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FRAKTUR (German: ( listen )) is a calligraphic hand of the Latin alphabet and any of several blackletter typefaces derived from this hand. The blackletter lines are broken up; that is, their forms contain many angles when compared to the smooth curves of the Antiqua (common) typefaces modeled after antique Roman square capitals
Roman square capitals
and Carolingian minuscule . From this, Fraktur
Fraktur
is sometimes contrasted with the "Latin alphabet" in northern European texts, which is sometimes called the "German alphabet", simply being a typeface of the Latin alphabet . Similarly, the term "Fraktur" or "Gothic" is sometimes applied to all of the blackletter typefaces (known in German as Gebrochene Schrift, "Broken Script").

Here is the English alphabet in Fraktur: 𝕬 𝕭 𝕮 𝕯 𝕰 𝕱 𝕲 𝕳 𝕴 𝕵 𝕶 𝕷 𝕸 𝕹 𝕺 𝕻 𝕼 𝕽 𝕾 𝕿 𝖀 𝖁 𝖂 𝖃 𝖄 𝖅 𝖆 𝖇 𝖈 𝖉 𝖊 𝖋 𝖌 𝖍 𝖎 𝖏 𝖐 𝖑 𝖒 𝖓 𝖔 𝖕 𝖖 𝖗 𝖘 𝖙 𝖚 𝖛 𝖜 𝖝 𝖞 𝖟

The word derives from the past participle fractus ("broken") of Latin frangere ("to break"); the same root as the English word "fracture".

CONTENTS

* 1 Characteristics * 2 Origin * 3 Use * 4 Fraktur
Fraktur
traditions after 1941 * 5 Fraktur
Fraktur
in Unicode
Unicode
* 6 Typeface
Typeface
samples * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links

CHARACTERISTICS

Besides the 26 letters of the Latin alphabet, Fraktur
Fraktur
includes the ß ( Eszett
Eszett
), vowels with umlauts , and the ſ (long s ). Some Fraktur typefaces also include a variant form of the letter r known as the r rotunda , and many a variety of ligatures which are left over from cursive handwriting and have rules for their use. Most older Fraktur typefaces make no distinction between the majuscules "I" and "J" (where the common shape is more suggestive of a "J"), even though the minuscules "i" and "j" are differentiated.

One difference between the Fraktur
Fraktur
and other blackletter scripts is that in the lower case o, the left part of the bow is broken, but the right part is not. In Danish texts composed in Fraktur, the letter ø was already preferred to the German and Swedish ö in the 16th century.

ORIGIN

The first Fraktur
Fraktur
typeface arose in the early 16th century, when Emperor Maximilian I commissioned the design of the Triumphal Arch woodcut by Albrecht Dürer
Albrecht Dürer
and had a new typeface created specifically for this purpose, designed by Hieronymus Andreae . Fraktur
Fraktur
types for printing were established by the Augsburg
Augsburg
publisher Johann Schönsperger at the issuance of a series of Maximilian's works such as his Prayer Book (Gebetbuch, 1513) or the illustrated Theuerdank
Theuerdank
poem (1517).

Fraktur
Fraktur
quickly overtook the earlier Schwabacher and Textualis typefaces in popularity, and a wide variety of Fraktur
Fraktur
fonts were carved and became common in the German-speaking world and areas under German influence (Scandinavia, the Baltic states, Central Europe
Central Europe
). In the 18th century, the German Theuerdank
Theuerdank
Fraktur
Fraktur
was further developed by the Leipzig
Leipzig
typographer Johann Gottlob Immanuel Breitkopf to create the typeset Breitkopf Fraktur . While over the succeeding centuries, most Central Europeans switched to Antiqua, German-speakers remained a notable holdout.

USE

A Czech example of Fraktur: Title page of Česká mariánská muzika by Adam Václav Michna z Otradovic (1647) ("Cżeská maryánska muzyka" by old orthography ) Front page of Gustav Vasa 's Bible from 1541, using Fraktur
Fraktur
. The title translated to English reads: "The Bible / That is / All the Holy Scriptures / in Swedish. Printed in Uppsala
Uppsala
. 1541". (Note the use of long s and "th", akin to English; it would later change to "d".)

