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GRAZ (German pronunciation: ) is the capital of Styria
Styria
and the second-largest city in Austria
Austria
after Vienna
Vienna
. On 1 January 2017, it had a population of 320,587 (of which 286,686 had principal residence status). In 2015, the population of the Graz
Graz
larger urban zone who had principal residence status stood at 613,286.

Graz
Graz
has a long tradition as seat of universities: its six universities have more than 44,000 students. Its historic centre is one of the best-preserved city centres in Central Europe.

For centuries, Graz
Graz
was more important to Slovenes
Slovenes
, both politically and culturally, than the capital of Slovenia
Slovenia
, Ljubljana
Ljubljana
, and it remains influential to this day.

In 1999, Graz
Graz
was added to the UNESCO
UNESCO
list of World Cultural Heritage Sites , and the site was extended in 2010 with Eggenberg Palace (German: Schloss Eggenberg). Graz
Graz
was sole Cultural Capital of Europe for 2003 and got the title of a City of Culinary Delights in 2008.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 Geography

* 2.1 Neighbouring municipalities * 2.2 Districts

* 3 History * 4 Population development * 5 Climate * 6 Slovenes
Slovenes
and Graz
Graz

* 7 Main sights

* 7.1 Old town * 7.2 Outside the Old Town * 7.3 Greater Graz
Graz
area

* 8 Culture

* 8.1 Museums * 8.2 Architecture * 8.3 Sports * 8.4 Styriarte

* 9 Transport * 10 Health

* 11 International relations

* 11.1 Twin towns and sister cities
Twin towns and sister cities

* 12 Notable residents * 13 See also * 14 References * 15 Further reading * 16 External links

ETYMOLOGY

The name of the city, Graz, formerly spelled GRATZ, most likely stems from the Slavic gradec, "small castle". Some archaeological finds point to the erection of a small castle by Alpine Slavic people, which over time became a heavily defended fortification. In literary Slovene , gradec still means "small castle", forming a hypocoristic derivative of Proto-West-South Slavic *gradьcъ, whichs descends via liquid metathesis from Common Slavic *gardьcъ and via the Slavic third palatalisation from Proto-Slavic *gardiku, originally denoting "small town, settlement". The name thus follows the common South Slavic pattern for naming settlements as grad . The German name 'Graz' first appears in records in 1128.

GEOGRAPHY

Aerial photography showing the historic city center of Graz
Graz

Graz
Graz
is situated on the Mur river in southeast Austria. It is about 200 km (120 mi) southwest of Vienna. The nearest larger urban centre is Maribor
Maribor
in Slovenia
Slovenia
which is about 50 km (31 mi) away. Graz
Graz
is the capital and largest city in Styria, a green and heavily forested area.

NEIGHBOURING MUNICIPALITIES

These towns and villages border Graz:

* to the north: Gratkorn , Stattegg , Weinitzen * to the east: Kainbach bei Graz , Hart bei Graz , Raaba * to the south: Gössendorf , Feldkirchen bei Graz , Seiersberg * to the west: Attendorf , Thal , Judendorf-Straßengel

DISTRICTS

The city of Graz
Graz
is divided into 17 districts:

I. Innere Stadt
Innere Stadt
(3,302) II. St. Leonhard (12,377) III. Geidorf (19,119) IV. Lend (22,369) V. Gries (22,658) VI. Jakomini (25,808) VII. Liebenau (11,556) VIII. St. Peter (12,809) IX. Waltendorf (10,782)

X. Ries (5,789) XI. Mariatrost (7,403) XII. Andritz (16,316) XIII. Gösting (11,489) XIV. Eggenberg (16,467) XV. Wetzelsdorf (12,225) XVI. Straßgang (12,212) XVII. Puntigam (6,248)

HISTORY

See also: Timeline of Graz Graz, Georg Matthäus Vischer (1670) Graz,1830 – Lith. J.F. Kaiser Neutor in 1883 University of Graz
Graz

The oldest settlement on the ground of the modern city of Graz
Graz
dates back to the Copper Age
Copper Age
. However, no historical continuity exists of a settlement before the Middle Ages.

During the 12th century, dukes under Babenberg rule made the town into an important commercial center. Later, Graz
Graz
came under the rule of the Habsburgs , and in 1281, gained special privileges from King Rudolph I .

