GRAZ (German pronunciation: ) is the capital of
Styria and the
second-largest city in
Vienna . On 1 January 2017, it
had a population of 320,587 (of which 286,686 had principal residence
status). In 2015, the population of the
Graz larger urban zone who
had principal residence status stood at 613,286.
Graz has a long tradition as seat of universities: its six
universities have more than 44,000 students. Its historic centre is
one of the best-preserved city centres in Central Europe.
Graz was more important to
Slovenes , both politically
and culturally, than the capital of
Ljubljana , and it
remains influential to this day.
Graz was added to the
UNESCO list of World Cultural Heritage
Sites , and the site was extended in 2010 with Eggenberg Palace
(German: Schloss Eggenberg).
Graz was sole Cultural Capital of Europe
for 2003 and got the title of a City of Culinary Delights in 2008.
* 1 Etymology
* 2 Geography
* 2.1 Neighbouring municipalities
* 2.2 Districts
* 3 History
* 4 Population development
* 5 Climate
* 7 Main sights
* 7.1 Old town
* 7.2 Outside the Old Town
* 7.3 Greater
* 8 Culture
* 8.1 Museums
* 8.2 Architecture
* 8.3 Sports
* 9 Transport
* 10 Health
* 11 International relations
Twin towns and sister cities
Twin towns and sister cities
* 12 Notable residents
* 13 See also
* 14 References
* 15 Further reading
* 16 External links
The name of the city, Graz, formerly spelled GRATZ, most likely
stems from the Slavic gradec, "small castle". Some archaeological
finds point to the erection of a small castle by Alpine Slavic people,
which over time became a heavily defended fortification. In literary
Slovene , gradec still means "small castle", forming a hypocoristic
derivative of Proto-West-South Slavic *gradьcъ, whichs descends via
liquid metathesis from
Common Slavic *gardьcъ and via the Slavic
third palatalisation from
Proto-Slavic *gardiku, originally denoting
"small town, settlement". The name thus follows the common South
Slavic pattern for naming settlements as grad . The German name 'Graz'
first appears in records in 1128.
Aerial photography showing the historic city center of
Graz is situated on the Mur river in southeast Austria. It is about
200 km (120 mi) southwest of Vienna. The nearest larger urban centre
Slovenia which is about 50 km (31 mi) away.
Graz is the
capital and largest city in Styria, a green and heavily forested area.
These towns and villages border Graz:
* to the north:
* to the east:
Kainbach bei Graz ,
Hart bei Graz ,
* to the south:
Feldkirchen bei Graz ,
* to the west:
Attendorf , Thal ,
The city of
Graz is divided into 17 districts:
Innere Stadt (3,302)
II. St. Leonhard (12,377)
IV. Lend (22,369)
V. Gries (22,658)
VII. Liebenau (11,556)
VIII. St. Peter (12,809)
X. Ries (5,789)
XII. Andritz (16,316)
XIV. Eggenberg (16,467)
Timeline of Graz Graz, Georg Matthäus Vischer (1670)
Graz,1830 – Lith. J.F. Kaiser Neutor in 1883 University
The oldest settlement on the ground of the modern city of
back to the
Copper Age . However, no historical continuity exists of a
settlement before the Middle Ages.
During the 12th century, dukes under
Babenberg rule made the town
into an important commercial center. Later,
Graz came under the rule
of the Habsburgs , and in 1281, gained special privileges from King
Rudolph I .
In the 14th century,
Graz became the city of residence of the Inner
Austrian line of the Habsburgs. The royalty lived in the Schlossberg
castle and from there ruled
Styria , Carinthia , most of today's
Slovenia, and parts of
Gorizia and Gradisca ,
In the 16th century, the city's design and planning were primarily
controlled by Italian Renaissance architects and artists. One of the
most famous buildings built in this style is the Landhaus , designed
by Domenico dell\'Allio , and used by the local rulers as a
governmental headquarters. Landhaus Hauptplatz
Karl-Franzens-Universität, also called the
University of Graz , is
the city's oldest university, founded in 1585 by Archduke Karl II .
