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The Gelug
Gelug
(Wyl. dGe-Lugs-Pa) is the newest of the schools of Tibetan Buddhism.[1] It was founded by Je Tsongkhapa
Je Tsongkhapa
(1357–1419), a philosopher and Tibetan religious leader. The first monastery he established was named Ganden
Ganden
(which gives an alternative name to the Gelug
Gelug
school, the Ganden-Pa), and to this day the Ganden Tripa
Ganden Tripa
is the nominal head of the school, though its most influential figure is the Dalai Lama. Allying themselves with the Mongols
Mongols
as a powerful patron, the Gelug
Gelug
emerged as the pre-eminent Buddhist school in Tibet
Tibet
and Mongolia
Mongolia
since the end of the 16th century. The Gelug
Gelug
school was also called the "New Kadam", because it saw itself a revival of the Kadam school founded by Atisha.[2] "Ganden" is the Tibetan rendition of the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
name "Tushita", the Pure land
Pure land
associated with Maitreya
Maitreya
Buddha. At first, Tsongkhapa's school was called " Ganden
Ganden
Choluk" meaning "the Spiritual Lineage of Ganden". By taking the first syllable of 'Ganden' and the second of 'Choluk', this was abbreviated to "Galuk" and then modified to the more easily pronounced "Gelug".[3]