In the 14th century, Graz
Graz
became the city of residence of the Inner Austrian line of the Habsburgs. The royalty lived in the Schlossberg castle and from there ruled Styria
Styria
, Carinthia , most of today's Slovenia, and parts of Italy
Italy
( Carniola
Carniola
, Gorizia and Gradisca , Trieste
Trieste
).

In the 16th century, the city's design and planning were primarily controlled by Italian Renaissance architects and artists. One of the most famous buildings built in this style is the Landhaus , designed by Domenico dell\'Allio , and used by the local rulers as a governmental headquarters. Landhaus Hauptplatz

Karl-Franzens-Universität, also called the University of Graz , is the city's oldest university, founded in 1585 by Archduke Karl II . For most of its existence, it was controlled by the Catholic church , and was closed in 1782 by Joseph II in an attempt to gain state control over educational institutions. Joseph II transformed it into a lyceum where civil servants and medical personnel were trained. In 1827 it was re-instituted as a university by Emperor Franz I , thus gaining the name 'Karl-Franzens Universität,' meaning 'Charles-Francis University.' Over 30,000 students currently study at this university.

The astronomer Johannes Kepler
Johannes Kepler
lived in Graz
Graz
for a short period. There, he worked as a math teacher and was a professor of mathematics at the University of Graz, but still found time to study astronomy. He left Graz
Graz
to go to Prague
Prague
when Lutherans were banned from the city.

Ludwig Boltzmann
Ludwig Boltzmann
was Professor for Mathematical Physics from 1869 to 1890. During that time, Nikola Tesla
Nikola Tesla
studied electrical engineering at the Polytechnic in 1875. Nobel Laureate Otto Loewi taught at the University of Graz from 1909 until 1938. Ivo Andric
Ivo Andric
, the 1961 Nobel Prize for Literature Laureate obtained his doctorate at the University of Graz. Erwin Schrödinger was briefly chancellor of the University of Graz
Graz
in 1936.

Graz
Graz
lies in Styria, or Steiermark in German. Mark is an old German word indicating a large area of land used as a defensive border, in which the peasantry is taught how to organize and fight in the case of an invasion. With a strategic location at the head of the open and fertile Mur valley, Graz
Graz
was often assaulted (unsuccessfully), e.g. by the Hungarians under Matthias Corvinus
Matthias Corvinus
in 1481, and by the Ottoman Turks in 1529 and 1532. Apart from the Riegersburg Castle , the Schlossberg was the only fortification in the region that never fell to the Ottoman Turks. Graz
Graz
is home to the region\'s provincial armory , which is the world's largest historical collection of late medieval and Renaissance weaponry. It has been preserved since 1551, and displays over 30,000 items.

From the earlier part of the 15th century, Graz
Graz
was the residence of the younger branch of the Habsburgs, which succeeded to the imperial throne in 1619 in the person of Emperor Ferdinand II
Emperor Ferdinand II
, who moved the capital to Vienna. New fortifications were built on the Schlossberg at the end of the 16th century. Napoleon 's army occupied Graz
Graz
in 1797. In 1809, the city withstood another assault by the French army. During this attack, the commanding officer in the fortress was ordered to defend it with about 900 men against Napoleon's army of about 3,000. He successfully defended the Schlossberg against eight attacks, but they were forced to give up after the Grande Armée occupied Vienna and the Emperor ordered to surrender. Following the defeat of Austria by Napoleonic forces at the Battle of Wagram
Battle of Wagram
in 1809, the fortifications were demolished using explosives, as stipulated in the Peace of Schönbrunn of the same year. The belltower and the civic clock tower, often used as the symbol of Graz, were spared after the people of Graz
Graz
paid a ransom for their preservation.

Archduke Karl II of Inner Austria
Austria
had 20,000 Protestant
Protestant
books burned in the square of what is now a mental hospital, and succeeded in returning Styria
Styria
to the authority of the Holy See
Holy See
. Archduke Franz Ferdinand was born in Graz, in what is now the Stadtmuseum (city museum).

POPULATION DEVELOPMENT

HISTORICAL POPULATION

YEAR POP. ±%

1900 168,808 —

1951 226,476 +34.2%

1961 237,080 +4.7%

1971 249,089 +5.1%

1981 243,166 −2.4%

1991 237,810 −2.2%

2001 226,244 −4.9%

2006 250,099 +10.5%

2008 252,852 +1.1%

2014 269,997 +6.8%

2015 274,207 +1.6%

2016 280,200 +2.2%

The more recent population figures do not give the whole picture as only people with principal residence status are counted and people with secondary residence status are not. Most of the people with secondary residence status in Graz
Graz
are students. At the end of 2016 there were 33,473 people with secondary residence status in Graz.

