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GALILEE ( Hebrew
Hebrew
: הגליל‎‎, transliteration _HaGalil_); Arabic : الجليل‎‎, translit. _al-Jalīl_) is a region in northern Israel
Israel
. The term Galilee
Galilee
traditionally refers to the mountainous part, divided into Upper Galilee ( Hebrew
Hebrew
: גליל עליון‎‎ _Galil Elyon_) and Lower Galilee ( Hebrew
Hebrew
: גליל תחתון‎‎ _Galil Tahton_). In the modern common usage, Galilee refers to all of the area that is beyond Mount Carmel
Mount Carmel
to the northeast, extending from Dan to the north, at the base of Mount Hermon , along Mount Lebanon
Mount Lebanon
to the ridges of Mount Carmel
Mount Carmel
and Mount Gilboa north of Jenin to the south, and from the Jordan Rift Valley
Valley
to the east across the plains of the Jezreel Valley and Acre to the shores of the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
and the coastal plain in the west, including Beth Shean 's valley, Sea of Galilee\'s valley , and Hula Valley
Valley
, although it usually does not include Haifa
Haifa
's immediate northern suburbs. By this definition it overlaps with much of the administrative Northern District of the country (which also includes the Golan Heights
Golan Heights
and part of Menashe Heights but not Qiryat Tiv\'on ). Western Galilee
Galilee
( Hebrew
Hebrew
: גליל מערבי‎‎ _Galil Ma'aravi_) is a common term referring to the western part of the Upper Galilee
Galilee
and its shore, and usually also the northwestern part of the Lower Galilee, mostly overlapping with Acre sub district. Galilee Panhandle
Panhandle
is a common term referring to the "panhandle" in the east that extends to the north, where Lebanon
Lebanon
is to the west, and includes Hula Valley and Ramot Naftali mountains of the Upper Galilee. Historically, the part of Southern Lebanon
Southern Lebanon
south of the east-west section of the Litani River also belonged to the region of Galilee, but the present article mainly deals with the Israeli part of the region.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology * 2 Geography

* 3 History

* 3.1 Ancient and classic antiquity * 3.2 Middle Ages * 3.3 Ottoman era * 3.4 British administration and Israeli rule

* 4 Demography * 5 Tourism * 6 Cuisine * 7 Subregions * 8 Gallery * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 Further reading

ETYMOLOGY

The region's Israelite name is from the Hebrew
Hebrew
root _galil_, an ultimately unique word for "district", and usually "circle". The Hebrew
Hebrew
form used in Isaiah 8:23 (or 9:1 in different Biblical versions) is in the construct state, "_g'lil hagoyim_", meaning " Galilee
Galilee
of the Nations", i.e. the part of Galilee
Galilee
inhabited by Gentiles at the time that the book was written.

The region in turn gave rise to the English name for the "Sea of Galilee" referred to as such in many languages including ancient Arabic. In the Hebrew
Hebrew
language, the lake is referred to as Kinneret (Numbers 34:11, etc.), from Hebrew
Hebrew
_kinnor_, "harp ", describing its shape , Lake of Gennesaret (Luke 5:1, etc.), from Ginosar (Hebrew) _ge_, "valley ", and either _netser_, "branch ", or _natsor_, "to guard", "to watch" (the name which may have been a reference to Nazareth
Nazareth
town, alternatively renamed the Sea of Tiberias (John 6:1, etc.), from the town of Tiberias
Tiberias
at its southwestern end, named after the Greek Tiberius
Tiberius
following the first-century CE Roman Emperor's Greek derived name. These are the three names used in originally internal Jewish-authored literature rather than the "Sea of Galilee". However, Jews did use "the Galilee" to refer to the whole region (Aramaic הגלילי), including its lake.

GEOGRAPHY

Most of Galilee
Galilee
consists of rocky terrain, at heights of between 500 and 700 m. Several high mountains are in the region, including Mount Tabor and Mount Meron , which have relatively low temperatures and high rainfall. As a result of this climate, flora and wildlife thrive in the region, while many birds annually migrate from colder climates to Africa and back through the Hula–Jordan corridor. The streams and waterfalls, the latter mainly in Upper Galilee, along with vast fields of greenery and colourful wildflowers, as well as numerous towns of biblical importance, make the region a popular tourist destination .