Contents

1 Origins and development

1.1 Tsongkhapa 1.2 Establishment of the Dalai Lamas 1.3 Emergence as dominant school

2 Teachings

2.1 Lamrim
Lamrim
and Sunyata 2.2 Vajrayāna Practice 2.3 Vinaya

3 Study 4 Monasteries and lineage holders

4.1 Monasteries 4.2 Lineage holders

5 See also 6 Notes 7 References

7.1 Citations 7.2 Sources

8 External links

Origins and development[edit] The Kadam school was a monastic tradition in Tibet, founded by Atisa’s chief disciple Dromtön
Dromtön
in 1056 C.E. with the establishment of Reting Monastery. The school itself was based upon the Lamrim
Lamrim
or “Graded Path,” approach synthesized by Atisa. While it had died out as an independent tradition by the 14th century, this lineage became the inspiration for the foundation of the Gelug-pa.[4] Tsongkhapa[edit] The Gelug
Gelug
school was founded by Je Tsongkhapa, an eclectic Buddhist monk who traveled Tibet
Tibet
studying under Sakya, Kagyu
Kagyu
and Nyingma teachers, such as the Sakya
Sakya
Master Rendawa (1349–1412) and the Dzogchen
Dzogchen
master Drupchen Lekyi Dorje.[5][6][7] A great admirer of the Kadam school, Tsongkhapa
Tsongkhapa
merged the Kadam teachings of Lojong
Lojong
(mind training) and Lamrim
Lamrim
(stages of the path) with the Sakya
Sakya
Tantric teachings.[8] He also emphasized monasticism and a strict adherence to vinaya (monastic discipline). He combined this with extensive and unique writings on Madhyamaka, the Svatantrika-Prasaṅgika distinction, and Nagarjuna's philosophy of Śūnyatā
Śūnyatā
(emptiness) that, in many ways, marked a turning point in the history of philosophy in Tibet.[9][10] Tsongkhapa's Great Exposition of the Stages of the Path (Tib. Lam Rim Chenmo), is an exposition of his synthesis and one of the great works of the Gelug school. Tsongkhapa
Tsongkhapa
and his disciples founded Ganden
Ganden
monastery in 1409, which was followed by Drepung (1416) and Sera (1419), which became the "great three" Gelug
Gelug
monasteries. After the death of Tsongkhapa
Tsongkhapa
the order grew quickly, as it developed a reputation for strict adherence to monastic discipline and scholarship as well as tantric practice.[11] Tsongkhapa
Tsongkhapa
had two principal disciples, Gyaltsab Je (1364—1432) and Khedrup Gelek Pelzang, 1st Panchen Lama
Panchen Lama
(1385—1438). Establishment of the Dalai Lamas[edit] In 1577 Sonam Gyatso, who was considered to be the third incarnation of Gyalwa Gendün Drup,[12] formed an alliance with the then most powerful Mongol leader, Altan Khan.[12] As a result, Sonam Gyatso was designated as the 3rd Dalai Lama; "dalai" is a translation into Mongolian of the name "Gyatso" ocean,[12] and Gyalwa Gendün Drup and Gendun Gyatso were posthumously recognized as the 1st and 2nd Dalai Lamas.[13] Sonam Gyatso was very active in proselytizing among the Mongols,[13] and the Gelug
Gelug
tradition was to become the main spiritual orientations of the Mongols
Mongols
in the ensuing centuries.[13] This brought the Gelugpas powerful patrons who were to propel them to pre-eminence in Tibet.[13] The Gelug-Mongol alliance was further strengthened as after Sonam Gyatso's death, his incarnation was found to be Altan Khan's great-grandson, the 4th Dalai Lama.[13] Emergence as dominant school[edit] Following violent strife among the sects of Tibetan Buddhism, the Gelug
Gelug
school emerged as the dominant one, with the military help of the Mongol Güshri Khan in 1642. According to Tibetan historian Samten Karmay, Sonam Chophel[14] (1595–1657), treasurer of the Ganden Palace, was the prime architect of the Gelug's rise to political power. Later he received the title Desi [Wylie: sde-sris], meaning "Regent", which he would earn through his efforts to establish Gelugpa power.[15] The fifth Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
was the first in his line to hold full political and spiritual power in Tibet. He established diplomatic relations with Qing Dynasty
Qing Dynasty
China, built the Potala Palace
Potala Palace
in Lhasa, institutionalized the Tibetan state Nechung
Nechung
oracle and welcomed Western missionaries. From the period of the 5th Dalai Lama
5th Dalai Lama
in the 17th century, the Dalai Lamas held political control over central Tibet.[16] The core leadership of this government was also referred to as the Ganden
Ganden
Phodrang. Scottish Botanist George Forrest, who witnessed the 1905 Tibetan Rebellion led by the Gelug
Gelug
Lamas, wrote that the majority of the people in the Mekong
Mekong
valley in Yunnan
Yunnan
were Tibetan. According to his accounts, the Gelugpas were the dominant power in the region, with their Lamas effectively governing the area. Forrest said they used "force and fraud" to "terrorise the... peasantry".[17] After the Incorporation of Tibet
Tibet
into the People's Republic of China, thousands of Tibetan monasteries were destroyed or damaged, and many Gelug
Gelug
monks, including the 14th Dalai Lama
14th Dalai Lama
fled the country to India. The three major Gelug
Gelug
monastic colleges (Sera, Drepung and Ganden) were recreated in India. The Dalai Lama's current seat is Namgyal Monastery
Monastery
at Dharamshala, this monastery also maintains a branch monastery in New York City. Teachings[edit] Lamrim
Lamrim
and Sunyata[edit] The central teachings of the Gelug
Gelug
School are the Lamrim
Lamrim
teachings of Tsongkhapa's Great Exposition of the Stages of the Path (Lamrim chenmo), which is based on the teachings of the Indian master Atiśa (c. 11th century) in A Lamp for the Path to Awakening. As the name indicates, this is a hierarchical model in which the practitioner accomplishes varying stages based on the classical Indian Mahayana model of the Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
"five paths and ten levels". One initially begins with the desire to seek a good rebirth, and then moves to seeking liberation for oneself (Sravaka motivation), and then to seeking Buddhahood
Buddhahood
so as to aid the liberation of others (Mahāyāna motivation), further adding Vajrayana
Vajrayana
methods to aid in the speedy attainment of Buddhahood. Higher motivations build on, but do not subvert the lower ones.[18] Tsongkhapa
Tsongkhapa
outlines the three major features of the path thus:[19]

The intention definitely to leave cyclic existence (samsara) Generating the intention to attain awakening for the sake of all sentient beings The correct view of emptiness (shunyata).