LARGEST GROUPS OF FOREIGN RESIDENTS

NATIONALITY Population (2017)

Romania
Romania
8,093

Germany
Germany
7,761

Croatia
Croatia
7,119

Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
6,790

Turkey
Turkey
5,247

Hungary
Hungary
4,020

Slovenia
Slovenia
2,849

Afghanistan
Afghanistan
2,110

Italy
Italy
2,087

NATIONALITY Population (2017)

Russia
Russia
2,061

Slovakia
Slovakia
1,985

Kosovo
Kosovo
1,705

Serbia
Serbia
1,641

Syria
Syria
1,316

Nigeria
Nigeria
1,028

Poland
Poland
962

Bulgaria
Bulgaria
924

CLIMATE

Due to its position southeast of the Alps, Graz
Graz
is shielded from the prevailing westerly winds that bring weather fronts in from the North Atlantic to northwestern and central Europe. The weather in Graz
Graz
is thus influenced by the Mediterranean, and it has more hours of sunshine per year than Vienna
Vienna
or Salzburg
Salzburg
and also less wind or rain. Graz
Graz
lies in a basin that is only open to the south, causing the climate to be warmer than would be expected at that latitude. Plants are found in Graz
Graz
that normally grow much further south.

* average temperatures: Graz Airport 8.7 °C (48 °F) / Karl-Franzens University 9.4 °C (49 °F) * average rainfall: 818 mm (32 in) with on average 92 days of rain (Karl Franzens University) * average hours of sunshine: 1,989 (Karl Franzens University)

CLIMATE DATA FOR GRAZ (1971–2000)

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 21.0 (69.8) 20.5 (68.9) 25.1 (77.2) 28.8 (83.8) 34.1 (93.4) 34.3 (93.7) 38.1 (100.6) 38.1 (100.6) 32.0 (89.6) 26.4 (79.5) 23.0 (73.4) 19.2 (66.6) 35.5 (95.9)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 2.8 (37) 5.8 (42.4) 10.7 (51.3) 15.3 (59.5) 20.5 (68.9) 23.4 (74.1) 25.3 (77.5) 24.7 (76.5) 20.4 (68.7) 14.6 (58.3) 7.7 (45.9) 3.6 (38.5) 14.6 (58.3)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) −1.0 (30.2) 1.0 (33.8) 5.1 (41.2) 9.6 (49.3) 14.6 (58.3) 17.7 (63.9) 19.5 (67.1) 18.9 (66) 14.7 (58.5) 9.4 (48.9) 3.7 (38.7) 0.1 (32.2) 9.4 (48.9)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) −3.8 (25.2) −2.9 (26.8) 1.0 (33.8) 4.9 (40.8) 9.5 (49.1) 12.7 (54.9) 14.7 (58.5) 14.3 (57.7) 10.6 (51.1) 5.9 (42.6) 0.9 (33.6) −2.3 (27.9) 5.5 (41.9)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) −20.2 (−4.4) −19.3 (−2.7) −17.2 (1) −5.5 (22.1) −1.3 (29.7) 3.6 (38.5) 6.3 (43.3) 4.9 (40.8) 0.8 (33.4) −6.4 (20.5) −12.7 (9.1) −17.5 (0.5) −19.3 (−2.7)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 23.9 (0.941) 30.4 (1.197) 44.1 (1.736) 49.0 (1.929) 86.0 (3.386) 117.8 (4.638) 125.1 (4.925) 113.0 (4.449) 81.1 (3.193) 61.7 (2.429) 51.9 (2.043) 34.9 (1.374) 818.9 (32.24)

AVERAGE SNOWFALL CM (INCHES) 12.8 (5.04) 15.6 (6.14) 6.5 (2.56) 2.3 (0.91) 0.1 (0.04) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.2 (0.08) 9.1 (3.58) 15.5 (6.1) 62.1 (24.45)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 1.0 MM) 4.8 4.8 6.6 7.9 10.6 11.5 10.7 9.7 7.5 6.3 6.5 5.2 92.1

AVERAGE SNOWY DAYS (≥ 1.0 CM) 15.6 10.0 4.1 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.8 9.1 42.1

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 90.4 117.8 145.7 166.4 210.0 213.0 234.4 226.9 174.0 139.6 93.0 78.8 1,890

Source: Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics

SLOVENES AND GRAZ

Politically, culturally, scientifically and religiously, Graz
Graz
was an important centre for all Slovenes
Slovenes
, especially from the establishment of the University of Graz in 1586 until the establishment of University of Ljubljana
Ljubljana
in 1919. In 1574, the first Slovene Catholic book (sl) was published in Graz, and in 1592, Hieronymus Megiser published in Graz
Graz
the book Dictionarium quatuor linguarum , the first multilingual dictionary of Slovene.