For most of its existence, it was controlled by the Catholic church ,
and was closed in 1782 by Joseph II in an attempt to gain state
control over educational institutions. Joseph II transformed it into a
lyceum where civil servants and medical personnel were trained. In
1827 it was re-instituted as a university by Emperor Franz I , thus
gaining the name 'Karl-Franzens Universität,' meaning
'Charles-Francis University.' Over 30,000 students currently study at
Johannes Kepler lived in
Graz for a short period.
There, he worked as a math teacher and was a professor of mathematics
at the University of Graz, but still found time to study astronomy. He
Graz to go to
Prague when Lutherans were banned from the city.
Ludwig Boltzmann was Professor for Mathematical Physics from 1869 to
1890. During that time,
Nikola Tesla studied electrical engineering at
the Polytechnic in 1875. Nobel Laureate
Otto Loewi taught at the
University of Graz from 1909 until 1938.
Ivo Andric , the 1961 Nobel
Prize for Literature Laureate obtained his doctorate at the University
Erwin Schrödinger was briefly chancellor of the University
Graz in 1936.
Graz lies in Styria, or Steiermark in German. Mark is an old German
word indicating a large area of land used as a defensive border, in
which the peasantry is taught how to organize and fight in the case of
an invasion. With a strategic location at the head of the open and
fertile Mur valley,
Graz was often assaulted (unsuccessfully), e.g. by
the Hungarians under
Matthias Corvinus in 1481, and by the Ottoman
Turks in 1529 and 1532. Apart from the
Riegersburg Castle , the
Schlossberg was the only fortification in the region that never fell
to the Ottoman Turks.
Graz is home to the region\'s provincial armory
, which is the world's largest historical collection of late medieval
and Renaissance weaponry. It has been preserved since 1551, and
displays over 30,000 items.
From the earlier part of the 15th century,
Graz was the residence of
the younger branch of the Habsburgs, which succeeded to the imperial
throne in 1619 in the person of
Emperor Ferdinand II
Emperor Ferdinand II , who moved the
capital to Vienna. New fortifications were built on the Schlossberg at
the end of the 16th century. Napoleon 's army occupied
Graz in 1797.
In 1809, the city withstood another assault by the French army. During
this attack, the commanding officer in the fortress was ordered to
defend it with about 900 men against Napoleon's army of about 3,000.
He successfully defended the Schlossberg against eight attacks, but
they were forced to give up after the Grande Armée occupied Vienna
and the Emperor ordered to surrender. Following the defeat of Austria
by Napoleonic forces at the
Battle of Wagram
Battle of Wagram in 1809, the
fortifications were demolished using explosives, as stipulated in the
Peace of Schönbrunn of the same year. The belltower and the civic
clock tower, often used as the symbol of Graz, were spared after the
Graz paid a ransom for their preservation.
Archduke Karl II of Inner
Austria had 20,000
Protestant books burned
in the square of what is now a mental hospital, and succeeded in
Styria to the authority of the
Holy See . Archduke Franz
Ferdinand was born in Graz, in what is now the Stadtmuseum (city
The more recent population figures do not give the whole picture as
only people with principal residence status are counted and people
with secondary residence status are not. Most of the people with
secondary residence status in
Graz are students. At the end of 2016
there were 33,473 people with secondary residence status in Graz.
LARGEST GROUPS OF FOREIGN RESIDENTS
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Due to its position southeast of the Alps,
Graz is shielded from the
prevailing westerly winds that bring weather fronts in from the North
Atlantic to northwestern and central Europe. The weather in
thus influenced by the Mediterranean, and it has more hours of
sunshine per year than
Salzburg and also less wind or rain.
Graz lies in a basin that is only open to the south, causing the
climate to be warmer than would be expected at that latitude. Plants
are found in
Graz that normally grow much further south.
