultural Capital of Europe
a few new public buildings were erected in the city. The most famous is the Kunsthaus (house of modern art) designed by Peter Cook and Colin Fournier, a museum constructed next to the river Mur, and the Murinsel
Murinsel
(island in the Mur), an island made of steel, situated in the river. It was designed by the American architect Vito Acconci
Vito Acconci
and contains a café, an open-air theatre and a playground. Old Town[edit] Main article: Innere Stadt
Innere Stadt
(Graz)

Schlossberg (Castle mountain) with clock tower

The historic centre was added to the UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage List in 1999[7] due to the harmonious co-existence of typical buildings from different epochs and in different architectural styles. Situated in a cultural borderland between Central Europe, Italy
Italy
and the Balkan States, Graz
Graz
absorbed various influences from the neighbouring regions and thus received its exceptional townscape. Today the old town consists of over 1000 buildings, their age ranging from Gothic to contemporary. The most important sights in the historic centre are:

Rathaus (Town Hall). Schlossberg, hill dominating the old town (475 m (1,558.40 ft) high), site of demolished fortress, with views over Graz. Uhrturm clocktower, symbol of Graz, on the top of Schlossberg. Neue Galerie. Museum of art. Schlossbergbahn, a funicular railway up the Schlossberg. The Landhaus, the building where the federal state parliament of Styria
Styria
resides, a palace in Lombardic style. It is one of the most important examples of Renaissance architecture in Austria
Austria
and was built by the Italian architect Domenico dell'Allio
Domenico dell'Allio
between 1557 and 1565. The Landeszeughaus, armoury, the largest of its kind in the world. The Opernhaus, the principal venue for opera, ballet, and operetta performances. It is the 2nd largest opera house in Austria. The Schauspielhaus, the principal theatre for productions of plays. Dom (cathedral), a rare monument of Gothic architecture. Once, there were many frescos on the outer walls; today, only a few remain, like the Landplagenbild ("picture of plagues") painted in 1485, presumably by Thomas von Villach. The three plagues it depicts are locusts, pestilence and the invasion of the Turks, all of them striking the town in 1480. It features the oldest painted view of Graz. Mausoleum of Emperor Ferdinand II
Emperor Ferdinand II
next to the cathedral, the most important building of Mannerism
Mannerism
in Graz. It includes both the grave where Ferdinand II and his wife are buried, and a church dedicated to St Catherine of Alexandria. Burg (castle complex), with Gothic double staircase, built between 1438 and 1453 by Emperor Frederick III because the old castle on the Schlossberg was too small and uncomfortable. The Burg remained the residence of the Inner Austrian Court until 1619. Today, it serves as residence of the government of Styria. Gemaltes Haus ("painted house"), in Herrengasse 3. It is completely covered with frescos (painted in 1742 by Johann Mayer). Kunsthaus (museum of modern art). Murinsel, an artificial island in the Mur. Buildings, courtyards (e. g. Early Renaissance courtyard of the Former House of Teutonic Knights in Sporgasse 22) and roofscape of the old town.

Outside the Old Town[edit]

Schloss Eggenberg

Schloss Eggenberg
Schloss Eggenberg
a Baroque palace on the western edge of Graz
Graz
with State rooms and museum. In 2010 it was added to the existing World Heritage site of the historic centre of Graz. Basilika Mariatrost
Mariatrost
a late Baroque church, on the eastern edge of Graz. The Herz Jesu Kirche is the largest church in Graz
Graz
with the third highest spire in Austria, built in Gothic Revival style. Calvary Hill in the Gösting
Gösting
area of Graz
Graz
with a 17th-century cavalry and church. The LKH-Universitätsklinikum, is the largest hospital in Graz
Graz
and one of the largest hospitals in Austria. It is the largest Jugendstil building complex in Austria
Austria
and was built between 1904 and 1912. It is run by the state and one of the most renowned hospitals in Austria
Austria
and Central Europe. Best viewpoints for vistas of the city are Ruine Gösting, hilltop castle ruins on northwestern edge of city, and Plabutsch/Fürstenstand, behind Schloss Eggenberg
Schloss Eggenberg
with a hilltop restaurant and viewing tower.