The Styrian Slovenes
Slovenes
did not consider Graz
Graz
a German city, but their own, a place to study while living at their relatives' homes and to fulfill one's career ambitions. The student associations in Graz
Graz
were a crucible of the Slovene identity and the Slovene students in Graz were more nationally aware than some others. This led to fierce anti-Slovene efforts of German nationalists in Graz
Graz
before and during World War II.

Many Slovenian Styrians study there. Slovenes
Slovenes
are among the professors at the Institute for Jazz in Graz. Numerous Slovenes
Slovenes
have found employment there, while being formally unemployed in Slovenia. For the Slovene culture, Graz
Graz
remains permanently important due to its university and the Universalmuseum Joanneum archives containing numerous documents from the Slovenian Styria.

A symposium on the relation of Graz
Graz
and the Slovenes
Slovenes
was held in Graz in 2010, at the occasion of the 200th anniversary of the establishment of the first and oldest chair of Slovene. It was established at the Lyzeum of Graz
Graz
in July 1811 on the initiative of Janez Nepomuk Primic (sl). A collection of lectures on the topic was published. The Slovenian Post commemorated the anniversary with a stamp.

MAIN SIGHTS

A panoramic view of the old town from the Grazer Schlossberg

For Graz's stint as Cultural Capital of Europe a few new public buildings were erected in the city. The most famous is the Kunsthaus (house of modern art) designed by Peter Cook and Colin Fournier , a museum constructed next to the river Mur, and the Murinsel (island in the Mur), an island made of steel, situated in the river. It was designed by the American architect Vito Acconci and contains a café, an open-air theatre and a playground.

OLD TOWN

Main article: Innere Stadt (Graz) Schlossberg (Castle mountain) with clock tower

The historic centre was added to the UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage List in 1999 due to the harmonious co-existence of typical buildings from different epochs and in different architectural styles. Situated in a cultural borderland between Central Europe, Italy
Italy
and the Balkan States, Graz
Graz
absorbed various influences from the neighbouring regions and thus received its exceptional townscape. Today the old town consists of over 1000 buildings, their age ranging from Gothic to contemporary.

The most important sights in the historic centre are:

* RATHAUS (Town Hall). * SCHLOSSBERG , hill dominating the old town (475 m (1,558.40 ft) high), site of demolished fortress, with views over Graz. * UHRTURM clocktower, symbol of Graz, on the top of Schlossberg. * NEUE GALERIE. Museum of art. * SCHLOSSBERGBAHN , a funicular railway up the Schlossberg. * The LANDHAUS, the building where the federal state parliament of Styria
Styria
resides, a palace in Lombardic style. It is one of the most important examples of Renaissance architecture in Austria
Austria
and was built by the Italian architect Domenico dell\'Allio between 1557 and 1565. * The LANDESZEUGHAUS , armoury, the largest of its kind in the world. * The OPERNHAUS , the principal venue for opera, ballet, and operetta performances. It is the 2nd largest opera house in Austria. * The SCHAUSPIELHAUS, the principal theatre for productions of plays. * DOM (cathedral), a rare monument of Gothic architecture. Once, there were many frescos on the outer walls; today, only a few remain, like the Landplagenbild ("picture of plagues") painted in 1485, presumably by Thomas von Villach
Villach
. The three plagues it depicts are locusts, pestilence and the invasion of the Turks, all of them striking the town in 1480. It features the oldest painted view of Graz. * MAUSOLEUM of Emperor Ferdinand II
Emperor Ferdinand II
next to the cathedral, the most important building of Mannerism
Mannerism
in Graz. It includes both the grave where Ferdinand II and his wife are buried, and a church dedicated to St Catherine of Alexandria. * BURG (castle complex), with Gothic double staircase, built between 1438 and 1453 by Emperor Frederick III because the old castle on the Schlossberg was too small and uncomfortable. The Burg remained the residence of the Inner Austrian Court until 1619. Today, it serves as residence of the government of Styria. * GEMALTES HAUS ("painted house"), in Herrengasse 3. It is completely covered with frescos (painted in 1742 by Johann Mayer). * KUNSTHAUS (museum of modern art). * MURINSEL , an artificial island in the Mur. * BUILDINGS, COURTYARDS (e. g. Early Renaissance courtyard of the Former House of Teutonic Knights in Sporgasse 22) and ROOFSCAPE of the old town.

