FORMULA ONE (also FORMULA 1 or F1 and officially the
FIA FORMULA ONE
WORLD CHAMPIONSHIP) is the highest class of single-seat auto racing
that is sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l\'Automobile
Formula One World Championship has been the premier
form of racing since the inaugural season in 1950, although other
Formula One races were regularly held until 1983. The "formula ",
designated in the name, refers to a set of rules , to which all
participants' cars must conform. The F1 season consists of a series
of races, known as _Grands Prix_ (from French, meaning grand prizes),
held worldwide on purpose-built F1 circuits and public roads.
The results of each race are evaluated using a points system to
determine two annual World Championships, one for drivers , one for
constructors . The racing drivers are required to be holders of valid
Super Licences , the highest class of racing licence issued by the
FIA. The races are required to be held on tracks graded 1 (formerly
A), the highest grade a track can receive by the FIA. Most events are
held in rural locations on purpose-built tracks, but there are several
events in city centres throughout the world, with the Monaco Grand
Prix being the most famous example.
Formula One cars are the fastest road course racing cars in the
world, owing to very high cornering speeds achieved through the
generation of large amounts of aerodynamic downforce . Formula One
cars race at speeds of up to approximately 375 km/h (233 mph) with
engines currently limited in performance to a maximum of 15,000 rpm .
The cars are capable of lateral acceleration in excess of six g in
corners. The performance of the cars is very dependent on electronics
– although traction control and other driving aids have been banned
since 2008 – and on aerodynamics , suspension , and tyres . The
formula has radically evolved and changed through the history of the
While Europe is the sport's traditional base, and hosts about half of
each year's races, the sport's scope has expanded significantly and an
increasing number of Grands Prix are held on other continents. F1 had
a total global television audience of 425 million people during the
course of the 2014 season. Grand Prix racing began in 1906 and became
the most popular type internationally in the second half of the
twentieth century. The
Formula One Group is the legal holder of the
With the cost of designing and building mid-tier cars being of the
order of $120 million, Formula One's economic effect and creation of
jobs are significant, and its financial and political battles are
widely reported. Its high profile and popularity have created a major
merchandising environment, which has resulted in great investments
from sponsors and budgets in the hundreds of millions for the
constructors. Since 2000 the sport's spiralling expenditures and the
distribution of prize money favouring established top teams have
forced complaints from smaller teams and led several teams to
On 8 September 2016 it was announced that
Liberty Media Corp. had
agreed to buy Delta Topco, the company that controls Formula One, from
private equity firm
CVC Capital Partners for $4.4 billion in cash,
stock and convertible debt. On 23 January 2017 it was confirmed that
Liberty Media had completed its $8 billion acquisition of Delta Topco.
* 1 History
* 1.1 Return of racing
* 1.2 The _Garagistas_
* 1.3 Big business
* 1.4 Manufacturers\' return
* 1.5 Manufacturers\' decline and return of the privateers
* 1.6 Political disputes
* 2 Outside the World Championship
* 2.1 European non-championship racing
* 2.2 South African
Formula One championship
British Formula One Series
* 3 Racing and strategy
* 3.1 Tyre rules
* 3.2 Qualifying
* 3.3 Race
* 3.4 Flags
* 3.5 Points system
* 4 Constructors
* 5 Drivers
* 5.1 Feeder series
* 5.2 Beyond F1
* 6 Grands Prix
* 7 Circuits
* 8 Cars and technology
* 9 Revenue and profits
* 10 Future
* 11 Media coverage
* 12 Distinction between
Formula One and World Championship races
* 13 See also
* 14 References
* 15 Further reading
* 16 External links
History of Formula One
Formula One series originated with the
European Grand Prix Motor
Racing (_q.v. _ for pre-1947 history) of the 1920s and 1930s. The
formula is a set of rules that all participants' cars must meet.
Formula One was a new formula agreed upon after
World War II
World War II during
1946, with the first non-championship races being held that year. A
number of Grand Prix racing organisations had laid out rules for a
world championship before the war, but due to the suspension of racing
during the conflict, the World Drivers' Championship was not
formalised until 1947. The first world championship race was held at
Silverstone , United Kingdom in 1950. A championship for constructors
followed in 1958. National championships existed in South Africa and
the UK in the 1960s and 1970s. Non-championship
Formula One events
were held for many years, but due to the increasing cost of
competition, the last of these occurred in 1983.
RETURN OF RACING
Juan Manuel Fangio 's 1951 title-winning Alfa Romeo 159
The first World Championship for Drivers was won by Italian Giuseppe
Farina in his Alfa Romeo in 1950 , narrowly defeating his Argentine
Juan Manuel Fangio . However, Fangio won the title in 1951 ,
1954 , 1955 , 1956 , and 1957 (His record of five World Championship
titles stood for 45 years until German driver
Michael Schumacher took
his sixth title in 2003), his streak interrupted (after an injury) by
Alberto Ascari of
Ferrari . Although the UK 's
Stirling Moss was able to compete regularly, he was never able to win
the world championship, and is now widely considered to be the
greatest driver never to have won the title. Fangio, however, is
remembered for dominating Formula One's first decade and has long been
considered the "Grand Master" of Formula One.
This period featured teams managed by road car manufacturers Alfa
Mercedes-Benz , and Maserati ; all of whom had
competed before the war. The first seasons were run using pre-war cars
like Alfa's 158 . They were front-engined , with narrow tyres and
1.5-litre supercharged or 4.5-litre normally aspirated engines. The
1952 and 1953 world championships were run to
Formula Two regulations,
for smaller, less powerful cars, due to concerns over the paucity of
Formula One cars available. When a new Formula One, for engines
limited to 2.5 litres, was reinstated to the world championship for
Mercedes-Benz introduced the advanced W196 , which featured
innovations such as desmodromic valves and fuel injection as well as
enclosed streamlined bodywork. Mercedes drivers won the championship
for two years, before the team withdrew from all motorsport in the
wake of the
1955 Le Mans disaster .
Stirling Moss 's
Lotus 18 at the
Nürburgring during 1961
The first major technological development,
Bugatti 's re-introduction
of mid-engined cars (following
Ferdinand Porsche 's pioneering Auto
Unions of the 1930s), occurred with the Type 251 , which was
Jack Brabham , world champion during 1959 ,
1960 , and 1966 , soon proved the mid-engined design's superiority. By
1961 , all regular competitors had switched to mid-engined cars. The
Ferguson P99 , a four-wheel drive design, was the last front-engined
F1 car to enter a world championship race. It was entered in the 1961
British Grand Prix
British Grand Prix , the only front-engined car to compete that year.
The first British World Champion was
Mike Hawthorn , who drove a
Ferrari to the title during the 1958 season . However, when Colin
Chapman entered F1 as a chassis designer and later founder of Team
British racing green came to dominate the field for the next
decade. Including Brabham,
Jim Clark ,
Jackie Stewart ,
John Surtees ,
Graham Hill , and
Denny Hulme , British teams and Commonwealth drivers
won twelve world championships between 1962 and 1973.
During 1962 , Lotus introduced a car with an aluminium-sheet
monocoque chassis instead of the traditional space-frame design. This
proved to be the greatest technological breakthrough since the
introduction of mid-engined cars. During 1968 , Lotus painted Imperial
Tobacco livery on their cars, thus introducing sponsorship to the
Aerodynamic downforce slowly gained importance in car design from the
appearance of aerofoils during the late 1960s. During the late 1970s,
Lotus introduced ground-effect aerodynamics (previously used on Jim
Hall 's Chaparral 2J during 1970) that provided enormous downforce and
greatly increased cornering speeds. So great were the aerodynamic
forces pressing the cars to the track (up to five times the car's
weight), extremely stiff springs were needed to maintain a constant
ride height , leaving the suspension virtually solid, depending
entirely on the tyres for any small amount of cushioning of the car
and driver from irregularities of the road surface.
