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The Gadabuursi (Somali: Gadabuursi, Arabic: غادابوورسي), also known as Samaroon, is a northern Somali clan, a sub-division of the Dir clan family.[1]

As a Dir sub-clan, the Gadabuursi have immediate lineal ties with the Issa, the Surre (Abdalle and Qubeys), the Biimaal (who the Gaadsen also belong too), the Bajimal, the Bursuk, the Madigan, the Gurgura, the Garre (the Quranyow sub-clan to be precise as they claim descent from Dir), Gurre, Gariire, other Dir sub-clans and they have lineal ties with the Hawiye (Irir), Hawadle, Ajuraan, Degoodi, Gaalje'el clan groups, who share the same ancestor Samaale.[2][3][4][5][6][7][8]

The etymology of the name Gadabuursi, as described by writer Ferrand in Ethnographic Survey of Africa refers to Gada meaning people and Bur meaning mountain, hence Gadabuursi is believed to mean people of the mountains.[9][10]

Overview

Most Gadabuursi members are descendants of Sheikh Samaroon. However, Samaroon does not necessarily mean Gadabuursi, but rather represents only a sub-clan of the Gadabuursi clan family.

The Gadabuursi in particular, is the only clan with a longstanding tradition of sultan. The Gadabuursi use the title Ugaas which means sultan and/or king. Ughaz or Ugas.[11]

In terms of subsistence patterns, the Gadabuursi are mainly sedentary agro-pastoralists, supplementing their cattle herding with cereal cultivation.

Based on research done by the Eritrean author 'Abdulkader Saleh Mohammad' in his book 'The Saho of Eritrea, the Gadafur Saho is said to have Somali origins from the Gadabuursi.[12]

Distribution

The Gadabuursi are concentrated in northwestern Somalia and are the pre-dominant clan of the Awdal region.[13][14][15] They also partially inhabit the neighboring region of Woqooyi Galbeed.[16][17] The Gadabuursi are the second largest clan by population in Somaliland.[18][19] However most of the Gadabuursi inhabit the Somali Region of Ethiopia (also known as Region 5) where their paramount chief, the Ugaas resides.[20][21][22][23] In present day Awdal, most of the prominent elders have their main venues in the capital city of the region, Borama. However, the paramount chief of the Gadabuursi, the Ugaas, has his main venue in Ethiopia.[24]

They are also found in Djibouti, where they form one of the major clan groups.[25] Within Djibouti they have historically lived in 2 of the 7 major neighborhoods in Djibouti (Quarter 4 and 5).[26]

Also the Gadabuursi is the second largest sub-clan within the borders of the Somali region of Ethiopia based on the Ethiopian population census.[27] They also live in the Oromia region reaching the town of Metehara along with the Afar region.[28][29] Today, the clan holds vice-presidency in both the Ethiopian Somali Region, and in Somali Land.[30]

In the Somali Region of Ethiopia they exclusively inhabit both the Awbere district in the Faafan Zone and the Dembel district in the Sitti Zone,[31][32][33] the Gursum woreda where they are the majority and the Jigjiga woreda where they make up a large part of the Faafan Zone. The Gadabuursi, along with the Issa represent the most native and indigenous Somali tribes in Harar.[34][35][36] The Gadabuursi also partially inhabit Ayesha, Shinile, Erer and Afdem woreda's.[37][38]

They also reside along the northeastern fringe of the chartered city-state of Dire Dawa, which borders the Dembel district, but also in the city itself.[33][39] The 2014 Summary and Statistical report of the Population and Housing Census of the Federal Republic of Ethiopia has shown that Awbere is the most populated district in the Somali region of Ethiopia.[27]

The Gadabuursi of Ethiopia have also expressed a desire to combine the clan's traditional territories to form a new region-state called Harawo State.[40]

History

Tomb of Sheikh Samarōn(Mahamūd) in Sanaag.
Sheikh Ali Ayanle Samatar. Somali: Sheekh Cali Ayaanle Samatar. Arabic: شيخ علي أيانلي سمتر A widely known Gadabuursi Sheikh among Somali's from Ethiopia, Djibouti and Somalia.