The correct view of emptiness is initially established through study and reasoning in order to ascertain if phenomena are the way they appear. Gelug
Gelug
texts contain many explanations to help one obtain a conceptual understanding of emptiness and to practice insight meditation (vipasyana). Gelug
Gelug
meditation includes an analytical kind of insight practice which is "the point-by-point contemplation of the logical arguments of the teachings, culminating in those for the voidness of self and all phenomena."[20] The presentation of samatha and vipaśyanā in Tsongkhapa's Lamrim
Lamrim
is also based on eighth-century Indian teacher Kamalaśīla's Bhāvanākrama, or ‘Stages of Meditation’.[21] The highest view of emptiness is considered to be the Prāsangika Mādhyamika
Mādhyamika
of Candrakirti, as interpreted by Tsongkhapa. Another important text of Gelug
Gelug
teachings is the Book of Kadam also known as the Kadam Emanation Scripture which includes teachings from Kadam masters like Atisha
Atisha
and Dromton.[22] Vajrayāna Practice[edit] The tantric practices of the Gelug
Gelug
are also integrated into the stages of the path model by Tsongkhapa's The Great Exposition of Secret Mantra. This is combined with the yogas of Anuttarayoga Tantra iṣṭadevatā such as the Guhyasamāja, Cakrasaṃvara, Yamāntaka and Kālacakra tantras, where the key focus is the direct experience of the indivisible union of bliss and emptiness. The Guhyasamāja tantra
Guhyasamāja tantra
is the principal one. As the Dalai Lama remarks,

There is a saying in the Gelug, 'If one is on the move it is Guhyasamāja. If one is still, it is Guhyasamāja. If one is meditating, it should be upon Guhyasamāja.' Therefore, whether one is engaged in study or practice, Guhyasamāja should be one's focus."[23]

Tsongkhapa
Tsongkhapa
also incorporated the tantric practice of the Six Yogas of Naropa, and Mahamudra, from the Dagpo Kagyu
Kagyu
lineages. This tradition was continued by the first Panchen Lama, who composed A Root Text for the Precious Gelug/Kagyü Tradition of Mahamudra.[24] The Gelug tradition also maintains Dzogchen
Dzogchen
teachings; Lozang Gyatso, 5th Dalai Lama
Lama
(1617-1682), Thubten Gyatso, 13th Dalai Lama
13th Dalai Lama
( 1876-1933), and Tenzin Gyatso, 14th Dalai Lama
14th Dalai Lama
are some Gelug-pa Dzogchen
Dzogchen
masters.[web 1] Likewise the practice of Chöd
Chöd
was taught by Gelug-pas such as Kyabje Zong Rinpoche. Vinaya[edit] The Gelug
Gelug
school focuses on ethics and monastic discipline of the vinaya as the central plank of spiritual practice. In particular, the need to pursue spiritual practice in a graded, sequential manner is emphasized. Arguably, Gelug
Gelug
is the only school of vajrayāna Buddhism that prescribes monastic ordination as a necessary qualification and basis in its teachers (lamas / gurus).[citation needed] Lay people are usually not permitted to give initiations if there are teachers with monastic vows within close proximity. Study[edit]

Play media

Monks debating at Sera monastery, Tibet, 2013.

The Gelug
Gelug
school developed a highly structured system of scholastic study which was based on the memorization and study of key texts as well as formal debate. The primary topics and texts used in study are:[25]

Monastic discipline (’dul ba, vinaya): Vinaya-sutra by Gunaprabha Abhidharma: Vasubandhu’s Abhidharmakosha Epistemology
Epistemology
(tshad ma, pramana ): which is based on Dharmakirti’s Pramanavarttika, a Commentary on [Dignaga’s] ‘Compendium of Valid Cognition’, Madhyamaka: Chandrakirti’s Madhyamakāvatāra. Prajnaparamita: Maitreya’s Abhisamayalankara.