OUTSIDE THE OLD TOWN

Schloss Eggenberg

* SCHLOSS EGGENBERG a Baroque palace on the western edge of Graz with State rooms and museum. In 2010 it was added to the existing World Heritage site of the historic centre of Graz. * BASILIKA MARIATROST a late Baroque church, on the eastern edge of Graz. * The HERZ JESU KIRCHE is the largest church in Graz
Graz
with the third highest spire in Austria, built in Gothic Revival style. * CALVARY HILL in the Gösting area of Graz
Graz
with a 17th-century calvary and church. * The LKH-UNIVERSITäTSKLINIKUM, is the largest hospital in Graz
Graz
and one of the largest hospitals in Austria
Austria
. It is the largest Jugendstil building complex in Austria
Austria
and was built between 1904 and 1912. It is run by the state and one of the most renowned hospitals in Austria
Austria
and Central Europe. * Best viewpoints for vistas of the city are RUINE GöSTING , hilltop castle ruins on northwestern edge of city, and PLABUTSCH/FüRSTENSTAND, behind Schloss Eggenberg with a hilltop restaurant and viewing tower.

GREATER GRAZ AREA

* ÖSTERREICHISCHES FREILICHTMUSEUM STüBING, an open-air museum containing old farmhouses/farm buildings from all over Austria reassembled in historic setting. * LURGROTTE, the most extensive cave system in Austria. * LIPIZZANERGESTüT PIBER, Lipizzaner stud at Piber where the famous horses are bred. * The STEIRISCHE WEINSTRAßE is a wine-growing region south of Graz, also known as the "Styrian Tuscany". * THERMENREGION, spa region east of Graz. * RIEGERSBURG CASTLE , a mighty fortress that was never taken. It was a bastion against Turkish invasions

CULTURE

During 2003 Graz
Graz
held the title of " European Capital of Culture
European Capital of Culture
" and was one of the UNESCO
UNESCO
"Cities of Design" in 2011.

MUSEUMS

Kunsthaus Tramway Museum City overview from Schlossberg with Kunsthaus in the middle

The most important museums in Graz
Graz
are:

* SCHLOSS EGGENBERG with ALTE GALERIE (paintings and sculptures from the Romanesque to the end of the Baroque period), COIN COLLECTION, LAPIDARIUM (Roman stonework collection),ARCHEOLOGICAL MUSEUM (featuring the Cult Wagon of Strettweg ) a special exhibitions area and the 90,000 m2 romantic landscape gardens . * MUSEUM IM PALAIS: museum of Styrian cultural history from the Middle Ages to the present. * NEUE GALERIE: visual arts from the 19th and 20th centuries. * NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM: exhibition of botany, mineralogy and zoology. * STADTMUSEUM GRAZ: city museum. * KUNSTHAUS : exhibition hall of contemporary art . * FORUM STADTPARK: museum of contemporary art. * CAMERA AUSTRIA: museum of contemporary photography. * LANDESZEUGHAUS : medieval armory comprising 32,000 pieces of armour and weaponry, largest of its kind in the world. * VOLKSKUNDEMUSEUM: museum of folk culture and lore . * DIöZESANMUSEUM: museum of the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
. * KüNSTLERHAUS: exhibition hall of contemporary visual arts. * LITERATURHAUS: museum of contemporary German literature . * MUSEUM DER WAHRNEHMUNG: museum of the senses, samadhi bath. * KINDERMUSEUM FRIDA"> Herz-Jesu-Kirche

Buildings in Graz
Graz
which are at least 50m tall:

NAME OR ADDRESS COMPLETION USAGE HEIGHT (M) FLOORS

1. Herz-Jesu-Kirche 1887 church 109

2. Elisabeth Hochhaus 1964 residential 75 25

3. Kärntner Straße 212, Liebenauer Hauptstraße 309 1968 and 1955 residential 69 21

4. Franziskanerkirche 1240 church 69

5. Telekom Austria
Austria
Tower 1960s office 65 15

6. Basilica
Basilica
Mariatrost 1724 church 61

7. Hafnerriegel 1960 residential 61 19

8. Styria
Styria
Media Center 2014 office 60 15

9. St. Peter Pfarrweg, Kindermanngasse, Hanuschgasse 1970s residential 55 17

10. Vinzenz Muchitschstraße, Ungergasse, Kärntner Straße 216, Eggenberger Gürtel 1970s residential 52 16

Buildings that will be at least 50m high currently (2017) under construction: the eco-friendly "Science Tower", this 60m tall office building will house various local green technology companies when completed and will be a zero-energy building .