"I.M Lewis gives an invaluable reference to an Arabic Manuscript on the history of to the Gadabursi Somal. “This Chronicle opens”, Lewis tells us, ‘with an account of the wars of Imam ‘Ali Si’id (1392), from whom the Gadabursi today trace their descent, and who is described as the only Muslim leader fighting on the western flank in the armies of Se’ad ad-Din, ruler of Zeila.’ Se’ad ad-Din was the joint founder of the Kingdom of Adal along with his brother Haqedin II" So not only did the Gadabuursi clan contribute to the Adal Wars, Conquest of Abyssinia, but their predecessors were also fighting wars way before the establishment of the Adal Sultanate.[41]

The Gadabursi Kingdom was established more than 600 years ago, and consisted of a King (Ugaas) and many elders.

Hundreds of elders used to work in four sections consisting of 25 elders each:

  • Social committee
  • Defense - policing authorities consisting of horsemen (referred to as fardoolay), foot soldiers and spear-men, but also askaris or soldiers equipped with poison arrows.[42]
  • Economy and collection of taxes
  • Justice committee

The chairmen of the four sections were called Afarta Dhadhaar, and were selected according to talent and personnel abilities.

A constitution, Xeer Gadabursi, had been developed, which divided every case as to whether it was new or had precedents (ugub or curad).

The Gadabursi King and the elders opposed the arrival of the British at the turn of the twentieth century, but they ended up signing an agreement with them. Later, as a disagreement between the two parties both arose and intensified, the British installed some people against the Ugaas in hopes of overthrowing him. This would eventually bring about the collapse of the kingdom.

'The law of the King and the 100 men 'heerka boqorka iyo boqolka nin'

"When a new Ugaas or Ughaz was appointed amongst the Gadabuursi, a hundred elders, representatives of all the lineages of the clan, assembled to form a parliament to promulgate new heer agreements, and to decide what legislation they wished to retain from the reign of the previous Ugaas or King. The compensation rates for delicts committed within the clan were revised if necessary, and a corpus of Gadabuursi law, as it were, placed on the statutes for the duration of the new Ugaas's rule.

This was called 'the law of the King and the 100 men' (heerka boqorka iyo boqolka nin).[43]

A 1867 Abyssinia Map from Bombay featuring the Somali clan of the Gadabursi.

Traditional Gadabuursi Installation Ceremony

Here are accounts of a traditional Gadabuursi installation ceremony by accounts of Sheikh 'Abdurahman Sh. Nur in "A Pastoral Democracy", by I'M Lewis.[44]

The pastoral Somali have few large ceremonies and little ritual. for its interest, therefore I reproduce here a summary of a very full account of traditional Gadabuursi installation ceremony given me by Sheikh 'Abdurahman Sheikh Nur, the present governor kadi of Borama, God bless his soul.