Greater Graz
Graz
area[edit]

Österreichisches Freilichtmuseum Stübing, an open-air museum containing old farmhouses/farm buildings from all over Austria reassembled in historic setting. Lurgrotte, the most extensive cave system in Austria. Lipizzanergestüt Piber, Lipizzaner
Lipizzaner
stud at Piber
Piber
where the famous horses are bred. The Steirische Weinstraße is a wine-growing region south of Graz, also known as the "Styrian Tuscany". Thermenregion, spa region east of Graz. Riegersburg Castle, a mighty fortress that was never taken. It was a bastion against Turkish invasions

Culture[edit] During 2003 Graz
Graz
held the title of "European Capital of Culture" and was one of the UNESCO
UNESCO
"Cities of Design" in 2011. Museums[edit]

Kunsthaus

Tramway Museum

City overview from Schlossberg with Kunsthaus in the middle

The most important museums in Graz
Graz
are:

Schloss Eggenberg
Schloss Eggenberg
with Alte Galerie (paintings and sculptures from the Romanesque to the end of the Baroque period), Coin Collection, Lapidarium
Lapidarium
(Roman stonework collection),Archeological Museum (featuring the Cult Wagon of Strettweg) a special exhibitions area and the 90,000 m2 romantic landscape gardens. Museum im Palais: museum of Styrian cultural history from the Middle Ages to the present. Neue Galerie: visual arts from the 19th and 20th centuries. Natural History Museum: exhibition of botany, mineralogy and zoology. Stadtmuseum Graz: city museum. Kunsthaus: exhibition hall of contemporary art. Forum Stadtpark: museum of contemporary art. Camera Austria: museum of contemporary photography. Landeszeughaus: medieval armory comprising 32,000 pieces of armour and weaponry, largest of its kind in the world. Volkskundemuseum: museum of folk culture and lore. Diözesanmuseum: museum of the Roman Catholic Church. Künstlerhaus: exhibition hall of contemporary visual arts. Literaturhaus: museum of contemporary German literature. Museum der Wahrnehmung: museum of the senses, samadhi bath. Kindermuseum Frida&Fred: museum for children. Tramway Museum: 40 historic trams, the oldest dating from 1873. Kriminalmuseum: museum of criminology. Luftfahrtmuseum: ( Graz
Graz
airport) aviation museum. Hanns Schell Collection: key and lock museum, largest of its kind in the world. Austrian Sculpture Park: seven hectares of contemporary sculpture. Botanical Garden of Graz: three architecturally interesting glass houses plus gardens.

Architecture[edit] The Old Town and the adjacent districts are characterized by the historic residential buildings and churches found there. In the outer districts buildings are predominantly of the architectural styles from the second half of the 20th century. In 1965 the Grazer Schule (School of Graz) was founded. Several buildings around the universities are of this style, for example the green houses by Volker Giencke and the RESOWI center by Günther Domenig. Before Graz
Graz
became the European Capital of Culture
European Capital of Culture
in 2003, several new projects were realized, such as the Stadthalle, the Kindermuseum (museum for children), the Helmut-List-Halle, the Kunsthaus and the Murinsel.

Tallest buildings

Herz-Jesu-Kirche

Buildings in Graz
Graz
which are at least 50m tall:

Name or Address Completion Usage Height (m) floors

1. Herz-Jesu-Kirche 1887 church 109

2. Elisabeth Hochhaus 1964 residential 75 25

3. 4. Kärntner Straße 212, Liebenauer Hauptstraße 309 1968 and 1955 residential 69 21

5. Franziskanerkirche 1240 church 69

6. Alpha Tower 1960/2 floors added in 2015 residential 67 21

7. Telekom Austria
Austria
Tower 1960s office 65 15

8. Basilica
Basilica
Mariatrost 1724 church 61

9. Styria
Styria
Media Center 2014 office 60 15

10. Science Tower 2017 office 60 12 plus skygarden

11. 12. 13. 14. St. Peter Pfarrweg, Kindermanngasse, Hanuschgasse, Algersdorferstra?e 1960/70s residential 55 17

15. 16. 17. 18. Vinzenz Muchitschstraße, Ungergasse, Kärntner Straße 216, Eggenberger Gürtel 1970s residential 52 16