Six commentaries by Tsongkhapa
Tsongkhapa
are also a prime source for the studies of the Gelug
Gelug
tradition, as follows:

The Great Exposition of the Stages of the Path (Lam-rim chen-mo) The Great Exposition of Tantras
Tantras
(sNgag-rim chenmo) The Essence of Eloquence on the Interpretive and Definitive Teachings (Drnng-nges legs-bshad snying-po) The Praise of Relativity (rTen-'brel bstodpa) The Clear Exposition of the Five Stages of Guhyasamāja (gSang-'dus rim-lnga gsal-sgron) and The Golden Rosary (gSer-phreng)

According to Georges Dreyfus,

For each topic studied, the procedure is similar. The process starts with the heuristic memorization of the root text and sometimes of its commentaries. It continues with the interpretation of the root text through commentaries, and culminates in dialectical debate.[26]

After the study of the exoteric texts, a monk may then enter the esoteric study and practice of tantric texts, particularly the Guhyasamāja, Yamāntaka, and Cakrasamvara tantras.[27] A monk who completes all his study may then attempt for a geshe degree, a rare and difficult title to obtain which can take 15 to 25 years to complete.[28] Each Gelug
Gelug
monastery uses its own set of commentarial texts by different authors, known as monastic manuals (Tib. yigcha). The teachings of Tsongkhapa
Tsongkhapa
are seen as a protection against developing misconceptions in understanding and practice of Mahāyāna
Mahāyāna
and Vajrayāna Buddhism. It is said that his true followers take The Great Exposition of the Stages of the Path as their heart teaching. The Great Exposition of the Stages of the Path was completely translated into English in a three volume set in 2004, under the title The Great Treatise on the Stages of the Path to Enlightenment. The translation took 13 years to complete, and was undertaken by scholars at the Tibetan Buddhist Learning Center, a non-sectarian Tibetan Buddhist educational center in Washington, New Jersey.[29] A translation is also available in Vietnamese.[30] In 2008, the 14th Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
Tenzin Gyatso gave a historical five day teaching on the text at Lehigh University.[31] Monasteries and lineage holders[edit]

Ganden
Ganden
monastery, Tibet, 2013

Sera Mey, Sera Monastery, India

Monasteries[edit] Tsongkhapa
Tsongkhapa
founded the monastery of Ganden
Ganden
in 1409 as his main seat. Drepung Monastery
Drepung Monastery
was founded by Jamyang Choje, Sera Monastery
Sera Monastery
was founded by Chöje Shakya Yeshe and the Gyalwa Gendün Drup founded Tashi Lhunpo Monastery. Before the Chinese occupation Ganden
Ganden
and Sera each had about 5,000 monks, while Drepung housed over 7,000. Labrang Monastery, in Xiahe County in Gansu province (and in the traditional Tibetan province of Amdo), was founded in 1709 by the first Jamyang Zhaypa, Ngawang Tsondru. Many Gelug
Gelug
monasteries were built throughout Tibet
Tibet
as well as in China
China
and Mongolia. Lineage holders[edit] Tsongkhapa
Tsongkhapa
had many students, his two main disciples being Gyaltsab Je (1364–1431) and Khedrup Gelek Pelzang, 1st Panchen Lama (1385–1438). Other outstanding disciples were Togden Jampal Gyatso, Jamyang Choje, Jamchenpa Sherap Senge and Gendün Drup, 1st Dalai Lama (1391–1474). After Tsongkhapa's passing, his teachings were held and spread by Gyaltsab Je and Khedrup Gelek Pelzang, who were his successors as abbots of Ganden
Ganden
Monastery. The lineage is still held by the Ganden Tripas – the throne-holders of Ganden Monastery
Ganden Monastery
– among whom the present holder is Thubten Nyima Lungtok Tenzin Norbu,[32] the 102nd Ganden Tripa
Ganden Tripa
(and not, as often misunderstood, by the Dalai Lama). Among the main lineage holders of the Gelug
Gelug
are:

The successive incarnations of the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
(also commonly referred to as "Gyalwa Rinpoche") The succession of the Panchen Lama, the Chagkya Dorje Chang, Ngachen Könchok Gyaltsen, Kyishö Tulku
Tulku
Tenzin Thrinly, Jamyang Shepa, Phurchok Jampa Rinpoche, Jamyang Dewe Dorje, Takphu Rinpoche, Khachen Yeshe Gyaltsen Successive incarnations of Kyabje Yongzin Ling Rinpoche Successive incarnations of Kyabje Yongzin Trijang Lobsang Yeshe Tenzin Gyatso

See also[edit]

Tibetan Buddhism
Tibetan Buddhism
portal Tibet
Tibet
portal

Schools of Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism

Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
and Panchen Lama History of Tibet

List of rulers of Tibet

Gyuto Order Foundation for the Preservation of the Mahayana
Mahayana
Tradition Yellow shamanism

Notes[edit]

^ Georges Dreyfus, The Shugden Affair: Origins of a Controversy (Part I). Official website of the Office of His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama. Archived 2013-11-03 at the Wayback Machine.

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ Schaik, Sam van. Tibet: A History. Yale University Press 2011, page 129. ^ Ray, Reginald. Indestructible Truth: The Living Spirituality of Tibetan Buddhism, Ch. 8. ^ Mullin 2001, p.367. ^ Bernstein. Tearing the Yellow Hat in Two: Conflict and Controversy in the Evolution of Gelugpa Buddhist Authority in Tibet, page 6. ^ Powers, Introduction to Tibetan Buddhism, 2007, page 469 ^ Crystal Mirror VI : 1971, Dharma
Dharma
Publishing, page 464, 0-913546-59-3 ^ The Life of Shabkar: The Autobiography of a Tibetan yogin by Źabs-dkar Tshogs-drug-raṅ-grol, Matthieu Ricard. State University of New York Press: 1994. ISBN 0-7914-1835-9 pg 25 ^ Van Schaik. The Spirit of Tibetan Buddhism, p. 10. ^ Jinpa, Thupten. Self, Reality and Reason in Tibetan Philosophy. Routledge 2002, page 10. ^ Lama
Lama
Tsongkhapa, Lamrim
Lamrim
Chenmo V3 Pp 224-267 ^ Powers, Introduction to Tibetan Buddhism, 2007, page 476 ^ a b c McKay 2003, p. 18. ^ a b c d e McKay 2003, p. 19. ^ also Sonam Choephel or Sonam Rabten ^ Samten G. Karmay, The Great Fifth ^ Waddell, L. Austine (1895). The Buddhism
Buddhism
of Tibet
Tibet
or Lamaism: with its Mystic Cults, Symbolism and Mythology, and in its Relation to Indian Buddhism. London. p. 63. OCLC 475275688. Archived from the original on 12 March 2008. And as we have seen in the previous chapter, the Ge-lug-pa sect in 1640, under its fifth Grand Lama, leapt into temporal power as the dominant sect in Tibet, and has ever since remained the Established Church for the country.  ^ Short 2004, p. 108. ^ Harvey, Peter. An Introduction to Buddhism: Teachings, History and Practices (Introduction to Religion) 2nd Edition, page 208. ^ Powers, Introduction to Tibetan Buddhism, 2007, page 482 ^ Ray, Reginald. Indestructible Truth The Living Spirituality of Tibetan Buddhism, page 196-197 ^ Harvey, Peter. An Introduction to Buddhism: Teachings, History and Practices (Introduction to Religion) 2nd Edition, page 341. ^ Thubten Jinpa (translator). The Book of Kadam: The Core Texts ^ Speech to the Second Gelug
Gelug
Conference Archived 2010-04-19 at the Wayback Machine. by the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
(06-12-2000), retrieved 03-23-2010). ^ Berzin, Alexander; Dalai Lama. The Gelug/ Kagyu
Kagyu
Tradition of Mahamudra, 1997 ^ Powers, Introduction to Tibetan Buddhism, 2007, page 477-8 ^ Dreyfus, Georges. The Sound of Two Hands Clapping The Education of a Tibetan Buddhist Monk, 2003, page 108. ^ Dreyfus, Georges. The Sound of Two Hands Clapping The Education of a Tibetan Buddhist Monk, 2003, page 118. ^ Powers, Introduction to Tibetan Buddhism, 2007, page 481. ^ "Publications from the Tibetan Buddhist Learning Center". www.labsum.org.  ^ "Đại Luận Về Giai Trình Của Đạo Giác Ngộ – Lamrim Chenmo - Prajna Upadesa Foundation". www.prajnaupadesa.net.  ^ http://www.lehigh.edu/~indalai/visit.html ^ "Loselingmonastery -". Loselingmonastery. 