Clay Regazzoni driving for
Ferrari at the 1976 German Grand Prix
Beginning in the 1970s,
Bernie Ecclestone rearranged the management
of Formula One's commercial rights; he is widely credited with
transforming the sport into the multibillion-dollar business it now
is. When Ecclestone bought the
Brabham team during 1971 he gained a
seat on the
Formula One Constructors\' Association and during 1978 he
became its president. Previously, the circuit owners controlled the
income of the teams and negotiated with each individually, however
Ecclestone persuaded the teams to "hunt as a pack" through FOCA. He
Formula One to circuit owners as a package, which they could
take or leave. In return for the package almost all that was required
was to surrender trackside advertising.
The formation of the Fédération Internationale du Sport Automobile
(FISA) during 1979 set off the FISA–FOCA controversy , during which
FISA and its president
Jean-Marie Balestre disputed repeatedly with
FOCA over television revenues and technical regulations. _The
Guardian_ said of FOCA that Ecclestone and
Max Mosley "used it to wage
a guerrilla war with a very long-term aim in view". FOCA threatened to
establish a rival series, boycotted a Grand Prix and FISA withdrew its
sanction from races. The result was the 1981
Concorde Agreement ,
which guaranteed technical stability, as teams were to be given
reasonable notice of new regulations. Although FISA asserted its
right to the TV revenues, it handed the administration of those rights
Stefan Bellof driving for Tyrrell at the 1984 Dallas
FISA imposed a ban on ground-effect aerodynamics during 1983 . By
then, however, turbocharged engines, which Renault had pioneered in
1977 , were producing over 700 bhp (520 kW) and were essential to be
competitive. By 1986 , a BMW turbocharged engine achieved a flash
reading of 5.5 bar pressure, estimated to be over 1,300 bhp (970 kW)
in qualifying for the
Italian Grand Prix . The next year power in race
trim reached around 1,100 bhp (820 kW), with boost pressure limited to
only 4.0 bar. These cars were the most powerful open-wheel circuit
racing cars ever. To reduce engine power output and thus speeds, the
FIA limited fuel tank capacity in 1984 and boost pressures in 1988
before banning turbocharged engines completely in 1989 .
The development of electronic driver aids began during the 1980s.
Lotus began to develop a system of active suspension , which first
appeared during 1982 on the 91 . By 1987, this system had been
perfected and was driven to victory by
Ayrton Senna in the Monaco
Grand Prix that year. In the early 1990s other teams followed suit and
semi-automatic gearboxes and traction control were a natural
progression. The FIA, due to complaints that technology was
determining the outcome of races more than driver skill, banned many
such aids for 1994 . This resulted in cars that were previously
dependent on electronic aids becoming very "twitchy" and difficult to
drive (particularly the
Williams FW16 ). Many observers felt the ban
on driver aids was in name only as they "proved difficult to police
The teams signed a second
Concorde Agreement during 1992 and a third
in 1997, which expired on the last day of 2007. Stefan Johansson
Ferrari at the
1985 European Grand Prix
On the track, the
McLaren and Williams teams dominated the 1980s and
Brabham also being competitive during the early part of
the 1980s, winning two Drivers' Championships with
Nelson Piquet .
Porsche , Honda , and Mercedes-Benz,
McLaren won sixteen
championships (seven constructors' and nine drivers') in that period,
while Williams used engines from Ford , Honda, and Renault to also win
sixteen titles (nine constructors' and seven drivers'). The rivalry
Ayrton Senna and
Alain Prost became F1's central focus
during 1988 , and continued until Prost retired at the end of 1993 .
Senna died at the
1994 San Marino Grand Prix after crashing into a
wall on the exit of the notorious curve Tamburello , having taken over
Prost's lead drive at Williams that year. The
FIA worked to improve
the sport's safety standards since that weekend, during which Roland
Ratzenberger also lost his life in an accident during Saturday
qualifying. No driver had died of injuries sustained on the track at
the wheel of a
Formula One car for 20 years, until the 2014 Japanese
Grand Prix where Jules Bianchi collided with a recovery vehicle after
aquaplaning off the circuit. Since 1994, three track marshals have
lost their lives, one at the
2000 Italian Grand Prix , the second at
2001 Australian Grand Prix and the third at the 2013 Canadian
Grand Prix .
Since the deaths of Senna and Ratzenberger, the
FIA has used safety
as a reason to impose rule changes that otherwise, under the Concorde
Agreement, would have had to be agreed upon by all the teams — most
notably the changes introduced for 1998 . This so-called 'narrow
track' era resulted in cars with smaller rear tyres, a narrower track
overall, and the introduction of grooved tyres to reduce mechanical
grip. There were to be four grooves on the front (three in the first
year) and rear that ran through the entire circumference of the tyre.
The objective was to reduce cornering speeds and to produce racing
similar to rainy conditions by enforcing a smaller contact patch
between tyre and track. This, according to the FIA, was to promote
driver skill and provide a better spectacle.
Damon Hill driving
for Williams at the
1995 Canadian Grand Prix
Results have been mixed as the lack of mechanical grip has resulted
in the more ingenious designers clawing back the deficit with
aerodynamic grip — pushing more force onto the tyres through wings
and aerodynamic devices, which in turn has resulted in less overtaking
as these devices tend to make the wake behind the car 'dirty'
(turbulent), preventing other cars from following closely due to their
dependence on 'clean' air to make the car stick to the track. The
grooved tyres also had the unfortunate side effect of initially being
of a harder compound to be able to hold the grooved tread blocks,
which resulted in spectacular accidents in times of aerodynamic grip
failure as the harder compound could not grip the track as well.
Drivers from McLaren, Williams, Renault (formerly Benetton), and
Ferrari, dubbed the "Big Four", won every World Championship from 1984
to 2008 . The teams won every Constructors' Championship from 1979 to
2008 as well as placing themselves as the top four teams in the
Constructors' Championship in every season between 1989 and 1997, and
winning every race but one (the 1996
Monaco Grand Prix ) between 1988
and 1997. Due to the technological advances of the 1990s, the cost of
Formula One increased dramatically. This increased
financial burdens, combined with the dominance of four teams (largely
funded by big car manufacturers such as Mercedes-Benz), caused the
poorer independent teams to struggle not only to remain competitive,
but to stay in business, and forced several teams to withdraw. Since
1990 , twenty-eight teams have withdrawn from Formula One. This has
prompted former Jordan owner
Eddie Jordan to say that the days of
competitive privateers are over.
Michael Schumacher won five consecutive titles with
Michael Schumacher and
Ferrari won five consecutive Drivers'
Championships (2000–2004) and six consecutive Constructors'
Championships (1999–2004). Schumacher set many new records,
including those for Grand Prix wins (91), wins in a season (thirteen
of eighteen), and most Drivers' Championships (seven). Schumacher's
championship streak ended on 25 September 2005 when Renault driver
Fernando Alonso became Formula One's youngest champion at that time,
Lewis Hamilton in 2008 . During 2006, Renault and Alonso won
both titles again. Schumacher retired at the end of 2006 after sixteen
years in Formula One, but came out of retirement for the 2010 season,
racing for the newly formed Mercedes works team, following the rebrand
Brawn GP .
During this period, the championship rules were changed frequently by
FIA with the intention of improving the on-track action and
Team orders , legal since the championship started
during 1950, were banned during 2002 after several incidents in which
teams openly manipulated race results, generating negative publicity,
most famously by
Ferrari at the
2002 Austrian Grand Prix . Other
changes included the qualifying format, the points scoring system, the
technical regulations, and rules specifying how long engines and tyres
must last. A "tyre war" between suppliers
lap times fall, although at the
2005 United States Grand Prix at
Indianapolis, seven out of ten teams did not race when their Michelin
tyres were deemed unsafe for use, leading to
Bridgestone becoming the
sole tyre supplier to
Formula One for the 2007 season. During 2006,
Max Mosley outlined a "green" future for Formula One, in which
efficient use of energy would become an important factor.
Formula One had been dominated by specialist race teams
like Williams, McLaren, and Benetton, using engines supplied by large
car manufacturers like Mercedes-Benz, Honda, Renault, and Ford.