Sports[edit] SK Sturm Graz
SK Sturm Graz
is the main football club of the city, with three Austrian championships and five runner-up seasons. The Grazer AK
Grazer AK
also won an Austrian championship, but went into administration in 2007 and was excluded from the professional league system. In ice hockey, the ATSE Graz was the Austrian Hockey League
Austrian Hockey League
champion in 1975 and 1978. The EC Graz was runner-up in 1991-92, 1992–93 and 1993-94. The Graz 99ers
Graz 99ers
plays in first division since 2000. UBSC Raiffeisen Graz
UBSC Raiffeisen Graz
plays in the Austrian Basketball League. The Graz
Graz
Giants play in the Austrian Football League (American Football). Styriarte[edit] Graz
Graz
hosts the annual festival of classical music Styriarte, founded in 1985 to tie conductor Nikolaus Harnoncourt
Nikolaus Harnoncourt
closer to his hometown. Events have been held at different venues in Graz
Graz
and in the surrounding region. Transport[edit]

Tram
Tram
at Jakominiplatz

An extensive public transport network makes Graz
Graz
an easy city to navigate without a car. The city has a comprehensive bus network, complementing the Graz
Graz
tram network consisting of eight lines. Four lines pass through the new underground tramstop at the main railway station (Hauptbahnhof) and on to the old town before branching out. Furthermore, there are seven night-time bus routes, although these run only at weekends and on evenings preceding public holidays. The Schlossbergbahn, a funicular railway, and the Schlossberg lift, a vertical lift, link the city centre to the Schlossberg. From the main railway station ( Graz
Graz
Hauptbahnhof), regional trains link to most of Styria. Direct trains also run to most major cities nearby including Vienna, Salzburg, Innsbruck, Maribor
Maribor
and Ljubljana
Ljubljana
in Slovenia, Zagreb
Zagreb
in Croatia, Budapest
Budapest
in Hungary, Prague
Prague
and Brno
Brno
in the Czech Republic, Zürich
Zürich
in Switzerland, as well as Munich, Stuttgart, Heidelberg, and Frankfurt
Frankfurt
in Germany. Trains for Vienna leave every hour. In recent years many railway stations within the city limits and in the suburbs have been rebuilt or modernised and are now part of the "S-Bahn Graz", a commuter train service connecting the city with its suburban area and towns nearby. Graz
Graz
airport is located about 10 km (6 mi) south of the city centre and is accessible by bus, railway, and car. Direct destinations include Amsterdam, Berlin, Düsseldorf, Frankfurt, Munich, Stuttgart, Istanbul, Vienna
Vienna
and Zurich.[16] Health[edit] In Graz
Graz
there are seven hospitals, several private hospitals and sanatoriums, as well as 44 pharmacies. The LKH-Universitätsklinikum Graz
Graz
is one of the hospitals that can provide maximum care, with 1556 beds and 7190 employees. It covers the east of the city. In the west of the city there is the LKH Graz-West in Eggenberg with 280 beds and about 500 employees, the Landesnervenklinik Sigmund Freud (LSF) in Straßgang
Straßgang
with 880 beds and 1,100 employees, as well as the Unfallkrankenhaus der AUVA in Eggenberg with 180 beds and a total of 444 employees. Furthermore, there is the geriatric hospital Albert-Schweitzer-Klinik in the west of the city with 304 beds, the Krankenhaus der Barmherzigen Brüder I in Lend with 225 beds, the Krankenhaus der Barmherzigen Brüder II in Eggenberg with 260 beds and the Krankenhaus der Elisabethinen in Gries with 182 beds. There are several private clinics as well: the Privatklinik Kastanienhof, the Privatklinik Leech, the Privatklinik der Kreuzschwestern, the Sanatorium St. Leonhard, the Sanatorium Hansa and the Privatklinik Graz-Ragnitz. EMS in Graz
Graz
is provided solely by the Austrian Red Cross. Perpetually two emergency doctor's cars (NEF – Notarzteinsatzfahrzeug), two NAWs (Notarztwagen – ambulances staffed with a doctor in addition to regular personnel) and about 30 RTWs (Rettungswagen – regular ambulances) are on standby. Furthermore, several non-emergency ambulances (KTW – Krankentransportwagen) and a Mobile Intensive Care Unit (MICU) are operated by the Red Cross
Red Cross
in order to organise transportation of non-emergency patients to and between hospitals. In addition to the Red Cross
Red Cross
the Arbeiter-Samariter-Bund Österreichs (Labor-Samaritan-Alliance), the Malteser Hospitaldienst Austria
Austria
(the Austrian organisation of the Order of Malta Ambulance Corps) and the Grünes Kreuz (Green Cross) operate various non-emergency ambulances (KTW) for non-emergency patient transportation. In addition to the land-ambulances there's also the C12 air ambulance helicopter stationed at Graz
Graz
airport, which is also staffed with an emergency doctor in addition to regular personnel. International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Austria Twin towns and sister cities[edit] Graz
Graz
is twinned with:[17]