Clansmen gather for the ceremony in well wooded and watered place. There is singing and dancing, then stock are slaughtered for feasting and sacrifice. The stars are carefully watched to determine a propitious time and then future Ughaz is chosen by divination. Candidates must be sons or brothers of the former Ughaz and the issue of woman who has been only married once. She should not be a women who has been divorced or a widow. Early on a monday morning a man of the Rer Nur (the laandeer of the Gadabuursi) plucks a flower or leaf and throws it upon the Ughaz. Everyone else then follows his example. The man who starts the 'aleemasaar acclamation must be a man rich in livestock, with four wives and many sons. Men of the Mahad Muuse lineage then brings four vessels of milk. One contains camels' milk, one cows' milk, one sheeps' milk and the last goats' milk. These are offered to the Ughaz who selects one and drinks a little from it. If he drinks the camels' milk, camels will be blessed and prosper, if he drinks the goats' milk, goats will prosper, and so on. After this, a large four-year-old ram is slaughtered in front of him. His hair is cut by a man of the Gadabuursi and he casts off his old clothes and dons new clothes as Ughaz. A man of Rer Yunis puts a white turban round his head and his old clothes are carried off by men of the Jibra'iin. The Ughaz then mounts his best horse and rides to a well called bugay, near garis, towards the coast. The well contains deliciously fresh water. Above the well are white pebbles and on these he sits. He is washed by a brother or other close kinsman as he sits on top of the stones. Then he returns to the assembled people and is again acclaimed and crowned with leaves. dancing and feasting recommence. The Ughaz makes a speech in which he blesses his people and asks god to grant peace, abundant milk and rain- all symbols of peace and prosperity (nabad iyo 'aano). If rain falls after this, people will know that his reign will be prosperous. That the ceremony is customarily performed during the karan rainy season makes this all more likely. The Ughaz is given a new house with entirely new effects and furnishings and a bride is sought for him. She must be of good family, and the child of a woman who has had only one husband. Her bride-wealth is paid by all the Gadabuursi collectively, as they thus ensure for themselves successors to the title. Rifles or other fire-arms are not included in the bride-wealth. Everything connected with accession must be peaceful and propitious

The largest portion of the Gadabursi reside in the borders of Ethiopia. It is said that at Waraf, a location near Hardo Galle a great battle took place between the Gadabuursi and infidels (Galla) in the 14th century according to traditional Gadabursi history[45][46]

According to a Max Planck research paper, one branch of the Ughaz family (rer Ughaz) on the borders of Ethiopia rose to the rank of dejazmach (ደጃዝማች ), (‘Commander of the Gate’).[47] A military title meaning commander of the central body of a traditional Ethiopian armed force composed of a vanguard, main body, left and right wings and a rear body.[4]

The Adal Sultanate which was largely on part of the Gadabursi territory and the conquest of Abyssinia which they contributed to.

Y-DNA

DNA analysis of Dir clan members inhabiting Djibouti found that all of the individuals belonged to the Y-DNA T1 paternal haplogroup.[48] All genetic analysis carried out on Gadabuursi male clan members have so far shown that they exclusively belong to the T1 paternal haplogroup.[49][50][51]

List of Sultans of the Gadabuursi Sultanate

The Gadabuursi give their King the title of "Ughaz".[52] It's an authentic Somali term for King or Chief. The Gadabursi in particular is the only clan with a longstanding tradition of having a Sultan.[11]

The first Ughaz of the Gadabuursi was Ughaz Ali Makail Dera (Cali Makayl-Dheere), who is the progenitor of the Reer Ugaas subclan to which the royal lineage belongs.

Ughaz Ali Makail Dera (Cali Makayl-Dheere) based on an Arabic manuscript on the Gadabuursi is said to be born in 1575 in Dobo, an area north of the present town of Borama in north-western Somalia. He is recorded as having inflicted a heavy defeat on Galla forces at Nabadid.[53]

Old picture of Ughaz Haji Dodi Robleh, King (Ughaz) of the Gadabuursi Dir clan, based in the region of Harar. The Gadabuursi are known to be one of the few Somali clans with a long tradition of Kings.[52]
Old picture of Ughaz Robleh Nur, King (Ughaz) of the Gadabuursi Dir clan. Picture dated 1888, in Harar where the Ughaz was based.
Name Reign