Starting in 2000, with Ford's creation of the largely unsuccessful
Jaguar team, new manufacturer-owned teams entered
Formula One for the
first time since the departure of Alfa Romeo and Renault at the end of
1985. By 2006, the manufacturer teams–Renault, BMW , Toyota , Honda,
and Ferrari–dominated the championship, taking five of the first six
places in the Constructors' Championship. The sole exception was
McLaren, which at the time was part-owned by Mercedes Benz. Through
Grand Prix Manufacturers Association (GPMA), they negotiated a
larger share of Formula One's commercial profit and a greater say in
the running of the sport.
MANUFACTURERS\' DECLINE AND RETURN OF THE PRIVATEERS
Formula One in 2010
In 2008 and 2009, Honda , BMW , and Toyota all withdrew from Formula
One racing within the space of a year, blaming the economic recession.
This resulted in the end of manufacturer dominance within the sport.
The Honda F1 team went through a management buyout to become Brawn GP
with the notable F1 designer
Ross Brawn and
Nick Fry running and
owning the majority of the organisation.
Brawn GP went through a
painful size reduction, laying off hundreds of employees, but
eventually won the year's world championships with
Jenson Button and
Rubens Barrichello . BMW F1 was bought out by the original founder of
Peter Sauber . The
Lotus F1 Team are another, formerly
manufacturer-owned team that has reverted to "privateer" ownership,
together with the buy-out of the
Renault F1 Team by Genii Capital
investors in recent years. A link with their previous owners still
survived however, with their car continuing to be powered by a Renault
Power Unit until 2014.
McLaren also announced that it was to reacquire the shares in its
Mercedes Benz (McLaren's partnership with Mercedes was
reported to have started to sour with the
McLaren Mercedes SLR road
car project and tough F1 championships which included
found guilty of spying on
Ferrari ). Hence, during the 2010 season,
Mercedes Benz re-entered the sport as a manufacturer after its
Brawn GP , and split with
McLaren after 15 seasons with
the team. This left Mercedes ,
McLaren , and
Ferrari as the only car
manufacturers in the sport, although both
Ferrari began as
racing teams rather than manufacturers. The three teams
that debuted in 2010 (HRT, Lotus/Caterham and Virgin/Marussia/Manor)
all disappeared within seven years of their debuts
To compensate for the loss of manufacturer teams, four new teams were
accepted entry into the 2010 season ahead of a much anticipated
'cost-cap' (see below). Entrants included a reborn
Team Lotus –
which was led by a Malaysian consortium including
Tony Fernandes , the
Air Asia ; Hispania Racing – the first Spanish Formula One
team; as well as
Virgin Racing –
Richard Branson 's entry into the
series following a successful partnership with Brawn the year before.
They were also joined by the
US F1 Team , which planned to run out of
the United States as the only non-European based team in the sport.
Financial issues befell the squad before they even made the grid.
Despite the entry of these new teams, the proposed cost-cap was
repealed and these teams – who did not have the budgets of the
midfield and top-order teams – ran around at the back of the field
until they inevitably collapsed; HRT in 2012, Caterham (formerly
Lotus) in 2014 and Manor (formerly Virgin then Marussia), having
survived falling into administration in 2014, went under at the end of
A rule shake-up in 2014 meant Mercedes emerged as the dominant force,
Lewis Hamilton winning the championship closely followed by his
main rival and teammate,
Nico Rosberg , with the team winning 16 out
of the 19 races that season (all other victories coming from Daniel
Ricciardo of Red Bull). 2014 also saw a financial crisis which
resulted in the backmarker Marussia and Caterham teams being put into
administration , alongside the uncertain futures of
Force India and
Sauber. Marussia returned under the Manor name in 2015, a season in
Ferrari were the only challengers to Mercedes, with Vettel
taking victory in the three Grands Prix Mercedes did not win.
The 2016 season began in dominant fashion for Nico Rosberg, winning
the first 4 Grands Prix. His charge was halted by
Max Verstappen , who
took his maiden win in Spain in his debut race for Red Bull. After
that, the reigning champion
Lewis Hamilton decreased the point gap
between him and Rosberg to only one point, before taking the
championship lead heading into the summer break. Following the break,
the 1–2 positioning remained constant until an engine failure for
Hamilton in Malaysia left Rosberg in a commanding lead that he would
not relinquish in the 5 remaining races. Having won the title by a
mere 5 points, Rosberg retired from
Formula One at season's end. The
final team remaining from the 2010 new entries process, Manor Racing,
withdrew from the sport following the 2016 season, having lost 10th in
the Constructors' Championship to
Sauber with one race remaining,
leaving the grid at 20 cars as
Liberty Media took control of the
series in the off-season.
The battle for control of
Formula One was contested between the
Fédération Internationale du Sport Automobile (FISA), at the time an
autonomous subcommittee of the
FIA , and FOCA (the Formula One
The beginnings of the dispute are numerous, and many of the
underlying reasons may be lost in history. The teams (excepting
Ferrari and the other major manufacturers – Renault and Alfa Romeo
in particular) were of the opinion that their rights and ability to
compete against the larger and better funded teams were being
negatively affected by a perceived bias on the part of the controlling
organisation (FISA) toward the major manufacturers.
In addition, the battle revolved around the commercial aspects of the
sport (the FOCA teams were unhappy with the disbursement of proceeds
from the races) and the technical regulations which, in FOCA's
opinion, tended to be malleable according to the nature of the
transgressor more than the nature of the transgression.
The war culminated in a FOCA boycott of the 1982 San Marino Grand
Prix months later. In theory, all FOCA teams were supposed to boycott
the Grand Prix as a sign of solidarity and complaint at the handling
of the regulations and financial compensation (and extreme opposition
to the accession of Balestre to the position of FISA president: both
Colin Chapman of Lotus and Frank Williams of Williams stated clearly
that they would not continue in
Formula One with Balestre as its
governor). In practice, several of the FOCA teams backed out of the
boycott, citing "sponsor obligations". Notable among these were the
During the 2009 season of
Formula One , the sport was gripped in a
governance crisis. The
Max Mosley proposed numerous cost
cutting measures for the following season, including an optional
budget cap for the teams; teams electing to take the budget cap would
be granted greater technical freedom, adjustable front and rear wings
and an engine not subject to a rev limiter . The
Formula One Teams
Association (FOTA) believed that allowing some teams to have such
technical freedom would have created a 'two-tier' championship, and
thus requested urgent talks with the FIA. However, talks broke down
and FOTA teams announced, with the exception of Williams and Force
India , that 'they had no choice' but to form a breakaway
championship series .
Bernie Ecclestone was the Chief Executive
Formula One Group , and is known as the "F1 Supremo".
On 24 June, an agreement was reached between Formula One's governing
body and the teams to prevent a breakaway series. It was agreed teams
must cut spending to the level of the early 1990s within two years;
exact figures were not specified, and
Max Mosley agreed he would not
stand for re-election to the
FIA presidency in October. Following
further disagreements after
Max Mosley suggested he would stand for
re-election, FOTA made it clear that breakaway plans were still being
pursued. On 8 July, FOTA issued a press release stating they had been
informed they were not entered for the 2010 season, and an
release said the FOTA representatives had walked out of the meeting.
On 1 August, it was announced
FIA and FOTA had signed a new Concorde
Agreement, bringing an end to the crisis and securing the sport's
future until 2012.
OUTSIDE THE WORLD CHAMPIONSHIP
The terms "
Formula One race" and "World Championship race" are
effectively synonymous; since 1984, every
Formula One race has counted
towards an official
FIA World Championship, and every World
Championship race has been held to
Formula One regulations. In the
earlier history of Formula One, many races took place outside the
world championship, and local championships run to Formula One
regulations also occurred. These events often took place on circuits
that were not suitable for the World Championship, and featured local
cars and drivers as well as those competing in the Championship.
