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FRAKTUR (German: (_ listen )) is a calligraphic hand of the Latin alphabet and any of several blackletter typefaces derived from this hand. The blackletter lines are broken up; that is, their forms contain many angles when compared to the smooth curves of the Antiqua (common) typefaces modeled after antique Roman square capitals and Carolingian minuscule . From this, Fraktur is sometimes contrasted with the "Latin alphabet" in northern European texts, which is sometimes called the "German alphabet", simply being a typeface of the Latin alphabet . Similarly, the term "Fraktur" or "Gothic" is sometimes applied to all_ of the blackletter typefaces (known in German as _Gebrochene Schrift_, "Broken Script").

Here is the English alphabet in Fraktur: 𝕬 𝕭 𝕮 𝕯 𝕰 𝕱 𝕲 𝕳 𝕴 𝕵 𝕶 𝕷 𝕸 𝕹 𝕺 𝕻 𝕼 𝕽 𝕾 𝕿 𝖀 𝖁 𝖂 𝖃 𝖄 𝖅 𝖆 𝖇 𝖈 𝖉 𝖊 𝖋 𝖌 𝖍 𝖎 𝖏 𝖐 𝖑 𝖒 𝖓 𝖔 𝖕 𝖖 𝖗 𝖘 𝖙 𝖚 𝖛 𝖜 𝖝 𝖞 𝖟

The word derives from the past participle _fractus_ ("broken") of Latin _frangere_ ("to break"); the same root as the English word "fracture".

CONTENTS

* 1 Characteristics * 2 Origin * 3 Use * 4 Fraktur traditions after 1941 * 5 Fraktur in Unicode * 6 Typeface samples * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links

CHARACTERISTICS

Besides the 26 letters of the Latin alphabet, Fraktur includes the ß (_Eszett_ ), vowels with umlauts , and the ſ (_long s _). Some Fraktur typefaces also include a variant form of the letter r known as the r rotunda , and many a variety of ligatures which are left over from cursive handwriting and have rules for their use. Most older Fraktur typefaces make no distinction between the majuscules "I" and "J" (where the common shape is more suggestive of a "J"), even though the minuscules "i" and "j" are differentiated.

One difference between the Fraktur and other blackletter scripts is that in the lower case _o_, the left part of the bow is broken, but the right part is not. In Danish texts composed in Fraktur, the letter ø was already preferred to the German and Swedish ö in the 16th century.

ORIGIN

The first Fraktur typeface arose in the early 16th century, when Emperor Maximilian I commissioned the design of the _Triumphal Arch _ woodcut by Albrecht Dürer and had a new typeface created specifically for this purpose, designed by Hieronymus Andreae . Fraktur types for printing were established by the Augsburg publisher Johann Schönsperger at the issuance of a series of Maximilian's works such as his _Prayer Book_ (_Gebetbuch_, 1513) or the illustrated _ Theuerdank _ poem (1517).

Fraktur quickly overtook the earlier Schwabacher and Textualis typefaces in popularity, and a wide variety of Fraktur fonts were carved and became common in the German-speaking world and areas under German influence (Scandinavia, the Baltic states, Central Europe ). In the 18th century, the German _Theuerdank_ Fraktur was further developed by the Leipzig typographer Johann Gottlob Immanuel Breitkopf to create the typeset Breitkopf Fraktur . While over the succeeding centuries, most Central Europeans switched to Antiqua, German-speakers remained a notable holdout.

USE

_ A Czech example of Fraktur: Title page of Česká mariánská muzika_ by Adam Václav Michna z Otradovic (1647) ("Cżeská maryánska muzyka" by old orthography ) Front page of Gustav Vasa 's Bible from 1541, using Fraktur . The title translated to English reads: "The Bible / That is / All the Holy Scriptures / in Swedish. Printed in Uppsala . 1541". (Note the use of long s and "th", akin to English; it would later change to "d".)

Typesetting in Fraktur was still very common in the early 20th century in all German-speaking countries and areas, as well as in Norway , Estonia , and Latvia , and was still used to a very small extent in Sweden , Finland and Denmark , while other countries typeset in Antiqua in the early 20th century. Some books at that time used related blackletter fonts such as _ Schwabacher _; however, the predominant typeface was the _Normalfraktur_, which came in slight variations. Usage map: A map presenting the contemporary German view of the extent of scripts around 1900. In reality only German-speaking countries, Estonia and Latvia still used Fraktur as the majority script at this time. Denmark had shifted to antiqua during the mid 19th century, and in Norway the majority of printed texts used antiqua around 1900.