Due to its high rainfall (900–1200 mm), mild temperatures and high mountains (Mount Meron's elevation is 1,000–1,208 m), the upper Galilee
Galilee
region contains some distinctive flora and fauna: prickly juniper (_ Juniperus oxycedrus _), Lebanese cedar (_ Cedrus libani _), which grows in a small grove on Mount Meron, cyclamens , paeonias , and _ Rhododendron ponticum _ which sometimes appears on Meron.

HISTORY

ANCIENT AND CLASSIC ANTIQUITY

_ Map of Galilee, circa_ 50 CE Jesus
Jesus
and the miraculous catch of fish , in the Sea of Galilee
Sea of Galilee

According to the Bible
Bible
, Galilee
Galilee
was named by the Israelites and was the tribal region of Naphthali and Dan, at times overlapping the Tribe of Asher 's land. However, Dan was dispersed among the whole people rather than isolated to the lands of Dan, as the Tribe of Dan was the hereditary local law enforcement and judiciary for the whole nation. Normally, Galilee
Galilee
is just referred to as Naphthali.

Chapter 9 of 1 Kings
1 Kings
states that Solomon
Solomon
rewarded his Phoenician ally, King Hiram I of Sidon , with twenty cities in the land of Galilee, which would then have been either settled by foreigners during and after the reign of Hiram, or by those who had been forcibly deported there by later conquerors such as the Assyrians . Hiram, to reciprocate previous gifts given to David
David
, accepted the upland plain among the mountains of Naphtali and renamed it "the land of Cabul " for a time.

In Roman times, the client kingdom of Judea
Judea
was divided into Judea
Judea
, Samaria , the Paralia (Palestine ), and Galilee, which comprised the whole northern section of the country, and was the largest of the three regions under the Tetrarchy (Judea) . After Judea
Judea
became a Roman province in 6, C.E., Galilee
Galilee
briefly became a part of it, then separated from it for two to three centuries.

The Galilee
Galilee
region was presumably the home of Jesus
Jesus
during at least 30 years of his life. Much of the first three Gospels of the New Testament give an account of Jesus' public ministry in this province, particularly in the towns of Nazareth
Nazareth
and Capernaum . Galilee
Galilee
is also cited as the place where Jesus
Jesus
performed many public miracles, including curing a blind man. After the death of Jesus
Jesus
, some accounts suggest his disciples returned to Galilee
Galilee
and their experience of His resurrection took place there.

Many of the important Tannaim , the Rabbinic sages whose views are recorded in the Mishnah and Talmud, claim to have also spent their lives there, including Honi Ha-Ma\'agel , Jose the Galilean , and Ishmael the Galilean
Galilean
, among many others. Traditional rabbinic sources assert that the followers of the rabbis from the Galilee
Galilee
were widely reputed to believe their teachers (rabbis) were miracle workers, as opposed to those from Judea
Judea
, Persia
Persia
, and Babylon
Babylon
, who rarely are credited with miracles. Many are cited for their large number of students and followers throughout the Jewish
Jewish
people among the common people. The Galilee
Galilee
among the Jewish
Jewish
population was known as a wellspring of miracle workers and mystical philosophers of all types, especially just prior to the major split between Jesus\' followers and those who opposed Jesus
Jesus
. According to the Talmud, one of the most important founders of the modern Jewish
Jewish
faith, Johanan ben Zakai , was born there. Simeon bar Yochai , one of the most famed of all the Tannaim, hid from the Romans in the Galilee, and dug tunnels there to hide. Many miracles are ascribed to him during his Galilean
Galilean
period after escaping Judea
Judea
proper. In medieval Hebrew
Hebrew
legend, he may have written the Zohar
Zohar
while there.

The archaeological discoveries of synagogues from the Hellenistic and Roman period in the Galilee
Galilee
show strong Phoenician influences, and a high level of tolerance for other cultures, relative to other Jewish sacred sites from the period, the latter being "cleansed of impurities". Eastern Galilee
Galilee
retained a Jewish
Jewish
majority until at least the seventh century.