Coventry, West Midlands, England, since 1957[17][18][19] Darmstadt, Hesse, Germany, since 1968[17][20] Dubrovnik, Croatia, since 1994[17] Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands, since 1964[17][21] Ljubljana, Slovenia, since 2001[22] Maribor, Slovenia, since 1987[17] Montclair, New Jersey, United States, since 1950[17] Pécs, Hungary, since 1989[17] Pula, Croatia, since 1972[17][23] Saint Petersburg, Russia, since 2001[17][24] Timişoara, Romania, since 1982[17] Trieste, Trieste, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Italy, since 1973[17] Trondheim, Norway, since 1968[17][25]

Other forms of cooperation and city friendship similar to the twin city programmes

Niš, Serbia Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Notable residents[edit] The following are past and present notable residents of Graz.

Wolfgang Bauer, Austrian writer Mick Blue, pornographic actor and director Karl Böhm, Austrian conductor Ludwig Boltzmann, Austrian physicist, Professor of Mathematical Physics at the University of Graz
University of Graz
(1869), chair of Experimental Physics at the University of Graz
University of Graz
(1876–1890) Bernd Brückler, professional ice hockey player Arnold Schwarzenegger, former bodybuilding champion, actor and former governor of California. Born and raised in farming village Thal, 2 km (1 mi) from Graz. In 2005, the Graz
Graz
soccer stadium named after Schwarzenegger was renamed Stadion Graz-Liebenau
Stadion Graz-Liebenau
after controversy over the use of the death penalty in California; today it is called the Merkur-Arena Leopold von Sacher-Masoch, writer and journalist, studied in Graz; the term masochism is derived from his name Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach, architect of the Baroque period Robert Stolz, Austrian composer and conductor Friedrich St. Florian, Austrian-American architect Jochen Rindt, first Austrian Formula One
Formula One
champion raised in Graz
Graz
by his grandmother Otto Wanz, former professional wrestler who held AWA World Heavyweight Championship Werner Schwab, playwright and visual artist Hermann Schloffer, surgeon Elisabeth Eberl, Olympic javelin thrower Michael Gspurning, current goalkeeper for FC Schalke 04 II Gregor Hammerl, President of the Federal Council of Austria Nicolaus Harnoncourt, born in Berlin
Berlin
and raised in Graz, conductor known for performances of classical works on period instruments Victor Franz Hess, Nobel prize-winning physicist Manfred Hoeberl, powerlifter and strongman Hans Hollmann, theatre director and actor Johannes Kepler, was a mathematics teacher at a seminary school in Graz Helmut Kollars, writer and illustrator Otto Loewi
Otto Loewi
Nobel prize-winning physiologist Helmut Marko, former racing driver Marisa Mell
Marisa Mell
(1939–1992) actress born and raised in Graz August Meyszner
August Meyszner
(1886–1947), Austrian SS officer executed for war crimes August Musger, inventor of slow motion technique in cinema Olga Neuwirth, contemporary Austrian composer Lili Novy, Slovenian poet Emanuel Pogatetz, defender at 1. FC Nürnberg Johann Puch, Slovenian inventor, mechanic and vehicle producer Eduard Roschmann
Eduard Roschmann
(1908–1977), Austrian Nazi
Nazi
SS Riga
Riga
ghetto commandant Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
of Austria, Archduke of Austria-Este and heir to the Austro-Hungarian
Austro-Hungarian
throne Nikola Tesla, studied electrical engineering in Graz Baron Roman Ungern von Sternberg, prominent figure in the Russian White movement
White movement
and dictator of Mongolia
Mongolia
in 1921 Rainer Binder-Krieglstein (de), contemporary musician Anton Rintelen, cabinet minister and Nazi
Nazi
conspirator Hans Ulrich von Eggenberg, Austrian statesman and early "prime minister" during the Thirty Years' War Ernestine von Kirchsberg, painter Constance of Austria, Queen of Poland Anne of Austria, Queen of Poland
Poland
and Sweden Adam Rainer, only documented person in history to have been both one of the shortest and one of tallest people. Gert Schnider, Abalone-champion Markus Schopp, former football midfielder Erwin Schrödinger, briefly chancellor of the University of Graz
University of Graz
in 1936 Thomas Tebbich, decathlete and pole vaulter Thomas Vanek, professional hockey player, born in Baden bei Wien, raised in Graz