From the late 18th century to the late 19th century, Fraktur was progressively replaced by Antiqua as a symbol of the classicist age and emerging cosmopolitanism in most of the countries in Europe that had previously used Fraktur. This move was hotly debated in Germany, where it was known as the Antiqua–Fraktur dispute . The shift affected mostly scientific writing in Germany, whereas most belletristic literature and newspapers continued to be printed in broken fonts.

The Fraktur typefaces were in heavy use in Nazi Germany , when they were initially represented as true German script; official Nazi documents and letterheads employed the font, and the cover of Hitler 's _ Mein Kampf _ used a hand-drawn version of it. (However, ironically, the typefaces most popular in Nazi Germany, especially for running text as opposed to decorative uses such as in titles, were actually the more modernized fonts of the Gebrochene Grotesk type such as Tannenberg, designed in the early 20th century, mainly the 1930s, as grotesque versions of blackletter typefaces.) The press was scolded for its frequent use of "Roman characters" under "Jewish influence" and German émigrés were urged to use only "German script". This radically changed on January 3, 1941, when Martin Bormann issued a circular to all public offices which declared Fraktur (and its corollary, the Sütterlin -based handwriting) to be _Judenlettern_ (Jewish letters) and prohibited their further use. German historian Albert Kapr has speculated that the régime had realized that Fraktur would inhibit communication in the territories occupied during World War II .

FRAKTUR TRADITIONS AFTER 1941

Even with the abolition of Fraktur, some publications include elements of it in headlines. Very occasionally, academic works still used Fraktur in the text itself. Notably, Joachim Jeremias's work "Die Briefe an Timotheus und Titus" ("The Letters of Timothy and Titus") was published in 1963 using Fraktur. More often, some ligatures CH, CK from Fraktur were used in antiqua-typed editions. That continued mostly up to the offset type period. Fraktur saw a brief resurgence after the war, but quickly disappeared in a Germany keen on modernising its appearance.

Fraktur is today used mostly for decorative typesetting: for example, a number of traditional German newspapers such as the _Frankfurter Allgemeine _, as well as the Norwegian _ Aftenposten _, still print their name in Fraktur on the masthead (as indeed do some newspapers in other European countries and the U.S.) and it is also popular for pub signs and the like. In this modern decorative use, the traditional rules about the use of long s and short s and of ligatures are often disregarded.

Individual Fraktur letters are sometimes used in mathematics , which often denotes associated or parallel concepts by the same letter in different fonts. For example, a Lie group is often denoted by _G_, while its associated Lie algebra is g {displaystyle {mathfrak {g}}} _. A ring ideal might be denoted by a {displaystyle {mathfrak {a}}} while an element is a a {displaystyle ain {mathfrak {a}}} . The Fraktur c {displaystyle {mathfrak {c}}} is also used to denote the cardinality of the continuum , that is, the cardinality of the real line. In model theory, A {displaystyle {mathfrak {A}}} is used to denote an arbitrary model, with A_ as its universe.

FRAKTUR IN UNICODE

In Unicode , Fraktur is treated as a font of the Latin alphabet, and is not encoded separately. The additional ligatures that are required for Fraktur fonts will not be encoded in Unicode. Instead, Unicode proposes to deal with these ligatures using smart-font technologies such as OpenType , AAT or Graphite . There are many Fraktur fonts that do not use smart-font technologies, but use their own legacy encoding instead that is not compliant with Unicode.