MIDDLE AGES

After the Arab
Arab
caliphate took control of the region in 638, it became part of Jund al-Urdunn (District of Jordan). Its major towns were Tiberias
Tiberias
(which was capital of the district— Qadas ), Baysan , Acre , Saffuriya , and Kabul .

The Shia Fatimids conquered the region in the 10th century; a breakaway sect, venerating the Fatimid caliph al-Hakim , formed the Druze
Druze
religion, centered in Mount Lebanon
Mount Lebanon
and partially Galilee. During the Crusades , Galilee
Galilee
was organized into the Principality of Galilee
Galilee
, one of the most important Crusader seigneuries.

OTTOMAN ERA

The Jewish
Jewish
population of Galilee
Galilee
increased significantly following their expulsion from Spain and welcome from the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
. The community for a time made Safed
Safed
an international center of cloth weaving and manufacturing, as well as a key site for Jewish
Jewish
learning. Today it remains one of Judaism's four holy cities and a center for kabbalah .

In the mid-18th century, Galilee
Galilee
was caught up in a struggle between the Arab
Arab
leader Zahir al-Umar and the Ottoman authorities who were centred in Damascus
Damascus
. Zahir ruled Galilee
Galilee
for 25 years until Ottoman loyalist Jezzar Pasha conquered the region in 1775.

In 1831, the Galilee, a part of Ottoman Syria , switched hands from Ottomans to Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt until 1840. During this period, aggressive social and politic policies were introduced, which led to a violent 1834 Arab
Arab
revolt . In the process of this revolt the Jewish community of Sefad was greatly reduced, in the event of Safed
Safed
Plunder by the rebels. The Arab
Arab
rebels were subsequently defeated by the Egyptian troops, though in 1838, the Druze
Druze
of Galilee
Galilee
led another uprising . In 1834 and 1837 , major earthquakes leveled most of the towns, resulting in great loss of life. In 1866, Galilee's first hospital, the Nazareth
Nazareth
Hospital , was founded under the leadership of American-Armenian missionary Dr. Kaloost Vartan , assisted by German missionary John Zeller . The territory of the Ottoman Beirut Vilayet , encompassing the Galilee
Galilee

In the early 20th century, Galilee
Galilee
remained part of Ottoman Syria. It was administered as the southernmost territory of the Beirut Vilayet (established in 1888).

BRITISH ADMINISTRATION AND ISRAELI RULE

Following the defeat of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
in World War I
World War I
, and the Armistice of Mudros , it came under British rule, as part of the Occupied Enemy Territory Administration . Shortly after, in 1920, the region was included in the British Mandate territory, officially a part of Mandatory Palestine from 1923.

After the 1948 Arab–Israeli war , nearly the whole of Galilee
Galilee
came under Israel's control. A large portion of the population fled or was forced to leave, leaving dozens of entire villages empty; however, a large Israeli Arab
Arab
community remained based in and near the cities of Nazareth, Acre , Tamra , Sakhnin , and Shefa-\'Amr , due to some extent to a successful rapprochement with the Druze. The kibbutzim around the Sea of Galilee
Sea of Galilee
were sometimes shelled by the Syrian army
Syrian army
's artillery until Israel
Israel
seized the Golan Heights
Golan Heights
in the 1967 Six-Day War .

During the 1970s and the early 1980s, the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) launched several attacks on towns and villages of the Upper and Western Galilee
Galilee
from Lebanon
Lebanon
. Israel
Israel
initiated Operation Litani (1979) and Operation Peace For Galilee (1982) with the stated objectives of destroying the PLO infrastructure in Lebanon and protecting the citizens of the Galilee. Israel
Israel
occupied much of southern Lebanon
Lebanon
until 1985, when it withdrew to a narrow security buffer zone .

Until 2000, Hezbollah , and earlier Amal , continued to fight the Israeli Defence Forces , sometimes shelling Upper Galilee communities with Katyusha rockets. In May 2000, Israeli prime minister Ehud Barak unilaterally withdrew IDF troops from southern Lebanon, maintaining a security force on the Israeli side of the international border recognized by the United Nations
United Nations
. However, clashes between Hezbollah and Israel
Israel
continued along the border, and UN observers condemned both for their attacks.

The 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict was characterized by round-the-clock Katyusha rocket attacks (with a greatly extended range) by Hezbollah on the whole of Galilee, with long-range, ground-launched missiles hitting as far south as the Sharon Plain , Jezreel Valley , and Jordan Valley
Valley
below the Sea of Galilee.