* average temperatures:
Graz Airport 8.7 °C (48 °F) /
Karl-Franzens University 9.4 °C (49 °F)
* average rainfall: 818 mm (32 in) with on average 92 days of rain
(Karl Franzens University)
* average hours of sunshine: 1,989 (Karl Franzens University)
CLIMATE DATA FOR GRAZ (1971–2000)
RECORD HIGH °C (°F)
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F)
DAILY MEAN °C (°F)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F)
RECORD LOW °C (°F)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES)
AVERAGE SNOWFALL CM (INCHES)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 1.0 MM)
AVERAGE SNOWY DAYS (≥ 1.0 CM)
MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS
Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics
SLOVENES AND GRAZ
Politically, culturally, scientifically and religiously,
Graz was an
important centre for all
Slovenes , especially from the establishment
University of Graz in 1586 until the establishment of
Ljubljana in 1919. In 1574, the first Slovene Catholic
book (sl) was published in Graz, and in 1592, Hieronymus Megiser
Graz the book
Dictionarium quatuor linguarum , the first
multilingual dictionary of Slovene.
Slovenes did not consider
Graz a German city, but their
own, a place to study while living at their relatives' homes and to
fulfill one's career ambitions. The student associations in
a crucible of the Slovene identity and the Slovene students in Graz
were more nationally aware than some others. This led to fierce
anti-Slovene efforts of German nationalists in
Graz before and during
World War II.
Many Slovenian Styrians study there.
Slovenes are among the
professors at the Institute for Jazz in Graz. Numerous
found employment there, while being formally unemployed in Slovenia.
For the Slovene culture,
Graz remains permanently important due to its
university and the
Universalmuseum Joanneum archives containing
numerous documents from the Slovenian Styria.
A symposium on the relation of
Graz and the
Slovenes was held in Graz
in 2010, at the occasion of the 200th anniversary of the establishment
of the first and oldest chair of Slovene. It was established at the
Graz in July 1811 on the initiative of Janez Nepomuk Primic
(sl). A collection of lectures on the topic was published. The
Slovenian Post commemorated the anniversary with a stamp.
A panoramic view of the old town from the Grazer Schlossberg
For Graz's stint as
Cultural Capital of Europe a few new public
buildings were erected in the city. The most famous is the Kunsthaus
(house of modern art) designed by Peter Cook and
Colin Fournier , a
museum constructed next to the river Mur, and the
Murinsel (island in
the Mur), an island made of steel, situated in the river. It was
designed by the American architect
Vito Acconci and contains a café,
an open-air theatre and a playground.
Innere Stadt (Graz) Schlossberg (Castle mountain)
with clock tower
The historic centre was added to the
UNESCO World Heritage List in
1999 due to the harmonious co-existence of typical buildings from
different epochs and in different architectural styles. Situated in a
cultural borderland between Central Europe,
Italy and the Balkan
Graz absorbed various influences from the neighbouring regions
and thus received its exceptional townscape. Today the old town
consists of over 1000 buildings, their age ranging from Gothic to
The most important sights in the historic centre are:
* RATHAUS (Town Hall).
* SCHLOSSBERG , hill dominating the old town (475 m (1,558.40 ft)
high), site of demolished fortress, with views over Graz.
* UHRTURM clocktower, symbol of Graz, on the top of Schlossberg.
* NEUE GALERIE. Museum of art.
* SCHLOSSBERGBAHN , a funicular railway up the Schlossberg.
* The LANDHAUS, the building where the federal state parliament of
Styria resides, a palace in Lombardic style. It is one of the most
important examples of Renaissance architecture in
Austria and was
built by the Italian architect Domenico dell\'Allio between 1557 and
* The LANDESZEUGHAUS , armoury, the largest of its kind in the
* The OPERNHAUS , the principal venue for opera, ballet, and
operetta performances. It is the 2nd largest opera house in Austria.
* The SCHAUSPIELHAUS, the principal theatre for productions of
* DOM (cathedral), a rare monument of Gothic architecture. Once,
there were many frescos on the outer walls; today, only a few remain,
like the Landplagenbild ("picture of plagues") painted in 1485,
presumably by Thomas von
Villach . The three plagues it depicts are
locusts, pestilence and the invasion of the Turks, all of them
striking the town in 1480. It features the oldest painted view of
* MAUSOLEUM of
Emperor Ferdinand II
Emperor Ferdinand II next to the cathedral, the most
important building of
Mannerism in Graz. It includes both the grave
where Ferdinand II and his wife are buried, and a church dedicated to
St Catherine of Alexandria.