From

Reign

Till

Born
1 Ughaz Ali Makail Dera 1607 1639 1575[53]
2 Ughaz Abdi I Ughaz Ali Makail Dera 1639 1664
3 Ughaz Husein Ughaz Abdi Ughaz Ali 1664 1665
4 Ughaz Abdillah Ughaz Abdi Ughaz Ali 1665 1698
5 Ughaz Nur I Ughaz Abdi Ughaz Ali 1698 1733
6 Ughaz Hirab Ughaz Nur Ughaz Abdi 1733 1750
7 Ughaz Shirdon Ughaz Nur Ughaz Abdi 1750 1772
8 Ughaz Samatar Ughaz Shirdon Ughaz Nur 1772 1812
9 Ughaz Guleid Ughaz Samatar Ughaz Shirdon 1812 1817
10 Ughaz Roble I Ughaz Samatar Ughaz Shirdon 1817 1835
11 Ughaz Nur II Ughaz Roble Ughaz Samatar 1835 1888
12 Ughaz Roble II Ughaz Nur Ughaz Roble 1888 1898
13 Ughaz Olmi-Warfa "Olmi-Dheire" Ughaz Roble Ughaz Samatar 1898 1938 1835[54]
14 Ughaz Abdi II Ughaz Roble Ughaz Nur 1938 1948
15 Ughaz Dodi Ughaz Abdi Ughaz Roble 1948 1952
16 Ughaz Roble III Ughaz Dodi Ughaz Abdi 1952 1960
17 Ughaz Jama Muhumed Ughaz Olmi-Warfa 1960 1985
18 Ughaz Abdirashid Ughaz Roble Ughaz Dodi 1985 -[55]

Currently Abdirashid is the Ughaz of the Gadabuursi.

For more about Ughaz Nur II visit the following:

For more about Ughaz 'Elmi Warfaa visit the following:

Clan tree

The Gadabursi clan according to the Peoples of the Horn of Africa, Nuova Antologia(1890) and many more sources are divided into 2 divisions:

The Habar Makadur and Habar 'Affan, both historically united under a common Sultan or Ughaz.[2][56][57]

  • Gadabursi
    • Habar Makadur (Makadoor)
      • Makahil
        • Eli
        • 'Iye
        • Abdalleh
        • Hassan (Bahabr Hassan)
        • Muse
          • Makail Dera (Makayl-Dheere)
          • Afgudud(Gibril Muse)
          • Habr Sanayo
          • Younis (Reer Yoonis)
            • 'Ali Younis
            • Jibril Younis (Jibriil Yoonis)
            • Adan Younis (Aadan Yoonis)
            • Nur Younis (Reer Nuur)
      • Mahad 'Ase
        • Bahabr Abokr
        • Bahabr Muse
        • Habr Musa
        • Bahabr Aden
        • Hababr 'Eli
        • Reer Mohamed
        • Abrahim(Abrahin)
      • Habar 'Affan
        • Jibrain
        • Ali Ganun
        • Gobe
        • Habar Yusif
        • Reer issa
        • Hebjire
        • Reer Zuber
        • Degaweyn
        • Makayl
          • Musa
            • Musafin
            • Hassan Sá'ad
            • Farole
            • Reer Hamud

There is no clear agreement on the clan and sub-clan structures and many lineages are omitted. The following listing is taken from the World Bank's Conflict in Somalia: Drivers and Dynamics from 2005 and the United Kingdom's Home Office publication, Somalia Assessment 2001.[58][59]

In the south central part of Somalia the World Bank shows the following clan tree:[60]

  • Dir
    • Gadabuursi
    • Isse
    • Bimal
    • Gadsan
    • Qubeys

Notable figures

[75][76]