DEMOGRAPHY

Sea of Galilee
Sea of Galilee
as seen from the Moshava Kinneret Sign in front of the Galil Jewish– Arab
Arab
School , a joint Arab- Jewish
Jewish
primary school in the Galilee
Galilee
For more details on this topic, see Demographics of Israel
Israel
.

The largest cities in the region are Acre, Nahariya, Nazareth, Safed, Karmiel
Karmiel
, Shaghur
Shaghur
, Shefa-\'Amr , Afula , and Tiberias. The port city of Haifa
Haifa
serves as a commercial center for the whole region.

Because of its hilly terrain, most of the people in the Galilee
Galilee
live in small villages connected by relatively few roads. A railroad runs south from Nahariya along the Mediterranean coast , and a fork to the east is due to operate in 2015. The main sources of livelihood throughout the area are agriculture and tourism. Industrial parks are being developed, bringing further employment opportunities to the local population which includes many recent immigrants. The Israeli government is contributing funding to the private initiative, the Galilee
Galilee
Finance Facility, organised by the Milken Institute and Koret Economic Development Fund .

The Galilee
Galilee
is home to a large Arab
Arab
population, comprising a Muslim majority and two smaller populations, of Druze
Druze
and Arab
Arab
Christians , of comparable sizes. Both Israeli Druze
Druze
and Christians have their majorities in the Galilee. Other notable minorities are the Bedouin, the Maronites and the Circassians .

The north-central portion of the Galilee
Galilee
is also known as Central Galilee, stretching from the border with Lebanon
Lebanon
to the northern edge of the Jezreel Valley, including the cities of Nazareth
Nazareth
and Sakhnin, has an Arab
Arab
majority of 75% with most of the Jewish
Jewish
population living in hilltop cities like Upper Nazareth
Nazareth
. The northern half of the central Lower Galilee, surrounding Karmiel
Karmiel
and Sakhnin is known as the "Heart of the Galilee". The eastern Galilee
Galilee
is nearly 100% Jewish. This part includes the Finger of the Galilee , the Jordan River Valley, and the shores the Sea of Galilee, and contains two of Judaism's Four Holy Cities . The southern part of the Galilee, including Jezreel Valley, and the Gilboa region are also nearly 100% Jewish, with a few small Arab
Arab
villages near the West Bank
West Bank
border. About 80% of the population of the Western Galilee
Galilee
is Jewish, all the way up to the Lebanese border. Jews also form a small majority in the mountainous Upper Galilee with a significant minority Arab
Arab
population (mainly Druze
Druze
and Christians).

The Jewish
Jewish
Agency has attempted to increase the Jewish
Jewish
population in this area, but the non- Jewish
Jewish
population also has a high growth rate, As of 2006 , there were 1.2 million residents in Galilee, of which 46.9% were Jewish.

Currently, the Galilee
Galilee
is attracting significant internal migration of Haredi Jews , who are increasingly moving to the Galilee
Galilee
and Negev as an answer to rising housing prices in central Israel.

TOURISM

Galilee
Galilee
is a popular destination for domestic and foreign tourists who enjoy its scenic, recreational, and gastronomic offerings. The Galilee
Galilee
attracts many Christian pilgrims , as many of the miracles of Jesus
Jesus
occurred, according to the New Testament
New Testament
, on the shores of the Sea of Galilee—including his walking on water , calming the storm , and feeding five thousand people in Tabgha . In addition, numerous sites of biblical importance are located in the Galilee, such as Megiddo , Jezreel Valley, Mount Tabor, Hazor , Horns of Hattin , and more.

A popular hiking trail known as the _yam leyam_, or sea-to-sea, starts hikers at the Mediterranean. They then hike through the Galilee mountains, Tabor, Neria, and Meron, until their final destination, the Kinneret (Sea of Galilee).