There are Fraktur symbols in the Unicode blocks of mathematical alphanumeric symbols , letterlike symbols , and Latin E . However, these are meant to be used only in mathematics. Therefore, letters such as long s , _ä_, _ö_, _ü_, and _ß_, which are not used in mathematics, are excluded. 𝔄𝔅ℭ𝔇𝔈𝔉𝔊ℌℑ𝔍𝔎𝔏𝔐𝔑𝔒𝔓𝔔ℜ𝔖𝔗𝔘𝔙𝔚𝔛𝔜ℨ 𝔞𝔟𝔠𝔡𝔢𝔣𝔤𝔥𝔦𝔧𝔨𝔩𝔪𝔫𝔬𝔭𝔮𝔯𝔰𝔱𝔲𝔳𝔴𝔵𝔶𝔷 ꬲꬽ

TYPEFACE SAMPLES

In the figures below, the German sentence that appears after the names of the fonts (Walbaum- Fraktur in Fig. 1 and Humboldtfraktur in Fig. 2) reads, _"Victor jagt zwölf Boxkämpfer quer über den Sylter Deich"_. It means "Victor chases twelve boxers across the Sylt dike" and contains all 26 letters of the alphabet plus the umlauted glyphs used in German, making it an example of a pangram . Fig. 1. Walbaum- Fraktur (1800) Fig. 2. Humboldtfraktur (Hiero Rhode, 1938)

SEE ALSO

* Blackletter * Breitkopf Fraktur * Emphasis (typography) * Eszett (letter _ß_) * Fette Fraktur * Fraktur (folk art) * Gaelic script

* Kurrent handwriting * Long s * Mathematical Alphanumeric Symbols * Morgenbladet * Pennsylvania Dutch * Sütterlin handwriting * Uncial script

REFERENCES

* ^ Compare, for example, _Bibla: Det er den gantske Hellige Scrifft: udsæt paa Danske_. 1550. (in Danish) and _Biblia: Det er Den gantske Hellige Scrifft paa Danske igien offuerseet oc prentet effter vor allernaadigste herris oc Kongis K. Christian den IV. Befaling_. 1633. (in Danish) * ^ In Denmark in 1902 the percentage of printed material using antiqua amounted to 95% according to R. Paulli, "Den sejrende antikva", i: _Det trykte Ord_, published by Grafisk Cirkel, Copenhagen, 1940. * ^ R. Paulli, "Den sejrende antikva", i: _Det trykte Ord_, published by Grafisk Cirkel, Copenhagen, 1940. * ^ Rem, Tore (2009). "Materielle variasjoner. Overgang fra fraktur til antikva i Norge". In Malm, Mats; Sjönell, Barbro Ståhle; Söderlund, Petra. _Bokens materialitet: Bokhistoria och bibliografi_. Stockholm: Svenska Vitterhetssamfundet. ISBN 978-91-7230-149-8 . * ^ "1941: The Nazis ban Jewish fonts". _historyweird.com_. Retrieved 2015-11-21. * ^ Eric Michaud, _The Cult of Art in Nazi Germany_, tr. Janet Lloyd, Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 2004, ISBN 9780804743266 , pp. 215–16 and Plate 110.

* ^ Facsimile of Bormann\'s Memorandum (in German) The memorandum itself is typed in Antiqua, but the NSDAP letterhead is printed in Fraktur. "For general attention, on behalf of the Führer, I make the following announcement: It is wrong to regard or to describe the so-called Gothic script as a German script. In reality, the so-called Gothic script consists of Schwabach Jew letters. Just as they later took control of the newspapers, upon the introduction of printing the Jews residing in Germany took control of the printing presses and thus in Germany the Schwabach Jew letters were forcefully introduced. Today the Führer, talking with Herr Reichsleiter Amann and Herr Book Publisher Adolf Müller, has decided that in the future the Antiqua script is to be described as normal script. All printed materials are to be gradually converted to this normal script. As soon as is feasible in terms of textbooks, only the normal script will be taught in village and state schools. The use of the Schwabach Jew letters by officials will in future cease; appointment certifications for functionaries, street signs, and so forth will in future be produced only in normal script. On behalf of the Führer, Herr Reichsleiter Amann will in future convert those newspapers and periodicals that already have foreign distribution, or whose foreign distribution is desired, to normal script". * ^ Kapr, Albert (1993). _Fraktur: Form und Geschichte der gebrochenen Schriften_. Mainz: H. Schmidt. p. 81. ISBN 3-87439-260-0 .

* ^ "Ligatures, Digraphs, Presentation Forms vs. Plain Text". Unicode Consortium . 7 July 2015. Retrieved 27 January 2017. * ^ "Ligatures, Digraphs, Presentation Forms vs. Plain Text". Unicode Consortium . 7 July 2015.