EUROPEAN NON-CHAMPIONSHIP RACING
In the early years of Formula One, before the world championship was
established, there were around twenty races held from late Spring to
early Autumn in Europe, although not all of these were considered
significant. Most competitive cars came from Italy, particularly Alfa
Romeo. After the start of the world championship, these
non-championship races continued. In the 1950s and 1960s, there were
Formula One races which did not count for the World Championship;
in 1950 a total of twenty-two
Formula One races were held, of which
only six counted towards the World Championship. In 1952 and 1953,
when the world championship was run for
Formula Two cars,
non-championship events were the only
Formula One races that took
Some races, particularly in the UK, including the Race of Champions ,
International Gold Cup and the
International Trophy , were
attended by the majority of the world championship contenders. Other
smaller events were regularly held in locations not part of the
championship, such as the Syracuse and Danish Grands Prix, although
these only attracted a small amount of the championship teams and
relied on private entries and lower Formula cars to make up the grid.
These became less common through the 1970s and 1983 saw the last
Formula One race; the
1983 Race of Champions at
Brands Hatch, won by reigning World Champion
Keke Rosberg in a
Cosworth in a close fight with American
Danny Sullivan .
SOUTH AFRICAN FORMULA ONE CHAMPIONSHIP
South African Formula One Championship
South Africa's flourishing domestic
Formula One championship ran from
1960 through to 1975. The frontrunning cars in the series were
recently retired from the world championship although there was also a
healthy selection of locally built or modified machines. Frontrunning
drivers from the series usually contested their local World
Championship Grand Prix, as well as occasional European events,
although they had little success at that level.
BRITISH FORMULA ONE SERIES
British Formula One Series
The DFV helped make the UK domestic
Formula One series possible
between 1978 and 1980. As in South Africa a decade before, second hand
cars from manufacturers like Lotus and
Fittipaldi Automotive were the
order of the day, although some, such as the March 781, were built
specifically for the series. In 1980, the series saw South African
Desiré Wilson become the only woman to win a
Formula One race when
she triumphed at
Brands Hatch in a Wolf WR3 .
RACING AND STRATEGY
Formula One racing ,
Racing flags , and Formula One
Nick Heidfeld and
Nico Rosberg on the street circuit
of Albert Park in the
2008 Australian Grand Prix .
Formula One Grand Prix event spans a weekend. It begins with two
free practice sessions on Friday (except in Monaco, where Friday
practices are moved to Thursday), and one free practice on Saturday.
Additional drivers (commonly known as third drivers ) are allowed to
run on Fridays, but only two cars may be used per team, requiring a
race driver to give up his seat. A qualifying session is held after
the last free practice session. This session determines the starting
order for the race on Sunday.
As of the 2016 season the tyre rules have changed. This had to do
with Pirelli's introduction of the new ultrasoft compound during the
Monaco Grand Prix . The
FIA determines for every race which
three of the total of 5 dry-weather compounds are to be used. In prior
seasons only two compounds were available per race, the "prime" and
the "option" compound.
Every driver starts the weekend with thirteen sets of tyres, at least
fifteen weeks before a non-European race
Pirelli will announce which
three of the five dry-weather compounds are available during the
weekend. For European races this is nine weeks. They also nominate two
mandatory sets for the race, one of which has to be used in the race.
With one of the thirteen sets being the softest and reserved for the
final qualifying session. This leaves ten sets being freely choosable
by each driver. To the thirteen sets of tyres, three sets of
wet-weather tyres and four sets of intermediate tyres are added.
During a weekend at certain moments drivers have to hand back sets of
tyres. The first set has to be handed back after forty minutes in the
first practice session and one at the end. For the other two practice
sessions two sets have to be handed in at the end.
A typical pitwall control centre, from which the team managers
and strategists communicate with their drivers and engineers over the
course of a testing session or a race weekend.
For much of the sport's history, qualifying sessions differed little
from practice sessions; drivers would have one or more sessions in
which to set their fastest time, with the grid order determined by
each driver's best single lap, with the fastest on pole position .
Grids were generally limited to 26 cars – if the race had more
entries, qualification would also decide which drivers would start the
race. During the early 1990s, the number of entries was so high that
the worst-performing teams had to enter a pre-qualifying session, with
the fastest cars allowed through to the main qualifying session. The
qualifying format began to change in the late 1990s, with the FIA
experimenting with limiting the number of laps, determining the
aggregate time over two sessions, and allowing each driver only one
qualifying lap. A
Jarno Trulli pit-stop, for Lotus at the 2011
Brazilian Grand Prix .
The current qualifying system was adopted in the 2006 season. Known
as "knock-out" qualifying, it is split into three periods, known as
Q1, Q2, and Q3. In each period, drivers run qualifying laps to attempt
to advance to the next period, with the slowest drivers being "knocked
out" at the end of the period and their grid positions set, based on
their best lap times. Drivers are allowed as many laps as they wish
within each period. After each period, all times are reset, and only a
driver's fastest lap in that period (barring infractions) counts. Any
timed lap started before the end of that period may be completed, and
will count toward that driver's placement. The number of cars
eliminated in each period is dependent on the total number of cars
entered into the championship. Currently, with 20 cars, Q1 runs for
18 minutes, and eliminates the slowest five drivers. During this
period, any driver whose best lap time exceeds 107% of the fastest
time in Q1, will not be allowed to start the race without permission
from the stewards. This rule does not affect drivers in Q2 or Q3. In
Q2, the 15 remaining drivers have 15 minutes to set one of the ten
fastest times and proceed to the next period. Finally, Q3 lasts 12
minutes and sees the remaining ten drivers decide the first ten grid
positions. At the beginning of the 2016 Formula 1 season, the FIA
introduced a new qualifying format, whereby drivers were knocked out
every 90 seconds after a certain amount of time had passed in each
session. The aim was to mix up grid positions for the race, but due to
FIA reverted to the above qualifying format for the
Chinese GP, after running the format for only two races.
Each car taking part in Q3 receives an 'extra' set of the softest
available tyre. This set has to be handed in after qualifying, drivers
knocked out in Q1 or Q2 can use this set for the race. The first ten
drivers, i.e. the drivers through to Q3 must start the race on the
tyre which set the fastest time in Q2, unless the weather requires the
use of wet-weather tyres. In which case all of the rules about the
tyres won't be followed. All of the drivers that did not participate
in Q3 have free tyre choice for the start of the race. Any penalties
that affect grid position are applied at the end of qualifying. Grid
penalties can be applied for driving infractions in the previous or
current Grand Prix, or for changing a gearbox or engine component. If
a car fails scrutineering, the driver will be excluded from
qualifying, but will be allowed to start the race from the back of the
grid at the race steward's discretion.
The race begins with a warm-up lap, after which the cars assemble on
the starting grid in the order they qualified. This lap is often
referred to as the formation lap, as the cars lap in formation with no
overtaking (although a driver who makes a mistake may regain lost
ground provided he has not fallen to the back of the field). The
warm-up lap allows drivers to check the condition of the track and
their car, gives the tyres a chance to warm up to increase traction,
and also gives the pit crews time to clear themselves and their
equipment from the grid.
Jacques Villeneuve qualifying at the
2005 United States Grand Prix in his
Sauber C24 .
Once all the cars have formed on the grid, a light system above the
track indicates the start of the race: five red lights are illuminated
at intervals of one second; they are all then extinguished
simultaneously after an unspecified time (typically less than 3
seconds) to signal the start of the race. The start procedure may be
abandoned if a driver stalls on the grid, signalled by raising his
arm. If this happens, the procedure restarts: a new formation lap
begins with the offending car removed from the grid. The race may also
be restarted in the event of a serious accident or dangerous
conditions, with the original start voided. The race may be started
from behind the
Safety Car if officials feel a racing start would be
excessively dangerous, such as extremely heavy rainfall. As of the
2017 season there will always be a standing restart. If due to heavy
rainfall a start behind the safety car is necessary, then after the
track has dried sufficiently, drivers will form up for a standing
start. There is no formation lap when races start behind the Safety
Under normal circumstances, the winner of the race is the first
driver to cross the finish line having completed a set number of laps.