SPORTS

SK Sturm Graz is the main football club of the city, with three Austrian championships and five runner-up seasons. The Grazer AK also won an Austrian championship, but went into administration in 2007 and was excluded from the professional league system.

In ice hockey, the ATSE Graz was the Austrian Hockey League champion in 1975 and 1978. The EC Graz was runner-up in 1991-92, 1992–93 and 1993-94. The Graz 99ers plays in first division since 2000.

UBSC Raiffeisen Graz plays in the Austrian Basketball League .

The Graz
Graz
Giants play in the Austrian Football League (American Football).

STYRIARTE

Graz
Graz
hosts the annual festival of classical music Styriarte , founded in 1985 to tie conductor Nikolaus Harnoncourt
Nikolaus Harnoncourt
closer to his hometown. Events have been held at different venues in Graz
Graz
and in the surrounding region.

TRANSPORT

Tram
Tram
at Jakominiplatz

An extensive public transport network makes Graz
Graz
an easy city to navigate without a car. The city has a comprehensive bus network, complementing the Graz
Graz
tram network consisting of eight lines. Four lines pass through the new underground tramstop at the main railway station (Hauptbahnhof) and on to the old town before branching out. Furthermore, there are seven night-time bus routes, although these run only at weekends and on evenings preceding public holidays.

The Schlossbergbahn , a funicular railway , and the Schlossberg lift , a vertical lift, link the city centre to the Schlossberg .

From the main railway station ( Graz Hauptbahnhof ), regional trains link to most of Styria. Direct trains also run to most major cities nearby including Vienna
Vienna
, Salzburg
Salzburg
, Innsbruck
Innsbruck
, Maribor
Maribor
and Ljubljana in Slovenia
Slovenia
, Zagreb
Zagreb
in Croatia
Croatia
, Budapest
Budapest
in Hungary
Hungary
, Prague
Prague
and Brno
Brno
in the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
, Zürich in Switzerland
Switzerland
, as well as Munich
Munich
, Stuttgart
Stuttgart
, Heidelberg
Heidelberg
, and Frankfurt
Frankfurt
in Germany
Germany
. Trains for Vienna
Vienna
leave every hour. In recent years many railway stations within the city limits and in the suburbs have been rebuilt or modernised and are now part of the "S-Bahn Graz", a commuter train service connecting the city with its suburban area and towns nearby.

Graz Airport is located about 10 km (6 mi) south of the city centre and is accessible by bus, railway, and car. Direct destinations include Amsterdam, Birmingham, Düsseldorf , Frankfurt, Munich, Stuttgart
Stuttgart
, Istanbul, Zurich and Vienna.

HEALTH

In Graz
Graz
there are seven hospitals, several private hospitals and sanatoriums, as well as 44 pharmacies.

The LKH-Universitätsklinikum Graz
Graz
is one of the hospitals that can provide maximum care, with 1556 beds and 7190 employees. It covers the east of the city. In the west of the city there is the LKH Graz-West in Eggenberg with 280 beds and about 500 employees, the Landesnervenklinik Sigmund Freud (LSF) in Straßgang with 880 beds and 1,100 employees, as well as the Unfallkrankenhaus der AUVA in Eggenberg with 180 beds and a total of 444 employees.

Furthermore, there is the geriatric hospital Albert-Schweitzer-Klinik in the west of the city with 304 beds, the Krankenhaus der Barmherzigen Brüder I in Lend with 225 beds, the Krankenhaus der Barmherzigen Brüder II in Eggenberg with 260 beds and the Krankenhaus der Elisabethinen in Gries with 182 beds.

There are several private clinics as well: the Privatklinik Kastanienhof, the Privatklinik Leech, the Privatklinik der Kreuzschwestern, the Sanatorium St. Leonhard, the Sanatorium Hansa and the Privatklinik Graz-Ragnitz.