FURTHER READING

* Bain, Peter and Paul Shaw. _Blackletter: Type and National Identity._ Princeton Architectural Press: 1998. ISBN 1-56898-125-2 . * Silvia Hartmann: _ Fraktur oder Antiqua. Der Schriftstreit von 1881 bis 1941_, Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main u. a. 1998 (2. üb. A. 1999), ISBN 978-3-631-35090-4 * Fiedl, Frederich, Nicholas Ott and Bernard Stein. _Typography: An Encyclopedic Survey of Type Design and Techniques Through History._ Black Dog padding:0.75em; background:#f9f9f9;"> Find more aboutFRAKTURat's sister projects

* _Definitions from Wiktionary * Media from Commons * Data from Wikidata

* A complete Fraktur chart * (in German) Website of Dieter Steffmann, which has a large number of digitized Fraktur fonts * (in German) Fraktur fonts for the computer * Blackletter: Type and National Identity * (in German) Delbanco: German Purveyors of Fraktur fonts (commercial) * Setting up Microsoft Windows NT, 2000 or Windows XP to support Unicode supplementary characters * UniFraktur: Free Unicode -compliant Fraktur fonts and resources

* v * t * e

Typography terminology

PAGE

* Canons of page construction * Column * Even working * Margin * Page numbering * Pagination * Pull quote * Recto and verso

PARAGRAPH

* Alignment * Justification * Leading * River * Sentence spacing * Widows and orphans

CHARACTER

TYPEFACE ANATOMY

* Counter * Diacritics * Dingbat * Glyph * Initial * Kerning * Letter-spacing * Ligature * Subscript and superscript * Swash * Text figures * Tittle

CAPITALIZATION

* All caps * CamelCase * Letter case * Petite caps * Small caps

VISUAL DISTINCTION

* Italics _ * _Oblique _ * BOLD * Color * Underline * 𝔹𝕝𝕒𝕔𝕜𝕓𝕠𝕒𝕣𝕕 𝕓𝕠𝕝𝕕 * 𝕭𝖑𝖆𝖈𝖐𝖑𝖊𝖙𝖙𝖊𝖗 * Infant

VERTICAL ASPECTS

* Ascender * Baseline * Cap height * Descender * Median * Overshoot * x-height

CLASSIFICATIONS

ROMAN TYPE

* Antiqua (old style) * Didone (modern) * Sans-serif * Script * Serif * Slab serif * Transitional * Reverse-contrast

BLACKLETTER TYPE

* Fraktur * Rotunda * Schwabacher * Textualis

GAELIC TYPE

* Insular * Uncial

SPECIALIST

* Record type

PUNCTUATION

* Dashes * Hanging punctuation * Hyphen-minus * Hyphenation * Prime mark * Quotation mark

TYPESETTING

* Calligraphy * etaoin shrdlu

* Font

* computer * monospaced

* Font catalog * Letterpress * Lorem ipsum * Microtypography * Movable type * Pangram * Phototypesetting * Punchcutting * Type color * Type design * Typeface

* Microprint

* list

TYPOGRAPHIC UNITS

* Agate * Cicero * Em * En * Figure space * Measure * Paren space * Pica

* Point

* traditional point-size names

* Thin space

DIGITAL TYPOGRAPHY

* Character encoding * Font formats * Hinting * Rasterization * Typesetting software * Typographic features * Web typography