Notes

  1. ^ Verdier, Isabelle (1997-05-31). Ethiopia: the top 100 people. Indigo Publications. p. 13. ISBN 9782905760128. 
  2. ^ a b Lewis, I. M. (1998-01-01). Peoples of the Horn of Africa: Somali, Afar and Saho. Red Sea Press. p. 25. ISBN 9781569021057. 
  3. ^ Lewis, I. M. (1998-01-01). Peoples of the Horn of Africa: Somali, Afar and Saho. Red Sea Press. ISBN 9781569021057. At the end of the book "Tribal Distribution of Somali Afar and Saho" 
  4. ^ Verdier, Isabelle (1997-05-31). Ethiopia: the top 100 people. Indigo Publications. p. 13. ISBN 9782905760128. 
  5. ^ Hayward, R. J.; Lewis, I. M. (2005-08-17). Voice and Power. Routledge. p. 242. ISBN 9781135751753. 
  6. ^ The Quranyo section of the Garre claim descent from Dirr, who are born of the Irrir Samal. UNDP Paper in Keyna http://www.undp.org/content/dam/kenya/docs/Amani%20Papers/AP_Volume1_n2_May2010.pdf
  7. ^ Adam, Hussein Mohamed; Ford, Richard (1997-01-01). Mending rips in the sky: options for Somali communities in the 21st century. Red Sea Press. p. 127. ISBN 9781569020739. 
  8. ^ Ahmed, Ali Jimale (1995-01-01). The Invention of Somalia. The Red Sea Press. p. 121. ISBN 9780932415998. 
  9. ^ Ethnographic Survey of Africa. International African Institute. 1969-01-01. p. 26. 
  10. ^ "Toward a New Country in East Africa". www.freenation.org. Retrieved 2016-08-18. Its nickname is Gadabursi, i.e. mountain people. 
  11. ^ a b Westermann, Diedrich; Smith, Edwin William; Forde, Cyril Daryll (2007-01-01). Africa. Oxford University Press. p. 230. 
  12. ^ Mohammad, Abdulkader Saleh (2013-01-01). The Saho of Eritrea: Ethnic Identity and National Consciousness. LIT Verlag Münster. ISBN 9783643903327. 
  13. ^ Samatar, Abdi I. (2001) "Somali Reconstruction and Local Initiative: Amoud University," Bildhaan: An International Journal of Somali Studies: Vol. 1, Article 9, p. 132.
  14. ^ Battera, Federico (2005). "Chapter 9: The Collapse of the State and the Resurgence of Customary Law in Northern Somalia". Shattering Tradition: Custom, Law and the Individual in the Muslim Mediterranean. Walter Dostal, Wolfgang Kraus (ed.). London: I.B. Taurus. p. 296. ISBN 1-85043-634-7. Retrieved 2010-03-18. Awdal is mainly inhabited by the Gadabuursi confederation of clans. The Gadaabursi are concentrated in Awdal.... 
  15. ^ Renders, Marleen; Terlinden, Ulf. "Chapter 9: Negotiating Statehood in a Hybrid Political Order: The Case of Somaliland". In Tobias Hagmann, Didier Péclard. Negotiating Statehood: Dynamics of Power and Domination in Africa. p. 191. Retrieved 2012-01-21. 
  16. ^ Lewis, I. M. (1999-01-01). A Pastoral Democracy: A Study of Pastoralism and Politics Among the Northern Somali of the Horn of Africa. James Currey Publishers. pp. P. 109. Gadabuursi in the region of Gebile/Gabilay (Woqooyi Galbeed). ISBN 9780852552803. 
  17. ^ Dostal, Walter; Kraus, Wolfgang (2005-04-22). Shattering Tradition: Custom, Law and the Individual in the Muslim Mediterranean. I.B.Tauris. p. 296. ISBN 9780857716774. 
  18. ^ Countries That Aren't Really Countries. PediaPress. p. 22. The second largest clan of the region, and that of the current president, is the Gadabuursi. 
  19. ^ Vries, F. W. T. Penning de (2005-01-01). Bright spots demonstrate community successes in African agriculture. IWMI. p. 67. ISBN 9789290906186. Gadabursi, the second largest clan in Somalia, was peacefully elected as president. 