EMS in Graz
Graz
is provided solely by the Austrian Red Cross . Perpetually two emergency doctor's cars (NEF – Notarzteinsatzfahrzeug), two NAWs (Notarztwagen – ambulances staffed with a doctor in addition to regular personnel) and about 30 RTWs (Rettungswagen – regular ambulances) are on standby. Furthermore, several non-emergency ambulances (KTW – Krankentransportwagen) and a Mobile Intensive Care Unit (MICU) are operated by the Red Cross
Red Cross
in order to organise transportation of non-emergency patients to and between hospitals. In addition to the Red Cross
Red Cross
the Arbeiter-Samariter-Bund Österreichs (Labor-Samaritan-Alliance), the Malteser Hospitaldienst Austria
Austria
(the Austrian organisation of the Order of Malta Ambulance Corps ) and the Grünes Kreuz (Green Cross) operate various non-emergency ambulances (KTW) for non-emergency patient transportation. In addition to the land-ambulances there's also the C12 air ambulance helicopter stationed at Graz
Graz
airport, which is also staffed with an emergency doctor in addition to regular personnel.

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Austria
Austria

TWIN TOWNS AND SISTER CITIES

Graz
Graz
is twinned with:

* Coventry
Coventry
, West Midlands , England, since 1957 * Darmstadt
Darmstadt
, Hesse
Hesse
, Germany, since 1968 * Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
, Croatia, since 1994 * Groningen , Groningen , Netherlands, since 1964 * Ljubljana
Ljubljana
, Slovenia
Slovenia
, since 2001 * Maribor
Maribor
, Slovenia, since 1987 * Montclair , New Jersey
New Jersey
, United States, since 1950 * Pécs , Hungary, since 1989 * Pula
Pula
, Croatia, since 1972 * Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
, Russia, since 2001 * Timişoara , Romania, since 1982 * Trieste
Trieste
, Trieste
Trieste
, Friuli-Venezia Giulia
Friuli-Venezia Giulia
, Italy, since 1973 * Trondheim
Trondheim
, Norway, since 1968

Other forms of cooperation and city friendship similar to the twin city programmes

* Niš , Serbia * Banja Luka
Banja Luka
, Bosnia and Herzegovina

NOTABLE RESIDENTS

The following are past and present notable residents of Graz.

* Arnold Schwarzenegger
Arnold Schwarzenegger
, former bodybuilding champion, actor and former governor of California
California
. Born and raised in the farming village Thal , 2 km (1 mi) from Graz. In 2005, the Graz
Graz
soccer stadium named after Schwarzenegger was renamed Stadion Graz-Liebenau after controversy over the use of the death penalty in California; today it is called the Merkur-Arena * Leopold von Sacher-Masoch , writer and journalist, studied in Graz; the term masochism is derived from his name * Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach , architect of the Baroque period * Johann Puch , Slovenian inventor, mechanic and vehicle producer * Ludwig Boltzmann
Ludwig Boltzmann
, Austrian physicist, Professor of Mathematical Physics at the University of Graz (1869), chair of Experimental Physics at the University of Graz (1876–1890) * Robert Stolz , Austrian composer and conductor * Friedrich St. Florian , Austrian-American architect * Olga Neuwirth , one of the most important contemporary Austrian composers * Nicolaus Harnoncourt , born in Berlin
Berlin
and raised in Graz, a conductor known for his performances of classical works on period instruments * Helmut Kollars , writer and illustrator * Jochen Rindt
Jochen Rindt
, the first Austrian Formula One
Formula One
champion raised in Graz
Graz
by his grandmother * Otto Wanz , former professional wrestler who held the AWA World Heavyweight Championship * Wolfgang Bauer , Austrian writer * Werner Schwab , playwright and visual artist * Bernd Brückler
Bernd Brückler
, professional ice hockey player * Hermann Schloffer , surgeon * Victor Franz Hess , Nobel prize
Nobel prize
-winning physicist * Thomas Tebbich , decathlete and pole vaulter * Thomas Vanek
Thomas Vanek
, professional hockey player, born in Baden bei Wien , raised in Graz * Helmut Marko , former racing driver * Emanuel Pogatetz , defender at 1. FC Nürnberg
1. FC Nürnberg
* Markus Schopp , former football midfielder * August Musger , inventor of the slow motion technique in cinema * Karl Böhm , Austrian conductor * Hans Hollmann , theatre director and actor * Lili Novy , Slovenian poet * Otto Loewi Nobel prize
Nobel prize
-winning physiologist * Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria
Austria
, Archduke of Austria-Este and heir to the Austro-Hungarian
Austro-Hungarian
throne * Nikola Tesla
Nikola Tesla
, studied electrical engineering in Graz * Gert Schnider , Abalone-champion * Baron Roman Ungern von Sternberg , prominent figure in the Russian White movement
White movement
and dictator of Mongolia
Mongolia
in 1921 * Eduard Roschmann * Rainer Binder-Krieglstein (de), contemporary musician * Anton Rintelen , cabinet minister and Nazi
Nazi
conspirator * Hans Ulrich von Eggenberg , Austrian statesman and early "prime minister" during the Thirty Years\' War * Mick Blue , a pornographic actor and director * Manfred Hoeberl , powerlifter and strongman * Gregor Hammerl , President of the Federal Council of Austria
Austria
* Elisabeth Eberl , Olympic javelin thrower * Michael Gspurning , current goalkeeper for FC Schalke 04 II * Ernestine von Kirchsberg , painter * Johannes Kepler
Johannes Kepler
, during his career, Kepler was a mathematics teacher at a seminary school in Graz * Erwin Schrödinger , briefly chancellor of the University of Graz in 1936 * Constance of Austria
Austria
, Queen of Poland
Poland
* Anne of Austria
Austria
, Queen of Poland
Poland
and Sweden
Sweden