Race officials may end the race early (putting out a red flag) due to
unsafe conditions such as extreme rainfall, and it must finish within
two hours, although races are only likely to last this long in the
case of extreme weather or if the safety car is deployed during the
In the 1950s, race distances varied from 300 km (190 mi) to 600 km
(370 mi). The maximum race length was reduced to 400 km (250 mi) in
1966 and 325 km (202 mi) in 1971. The race length was standardised to
the current 305 km (190 mi) in 1989. However, street races like Monaco
have shorter distances, to keep under the 2 hour limit.
Drivers may overtake one another for position over the course of the
race and are "Classified" in the order they finished 90% of the race
distance. If a leader comes across a back marker (slower car) who has
completed fewer laps, the back marker is shown a blue flag telling
him he is obliged to allow the leader to overtake him. The slower car
is said to be "lapped" and, once the leader finishes the race, is
classified as finishing the race "one lap down". A driver can be
lapped numerous times, by any car in front of him. A driver who fails
to finish a race, through mechanical problems, accident, or any other
reason is said to have retired from the race and is "Not Classified"
in the results. However, if the driver has completed more than 90% of
the race distance, he will be classified. When required, the
safety car will lead the field around the circuit at reduced speed,
until race officials deem the race safe to continue. The Mercedes-AMG
GT safety car has been used in Formula 1 races since the 2015
Australian Grand Prix
Australian Grand Prix .
Throughout the race, drivers may make pit stops to change tyres and
repair damage (from 1994 to 2009 inclusive, they could also refuel).
Different teams and drivers employ different pit stop strategies in
order to maximise their car's potential. Three dry tyre compounds,
with different durability and adhesion characteristics, are available
to drivers. Over the course of a race, drivers must use two of the
three available compounds. The different compounds have different
levels of performance, and choosing when to use which compound is a
key tactical decision to make. Different tyres have different colours
on their sidewalls ; this allows spectators to understand the
strategies. Under wet conditions, drivers may switch to one of two
specialised wet weather tyres with additional grooves (one
"intermediate", for mild wet conditions, such as after recent rain,
one "full wet", for racing in or immediately after rain). A driver
must make at least one stop to use two tyre compounds; up to three
stops are typically made, although further stops may be necessary to
fix damage or if weather conditions change. If rain tyres are used,
drivers are no longer obliged to use both types of dry tyres. Race
director As of 2017, the race director in
Formula One is Charlie
Whiting . This role involves him generally managing the logistics of
each F1 Grand Prix, inspecting cars in parc fermé before a race,
FIA rules and controlling the lights which start each race.
As the head of the race officials, he also plays a large role in
sorting disputes amongst teams and drivers. Penalties, such as
drive-through penalties (and stop-and-go penalties), demotions on a
pre-race start grid, race disqualifications, and fines can all be
handed out should parties break regulations.
Safety car In the event
of an incident that risks the safety of competitors or trackside race
marshals , race officials may choose to deploy the safety car . This
in effect suspends the race, with drivers following the safety car
around the track at its speed in race order, with overtaking not
permitted. The safety car circulates until the danger is cleared;
after it comes in, the race restarts with a "rolling start". Pit stops
are permitted under the safety car.
Mercedes-AMG models to
Formula One to use as the safety cars. Since
2000, the main safety car driver has been German ex-racing driver
Bernd Mayländer . On the lap in which the safety car returns to the
pits, the leading car takes over the role of the safety car until the
first safety car line, which is usually a white line after the pit
lane entrance. After crossing this line, drivers are allowed to start
racing for track position once more.
Indicates a hazard on or near the track (waved yellows indicate a
hazard _on the track_, frozen yellows indicate a hazard _near the
track_). Double waved yellows inform drivers that marshals are working
on or near to the track.
Shown in conjunction with a yellow flag to indicate that the Safety
Car is on track. Full course yellow flag applies.
Shown in conjunction with a yellow flag to indicate that the
Safety Car is in use. During this time, the drivers are given
minimum sector times that they must stay above. Full course yellow
Yellow and Red Striped
Slippery track, due to oil, water or loose debris. Can be seen
'rocked' from side-to-side (not waved) to indicate a small animal on
Normal racing conditions apply. This is usually shown following a
yellow flag to indicate that the hazard has been passed. A green flag
is shown at all stations for the lap following the end of a
full-course yellow (or safety car). A green flag is also shown at the
start of a session.
A blue flag indicates that the driver in front must let faster cars
Indicates that a slow moving car is ahead. Often waved at the end
of the pit lane when a car is about to leave the pits.
A red flag means a session has been stopped.
Driver is disqualified (usually accompanied by the driver's
Black with orange circle
Car is damaged and must pit immediately.
Half black/Half white
Warns a driver for unsportsmanlike behaviour. May be followed by a
black flag upon further infringement. Accompanied by the driver's
End of the session.
The format of the race has changed little through Formula One's
history. The main changes have revolved around what is allowed at pit
stops. In the early days of Grand Prix racing, a driver would be
allowed to continue a race in his teammate's car should his develop a
problem—in the modern era, cars are so carefully fitted to drivers
that this has become impossible. In recent years, the emphasis has
been on changing refuelling and tyre change regulations. From the 2010
season, refuelling—which was reintroduced in 1994—has not been
allowed, to encourage less tactical racing following safety concerns.
The rule requiring both compounds of tyre to be used during the race
was introduced in 2007, again to encourage racing on the track. The
safety car is another relatively recent innovation that reduced the
need to deploy the red flag, allowing races to be completed on time
for a growing international live television audience.
Points awarded for finishing
Main article: List of
Formula One World Championship points scoring
Various systems for awarding championship points have been used since
1950. The current system, in place since 2010, awards the top ten cars
points in the Drivers' and Constructors' championships, with the
winner receiving 25 points. If both cars of a team finish in the
points, they both receive Constructors' Championship points. All
points won at each race are added up, and the driver and constructor
with the most points at the end of the season are crowned World
Champions. Regardless of whether a driver stays with the same team
throughout the season, or switches teams, all points earned by him
count for the Drivers' Championship.
A driver must be classified to receive points. In order to be
classified, a driver need not finish the race, but complete at least
90% of the winner's race distance. Therefore, it is possible for a
driver to receive points even if they retired before the end of the
In the event that less than 75% of the race laps are completed by the
winner, only half of the points listed in the table are awarded to the
drivers and constructors. This has happened on only five occasions in
the history of the championship, and it had a notable influence on the
final standing of the 1984 season . The last occurrence was at the
2009 Malaysian Grand Prix when the race was called off after 31 laps
due to torrential rain.
List of Formula One constructors and List of Formula One
World Constructors\' Champions
Ferrari (pictured with Schumacher
) have competed in every season.
Since 1981 ,
Formula One teams have been required to build the
chassis in which they compete, and consequently the terms "team" and
"constructor" became more or less interchangeable. This requirement
distinguishes the sport from series such as the
IndyCar Series which
allows teams to purchase chassis, and "spec series " such as GP2 ,
which require all cars be kept to an identical specification. It also
effectively prohibits privateers, which were common even in Formula
One well into the 1970s.
The sport's debut season , 1950, saw eighteen teams compete, but due
to high costs many dropped out quickly. In fact, such was the scarcity
of competitive cars for much of the first decade of
Formula One that
Formula Two cars were admitted to fill the grids.
Ferrari is the
Formula One team, the only still-active team which competed in
McLaren (pictured with Senna ) won all but one race in 1988
with engine partner Honda. Renault (pictured here in 2007 ) has
had an active role in
Formula One as both constructor and engine
supplier since 1977 .
Early manufacturer involvement came in the form of a "factory team"
or "works team" (that is, one owned and staffed by a major car
company), such as those of Alfa Romeo, Ferrari, or Renault. After
having virtually disappeared by the early 1980s, factory teams made a
comeback in the 1990s and 2000s and formed up to half the grid with
Ferrari, Jaguar, BMW, Renault, Toyota, and Honda either setting up
their own teams or buying out existing ones.
Mercedes-Benz owned 40%
McLaren team and manufactured the team's engines. Factory teams
make up the top competitive teams; in 2008 wholly owned factory teams
took four of the top five positions in the Constructors' Championship,
McLaren the other.