In April 2011, Israel
Israel
unveiled the " Jesus
Jesus
Trail ", a 40-mile (60-km) hiking trail in the Galilee
Galilee
for Christian pilgrims. The trail includes a network of footpaths, roads, and bicycle paths linking sites central to the lives of Jesus
Jesus
and his disciples, including Tabgha , the traditional site of Jesus' miracle of the loaves and fishes, and the Mount of Beatitudes , where he delivered his Sermon on the Mount. It ends at Capernaum on the shores of the Sea of Galilee, where Jesus espoused his teachings. The Church of the Transfiguration on Mount Tabor
Mount Tabor

Many kibbutzim and moshav families operate _Zimmern _ (German: "rooms", the local term for a Bed and breakfasts ). Numerous festivals are held throughout the year, especially in the autumn and spring holiday seasons. These include the Acre (Acco) Festival of Alternative Theater, the olive harvest festival, and music festivals featuring Anglo-American folk, klezmer , Renaissance, and chamber music .

CUISINE

The cuisine of the Galilee
Galilee
is very diverse. The meals are lighter than in the central and southern regions. Dairy products are heavily consumed (especially the Safed
Safed
cheese that originated in the mountains of the Upper Galilee ). Herbs like thyme, mint, parsley, basil, and rosemary are very common with everything including dips, meat, fish, stews and cheese. In the eastern part of the Galilee, freshwater fish as much as meat (especially the tilapia that lives in the Sea of Galilee, Jordan river, and other streams in the region), fish filled with thyme and grilled with rosemary to flavor, or stuffed with oregano leaves, then topped with parsley and served with lemon to squash. This technique exists in other parts of the country including the coasts of the Mediterranean and the Red Sea. A specialty of the region is a baked Tilapia flavored with celery, mint and a lot of lemon juice. Baked fish with tahini is also common in Tiberias
Tiberias
while the coastal Galileans prefer to replace the tahini with yogurt and add sumac on top.

The Galilee
Galilee
is famous for its olives, pomegranates, wine and especially its Labneh
Labneh
w'Za\'atar which is served with pita bread, meat stews with wine, pomegranates and herbs such as akub, parsley, khalmit , mint, fennel, etc. are common. Galilean
Galilean
kubba is usually flavored with cumin, cinnamon, cardamom, concentrated pomegranate juice , onion, parsley and pine nuts and served as meze with tahini dip. Kebabs are also made almost in the same way with sumac replacing cardamom and with carob sometimes replacing the pomegranate juice. Because of its climate, beef has become more popular than lamb, although both are still eaten there. Dates are popular in the tropical climate of the Eastern Galilee
Galilee
- like rest of the eastern parts of the country.

SUBREGIONS

The Galilee
Galilee
is often divided into these subregions:

* LOWER GALILEE covers the area north of the Valleys (Jezreel , Harod and Beth Shean Valley
Valley
) and south of the Beit HaKerem Valley
Valley
. Its borders to the east on the Jordan Rift Valley
Valley
. It contains the Arab
Arab
village of Cana
Cana
. * UPPER GALILEE extends from the Beit HaKerem Valley
Valley
northwards into southern Lebanon. Its eastern border is the Hula Valley and the Sea of Galilee
Galilee
separating it from the Golan Heights. To the west it reaches to the Coastal Plain which separates it from the Mediterranean. * The JEZREEL VALLEY * JORDAN VALLEY * Valley
Valley
of BEIT SHE\\'AN * SEA OF GALILEE and its valley * The HULA VALLEY * MOUNT GILBOA * Western Galilee
Galilee
in its minimal definition refers to the coastal plain just west of the Upper Galilee, also known as Plain of Asher, or Plain of the Galilee, which stretches from north of Acre to Rosh HaNikra on the Israel- Lebanon
Lebanon
border , and in the common broad definition adds the western part of Upper Galilee, and usually the northwestern part of Lower Galilee as well, corresponding more or less to Acre sub district or the Northern District . * The " Galilee Panhandle " ( Hebrew
Hebrew
: אצבע הגליל‎‎, _Etzba HaGalil_, lit. "Finger of Galilee") is a panhandle along the Hulah Valley
Valley
; it contains the towns of Metulla and Qiryat Shemona , and the Dan and Banias
Banias
rivers.

GALLERY

Panorama from Ari Mountain in the Upper Galilee Panorama of the Harod Valley
Valley
, the eastern extension of the Jezreel Valley
Valley

*

Safed
Safed

SEE ALSO

_ Wikivoyage has a travel guide for GALILEE _.