* BURG (castle complex), with Gothic double staircase, built between
1438 and 1453 by Emperor Frederick III because the old castle on the
Schlossberg was too small and uncomfortable. The Burg remained the
residence of the Inner Austrian Court until 1619. Today, it serves as
residence of the government of Styria.
* GEMALTES HAUS ("painted house"), in Herrengasse 3. It is
completely covered with frescos (painted in 1742 by Johann Mayer).
* KUNSTHAUS (museum of modern art).
* MURINSEL , an artificial island in the Mur.
* BUILDINGS, COURTYARDS (e. g. Early Renaissance courtyard of the
Former House of Teutonic Knights in Sporgasse 22) and ROOFSCAPE of the
OUTSIDE THE OLD TOWN
* SCHLOSS EGGENBERG a Baroque palace on the western edge of Graz
with State rooms and museum. In 2010 it was added to the existing
World Heritage site of the historic centre of Graz.
* BASILIKA MARIATROST a late Baroque church, on the eastern edge of
* The HERZ JESU KIRCHE is the largest church in
Graz with the third
highest spire in Austria, built in Gothic Revival style.
* CALVARY HILL in the
Gösting area of
Graz with a 17th-century
calvary and church.
* The LKH-UNIVERSITäTSKLINIKUM, is the largest hospital in
one of the largest hospitals in
Austria . It is the largest Jugendstil
building complex in
Austria and was built between 1904 and 1912. It is
run by the state and one of the most renowned hospitals in
* Best viewpoints for vistas of the city are RUINE GöSTING ,
hilltop castle ruins on northwestern edge of city, and
Schloss Eggenberg with a hilltop
restaurant and viewing tower.
GREATER GRAZ AREA
* ÖSTERREICHISCHES FREILICHTMUSEUM STüBING, an open-air museum
containing old farmhouses/farm buildings from all over Austria
reassembled in historic setting.
* LURGROTTE, the most extensive cave system in Austria.
* LIPIZZANERGESTüT PIBER,
Lipizzaner stud at
Piber where the famous
horses are bred.
* The STEIRISCHE WEINSTRAßE is a wine-growing region south of Graz,
also known as the "Styrian Tuscany".
* THERMENREGION, spa region east of Graz.
* RIEGERSBURG CASTLE , a mighty fortress that was never taken. It
was a bastion against Turkish invasions
Graz held the title of "
European Capital of Culture
European Capital of Culture " and
was one of the
UNESCO "Cities of Design" in 2011.
Kunsthaus Tramway Museum City overview from
Schlossberg with Kunsthaus in the middle
The most important museums in
* SCHLOSS EGGENBERG with ALTE GALERIE (paintings and sculptures from
the Romanesque to the end of the Baroque period), COIN COLLECTION,
LAPIDARIUM (Roman stonework collection),ARCHEOLOGICAL MUSEUM
Cult Wagon of Strettweg ) a special exhibitions area
and the 90,000 m2 romantic landscape gardens .
* MUSEUM IM PALAIS: museum of Styrian cultural history from the
Middle Ages to the present.
* NEUE GALERIE: visual arts from the 19th and 20th centuries.
* NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM: exhibition of botany, mineralogy and
* STADTMUSEUM GRAZ: city museum.
* KUNSTHAUS : exhibition hall of contemporary art .
* FORUM STADTPARK: museum of contemporary art.
* CAMERA AUSTRIA: museum of contemporary photography.
* LANDESZEUGHAUS : medieval armory comprising 32,000 pieces of
armour and weaponry, largest of its kind in the world.
* VOLKSKUNDEMUSEUM: museum of folk culture and lore .
* DIöZESANMUSEUM: museum of the
Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church .
* KüNSTLERHAUS: exhibition hall of contemporary visual arts.
* LITERATURHAUS: museum of contemporary
German literature .
* MUSEUM DER WAHRNEHMUNG: museum of the senses, samadhi bath.
* KINDERMUSEUM FRIDA"> Herz-Jesu-Kirche
Graz which are at least 50m tall:
NAME OR ADDRESS
Kärntner Straße 212, Liebenauer Hauptstraße 309
1968 and 1955
Styria Media Center
St. Peter Pfarrweg, Kindermanngasse, Hanuschgasse
Vinzenz Muchitschstraße, Ungergasse, Kärntner Straße 216,
Buildings that will be at least 50m high currently (2017) under
construction: the eco-friendly "Science Tower", this 60m tall office
building will house various local green technology companies when
completed and will be a zero-energy building .