See also[edit]

Austria
Austria
portal List of World Heritage Sites in Austria

References[edit]

^ Statistik Austria
Austria
- Bevölkerung zu Jahresbeginn 2002-2016 nach Gemeinden (Gebietsstand 1.1.2016) for Graz. ^ "Anwesende Bevölkerung nach Wohnsitz und Gechlecht pro Bezirk – Stand 1. April 2010" (PDF) (in German). Graz: Stadt Graz
Graz
– Präsidialamt. Retrieved 7 May 2010.  ^ Template:Https://stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx?DataSetCode=CITIES OECD ^ "City of Graz/Stadt Graz". Interreg CENTRAL EUROPE. Retrieved 2017-09-11.  ^ a b c d Granda, Stane (2006). "Gradec in Slovenci" (PDF). Traditiones (in Slovenian). 35 (2). University of Graz. pp. 99–103. Retrieved 17 December 2010.  ^  Baynes, T.S.; Smith, W.R., eds. (1880). "Gratz". Encyclopædia Britannica. 11 (9th ed.). New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. p. 63.  ^ a b "A Short History of the City". www.graz.at. Graz: Stadt Graz
Graz
– Magistratsdirektion, Abteilung für Öffentlichkeitsarbeit. Retrieved 25 July 2017.  ^ "Zahlen + Fakten: Bevölkerung, Bezirke, Wirtschaft, Geografie". Graz: Stadt Graz
Graz
– Magistratsdirektion, Abteilung für Öffentlichkeitsarbeit. 1 January 2017. Retrieved 22 December 2017.  ^ "Ein Blick auf die Gemeinde Graz
Graz
<60101>" (PDF) (in Austrian). Statistik Austria. Retrieved 7 May 2010. CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link) ^ "Ausländische Bevölkerung in Graz" (PDF). www.graz.at. GRAZ. Retrieved 22 December 2017.  ^ Graz-Universität Klimadaten ^ "Klimadaten von Österreich 1971–2000 -Graz-Uni" (in German). Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics. Retrieved 6 September 2012.  ^ "Primeri nekaj sklanjatev in spregatev v Megiserjevem Dictionarium quatuor linguarum 1592" [The Concise Grammar of Four Languages in Megiser's 1592 Dictionary]. Jezikoslovni zapiski (in Slovenian). Inštitut za slovenski jezik Frana Ramovša, ZRC SAZU. 13 (1/2): 23–32. 2007. ISSN 0354-0448. COBISS 26967085.  ^ "Janez Nepomuk Primic in ustanovitev stolice za slovenski jezik na liceju v Gradcu 1811" [Janez Nepomuk Primic and the Establishment of the Chair of Slovene at the Lyzeum in Graz
Graz
in 1811] (PDF). Slavistična revija [Journal of Slavic Linguistics] (in Slovenian). 50 (1). January–March 2002. ISSN 1855-7570.  ^ Bračič, Bojan (November–December 2011). Korber, Mateja, ed. "Predstavitev znamke v baročni dvorani graškega semenišča". Razgledi: glasilo Pošte Slovenije [Views: The Bulletin of the Post of Slovenia]. Pošta Slovenije [Post of Slovenia]. ISSN 1318-5705.  ^ "Flughafen Graz :: Destinations". Retrieved 21 August 2015.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Partner cities - City of Graz". www.graz.at. Retrieved 27 March 2017.  ^ "Coventry's twin towns and cities - Graz, Austria". Coventry
Coventry
City Council. Retrieved 27 March 2017.  ^ Griffin, Mary (2 August 2011). "Coventry's twin towns". Coventry Telegraph. Retrieved 27 March 2017.  ^ "Städtepartnerschaften und Internationales". Büro für Städtepartnerschaften und internationale Beziehungen (in German). Retrieved 26 July 2013.  ^ "Groningen – Partner Cities". 2008 Gemeente Groningen, Kreupelstraat 1,9712 HW Groningen. Archived from the original on 26 September 2007. Retrieved 8 December 2008.  ^ "Twin cities and association memberships". Mestna občina Ljubljana ( Ljubljana
Ljubljana
City). Archived from the original on 11 June 2016. Retrieved 27 March 2017.  ^ "Međunarodna suradnja Grada Pule". Grad Pula
Pula
(in Croatian and Italian). Retrieved 27 March 2017.  ^ "Международные и межрегиональные связи" (in Russian). Retrieved 28 March 2017.  ^ (in Norwegian)Trondheims offisielle nettsted – Vennskapsbyer Archived 27 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine.