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to GALILEE _.

* Galilean
Galilean
* Northern District (Israel) * Sea of Galilee
Sea of Galilee
* Tourism in Israel
Israel
* The Koenig Memorandum

REFERENCES

* ^ Room, Adrian, 2nd Ed.(2006)) "" p.138. * ^ "Map of the Twelve Tribes of Israel
Israel
Jewish
Jewish
Virtual Library". jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 2015-05-18. * ^ Gen. 49:16 earliest reference among others * ^ History of Phoenicia, by George Rawlinson 1889, Phoenicia under the hegemony of Tyre (B.C. 1252-877) * ^ Mark 14
Mark 14
:28 and 16:7 * ^ Mishnah Ta'anit 3:8 is one example in it Honi prays for rain, dancing and drawing circles and geometric patterns, on behalf of the Jewish
Jewish
agricultural community, and receiving rain for the original Mishnah's Hebrew
Hebrew
of one version of that story. Honi does other miracles for the people of the Galilee
Galilee
elsewhere in Jewish
Jewish
lore. * ^ Scharfstein, S. (2004). _ Jewish
Jewish
History and You_. Ktav Pub Incorporated. p. 24. ISBN 9780881258066 . Retrieved 2015-05-18. * ^ "releases/2007/11/071121100831". sciencedaily.com. Retrieved 2015-05-18. * ^ Le Strange, Guy. (1890) _Palestine Under the Moslems_ pp.30-32. * ^ "The Jewish
Jewish
Agency for Israel". jafi.org.il. Archived from the original on 2009-12-22. Retrieved 2015-05-18. * ^ "Places To Visit In Israel". govisitisrae. Retrieved 2013-07-25. * ^ " Galilee
Galilee
in Jesus\' Time Was a Center of Change". Ancient History. Retrieved 2013-07-25. * ^ Matthew Krieger (November 19, 2007). "Gov\'t expected to join financing of huge northern development project". The Jerusalem Post . Archived from the original on August 13, 2011. Retrieved 2007-11-20. * ^ Israel
Israel
Central Bureau of Statistics (2013). "LOCALITIES(1) AND POPULATION, BY POPULATION GROUP, DISTRICT, SUB-DISTRICT AND NATURAL REGION". STATISTICAL ABSTRACT OF ISRAEL (PDF) (Report). Retrieved 2014-06-16. * ^ "In Galilee, Israeli Arabs finding greener grass in Jewish areas". _ Jewish
Jewish
Telegraphic Agency _. Nov 3, 2008. Retrieved 2013-07-25. * ^ Israel
Israel
Central Bureau of Statistics (2013). "SOURCES OF POPULATION GROWTH, BY DISTRICT, POPULATION GROUP AND RELIGION". STATISTICAL ABSTRACT OF ISRAEL (PDF) (Report). Retrieved 2014-06-16. * ^ Israel
Israel
Central Bureau of Statistics (2002). The Arab
Arab
Population in Israel
Israel
(PDF) (Report). Statistilite. 27. sec. 23. Retrieved 2014-06-15. * ^ "30 settlements planned for Negev and Galilee". 2003-08-08. Retrieved 2008-01-19. * ^ Ofer Petersburg (December 12, 2007). " Jewish
Jewish
population in Galilee
Galilee
declining". Ynet . Archived from the original on December 9, 2012. Retrieved 2008-02-01. * ^ "Haredim \'taking over\' periphery - Israel
Israel
Business, Ynetnews". ynetnews.com. Retrieved 2015-05-18. * ^ Daniel Estrin, Canadian Press (April 15, 2011). " Israel
Israel
unveils hiking trail in Galilee
Galilee
for Christian pilgrims". Yahoo! News . Archived from the original on 2013-03-13. Retrieved 2011-05-16. * ^ "Acco Festival". accofestival.co.il. Retrieved 2015-05-18.

-------------------------

_ This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Easton, Matthew George (1897). "Galilee". Easton\'s Bible Dictionary _ (New and revised ed.). T. Nelson and Sons.