Sources[edit]

The Ri-Me Philosophy of Jamgon Kongtrul
Jamgon Kongtrul
the Great: A Study of the Buddhist Lineages of Tibet
Tibet
by Ringu Tulku, ISBN 1-59030-286-9, Shambhala
Shambhala
Publications Ringu Tulku: The Rimé (Ris-med) movement of Jamgon Kongtrul
Jamgon Kongtrul
the Great Paper given on 7th Conference of International Association For Tibetan Studies in June 1995 McKay, A., ed. (2003), History of Tibet, RoutledgeCurzon, ISBN 0-7007-1508-8  Mullin, Glenn H. (2001). The Fourteen Dalai Lamas: A Sacred Legacy of Reincarnation. Clear Light Publishers. Santa Fe, NM. ISBN 1-57416-092-3. Short, Philip S. (2004), In pursuit of plants: experiences of nineteenth & early twentieth century plant collectors, Timber Press, ISBN 0-88192-635-3 

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Early Buddhist schools Pre-sectarian Buddhism Basic points unifying Theravāda and Mahāyāna

Countries

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Iran

Western countries

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History

Timeline Ashoka Buddhist councils History of Buddhism
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in India

Decline of Buddhism
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in India

Great Anti-Buddhist Persecution Greco-Buddhism Buddhism
Buddhism
and the Roman world Buddhism
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in the West Silk Road transmission of Buddhism Persecution of Buddhists Banishment of Buddhist monks from Nepal Buddhist crisis Sinhalese Buddhist nationalism Buddhist modernism Vipassana movement 969 Movement Women in Buddhism

Philosophy

Abhidharma Atomism Buddhology Creator Economics Eight Consciousnesses Engaged Buddhism Eschatology Ethics Evolution Humanism Logic Reality Secular Buddhism Socialism The unanswered questions

Culture

Architecture

Temple Vihara Wat Stupa Pagoda Candi Dzong architecture Japanese Buddhist architecture Korean Buddhist temples Thai temple art and architecture Tibetan Buddhist architecture

Art

Greco-Buddhist

Bodhi
Bodhi
Tree Budai Buddharupa Calendar Cuisine Funeral Holidays

Vesak Uposatha Magha Puja Asalha Puja Vassa

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Om mani padme hum

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Lumbini Maya Devi Temple Bodh Gaya Sarnath Kushinagar

Poetry Prayer beads Prayer wheel Symbolism

Dharmachakra Flag Bhavacakra Swastika Thangka

Temple of the Tooth Vegetarianism

Miscellaneous

Abhijñā Amitābha Avalokiteśvara

Guanyin

Brahmā Dhammapada Dharma
Dharma
talk Hinayana Kalpa Koliya Lineage Maitreya Māra Ṛddhi Sacred languages

Pali Sanskrit

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Comparison

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Influences Comparison

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Lists

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named

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Category Portal

v t e

Dalai Lamas

Gendun Drup Gendun Gyatso Sonam Gyatso Yonten Gyatso Lozang Gyatso Tsangyang Gyatso Kelzang Gyatso Jamphel Gyatso Lungtok Gyatso Tsultrim Gyatso Khedrup Gyatso Trinley Gyatso Thubten Gyatso Tenzin Gyatso