Typesetting
Typesetting
in Fraktur
Fraktur
was still very common in the early 20th century in all German-speaking countries and areas, as well as in Norway
Norway
, Estonia
Estonia
, and Latvia
Latvia
, and was still used to a very small extent in Sweden
Sweden
, Finland
Finland
and Denmark
Denmark
, while other countries typeset in Antiqua in the early 20th century. Some books at that time used related blackletter fonts such as Schwabacher ; however, the predominant typeface was the Normalfraktur, which came in slight variations. Usage map: A map presenting the contemporary German view of the extent of scripts around 1900. In reality only German-speaking countries, Estonia
Estonia
and Latvia
Latvia
still used Fraktur
Fraktur
as the majority script at this time. Denmark
Denmark
had shifted to antiqua during the mid 19th century, and in Norway
Norway
the majority of printed texts used antiqua around 1900.

From the late 18th century to the late 19th century, Fraktur
Fraktur
was progressively replaced by Antiqua as a symbol of the classicist age and emerging cosmopolitanism in most of the countries in Europe that had previously used Fraktur. This move was hotly debated in Germany, where it was known as the Antiqua–Fraktur dispute
Antiqua–Fraktur dispute
. The shift affected mostly scientific writing in Germany, whereas most belletristic literature and newspapers continued to be printed in broken fonts.

The Fraktur
Fraktur
typefaces were in heavy use in Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
, when they were initially represented as true German script; official Nazi documents and letterheads employed the font, and the cover of Hitler 's Mein Kampf
Mein Kampf
used a hand-drawn version of it. (However, ironically, the typefaces most popular in Nazi Germany, especially for running text as opposed to decorative uses such as in titles, were actually the more modernized fonts of the Gebrochene Grotesk type such as Tannenberg, designed in the early 20th century, mainly the 1930s, as grotesque versions of blackletter typefaces.) The press was scolded for its frequent use of "Roman characters" under "Jewish influence" and German émigrés were urged to use only "German script". This radically changed on January 3, 1941, when Martin Bormann
Martin Bormann
issued a circular to all public offices which declared Fraktur
Fraktur
(and its corollary, the Sütterlin -based handwriting) to be Judenlettern (Jewish letters) and prohibited their further use. German historian Albert Kapr has speculated that the régime had realized that Fraktur would inhibit communication in the territories occupied during World War II .

FRAKTUR TRADITIONS AFTER 1941

Even with the abolition of Fraktur, some publications include elements of it in headlines. Very occasionally, academic works still used Fraktur
Fraktur
in the text itself. Notably, Joachim Jeremias's work "Die Briefe an Timotheus und Titus" ("The Letters of Timothy and Titus") was published in 1963 using Fraktur. More often, some ligatures CH, CK from Fraktur
Fraktur
were used in antiqua-typed editions. That continued mostly up to the offset type period. Fraktur
Fraktur
saw a brief resurgence after the war, but quickly disappeared in a Germany keen on modernising its appearance.

Fraktur
Fraktur
is today used mostly for decorative typesetting: for example, a number of traditional German newspapers such as the Frankfurter Allgemeine , as well as the Norwegian Aftenposten
Aftenposten
, still print their name in Fraktur
Fraktur
on the masthead (as indeed do some newspapers in other European countries and the U.S.) and it is also popular for pub signs and the like. In this modern decorative use, the traditional rules about the use of long s and short s and of ligatures are often disregarded.

Individual Fraktur
Fraktur
letters are sometimes used in mathematics , which often denotes associated or parallel concepts by the same letter in different fonts. For example, a Lie group
Lie group
is often denoted by G, while its associated Lie algebra
Lie algebra
is g {displaystyle {mathfrak {g}}} . A ring ideal might be denoted by a {displaystyle {mathfrak {a}}} while an element is a a {displaystyle ain {mathfrak {a}}} . The Fraktur
Fraktur
c {displaystyle {mathfrak {c}}} is also used to denote the cardinality of the continuum , that is, the cardinality of the real line. In model theory, A {displaystyle {mathfrak {A}}} is used to denote an arbitrary model, with A as its universe.