Ferrari holds the record for having won the
most Constructors' Championships (sixteen). However, by the end of the
2000s factory teams were once again on the decline with only Ferrari,
Mercedes-Benz and Renault lodging entries to the 2010 championship .
Companies such as Climax ,
Cosworth , Hart , Judd and
Supertec , which had no direct team affiliation, often sold engines to
teams that could not afford to manufacture them. In the early years,
Formula One teams sometimes also built their
engines, though this became less common with the increased involvement
of major car manufacturers such as BMW, Ferrari, Honda, Mercedes-Benz,
Renault, and Toyota, whose large budgets rendered privately built
engines less competitive.
Cosworth was the last independent engine
supplier. Beginning in 2007, the manufacturers' deep pockets and
engineering ability took over, eliminating the last of the independent
engine manufacturers. It is estimated the major teams spend between
€100 and €200 million ($125–$225 million) per year per
manufacturer on engines alone.
In the 2007 season, for the first time since the 1981 rule, two teams
used chassis built by other teams.
Super Aguri started the season
using a modified Honda Racing RA106 chassis (used by Honda the
previous year), while Scuderia
Toro Rosso used the same chassis used
by the parent
Red Bull Racing team, which was formally designed by a
separate subsidiary. The usage of these loopholes was ended for 2010
with the publication of new technical regulations, which require each
constructor to own the intellectual property rights to their chassis,
which prevents a team using a chassis owned by another Formula One
constructor. The regulations continue to allow a team to subcontract
the design and construction of the chassis to a third-party, an option
used by the HRT team in 2010.
Although teams rarely disclose information about their budgets, it is
estimated they range from US$66 million to US$400 million each.
Entering a new team in the
Formula One World Championship requires a
£25 million (about US$47 million) up-front payment to the FIA, which
is then repaid to the team over the course of the season. As a
consequence, constructors desiring to enter
Formula One often prefer
to buy an existing team: B.A.R. 's purchase of Tyrrell and Midland 's
purchase of Jordan allowed both of these teams to sidestep the large
deposit and secure the benefits the team already had, such as TV
List of Formula One drivers , List of
Formula One World
Drivers\' Champions , and
List of Formula One driver numbers
Canadian Grand Prix
Canadian Grand Prix ,
Kimi Räikkönen leading
Michael Schumacher , with
Jarno Trulli (left) and
Takuma Sato fighting
Every team in
Formula One must run two cars in every session in a
Grand Prix weekend, and every team may use up to four drivers in a
season. A team may also run two additional drivers in Free Practice
sessions, which are often used to test potential new drivers for a
career as a
Formula One driver or gain experienced drivers to evaluate
the car. Most modern drivers are contracted for at least the
duration of a season, with driver changes taking place in between
seasons, in comparison to early years where drivers often competed at
an ad hoc basis from race to race. Each competitor must be in the
possession of a
FIA Super Licence to compete in a Grand Prix, which
is issued to drivers who have met the criteria of success in junior
motorsport categories and having achieved 300 kilometres (190 mi) of
running in a
Formula One car. Drivers may also be issued a Super
Licence by the
World Motor Sport Council if they fail to meet the
criteria. Teams also contract test and reserve drivers, to stand in
for regular drivers when necessary and develop the team's car;
although with the reduction on testing the reserve drivers' role
mainly takes places on a simulator , such as rFactor Pro , which is
used by most of the F1 teams. Although most drivers earn their seat
on ability, commercial considerations also come into play with teams
having to satisfy sponsors and financial demands.
Each driver chooses an unassigned number from 2 to 99 (excluding 17)
upon entering Formula One, and keeps that number during his time in
the series. The number one is reserved for the reigning Drivers'
Champion, who retains his previous number and may choose to (but
doesn't have to) use it instead of the number one. At the onset of
the championship, numbers were allocated by race organisers on an
ad-hoc basis from race to race, and competitors did not have a
permanent number throughout the season. Permanent numbers were
introduced in 1973 to take effect in 1974 , when teams were allocated
numbers in ascending order based on the Constructors' Championship
standings at the end of the 1973 season. The teams would hold those
numbers from season to season with the exception of the team with the
world Drivers' Champion, which would swap its numbers with the one and
two of the previous champion's team. New entrants were allocated spare
numbers, with the exception of the number 13 which had been unused
since 1976 . As teams kept their numbers for long periods of time,
car numbers became associated with a team, such as Ferrari\'s 27 and
28. A different system was used from 1996 to 2013 : at the start of
each season, the current Drivers' Champion was designated number one,
his teammate number two, and the rest of the teams assigned ascending
numbers according to previous season's Constructors' Championship
A total of 33 separate drivers have won the world championship, with
Michael Schumacher holding the record for most championships with
seven, as well as holding the race wins and pole position records.
Juan Manuel Fangio has won the next most, with five championships won
during the 1950s, as well as having won the greatest percentage of
wins, with 24 out of 52 entries.
Jochen Rindt is the only posthumous
World Champion, after his points total was not overhauled despite his
fatal accident at the
1970 Italian Grand Prix . Drivers from the
United Kingdom have been the most successful in the sport, with 14
championships from 10 drivers, and 214 wins from 19.
GP2, the main F1 feeder series since 2005.
Most F1 drivers start in kart racing competitions, and then come up
through traditional European single seater series like Formula Ford
Formula Renault to
Formula 3 , and finally the
GP2 Series . GP2
started in 2005, replacing
Formula 3000 , which itself had replaced
Formula Two as the last major stepping-stone into F1. Most champions
from this level graduate into F1, but 2006 GP2 champion Lewis Hamilton
became the first F2, F3000 or GP2 champion to win the Formula One
driver's title in 2008. Drivers are not required to have competed at
this level before entering Formula One.
British F3 has supplied many
F1 drivers, with champions including
Nigel Mansell ,
Ayrton Senna and
Mika Häkkinen having moved straight from that series to Formula One.
More rarely a driver may be picked from an even lower level, as was
the case with 2007 World Champion
Kimi Räikkönen , who went straight
Formula Renault to F1, as well as
Max Verstappen , who made his
debut following a single season in European F3 .
American Championship Car Racing has also contributed to the Formula
One grid with mixed results. CART Champions
Mario Andretti and Jacques
Villeneuve became F1 World Champions, while
Juan Pablo Montoya won
seven races in F1. Other CART (also known as ChampCar) Champions, like
Michael Andretti and
Alessandro Zanardi won no races in F1. Other
drivers have taken different paths to F1;
Damon Hill raced motorbikes,
Michael Schumacher raced in sports cars , albeit after climbing
through the junior single seater ranks. Former F1 driver Paul di Resta
raced in DTM until he was signed with
Force India in 2011. To race,
however, the driver must hold an
FIA Super Licence –ensuring that
the driver has the requisite skills, and will not therefore be a
danger to others. Some drivers have not had the licence when first
signed to a F1 team; Räikkönen received the licence despite having
only 23 car races to his credit.
LMP1 cars have become a popular destination for retired F1
drivers, in this example
Mark Webber .
Most F1 drivers retire in their mid to late 30s; however, many keep
racing in disciplines which are less physically demanding. The German
touring car championship, the DTM , is a popular category involving
ex-drivers such as two-time champion
Mika Häkkinen and F1 race
Jean Alesi ,
David Coulthard and
Ralf Schumacher . In recent
years, it has become common for former drivers who have had shorter
careers to take up factory seats driving
LMP1 cars in the
Endurance Championship , with notable drivers including
Mark Webber ,
Allan McNish ,
Anthony Davidson ,
Alexander Wurz ,
Kazuki Nakajima ,
Sébastien Buemi . Some F1 drivers have left to race in the United
Nigel Mansell and
Emerson Fittipaldi duelled for the 1993
Rubens Barrichello moved to
IndyCar in 2012, while Jacques
Juan Pablo Montoya ,
Nelson Piquet, Jr. and Scott Speed
NASCAR . Many drivers entered
Formula E such as Nelson Piquet
Sebastien Buemi ,
Bruno Senna ,
Jaime Alguersuari , Nick Heidfeld
Jarno Trulli ,
Jean-Eric Vergne and more. Some drivers, such as
Vitantonio Liuzzi ,
Narain Karthikeyan and
Jos Verstappen went on to
race in the
A1 Grand Prix series. During its existence from 2008 to
Superleague Formula attracted ex-
Formula One drivers like
Sébastien Bourdais ,
Antônio Pizzonia and
Giorgio Pantano . A series
Formula One drivers, called
Grand Prix Masters , ran
briefly in 2005 and 2006. Others, like
Jackie Stewart , Gerhard
Alain Prost , returned to F1 as team owners while their
former competitors have become colour commentators for TV coverage
James Hunt (
Martin Brundle (BBC, ITV and Sky ), David
Hobbs (NBC), Alan Jones (BBC,
Nine Network and
Ten Network ) David
Channel 4 ),
Luciano Burti for Globo (Brazil), and
Jean Alesi for Italian national network
RAI . Others, such as Damon
Jackie Stewart , take active roles in running motorsport in
their own countries.