"Graz: Stadtplanung und Stadtentwicklung (Rechnungshofbericht, 2006) in German" (PDF). 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 April 2008. Retrieved 8 April 2008. 

Further reading[edit]

See also: Bibliography of the history of Graz

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Graz.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Graz.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1920 Encyclopedia Americana
Encyclopedia Americana
article Graz.

Official websites

"Municipal data for Graz". Statistik Austria.  City website (in German) (in English) Graz
Graz
Citizen's Service Graz
Graz
Tourism Office KulturServer Graz
Graz
Town's cultural portal Public transport
Public transport
in Graz

History

Jews in Graz. Expelled 1439 – returned 1447 – expelled 1496 – returned 1783 – holocaust (from Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)

Further information

Various Graz
Graz
Information Sorted by Categories. Choose from 5 languages.

v t e

Principal cities of Austria

Bregenz Feldkirch Graz Innsbruck Klagenfurt Leoben Lienz Linz Salzburg Sankt Pölten Steyr Vienna Villach Wels Wiener Neustadt

v t e

Cities and districts (Bezirke) of Styria

Cities

Graz

Districts

Bruck-Mürzzuschlag Deutschlandsberg Graz-Umgebung Hartberg-Fürstenfeld Leibnitz Leoben Liezen Murau Murtal Südoststeiermark Voitsberg Weiz

v t e

Administrative seats of Austrian states

Bregenz Eisenstadt Graz Innsbruck Klagenfurt Linz Salzburg Sankt Pölten Vienna

v t e

European Capitals of Culture

1985 Athens 1986 Florence 1987 Amsterdam 1988 West Berlin 1989 Paris 1990 Glasgow 1991 Dublin 1992 Madrid 1993 Antwerp 1994 Lisbon 1995 Luxembourg City 1996 Copenhagen 1997 Thessaloniki 1998 Stockholm 1999 Weimar 2000 Reykjavík Bergen Helsinki Brussels Prague Kraków Santiago de Compostela Avignon Bologna 2001 Rotterdam Porto 2002 Bruges Salamanca 2003 Graz Plovdiv 2004 Genoa Lille 2005 Cork 2006 Patras 2007 Luxembourg City
Luxembourg City
and Greater Region Sibiu 2008 Liverpool Stavanger 2009 Linz Vilnius 2010 Ruhr Istanbul Pécs 2011 Turku Tallinn 2012 Maribor Guimarães 2013 Košice Marseille 2014 Umeå Riga 2015 Mons Plzeň 2016 San Sebastián Wrocław 2017 Aarhus Paphos 2018 Valletta Leeuwarden 2019 Plovdiv Matera 2020 Rijeka Galway 2021 Timișoara Elefsina Novi Sad 2022 Kaunas Esch-sur-Alzette

v t e

World Heritage Sites in Austria

Historic Centre of the City of Salzburg Palace and Gardens of Schönbrunn Hallstatt-Dachstein / Salzkammergut
Salzkammergut
Cultural Landscape Semmering Railway City of Graz
Graz
– Historic Centre and Schloss Eggenberg Wachau
Wachau
Cultural Landscape Fertő / Neusiedlersee Cultural Landscape1 Historic Centre of Vienna Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps2

1 Shared with Hungary 2 Shared with France, Germany, Italy, Slovenia
Slovenia
and Switzerland

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 160255975 LCCN: n79064653 ISNI: 0000 0004 1783 6

.