FRAKTUR IN UNICODE

In Unicode
Unicode
, Fraktur
Fraktur
is treated as a font of the Latin alphabet, and is not encoded separately. The additional ligatures that are required for Fraktur
Fraktur
fonts will not be encoded in Unicode. Instead, Unicode proposes to deal with these ligatures using smart-font technologies such as OpenType , AAT or Graphite . There are many Fraktur
Fraktur
fonts that do not use smart-font technologies, but use their own legacy encoding instead that is not compliant with Unicode.

There are Fraktur
Fraktur
symbols in the Unicode
Unicode
blocks of mathematical alphanumeric symbols , letterlike symbols , and Latin E . However, these are meant to be used only in mathematics. Therefore, letters such as long s , ä, ö, ü, and ß, which are not used in mathematics, are excluded. 𝔄𝔅ℭ𝔇𝔈𝔉𝔊ℌℑ𝔍𝔎𝔏𝔐𝔑𝔒𝔓𝔔ℜ𝔖𝔗𝔘𝔙𝔚𝔛𝔜ℨ 𝔞𝔟𝔠𝔡𝔢𝔣𝔤𝔥𝔦𝔧𝔨𝔩𝔪𝔫𝔬𝔭𝔮𝔯𝔰𝔱𝔲𝔳𝔴𝔵𝔶𝔷 ꬲꬽ

TYPEFACE SAMPLES

In the figures below, the German sentence that appears after the names of the fonts (Walbaum- Fraktur
Fraktur
in Fig. 1 and Humboldtfraktur in Fig. 2) reads, "Victor jagt zwölf Boxkämpfer quer über den Sylter Deich". It means "Victor chases twelve boxers across the Sylt dike" and contains all 26 letters of the alphabet plus the umlauted glyphs used in German, making it an example of a pangram . Fig. 1. Walbaum- Fraktur
Fraktur
(1800) Fig. 2. Humboldtfraktur (Hiero Rhode, 1938)

SEE ALSO

* Blackletter
Blackletter
* Breitkopf Fraktur * Emphasis (typography) * Eszett
Eszett
(letter ß) * Fette Fraktur * Fraktur (folk art) * Gaelic script

* Kurrent handwriting * Long s
Long s
* Mathematical Alphanumeric Symbols * Morgenbladet * Pennsylvania Dutch
Pennsylvania Dutch
* Sütterlin handwriting * Uncial script

REFERENCES

* ^ Compare, for example, Bibla: Det er den gantske Hellige Scrifft: udsæt paa Danske. 1550. (in Danish) and Biblia: Det er Den gantske Hellige Scrifft paa Danske igien offuerseet oc prentet effter vor allernaadigste herris oc Kongis K. Christian den IV. Befaling. 1633. (in Danish) * ^ In Denmark
Denmark
in 1902 the percentage of printed material using antiqua amounted to 95% according to R. Paulli, "Den sejrende antikva", i: Det trykte Ord, published by Grafisk Cirkel, Copenhagen, 1940. * ^ R. Paulli, "Den sejrende antikva", i: Det trykte Ord, published by Grafisk Cirkel, Copenhagen, 1940. * ^ Rem, Tore (2009). "Materielle variasjoner. Overgang fra fraktur til antikva i Norge". In Malm, Mats; Sjönell, Barbro Ståhle; Söderlund, Petra. Bokens materialitet: Bokhistoria och bibliografi. Stockholm: Svenska Vitterhetssamfundet. ISBN 978-91-7230-149-8 . * ^ "1941: The Nazis ban Jewish fonts". historyweird.com. Retrieved 2015-11-21. * ^ Eric Michaud, The Cult of Art in Nazi Germany, tr. Janet Lloyd, Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 2004, ISBN 9780804743266 , pp. 215–16 and Plate 110.