  20. ^ Battera, Federico (2005). "Chapter 9: The Collapse of the State and the Resurgence of Customary Law in Northern Somalia". Shattering Tradition: Custom, Law and the Individual in the Muslim Mediterranean. Walter Dostal, Wolfgang Kraus (ed.). London: I.B. Taurus. p. 296. ISBN 1-85043-634-7. Retrieved 2010-03-18. but most of the Gadabuursi inhabit the Somali region of Ethiopia (the so-called region 5) where their paramount chief (the Ugaas) resides... 
  21. ^ Dostal, Walter; Kraus, Wolfgang (2005-04-22). Shattering Tradition: Custom, Law and the Individual in the Muslim Mediterranean. I.B.Tauris. p. 296. ISBN 9780857716774. 
  22. ^ "Somalia: The Myth of Clan-Based Statehood". Somalia Watch. 7 December 2002. Archived from the original on 15 June 2006. Retrieved 2007-01-29. 
  23. ^ Battera, Federico (2005). "Chapter 9: The Collapse of the State and the Resurgence of Customary Law in Northern Somalia". Shattering Tradition: Custom, Law and the Individual in the Muslim Mediterranean. Walter Dostal, Wolfgang Kraus (ed.). London: I.B. Taurus. p. 296. ISBN 1-85043-634-7. Retrieved 2010-03-18. 
  24. ^ Battera, Federico (2005). "Chapter 9: The Collapse of the State and the Resurgence of Customary Law in Northern Somalia". Shattering Tradition: Custom, Law and the Individual in the Muslim Mediterranean. Walter Dostal, Wolfgang Kraus (ed.). London: I.B. Taurus. p. 296. ISBN 1-85043-634-7. Retrieved 2010-03-18. In present day Awdal, most of the prominent elders have their main venues in the capital city of the region, Borama. However, the paramount chief of the Gadabuursi, the Ugaas, has his main venue in Ethiopia... 
  25. ^ a b Rayne, Henry a (2015-08-08). Sun, Sand and Somals; Leaves from the Note-Book of a District Commissioner in British Somalia. BiblioLife. ISBN 9781297569760. 
  26. ^ Imbert-Vier, Simon (2011). Tracer des frontières à Djibouti: des territoires et des hommes aux XIXe et XXe siècles (in French). KARTHALA Editions. ISBN 9782811105068. 
  27. ^ a b Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Central Statistical Agency Population of Ethiopia for All Regions At Wereda Level from 2014 p. 21 Somali region Archived 23 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine.
  28. ^ Negatu, Workneh; Research, Addis Ababa University Institute of Development; Center, University of Wisconsin--Madison Land Tenure; Foundation, Ford (2004-01-01). Proceedings of the Workshop on Some Aspects of Rural Land Tenure in Ethiopia: Access, Use, and Transfer. IDR/AAU. p. 43. Page:43 : Somali Settlers Gadabursi in Karrayu territory(Oromia region) 
  29. ^ Countries That Aren't Really Countries. PediaPress. p. 22. 
  30. ^ a b "Vice President Saylici (whose Gadabursi)"
  31. ^ "Shinile Agropastoral Livelihood Zone" (PDF). Save the Children. 2001. p. 8. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 February 2012. Retrieved 8 February 2012. 
  32. ^ "IL-DUUFKA WEYN EE LALA BEEGSADAY DAD-WEYNAHA GOBOLKA HARAWO". Harawo.org (in Somali). Retrieved 2012-02-08. 
  33. ^ a b "United Nations Emergencies Unit for Ethiopia, Field Trip to Jijiga (22-29 April, 1994)" (PDF). p. 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 December 2010. Retrieved 3 April 2011. 
  34. ^ Slikkerveer (2013-10-28). Plural Medical Systems In The Horn Of Africa: The Legacy Of Sheikh Hippocrates. Routledge. p. 140. ISBN 9781136143304. 