SK Sturm Graz is the main football club of the city, with three
Austrian championships and five runner-up seasons. The
Grazer AK also
won an Austrian championship, but went into administration in 2007 and
was excluded from the professional league system.
In ice hockey, the
ATSE Graz was the
Austrian Hockey League champion
in 1975 and 1978. The
EC Graz was runner-up in 1991-92, 1992–93 and
Graz 99ers plays in first division since 2000.
UBSC Raiffeisen Graz plays in the Austrian Basketball League .
Graz Giants play in the Austrian Football League (American
Graz hosts the annual festival of classical music
Styriarte , founded
in 1985 to tie conductor
Nikolaus Harnoncourt closer to his hometown.
Events have been held at different venues in
Graz and in the
Tram at Jakominiplatz
An extensive public transport network makes
Graz an easy city to
navigate without a car. The city has a comprehensive bus network,
Graz tram network consisting of eight lines. Four
lines pass through the new underground tramstop at the main railway
station (Hauptbahnhof) and on to the old town before branching out.
Furthermore, there are seven night-time bus routes, although these run
only at weekends and on evenings preceding public holidays.
The Schlossbergbahn , a funicular railway , and the Schlossberg lift
, a vertical lift, link the city centre to the Schlossberg .
From the main railway station (
Graz Hauptbahnhof ), regional trains
link to most of Styria. Direct trains also run to most major cities
Maribor and Ljubljana
Brno in the
Czech Republic ,
Switzerland , as well as
Heidelberg , and
Germany . Trains
Vienna leave every hour. In recent years many railway stations
within the city limits and in the suburbs have been rebuilt or
modernised and are now part of the "S-Bahn Graz", a commuter train
service connecting the city with its suburban area and towns nearby.
Graz Airport is located about 10 km (6 mi) south of the city centre
and is accessible by bus, railway, and car. Direct destinations
include Amsterdam, Birmingham,
Düsseldorf , Frankfurt, Munich,
Stuttgart , Istanbul, Zurich and Vienna.
Graz there are seven hospitals, several private hospitals and
sanatoriums, as well as 44 pharmacies.
Graz is one of the hospitals that can
provide maximum care, with 1556 beds and 7190 employees. It covers the
east of the city. In the west of the city there is the LKH Graz-West
in Eggenberg with 280 beds and about 500 employees, the
Landesnervenklinik Sigmund Freud (LSF) in
Straßgang with 880 beds and
1,100 employees, as well as the Unfallkrankenhaus der AUVA in
Eggenberg with 180 beds and a total of 444 employees.
Furthermore, there is the geriatric hospital Albert-Schweitzer-Klinik
in the west of the city with 304 beds, the Krankenhaus der
Barmherzigen Brüder I in Lend with 225 beds, the Krankenhaus der
Barmherzigen Brüder II in Eggenberg with 260 beds and the Krankenhaus
der Elisabethinen in Gries with 182 beds.
There are several private clinics as well: the Privatklinik
Kastanienhof, the Privatklinik Leech, the Privatklinik der
Kreuzschwestern, the Sanatorium St. Leonhard, the Sanatorium Hansa and
the Privatklinik Graz-Ragnitz.
Graz is provided solely by the
Austrian Red Cross .