* ^ Facsimile of Bormann\'s Memorandum (in German) The memorandum itself is typed in Antiqua, but the NSDAP
NSDAP
letterhead is printed in Fraktur. "For general attention, on behalf of the Führer, I make the following announcement: It is wrong to regard or to describe the so-called Gothic script as a German script. In reality, the so-called Gothic script consists of Schwabach Jew letters. Just as they later took control of the newspapers, upon the introduction of printing the Jews residing in Germany took control of the printing presses and thus in Germany the Schwabach Jew letters were forcefully introduced. Today the Führer, talking with Herr Reichsleiter Amann and Herr Book Publisher Adolf Müller, has decided that in the future the Antiqua script is to be described as normal script. All printed materials are to be gradually converted to this normal script. As soon as is feasible in terms of textbooks, only the normal script will be taught in village and state schools. The use of the Schwabach Jew letters by officials will in future cease; appointment certifications for functionaries, street signs, and so forth will in future be produced only in normal script. On behalf of the Führer, Herr Reichsleiter Amann will in future convert those newspapers and periodicals that already have foreign distribution, or whose foreign distribution is desired, to normal script". * ^ Kapr, Albert (1993). Fraktur: Form und Geschichte der gebrochenen Schriften. Mainz: H. Schmidt. p. 81. ISBN 3-87439-260-0 . * ^ "Ligatures, Digraphs, Presentation Forms vs. Plain Text". Unicode
Unicode
Consortium . 7 July 2015. Retrieved 27 January 2017. * ^ "Ligatures, Digraphs, Presentation Forms vs. Plain Text". Unicode
Unicode
Consortium . 7 July 2015.

FURTHER READING

* Bain, Peter and Paul Shaw. Blackletter: Type and National Identity. Princeton Architectural Press: 1998. ISBN 1-56898-125-2 . * Silvia Hartmann: Fraktur
Fraktur
oder Antiqua. Der Schriftstreit von 1881 bis 1941, Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main u. a. 1998 (2. üb. A. 1999), ISBN 978-3-631-35090-4 * Fiedl, Frederich, Nicholas Ott and Bernard Stein. Typography: An Encyclopedic Survey of Type Design and Techniques Through History. Black Dog padding:0.75em; background:#f9f9f9;"> Find more aboutFRAKTURat's sister projects

* Definitions from Wiktionary * Media from Commons * Data from Wikidata

* A complete Fraktur
Fraktur
chart * (in German) Website of Dieter Steffmann, which has a large number of digitized Fraktur
Fraktur
fonts * (in German) Fraktur
Fraktur
fonts for the computer * Blackletter: Type and National Identity * (in German) Delbanco: German Purveyors of Fraktur
Fraktur
fonts (commercial) * Setting up Microsoft Windows NT, 2000 or Windows XP to support Unicode
Unicode
supplementary characters * UniFraktur: Free Unicode
Unicode
-compliant Fraktur
Fraktur
fonts and resources

* v * t * e

Typography
Typography
terminology

PAGE

* Canons of page construction
Canons of page construction
* Column * Even working * Margin * Page numbering * Pagination * Pull quote * Recto and verso
Recto and verso

PARAGRAPH

* Alignment * Justification * Leading
Leading
* River * Sentence spacing
Sentence spacing
* Widows and orphans

CHARACTER

TYPEFACE ANATOMY

* Counter * Diacritics * Dingbat
Dingbat
* Glyph
Glyph
* Initial
Initial
* Kerning * Letter-spacing * Ligature * Subscript and superscript
Subscript and superscript
* Swash * Text figures * Tittle

CAPITALIZATION

* All caps
All caps
* CamelCase * Letter case * Petite caps * Small caps

VISUAL DISTINCTION

* Italics * Oblique * BOLD * Color * Underline * 𝔹𝕝𝕒𝕔𝕜𝕓𝕠𝕒𝕣𝕕 𝕓𝕠𝕝𝕕 * 𝕭𝖑𝖆𝖈𝖐𝖑𝖊𝖙𝖙𝖊𝖗 * Infant