RELATED

* Intentionally blank page * Style guide * Type foundry

* _ Category * Commons * Portal

* v * t * e

Types of writing systems

OVERVIEW

* History of writing * Grapheme

LISTS

* Writing systems

* undeciphered * inventors * constructed

* Languages by writing system / by first written accounts

TYPES

ABJADS

* Numerals _

* Aramaic

* Hatran

* Arabic * Pitman shorthand

* Hebrew

* Ashuri * Cursive * Rashi * Solitreo

* Libyco-Berber * Manichaean * Nabataean * Old North Arabian * Pahlavi * Pegon

* Phoenician

* Paleo-Hebrew

* Proto-Sinaitic * Psalter * Punic * Samaritan

* South Arabian

* Zabur * Musnad

* Sogdian

* Syriac

* ʾEsṭrangēlā * Serṭā * Maḏnḥāyā

* Teeline Shorthand * Ugaritic

ABUGIDAS

BRAHMIC

NORTHERN

* Asamiya (Ôxômiya) * Bānglā * Bhaikshuki * Bhujinmol * Brāhmī * Devanāgarī * Dogra * Gujarati * Gupta * Gurmukhī * Kaithi * Kalinga * Khojki * Khotanese * Khudawadi * Laṇḍā * Lepcha * Limbu * Mahajani * Marchen * Marchung * Meitei Mayek * Modi * Multani * Nāgarī * Nandinagari * Odia * \'Phags-pa * Newar * Pungs-chen * Pungs-chung * Ranjana * Sharada * Saurashtra * Siddhaṃ * Soyombo * Sylheti Nagari * Takri

* Tibetan

* Uchen * Umê

* Tirhuta * Tocharian * Zanabazar Square

SOUTHERN

* Ahom * Balinese * Batak * Baybayin * Bhattiprolu * Buhid * Burmese * Chakma * Cham * Grantha * Goykanadi * Hanunó\'o * Javanese * Kadamba * Kannada * Kawi * Khmer * Kulitan * Lanna * Lao * Leke * Lontara * Malayalam

* Maldivian

* Dhives Akuru * Eveyla Akuru * Thaana

* Mon * Old Sundanese * Pallava * Pyu * Rejang * Rencong * Sinhala * Sundanese * Tagbanwa * Tai Le * Tai Tham * Tai Viet * Tamil * Telugu * Thai * Tigalari

* Vatteluttu

* Kolezhuthu * Malayanma

* Visayan

OTHERS

* Boyd\'s syllabic shorthand

* Canadian syllabics

* Blackfoot * Déné syllabics

* Fox I * Ge\'ez * Gunjala Gondi * Japanese Braille * Jenticha * Kayah Li * Kharosthi * Mandombe * Masaram Gondi * Meroitic * Miao * Mwangwego * Sorang Sompeng * Pahawh Hmong * Thomas Natural Shorthand

ALPHABETS

LINEAR

* Abkhaz * Adlam * Armenian * Avestan * Avoiuli * Bassa Vah * Borama * Carian * Caucasian Albanian * Coorgi–Cox alphabet * Coptic * Cyrillic * Deseret

* Duployan shorthand

* Chinook writing

* Early Cyrillic * Eclectic shorthand * Elbasan * Etruscan * Evenki * Fox II * Fraser * Gabelsberger shorthand * Garay

* Georgian

* Asomtavruli * Nuskhuri * Mkhedruli

* Glagolitic * Gothic * Gregg shorthand * Greek * Greco-Iberian alphabet * Hangul * IPA * Kaddare

* Latin

* Beneventan * Blackletter * Carolingian minuscule * Fraktur * Gaelic * Insular * Kurrent * Merovingian * Sigla * Sütterlin * Tironian notes * Visigothic

* Luo * Lycian * Lydian * Manchu * Mandaic * Molodtsov * Mongolian * Mru * Neo-Tifinagh * New Tai Lue * N\'Ko * Ogham * Oirat * Ol Chiki * Old Hungarian * Old Italic * Old Permic * Orkhon * Old Uyghur * Osage * Osmanya * Pau Cin Hau * Rohingya Hanifi

* Runic

* Anglo-Saxon * Cipher * Dalecarlian * Elder Futhark * Younger Futhark * Gothic * Marcomannic * Medieval * Staveless

* Sidetic * Shavian * Somali * Tifinagh * Vagindra * Visible Speech * Vithkuqi * Zaghawa

NON-LINEAR

* Braille * Maritime flags * Morse code * New York Point * Semaphore line * Flag semaphore * Moon type

IDEOGRAMS /PICTOGRAMS

* Adinkra * Aztec * Blissymbol * Dongba * Ersu Shaba * Emoji * IConji * Isotype * Kaidā * Míkmaq * Mixtec * New Epoch Notation Painting * Nsibidi * Ojibwe Hieroglyphs * Siglas poveiras * Testerian * Yerkish * Zapotec