Carlos Reutemann became a politician and served
as governor of his native state in Argentina.
F1 Grand Prix world map. Countries marked in green are on the
2017 race schedule, those in dark grey have hosted a
Formula One race
in the past See also:
List of Formula One Grands Prix
The number of Grands Prix held in a season has varied over the years.
The inaugural 1950 world championship season comprised only seven
races, while the 2016 season contained twenty-one races. Although
throughout the first decades of the world championship there were no
more than eleven Grands Prix a season, a large number of
Formula One events also took place. The number of
Grands Prix increased to an average of sixteen/seventeen by the late
1970s; simultaneously non-championship events ended by 1983. More
Grands Prix began to be held in the 2000s, and recent seasons have
seen an average of 19 races. In 2016 the calendar peaked at twenty-one
events, the highest number of world championship races in one season.
Six of the original seven races took place in Europe; the only
non-European race that counted towards the World Championship in 1950
Indianapolis 500 , which was held to different regulations and
later replaced by the
United States Grand Prix . The F1 championship
gradually expanded to other non-European countries. Argentina hosted
the first South American Grand Prix in 1953 , and Morocco hosted the
first African World Championship race in 1958 . Asia (Japan in 1976 )
and Oceania (Australia in 1985 ) followed, and the first race in the
Middle East was held in 2004 . The nineteen races of the 2014 Formula
One season were spread over every populated continent except for
Africa, with ten Grands Prix held outside Europe. Cars wind
through the infield section of the
Indianapolis Motor Speedway at the
United States Grand Prix
Some of the Grands Prix, such as the oldest recognised event the
French Grand Prix
French Grand Prix , pre-date the formation of the World Championship
and were incorporated into the championship as
Formula One races in
1950. The British and Italian Grands Prix are the only events to have
been held every
Formula One season; other long-running races include
the Belgian, German and currently defunct French Grands Prix. The
Monaco Grand Prix , first held in 1929 and run continuously since
1955, is widely considered to be one of the most important and
prestigious automobile races in the world.
Traditionally each nation has hosted a single Grand Prix, which
carries the name of the country. If a single country hosts multiple
Grands Prix in a year they receive different names. In European
countries the second event has often been titled the European Grand
Prix , or named after a neighbouring state without a race. The United
States has held six separate Grands Prix, including the Indianapolis
500, with the additional events named after the host city. Grands Prix
are not always held at the same circuit each year, and may switch
locations due to the suitability of the track or the financial status
of the race organisers. The
German Grand Prix currently alternates
Hockenheimring circuits, and others such
as the American and French races have switched venues throughout their
All Grands Prix have traditionally been run during the day, until the
Singapore Grand Prix hosted the first
Formula One night
race, which was followed in 2009 by the day–night Abu Dhabi Grand
Prix and then the
Bahrain Grand Prix which converted to a night race
in 2014. Along with holding races at night, other Grands Prix in Asia
have had their start times adjusted to benefit the European television
Recent additions to the calendar include the Singapore Grand Prix
which, in September 2008, hosted the first night race ever held in
Formula One, the
Abu Dhabi Grand Prix , which hosted the first
day-to-night race in November 2009, the
Korean Grand Prix , first held
in October 2010 and the
Indian Grand Prix , first held in October
United States Grand Prix held its first race in Austin,
Texas , at the new
Circuit of the Americas in 2012. The first F1
Russian Grand Prix was held in 2014 at the new
Sochi circuit , that
runs around a venue used for the
2014 Winter Olympics .
List of Formula One circuits Autódromo José Carlos
Pace in São Paulo hosts the
Brazilian Grand Prix The
Autodromo Nazionale Monza , home to the
Italian Grand Prix , is the
oldest purpose built track still in use today.
Sochi Autodrom ,
current host venue for the
Russian Grand Prix
A typical circuit usually features a stretch of straight road on
which the starting grid is situated. The _pit lane _, where the
drivers stop for tyres, aerodynamic adjustments and minor repairs
(such as changing the car's nose due to front wing damage) during the
race, retirements from the race, and where the teams work on the cars
before the race, is normally located next to the starting grid. The
layout of the rest of the circuit varies widely, although in most
cases the circuit runs in a clockwise direction. Those few circuits
that run anticlockwise (and therefore have predominantly left-handed
corners) can cause drivers neck problems due to the enormous lateral
forces generated by F1 cars pulling their heads in the opposite
direction to normal.
Most of the circuits currently in use are specially constructed for
competition. The current street circuits are Monaco , Melbourne ,
Montreal , Singapore ,
Azerbaijan although races in other
urban locations come and go (
Las Vegas and
Detroit , for example) and
proposals for such races are often discussed—most recently New
Jersey . Several circuits have been completely laid out on public
roads in the past, such as Valencia in Spain, though Monaco is the
only one that remains. The glamour and history of the Monaco race are
the primary reasons why the circuit is still in use, even though it
does not meet the strict safety requirements imposed on other tracks.
Three-time World champion
Nelson Piquet famously described racing in
Monaco as "like riding a bicycle around your living room".
Circuit design to protect the safety of drivers is becoming
increasingly sophisticated, as exemplified by the new Bahrain
International Circuit , added in 2004 and designed—like most of F1's
Hermann Tilke . Several of the new circuits in F1,
especially those designed by Tilke, have been criticised as lacking
the "flow" of such classics as Spa-Francorchamps and Imola. His
redesign of the Hockenheim circuit in
Germany for example, while
providing more capacity for grandstands and eliminating extremely long
and dangerous straights, has been frowned upon by many who argue that
part of the character of the Hockenheim circuits was the long and
blinding straights into dark forest sections. These newer circuits,
however, are generally agreed to meet the safety standards of modern
Formula One better than the older ones.
Old favourites The RedBull Ring and the Autodromo Hermanos Rodriguez
, returned to the calendar in 2014 and 2015 respectively.
The Circuit of Americas in Austin , the
Sochi Autodrom in
Baku City Circuit in
Azerbaijan have all been introduced as brand
new tracks since 2012.
A single race requires hotel rooms to accommodate at least 5000
CARS AND TECHNOLOGY
Formula One car ,
Formula One engines , and Formula
One tyres Top view of the rear of a 2006
Formula One cars are mid-engined open cockpit, open wheel
single-seaters. The chassis is made largely of carbon-fibre composites
, rendering it light but extremely stiff and strong. The whole car,
including engine, fluids and driver, weighs only 691 kg (1,523 lb) –
the minimum weight set by the regulations. If the construction of the
car is lighter than the minimum, it can be ballasted up to add the
necessary weight. The race teams take advantage of this by placing
this ballast at the extreme bottom of the chassis, thereby locating
the centre of gravity as low as possible in order to improve handling
and weight transfer.
The cornering speed of
Formula One cars is largely determined by the
aerodynamic downforce that they generate, which pushes the car down
onto the track. This is provided by "wings" mounted at the front and
rear of the vehicle, and by ground effect created by low air pressure
under the flat bottom of the car. The aerodynamic design of the cars
is very heavily constrained to limit performance and the current
generation of cars sport a large number of small winglets, "barge
boards", and turning vanes designed to closely control the flow of the
air over, under, and around the car.