VERTICAL ASPECTS

* Ascender * Baseline * Cap height * Descender
Descender
* Median * Overshoot * x-height

CLASSIFICATIONS

ROMAN TYPE

* Antiqua (old style) * Didone (modern) * Sans-serif
Sans-serif
* Script * Serif * Slab serif
Slab serif
* Transitional * Reverse-contrast

BLACKLETTER TYPE

* Fraktur * Rotunda * Schwabacher * Textualis

GAELIC TYPE

* Insular * Uncial

SPECIALIST

* Record type

PUNCTUATION

* Dashes * Hanging punctuation * Hyphen-minus * Hyphenation * Prime mark * Quotation mark
Quotation mark

TYPESETTING

* Calligraphy
Calligraphy
* etaoin shrdlu

* Font
Font

* computer * monospaced

* Font
Font
catalog * Letterpress * Lorem ipsum
Lorem ipsum
* Microtypography * Movable type
Movable type
* Pangram * Phototypesetting * Punchcutting * Type color * Type design * Typeface
Typeface

* Microprint

* list

TYPOGRAPHIC UNITS

* Agate * Cicero * Em * En * Figure space * Measure * Paren space * Pica

* Point

* traditional point-size names

* Thin space

DIGITAL TYPOGRAPHY

* Character encoding
Character encoding
* Font
Font
formats * Hinting * Rasterization * Typesetting
Typesetting
software * Typographic features * Web typography

RELATED

* Intentionally blank page * Style guide
Style guide
* Type foundry

* Category
Category
* Commons * Portal
Portal

* v * t * e

Types of writing systems

OVERVIEW

* History of writing
History of writing
* Grapheme
Grapheme

LISTS

* Writing systems

* undeciphered * inventors * constructed

* Languages by writing system / by first written accounts

TYPES

ABJADS

* Numerals

* Aramaic

* Hatran

* Arabic * Pitman shorthand
Pitman shorthand

* Hebrew

* Ashuri * Cursive * Rashi * Solitreo

* Tifinagh
Tifinagh
* Manichaean * Nabataean * Old North Arabian * Pahlavi * Pegon

* Phoenician

* Paleo-Hebrew

* Proto-Sinaitic * Psalter * Punic * Samaritan

* South Arabian

* Zabur * Musnad

* Sogdian

* Syriac

* ʾEsṭrangēlā * Serṭā * Maḏnḥāyā

* Teeline Shorthand * Ugaritic

ABUGIDAS

BRAHMIC

NORTHERN

* Asamiya (Ôxômiya) * Bānglā * Bhaikshuki * Bhujinmol * Brāhmī * Devanāgarī * Dogra * Gujarati * Gupta * Gurmukhī * Kaithi
Kaithi
* Kalinga * Khojki * Khotanese * Khudawadi * Laṇḍā * Lepcha * Limbu * Mahajani
Mahajani
* Marchen * Marchung * Meitei Mayek * Modi * Multani * Nāgarī * Nandinagari * Odia * \'Phags-pa * Newar * Pungs-chen * Pungs-chung * Ranjana * Sharada * Saurashtra * Siddhaṃ * Soyombo * Sylheti Nagari * Takri

* Tibetan

* Uchen * Umê

* Tirhuta * Tocharian * Zanabazar Square

SOUTHERN

* Ahom * Balinese * Batak * Baybayin * Bhattiprolu * Buhid * Burmese * Chakma * Cham * Grantha * Goykanadi * Hanunó\'o * Javanese * Kadamba * Kannada * Kawi * Khmer * Kulitan * Lanna * Lao * Leke * Lontara * Malayalam

* Maldivian

* Dhives Akuru
Dhives Akuru
* Eveyla Akuru * Thaana
Thaana

* Mon * Old Sundanese * Pallava * Pyu * Rejang * Rencong * Sinhala * Sundanese * Tagbanwa * Tai Le * Tai Tham * Tai Viet * Tamil * Telugu * Thai * Tigalari