SEE ALSO

* Austria
Austria
portal * List of World Heritage Sites in Austria
Austria

REFERENCES

* ^ Statistik Austria
Austria
- Bevölkerung zu Jahresbeginn 2002-2016 nach Gemeinden (Gebietsstand 1.1.2016) for Graz. * ^ "Anwesende Bevölkerung nach Wohnsitz und Gechlecht pro Bezirk – Stand 1. April 2010" (PDF) (in German). Graz: Stadt Graz
Graz
– Präsidialamt. Retrieved 7 May 2010. * ^ "City of Graz/Stadt Graz". Interreg CENTRAL EUROPE. Retrieved 2017-09-11. * ^ A B C D Granda, Stane (2006). "Gradec in Slovenci" (PDF). Traditiones (in Slovenian). 35 (2). University of Graz. pp. 99–103. Retrieved 17 December 2010. * ^ Baynes, T.S.; Smith, W.R., eds. (1880). "Gratz". Encyclopædia Britannica . 11 (9th ed.). New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. p. 63. * ^ A B "A Short History of the City". www.graz.at. Graz: Stadt Graz
Graz
– Magistratsdirektion, Abteilung für Öffentlichkeitsarbeit. Retrieved 25 July 2017. * ^ "Zahlen + Fakten: Bevölkerung, Bezirke, Wirtschaft, Geografie". Graz: Stadt Graz
Graz
– Magistratsdirektion, Abteilung für Öffentlichkeitsarbeit. 1 January 2017. Retrieved 22 December 2017. * ^ "Ein Blick auf die Gemeinde Graz
Graz
" (PDF) (in Austrian). Statistik Austria
Austria
. Retrieved 7 May 2010. CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link ) * ^ "Ausländische Bevölkerung in Graz" (PDF). www.graz.at. GRAZ. Retrieved 22 December 2017. * ^ Graz-Universität Klimadaten * ^ "Klimadaten von Österreich 1971–2000 -Graz-Uni" (in German). Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics. Retrieved 6 September 2012. * ^ "Primeri nekaj sklanjatev in spregatev v Megiserjevem Dictionarium quatuor linguarum 1592" . Jezikoslovni zapiski (in Slovenian). Inštitut za slovenski jezik Frana Ramovša, ZRC SAZU. 13 (1/2): 23–32. 2007. ISSN 0354-0448 . COBISS 26967085. * ^ "Janez Nepomuk Primic in ustanovitev stolice za slovenski jezik na liceju v Gradcu 1811" (PDF). Slavistična revija (in Slovenian). 50 (1). January–March 2002. ISSN 1855-7570 . * ^ Bračič, Bojan (November–December 2011). Korber, Mateja, ed. "Predstavitev znamke v baročni dvorani graškega semenišča". Razgledi: glasilo Pošte Slovenije . Pošta Slovenije . ISSN 1318-5705 . * ^ "Flughafen Graz
Graz
:: Destinations". Retrieved 21 August 2015. * ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M "Partner cities - City of Graz". www.graz.at. Retrieved 27 March 2017. * ^ "Coventry\'s twin towns and cities - Graz, Austria". Coventry City Council. Retrieved 27 March 2017. * ^ Griffin, Mary (2 August 2011). "Coventry\'s twin towns". Coventry