LOGOGRAMS

CHINESE FAMILY OF SCRIPTS

CHINESE CHARACTERS

* Simplified * Traditional * Oracle bone script * Bronze Script

* Seal Script

* large * small * bird-worm

* Hanja * Idu * Kanji * Chữ nôm * Zhuang

CHINESE-INFLUENCED

* Jurchen * Khitan large script * Sui * Tangut

CUNEIFORM

* Akkadian * Assyrian * Elamite * Hittite * Luwian * Sumerian

OTHER LOGO-SYLLABIC

* Anatolian * Bagam * Cretan * Isthmian * Maya * Proto-Elamite * Yi (Classical)

LOGO-CONSONANTAL

* Demotic * Hieratic * Hieroglyphs

NUMERALS

* Hindu-Arabic * Abjad * Attic (Greek) * Muisca * Roman

SEMI-SYLLABARIES

FULL

* Celtiberian * Northeastern Iberian * Southeastern Iberian * Khom

REDUNDANT

* Espanca * Pahawh Hmong * Khitan small script * Southwest Paleohispanic * Zhùyīn fúhào

SOMACHEIROGRAMS

* ASLwrite * SignWriting * si5s * Stokoe Notation

SYLLABARIES

* Afaka * Bamum * Bété * Byblos * Cherokee * Cypriot * Cypro-Minoan * Eskayan * Geba * Great Lakes Algonquian syllabics * Iban

* Japanese

* Hiragana * Katakana * Man\'yōgana * Hentaigana * Sogana * Jindai moji

* Kikakui * Kpelle * Linear B * Linear Elamite * Lisu * Loma * Nüshu * Nwagu Aneke script * Old Persian Cuneiform * Vai * Woleai * Yi (Modern) * Yugtun

* v * t * e

Braille ⠃⠗⠁⠊⠇⠇⠑

BRAILLE CELL

* 1829 braille * International uniformity * ASCII braille * Unicode braille patterns

BRAILLE SCRIPTS

French-ordered scripts (see for more)

* Albanian * Amharic * Arabic * Armenian * Azerbaijani * Belarusian

* Bharati

* Devanagari (Hindi / Marathi / Nepali) * Bengali * Punjabi * Sinhalese * Tamil * Urdu * _etc. _

* Bulgarian * Burmese * Cambodian * Cantonese * Catalan * Chinese (Mandarin, mainland) * Czech * Dutch * Dzongkha (Bhutanese) * English (Unified English ) * Esperanto * Estonian * Faroese * French * Georgian * German * Ghanaian * Greek * Guarani * Hawaiian * Hebrew * Hungarian * Icelandic * Inuktitut (reassigned vowels) * Iñupiaq * IPA * Irish * Italian * Kazakh * Kyrgyz * Latvian * Lithuanian * Maltese * Mongolian * Māori * Nigerian * Northern Sami * Persian * Philippine * Polish * Portuguese * Romanian * Russian * Samoan * Scandinavian * Slovak * South African * Spanish * Tatar * Taiwanese Mandarin (largely reassigned) * Thai border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

* Algerian Braille (obsolete)

FREQUENCY-BASED SCRIPTS

* American Braille (obsolete)

INDEPENDENT SCRIPTS

* Japanese * Korean * Two-Cell Chinese

EIGHT-DOT SCRIPTS

* Luxembourgish * Kanji * Gardner–Salinas braille codes (GS8)

SYMBOLS IN BRAILLE

* Braille music * Canadian currency marks * Computer Braille Code * Gardner–Salinas braille codes (GS8/GS6) * International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) * Nemeth braille code

BRAILLE TECHNOLOGY

* Braille e-book * Braille embosser * Braille translator * Braille watch * Mountbatten Brailler * Optical braille recognition * Perforation * Perkins Brailler * Refreshable braille display * Slate and stylus * Braigo

PERSONS

* Louis Braille * Charles Barbier * Valentin Haüy * Thakur Vishva Narain Singh * Sabriye Tenberken * William Bell Wait

ORGANISATIONS

* Braille Institute of America * Braille Without Borders * Japan Braille Library * National Braille Association * Blindness organizations * Schools for the blind * American Printing House for the Blind

OTHER TACTILE ALPHABETS

* Decapoint * Moon type * New York Point * Night writing * Vibratese

RELATED TOPICS

* Accessible publishing * Braille literacy * Robo Braille

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