* Vatteluttu

* Kolezhuthu * Malayanma

* Visayan

OTHERS

* Boyd\'s syllabic shorthand

* Canadian syllabics

* Blackfoot * Déné syllabics

* Fox I * Ge\'ez * Gunjala Gondi * Japanese Braille * Jenticha * Kayah Li * Kharosthi
Kharosthi
* Mandombe * Masaram Gondi * Meroitic * Miao * Mwangwego * Sorang Sompeng * Pahawh Hmong * Thomas Natural Shorthand
Thomas Natural Shorthand

ALPHABETS

LINEAR

* Abkhaz * Adlam * Armenian * Avestan * Avoiuli * Bassa Vah * Borama * Carian * Caucasian Albanian * Coorgi–Cox alphabet
Coorgi–Cox alphabet
* Coptic * Cyrillic * Deseret

* Duployan shorthand

* Chinook writing

* Early Cyrillic * Eclectic shorthand * Elbasan * Etruscan * Evenki * Fox II * Fraser * Gabelsberger shorthand
Gabelsberger shorthand
* Garay

* Georgian

* Asomtavruli
Asomtavruli
* Nuskhuri
Nuskhuri
* Mkhedruli
Mkhedruli

* Glagolitic * Gothic * Gregg shorthand
Gregg shorthand
* Greek * Greco-Iberian alphabet
Greco-Iberian alphabet
* Hangul
Hangul
* IPA * Kaddare

* Latin

* Beneventan * Blackletter
Blackletter
* Carolingian minuscule * Fraktur * Gaelic * Insular * Kurrent * Merovingian * Sigla * Sütterlin * Tironian notes * Visigothic

* Luo * Lycian * Lydian * Manchu * Mandaic * Molodtsov * Mongolian * Mru * Neo- Tifinagh
Tifinagh
* New Tai Lue * N\'Ko * Ogham
Ogham
* Oirat * Ol Chiki * Old Hungarian * Old Italic * Old Permic * Orkhon * Old Uyghur * Osage * Osmanya * Pau Cin Hau * Rohingya Hanifi

* Runic

* Anglo-Saxon * Cipher * Dalecarlian * Elder Futhark
Elder Futhark
* Younger Futhark
Younger Futhark
* Gothic * Marcomannic * Medieval * Staveless

* Sidetic * Shavian * Somali * Tifinagh
Tifinagh
* Vagindra * Visible Speech
Visible Speech
* Vithkuqi * Zaghawa

NON-LINEAR

* Braille
Braille
* Maritime flags * Morse code
Morse code
* New York Point
New York Point
* Semaphore line * Flag semaphore
Flag semaphore
* Moon type

IDEOGRAMS /PICTOGRAMS

* Adinkra * Aztec * Blissymbol * Dongba * Ersu Shaba * Emoji
Emoji
* IConji * Isotype * Kaidā * Míkmaq * Mixtec * New Epoch Notation Painting * Nsibidi
Nsibidi
* Ojibwe Hieroglyphs * Siglas poveiras * Testerian * Yerkish * Zapotec

LOGOGRAMS

CHINESE FAMILY OF SCRIPTS

CHINESE CHARACTERS

* Simplified * Traditional * Oracle bone script
Oracle bone script
* Bronze Script

* Seal Script

* large * small * bird-worm

* Hanja
Hanja
* Idu * Kanji
Kanji
* Chữ nôm * Zhuang

CHINESE-INFLUENCED

* Jurchen * Khitan large script
Khitan large script
* Sui * Tangut

CUNEIFORM

* Akkadian * Assyrian * Elamite * Hittite * Luwian * Sumerian

OTHER LOGO-SYLLABIC

* Anatolian * Bagam * Cretan * Isthmian * Maya * Proto-Elamite * Yi (Classical)