  35. ^ Saints and Somalis: Popular Islam in a Clan-based Society. p. 100. 
  36. ^ A Modern History of the Somali: Nation and State in the Horn of Africa. 
  37. ^ A report for the BRIDGES Project The Role of Education in Livelihoods in the Somali Region of Ethiopia Elanor Jackson. June 2011 http://fic.tufts.edu/assets/Education-Somali-Ethiopia.pdf “In the Afdem in 1989–91 there was also a clan clash between the Issa and Gedabiersay(Gadabursi)" p. 92
  38. ^ An HEA Baseline Study By SC‐UK, DPPB and Partners February 2002 Sponsored by USAID/OFDA and ECHO, with additional financial support from SC‐Canada and WFP http://www.dppc.gov.et/livelihoods/somali/Downloadable/Livelihood%20Baselines/LZ%202%20Shinile%20Pastoral.pdf[permanent dead link] "Shinile Pastoral Livelihood Zone (Shoats, Cattle, Camel) The inhabitants of Shinile Zone are Somali peoples, most of who are from the Issa clan. Other Somali groups, Gurgura, and Gadabursi also occupy the Zone."p. 9
  39. ^ Lewis, I. M. (1998-01-01). Saints and Somalis: Popular Islam in a Clan-based Society. The Red Sea Press. p. 100. ISBN 9781569021033. 
  40. ^ H arawo State Petition, March 2011
  41. ^ Fage, J. D.; Oliver, Roland (1975-01-01). The Cambridge History of Africa. Cambridge University Press. p. 153. ISBN 9780521209816. 
  42. ^ Britain), Royal Geographical Society (Great (1891-01-01). Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society and Monthly Record of Geography. Edward Stanford. 
  43. ^ Lewis, I. M. (1961-01-01). A Pastoral Democracy: A Study of Pastoralism and Politics Among the Northern Somali of the Horn of Africa. LIT Verlag Münster. p. 207. ISBN 9783825830847. 
  44. ^ Lewis, I. M. (1999-01-01). A Pastoral Democracy: A Study of Pastoralism and Politics Among the Northern Somali of the Horn of Africa. James Currey Publishers. pp. 211, 212. ISBN 9780852552803. 
  45. ^ LEWIS, I. M. (1961-01-01). "NOTES ON THE SOCIAL ORGANISATION OF THE ʿĪSE SOMALI". Rassegna di Studi Etiopici. 17: 80. 
  46. ^ "Gadabuursi Somali subgroup, largely resident in Ethiopia (Samarron) p. 5" http://www1.uni-hamburg.de/EAE/vol2.pdf
  47. ^ Feyissa and Hoehne, Dereje, Markus (2007). "Resourcing State Borders and Borderlands in the Horn of Africa" (PDF). Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology. 
  48. ^ Iacovacci, Giuseppe; et al. (2017). "Forensic data and microvariant sequence characterization of 27 Y-STR loci analyzed in four Eastern African countries". Forensic Science International: Genetics. 27: 123–131. doi:10.1016/j.fsigen.2016.12.015. Retrieved 19 January 2018. 
  49. ^ http://i67.tinypic.com/357k806.jpg
  50. ^ "Family Tree DNA - Somali DNA project". www.familytreedna.com. 
  51. ^ https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a7/Haplogroup_T-M184_tree.png
  52. ^ a b Lewis, I. M. (1961-01-01). A Pastoral Democracy: A Study of Pastoralism and Politics Among the Northern Somali of the Horn of Africa. LIT Verlag Münster. p. 204. ISBN 9783825830847. 
  53. ^ a b LEWIS, I. M. (1959-01-01). "THE GALLA IN NORTHERN SOMALIA". Rassegna di Studi Etiopici. 15: p. 31. JSTOR 41299539. 
  54. ^ Mukhtar, Mohamed Haji (2003-02-25). Historical Dictionary of Somalia. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 9780810866041. 
  55. ^ A list of the Gadabuursi Sultans
  56. ^ Protonotari, Francesco (1890-01-01). Nuova antologia (in Italian). Direzione della Nuova Antologia. p. 343. 