FURTHER READING

* Aviam, M., "Galilee: The Hellenistic to Byzantine Periods," in _The New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land_, vol. 2 (4 vols) (Jerusalem: IES / Carta), 1993, 452–458. * Meyers, Eric M. (ed), _ Galilee
Galilee
through the Centuries: Confluence of Cultures_ (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1999) (Duke Judaic Studies 1). * Chancey, A. M., _Myth of a Gentile Galilee: The Population of Galilee
Galilee
and New Testament
New Testament
Studies_ (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002) (Society of New Testament
New Testament
Monograph Series 118). * Aviam, M., "First-century Jewish
Jewish
Galilee: An archaeological perspective," in Edwards, D.R. (ed.), _Religion and Society in Roman Palestine: Old Questions, New Approaches_ (New York / London: Routledge, 2004), 7–27. * Aviam, M., _Jews, Pagans and Christians in the Galilee_ (Rochester NY: University of Rochester Press, 2004) (Land of Galilee
Galilee
1). * Chancey, Mark A., _Greco-Roman Culture and the Galilee
Galilee
of Jesus_ (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006) (Society for New Testament Studies Monograph Series, 134). * Freyne, Sean, " Galilee
Galilee
and Judea
Judea
in the First Century," in Margaret M. Mitchell and Frances M. Young (eds), _Cambridge History of Christianity. Vol. 1. Origins to Constantine_ (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006) (Cambridge History of Christianity), 163-194. * Zangenberg, Jürgen, Harold W. Attridge and Dale B. Martin (eds), _Religion, Ethnicity and Identity in Ancient Galilee: A Region in Transition_ (Tübingen, Mohr Siebeck, 2007) (Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament, 210). * Fiensy, David
David
A., "Population, Architecture, and Economy in Lower Galilean
Galilean
Villages and Towns in the First Century AD: A Brief Survey," in John D. Wineland, Mark Ziese, James Riley Estep Jr. (eds), _My Father's World: Celebrating the Life of Reuben G. Bullard_ (Eugene (OR), Wipf electronically published on jerusalemperspective.com.

* v * t * e

Northern District of Israel
Israel

CITIES

* Acre * Afula * Beit She\'an * Karmiel
Karmiel
* Kiryat Shmona * Ma\'alot-Tarshiha * Migdal HaEmek * Nahariya * Nazareth
Nazareth
* Nazareth
Nazareth
Illit * Safed
Safed
* Sakhnin * Shefa-\'Amr * Tamra * Tiberias
Tiberias
* Yokneam Illit

LOCAL COUNCILS

* Abu Snan * Arraba * Basmat Tab\'un * Beit Jann * Bi\'ina * Bir al-Maksur * Bu\'eine Nujeidat * Buq\'ata * Daburiyya * Deir al-Asad * Deir Hanna * Eilabun * Ein Qiniyye * Ein Mahil * Fassuta * Ghajar * Hurfeish * Hatzor HaGlilit * I\'billin * Iksal * Ilut * Jadeidi-Makr * Jish * Julis * Ka\'abiyye-Tabbash-Hajajre * Kabul * Kafr Kanna * Kafr Manda * Kafr Yasif * Kaukab Abu al-Hija * Katzrin * Kfar Kama * Kfar Tavor * Kfar Vradim * Kisra-Sumei * Maghar * Majd al-Krum * Majdal Shams * Mas\'ade * Mashhad * Mazra\'a * Metula * Migdal * Mi\'ilya * Nahf * Peki\'in * Ramat Yishai * Rameh * Reineh * Rosh Pinna * Sajur * Sha\'ab * Shlomi * Shibli–Umm al-Ghanam * Tuba-Zangariyye * Tur\'an * Yafa an-Naseriyye * Yanuh-Jat * Yarka * Yavne\'el * Yesud HaMa\'ala * Zarzir

REGIONAL COUNCILS

* Al-Batuf * Beit She\'an Valley
Valley
* Bustan al-Marj * Northern Jordan Valley
Valley
(Emek HaYarden) * Gilboa * Golan * Jezreel Valley * Lower Galilee * Ma\'ale Yosef * Mateh Asher * Megiddo * Merom HaGalil * Mevo\'ot HaHermon * Misgav * Upper Galilee

Coordinates : 32°45′36″N 35°31′37″E / 32.7600°N 35.5270°E / 32.7600; 35.5270 Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title= Galilee
Galilee
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