List of Dalai Lamas Gelug
Gelug
Yellow Hat sect Ganden
Ganden
Phodrang Potala Palace Norbulingka

v t e

Panchen Lamas

Khedrup Gelek Pelzang Sönam Choklang Ensapa Lobsang Döndrup Lobsang Chökyi Gyaltsen Lobsang Yeshe Lobsang Palden Yeshe Palden Tenpai Nyima Tenpai Wangchuk Thubten Chökyi Nyima Lobsang Trinley Lhündrub Chökyi Gyaltsen Disputed: Gedhun Choekyi Nyima
Gedhun Choekyi Nyima
(CTA) / Gyaincain Norbu
Gyaincain Norbu
(PRC)

List of Panchen Lamas Tashilhunpo Monastery

v t e

Tibet articles

History

Overviews

Timeline List of rulers European exploration Historical money

Chronology

Prehistory (Neolithic) Zhangzhung Pre-Imperial Empire (7th–9th century)

List of emperors Great Ministers Relations with Tang (618–907)

Era of Fragmentation
Era of Fragmentation
(9th–11th century)

Guge
Guge
kingdom

Yuan dynasty rule (1270–1350)

Bureau of Buddhist and Tibetan Affairs

Phagmodrupa dynasty

Relations with Ming (1368–1644)

Rinpungpa
Rinpungpa
dynasty Tsangpa
Tsangpa
dynasty Ganden
Ganden
Phodrang

Kashag

Qing dynasty rule (1720–1912)

Lifan Yuan List of imperial residents

Post-Qing to 1950

Tibetan Army

People's Republic of China
China
(PRC) rule

PRC incorporation political leaders

Wars and conflicts

Tibetan attack on Songzhou Battle of Dafei River Mongol invasions of Tibet Tibet–Ladakh–Mughal War Battle of Dartsedo Battle of the Salween River Chinese expedition to Tibet
Tibet
(1720) Lhasa riot of 1750 Sino-Nepalese War Sino-Sikh War Nepalese–Tibetan War Sikkim expedition British expedition to Tibet 1905 Tibetan Rebellion Chinese expedition to Tibet
Tibet
(1910) Xinhai Lhasa turmoil Sino-Tibetan War

Qinghai– Tibet
Tibet
War

1938–39 German expedition to Tibet 1939 Japanese expedition to Tibet Battle of Chamdo Protests and uprisings since 1950

1959 Tibetan uprising 1987–89 Tibetan unrest 2008 Tibetan unrest Self-immolation protests by Tibetans in China

Documents

70,000 Character Petition Treaty of Chushul Treaty of Thapathali Treaty of Lhasa Treaty of friendship and alliance with Mongolia Simla Accord (1914) Seventeen-Point Agreement

Geography

Flora

Mountains

Lhotse / Changtse Namcha Barwa Tanggula

rivers

Yarlung Tsangpo

Grand Canyon

Rongbuk Glacier Tibetan Plateau

Changtang

Nature Reserve

Valleys

Traditional regions

Amdo Kham Ü-Tsang

Ü Tsang Ngari

Politics

Tibet
Tibet
Autonomous Region (TAR) Central Tibetan Administration

Parliament

Definitions of Tibet Foreign relations Human rights

LGBT

Patron and priest relationship Golden Urn Tibet
Tibet
Area Independence movement Serfdom controversy Sovereignty debate CIA Tibetan program

Government

Regional Government

Economy

Postage and postal history Qinghai- Tibet
Tibet
Highway Qinghai– Tibet
Tibet
Railway

Society

Education Languages Religion

Tibetan Buddhism

Sakya

Imperial Preceptor Dpon-chen

Nyingma Kagyu Jonang Gelug

Ganden
Ganden
Tripa Dalai Lama

list

Lhamo La-tso Panchen Lama

list

Bon

Sinicization Social classes Tibetan people

Changpa Yolmo Diaspora Names

Culture

Art Calendar Cuisine Dzong architecture Emblem Festivals Flag Historical and cultural sites Khata
Khata
(ceremonial scarf) Literature

Annals Chronicle writers

Music Tibetology Traditional medicine

Outline Index

Category Portal

Authority control

.