  57. ^ CLANSHIP, CONFLICT AND REFUGEES: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOMALIS IN THE HORN OF AFRICA, Guido Ambroso
  58. ^ Worldbank, Conflict in Somalia: Drivers and Dynamics, January 2005, Appendix 2, Lineage Charts, p. 55 Figure A-1
  59. ^ Country Information and Policy Unit, Home Office, Great Britain, Somalia Assessment 2001, Annex B: Somali Clan Structure Archived 16 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine., p. 43
  60. ^ Worldbank, Conflict in Somalia: Drivers and Dynamics, January 2005, Appendix 2, Lineage Charts, p. 56 Figure A-2
  61. ^ Abdirahman Aw Ali (Gadabursi) selected to serve as Vice President January–May 1993. p. 9 DEVELOPMENTAL LEADERSHIP PROGRAM Policy and Practice for Developmental Leaders, Elites and Coalitions Political Settlements and State Formation: The Case of Somaliland Sarah Phillips, University of Sydney December 2013 http://publications.dlprog.org/Political%20Settlements%20and%20State%20Formation%20-%20the%20Case%20of%20Somaliland.pdf
  62. ^ Report of E thiopia‟s high level delegation visit on nutrition and food security to Brazil and WFP Center of Excellence to fight Hunger (PDF). Brasilia, Brazil. p. 27.  line feed character in title= at position 33 (help) July 20-28, 2015.
  63. ^ "Rise of SPDP in Addis gives green light for internal purge". Africa Intelligence. 2016-11-11. Retrieved 2018-04-03. 
  64. ^ "PM Desalegn picks his candidate to head IGAD". Africa Intelligence. 2016-07-29. Retrieved 2018-04-03. 
  65. ^ "Nominated Ministers and Their Clans". Goobjoog. 2015-01-28. Retrieved 2018-04-03. 
  66. ^ Lewis, I. M. (1958-01-01). "The Gadabuursi Somali Script". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. 21 (1/3): 134–156. doi:10.1017/s0041977x00063278. JSTOR 610496. 
  67. ^ ʻArabfaqīh, Shihāb al-Dīn Aḥmad ibn ʻAbd al-Qādir (2003). The conquest of Abyssinia: 16th century. The Habar Makadur, underneath the page as a note [I.M. Lewis] by Richard Pankhurst. Tsehai Publishers & Distributors. p. 27. 
  68. ^ Lewis, I.M. (1998). Peoples of the Horn of Africa: Somali, Afar and Saho. The Gadabursi. Red Sea Pr; Subsequent edition (August 1998): Red Sea Pr; Subsequent edition (August 1998). p. 25. ISBN 978-1569021040. There are two main fractions, the Habr Afan and Habr Makadur, formerly united under a common hereditary chief (ogaz). 
  69. ^ Farah, Rachad (2013-09-01). Un embajadoren el centro de los acontecimientos (in Spanish). Editions L'Harmattan. p. 17. ISBN 9782336321356. 
  70. ^ As indicated in Morin (2005:640) the name of “Cote francaise des Somalis” itself is said to have been proposed by hağği Diideh (Mahad-Ase clan of Gedebursi. He was Prosperous merchant of Zayla who built the first Mosque in Djibouti Ğami ar-Rahma in 1891) to the French administration in imitation of British Somaliland, p. 92
  71. ^ "Yussur Abrar (Dir/Gadabursi), who hails from Borama in Somaliland". Africa Intelligence. 2013-11-08. Retrieved 2018-04-03. 
  72. ^ Mukhtar, Mohamed Haji (2003-02-25). Historical Dictionary of Somalia. Scarecrow Press. p. 247. ISBN 9780810866041. 
  73. ^ p. 210
  74. ^ geeskadmin (2014-12-10). "Kenya: Ethiopia Replaced Ambassador Shemsedin Ahmed for security reasons - Geeska Afrika Online". Retrieved 2018-04-03. 
  75. ^ Abdullahi, p.172.
  76. ^ Johnson, p. xv.

References