LOGO-CONSONANTAL

* Demotic * Hieratic
Hieratic
* Hieroglyphs

NUMERALS

* Hindu-Arabic * Abjad
Abjad
* Attic (Greek) * Muisca * Roman

SEMI-SYLLABARIES

FULL

* Celtiberian * Northeastern Iberian * Southeastern Iberian * Khom

REDUNDANT

* Espanca * Pahawh Hmong * Khitan small script * Southwest Paleohispanic * Zhùyīn fúhào

SOMACHEIROGRAMS

* ASLwrite * SignWriting * si5s * Stokoe Notation

SYLLABARIES

* Afaka * Bamum * Bété * Byblos * Cherokee * Cypriot * Cypro-Minoan * Eskayan * Geba * Great Lakes Algonquian syllabics * Iban

* Japanese

* Hiragana
Hiragana
* Katakana
Katakana
* Man\'yōgana * Hentaigana * Sogana * Jindai moji

* Kikakui * Kpelle * Linear B
Linear B
* Linear Elamite * Lisu * Loma * Nüshu * Nwagu Aneke script * Old Persian Cuneiform
Cuneiform
* Vai * Woleai * Yi (Modern) * Yugtun

* v * t * e

Braille
Braille
⠃⠗⠁⠊⠇⠇⠑

BRAILLE CELL

* 1829 braille
1829 braille
* International uniformity * ASCII braille * Unicode
Unicode
braille patterns

BRAILLE SCRIPTS

French-ordered scripts (see for more)

* Albanian * Amharic * Arabic * Armenian * Azerbaijani * Belarusian

* Bharati

* Devanagari
Devanagari
(Hindi / Marathi / Nepali) * Bengali * Punjabi * Sinhalese * Tamil * Urdu * etc.

* Bulgarian * Burmese * Cambodian * Cantonese * Catalan * Chinese (Mandarin, mainland) * Czech * Dutch * Dzongkha (Bhutanese) * English (Unified English ) * Esperanto * Estonian * Faroese * French * Georgian * German * Ghanaian * Greek * Guarani * Hawaiian * Hebrew * Hungarian * Icelandic * Inuktitut (reassigned vowels) * Iñupiaq * IPA * Irish * Italian * Kazakh * Kyrgyz * Latvian * Lithuanian * Maltese * Mongolian * Māori * Nigerian * Northern Sami * Persian * Philippine * Polish * Portuguese * Romanian * Russian * Samoan * Scandinavian * Slovak * South African * Spanish * Tatar * Taiwanese Mandarin (largely reassigned) * Thai border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

* Algerian Braille
Braille
(obsolete)

FREQUENCY-BASED SCRIPTS

* American Braille
Braille
(obsolete)

INDEPENDENT SCRIPTS

* Japanese * Korean * Two-Cell Chinese

EIGHT-DOT SCRIPTS

* Luxembourgish * Kanji
Kanji
* Gardner–Salinas braille codes (GS8)

SYMBOLS IN BRAILLE

* Braille
Braille
music * Canadian currency marks * Computer Braille
Braille
Code * Gardner–Salinas braille codes (GS8/GS6) * International Phonetic Alphabet
Alphabet
(IPA) * Nemeth braille code

BRAILLE TECHNOLOGY

* Braille
Braille
e-book * Braille
Braille
embosser * Braille
Braille
translator * Braille
Braille
watch * Mountbatten Brailler * Optical braille recognition * Perforation * Perkins Brailler * Refreshable braille display
Refreshable braille display
* Slate and stylus * Braigo

PERSONS

* Louis Braille
Braille
* Charles Barbier * Valentin Haüy * Thakur Vishva Narain Singh * Sabriye Tenberken * William Bell Wait

ORGANISATIONS

* Braille
Braille
Institute of America * Braille
Braille
Without Borders * Japan Braille
Braille
Library * National Braille
Braille
Association * Blindness organizations * Schools for the blind * American Printing
Printing
House for the Blind

OTHER TACTILE ALPHABETS

* Decapoint
Decapoint
* Moon type * New York Point
New York Point
* Night writing * Vibratese

RELATED TOPICS

* Accessible publishing * Braille
Braille
literacy * Ro

.