Perpetually two emergency doctor's cars (NEF –
Notarzteinsatzfahrzeug), two NAWs (Notarztwagen – ambulances staffed
with a doctor in addition to regular personnel) and about 30 RTWs
(Rettungswagen – regular ambulances) are on standby. Furthermore,
several non-emergency ambulances (KTW – Krankentransportwagen) and a
Mobile Intensive Care Unit (MICU) are operated by the
Red Cross in
order to organise transportation of non-emergency patients to and
between hospitals. In addition to the
Red Cross the
Arbeiter-Samariter-Bund Österreichs (Labor-Samaritan-Alliance), the
Austria (the Austrian organisation of the
Order of Malta Ambulance Corps ) and the Grünes Kreuz (Green Cross)
operate various non-emergency ambulances (KTW) for non-emergency
patient transportation. In addition to the land-ambulances there's
also the C12 air ambulance helicopter stationed at
Graz airport, which
is also staffed with an emergency doctor in addition to regular
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in
TWIN TOWNS AND SISTER CITIES
Graz is twinned with:
Coventry , West Midlands , England, since 1957
Hesse , Germany, since 1968
Dubrovnik , Croatia, since 1994
* Groningen , Groningen , Netherlands, since 1964
Slovenia , since 2001
Maribor , Slovenia, since 1987
* Montclair ,
New Jersey , United States, since 1950
Pécs , Hungary, since 1989
Pula , Croatia, since 1972
Saint Petersburg , Russia, since 2001
Timişoara , Romania, since 1982
Friuli-Venezia Giulia , Italy, since 1973
Trondheim , Norway, since 1968
Other forms of cooperation and city friendship similar to the twin
Niš , Serbia
Banja Luka , Bosnia and Herzegovina
The following are past and present notable residents of Graz.
Arnold Schwarzenegger , former bodybuilding champion, actor and
former governor of
California . Born and raised in the farming village
Thal , 2 km (1 mi) from Graz. In 2005, the
Graz soccer stadium named
after Schwarzenegger was renamed
Stadion Graz-Liebenau after
controversy over the use of the death penalty in California; today it
is called the Merkur-Arena
Leopold von Sacher-Masoch , writer and journalist, studied in
Graz; the term masochism is derived from his name
Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach , architect of the Baroque
Johann Puch , Slovenian inventor, mechanic and vehicle producer
Ludwig Boltzmann , Austrian physicist, Professor of Mathematical
Physics at the
University of Graz (1869), chair of Experimental
Physics at the
University of Graz (1876–1890)
Robert Stolz , Austrian composer and conductor
Friedrich St. Florian , Austrian-American architect
Olga Neuwirth , one of the most important contemporary Austrian
Nicolaus Harnoncourt , born in
Berlin and raised in Graz, a
conductor known for his performances of classical works on period
Helmut Kollars , writer and illustrator
Jochen Rindt , the first Austrian
Formula One champion raised in
Graz by his grandmother
Otto Wanz , former professional wrestler who held the AWA World
* Wolfgang Bauer , Austrian writer
Werner Schwab , playwright and visual artist
Bernd Brückler , professional ice hockey player
Hermann Schloffer , surgeon
Victor Franz Hess ,
Nobel prize -winning physicist
Thomas Tebbich , decathlete and pole vaulter
Thomas Vanek , professional hockey player, born in Baden bei Wien
, raised in Graz
Helmut Marko , former racing driver
Emanuel Pogatetz , defender at
1. FC Nürnberg
1. FC Nürnberg
Markus Schopp , former football midfielder
August Musger , inventor of the slow motion technique in cinema
Karl Böhm , Austrian conductor
* Hans Hollmann , theatre director and actor
Lili Novy , Slovenian poet
Nobel prize -winning physiologist
Archduke Franz Ferdinand of
Austria , Archduke of Austria-Este and
heir to the
Nikola Tesla , studied electrical engineering in Graz
Gert Schnider , Abalone-champion
Baron Roman Ungern von Sternberg , prominent figure in the Russian
White movement and dictator of
Mongolia in 1921
* Rainer Binder-Krieglstein (de), contemporary musician
Anton Rintelen , cabinet minister and
Hans Ulrich von Eggenberg , Austrian statesman and early "prime
minister" during the Thirty Years\' War
Mick Blue , a pornographic actor and director
Manfred Hoeberl , powerlifter and strongman
Gregor Hammerl , President of the Federal Council of
Elisabeth Eberl , Olympic javelin thrower
Michael Gspurning , current goalkeeper for FC Schalke 04 II
Ernestine von Kirchsberg , painter
Johannes Kepler , during his career, Kepler was a mathematics
teacher at a seminary school in Graz
Erwin Schrödinger , briefly chancellor of the University of Graz
* Constance of
Austria , Queen of
* Anne of
Austria , Queen of
* List of World Heritage Sites in
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* ^ "Coventry\'s twin towns and cities - Graz, Austria". Coventry
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