The other major factor controlling the cornering speed of the cars is
the design of the tyres . From 1998 to 2008 , the tyres in Formula One
were not "slicks " (tyres with no tread pattern) as in most other
circuit racing series. Instead, each tyre had four large
circumferential grooves on its surface designed to limit the cornering
speed of the cars. Slick tyres returned to
Formula One in the 2009
season. Suspension is double wishbone or multilink front and rear,
with pushrod operated springs and dampers on the chassis – one
exception being that of the 2009 specification
Red Bull Racing car
(RB5 ) which used pullrod suspension at the rear, the first car to do
so since the
Minardi PS01 in 2001.
Ferrari used a pullrod suspension
at both the front and rear in their 2012 car. Both
Ferrari (F138) and
McLaren (MP4-28) of the 2013 season used a pullrod suspension at both
the front and the rear.
Carbon-carbon disc brakes are used for reduced weight and increased
frictional performance. These provide a very high level of braking
performance and are usually the element which provokes the greatest
reaction from drivers new to the formula.
Formula One cars must have four uncovered wheels, all made of the
same metallic material, which must be one of two magnesium alloys
specified by the FIA. Magnesium alloy wheels made by forging are used
to achieve maximum unsprung rotating weight reduction. A BMW
Sauber P86 V8 engine, which powered their 2006 F1.06.
Starting with the 2014 Formula 1 season the engines have changed from
a 2.4-litre naturally aspirated V8 to turbocharged 1.6 litre V6
"power-units". These get a significant amount of their power from
electric motors. In addition they include a lot of energy recovery
technology. Engines run on unleaded fuel closely resembling publicly
available petrol. The oil which lubricates and protects the engine
from overheating is very similar in viscosity to water. The 2006
generation of engines spun up to 20,000 rpm and produced up to 780 bhp
(580 kW). For 2007 , engines were restricted to 19,000 rpm with
limited development areas allowed, following the engine specification
freeze from the end of 2006 . For the
2009 Formula One season the
engines were further restricted to 18,000 rpm.
A wide variety of technologies—including active suspension and
ground effect aerodynamics —are banned under the current
regulations. Despite this the current generation of cars can reach
speeds in excess of 350 km/h (220 mph) at some circuits. The highest
straight line speed recorded during a Grand Prix was 372.6 km/h (231.5
mph), set by
Juan Pablo Montoya during the 2005
Italian Grand Prix .
Formula One car, running with minimum downforce on a runway in
Mojave desert achieved a top speed of 415 km/h (258 mph) in 2006.
According to Honda, the car fully met the
Formula One regulations.
Even with the limitations on aerodynamics, at 160 km/h (99 mph)
aerodynamically generated downforce is equal to the weight of the car,
and the oft-repeated claim that
Formula One cars create enough
downforce to "drive on the ceiling", while possible in principle, has
never been put to the test.
Downforce of 2.5 times the car's weight
can be achieved at full speed. The downforce means that the cars can
achieve a lateral force with a magnitude of up to 3.5 times that of
the force of gravity (3.5g) in cornering. Consequently, the driver's
head is pulled sideways with a force equivalent to the weight of 20 kg
in corners. Such high lateral forces are enough to make breathing
difficult and the drivers need supreme concentration and fitness to
maintain their focus for the one to two hours that it takes to
complete the race. A high-performance road car like the
only achieves around 1g.
As of 2015, each team may have no more than two cars available for
use at any time. Each driver may use no more than four engines during
a championship season unless he drives for more than one team. If more
engines are used, he drops ten places on the starting grid of the
event at which an additional engine is used. The only exception is
where the engine is provided by a manufacturer or supplier taking part
in its first championship season, in which case up to five may be used
by a driver. Each driver may use no more than one gearbox for six
consecutive events; every unscheduled gearbox change requires the
driver to drop five places on the grid unless he failed to finish the
previous race due to reasons beyond the team's control.
REVENUE AND PROFITS
Estimated budget split of a
Formula One team based on the 2006
In March 2007, _
F1 Racing _ published its annual estimates of
Formula One teams. The total spending of all eleven teams
in 2006 was estimated at $2.9 billion US. This was broken down as
follows: Toyota $418.5 million,
Ferrari $406.5 m,
McLaren $402 m,
Honda $380.5 m,
BMW Sauber $355 m, Renault $324 m, Red Bull $252 m,
Williams $195.5 m, Midland F1/Spyker-MF1 $120 m,
Toro Rosso $75 m, and
Super Aguri $57 million.
Costs vary greatly from team to team. Honda, Toyota,
Ferrari are estimated to have spent
approximately $200 million on engines in 2006, Renault spent
approximately $125 million and Cosworth's 2006 V8 was developed for
$15 million. In contrast to the 2006 season on which these figures
are based, the 2007 sporting regulations ban all performance related
Formula One teams pay entry fees of $500,000, plus $5,000 per point
scored the previous year or $6,000 per point for the winner of the
Formula One drivers pay a
Licence fee, which in 2013 was €10,000 plus €1,000 per point.
There have been controversies with the way profits are shared amongst
the teams. The smaller teams have complained that the profits are
unevenly shared, favouring established top teams. In September 2015,
Force India and
Sauber officially lodged a complaint with the European
Formula One questioning the governance and stating that
the system of dividing revenues and determining the rules is unfair
The cost of building a brand new permanent circuit can be up to
hundreds of millions of dollars, while the cost of converting a public
road, such as Albert Park , into a temporary circuit is much less.
Permanent circuits, however, can generate revenue all year round from
leasing the track for private races and other races, such as
International Circuit cost over $300 million and the
Istanbul Park circuit cost $150 million to build.
A number of
Formula One drivers earn the highest salary of any
drivers in auto racing. The highest paid driver in 2010 was Fernando
Alonso , who received $40 million in salary from Ferrari—a record
for any driver. The very top
Formula One drivers get paid more than
NASCAR drivers, however the earnings immediately fall off
after the top three F1 drivers and the majority of
NASCAR racers will
make more money than their F1 counterparts. Most top
are paid around a tenth of their
Formula One counterparts.
A sign announcing that the safety car (SC) is deployed.
The expense of
Formula One has seen the
FIA and the Formula One
Commission attempt to create new regulations to lower the costs for a
team to compete in the sport. Cost-saving proposals have included
allowing customer cars, either by teams purchasing a car from another
constructor, or the series supplying a basic chassis and engine to
some teams at a low cost. Allowing teams to share more car
components such as the monocoque and safety components is also under
FIA also continually researches new ways to
increase safety in the sport, which includes introducing new
regulations and accident procedures.
In the interest of making the sport truer to its role as a World
Bernie Ecclestone had initiated and organised a number
of Grands Prix in new countries. Proposals to hold future races are
regularly made by both new locations and countries and circuits that
have previously hosted a
Formula One Grand Prix. The most recent
addition is the
Azerbaijan Grand Prix in
The examples and perspective in this article MAY NOT REPRESENT A
WORLDWIDE VIEW OF THE SUBJECT. You may improve this article , discuss
the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate.
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List of Formula One broadcasters Track photographers
at the 2007
British Grand Prix
British Grand Prix
Formula One can be seen live or tape delayed in almost every country
and territory around the world and attracts one of the largest global
television audiences. The 2008 season attracted a global audience of
600 million people per race. It is a massive television event; the
cumulative television audience was calculated to be 54 billion for the
2001 season, broadcast to 200 territories.
During the early 2000s,
Formula One Group created a number of
trademarks, an official logo, and an official website for the sport in
an attempt to give it a corporate identity. Ecclestone experimented
with a digital television package (known colloquially as Bernievision
) which was launched at the
1996 German Grand Prix in cooperation with
German digital television service "DF1", 30 years after the first GP
colour TV broadcast, the
1967 German Grand Prix . This service offered
the viewer several simultaneous feeds (such as super signal, on board,
top of field, backfield, highlights, pit lane, timing) which were
produced with cameras, technical equipment and staff different from
those used for the conventional coverage. It was introduced in many
countries over the years, but was shut down after the 2002 season for
TV stations all take what is known as the "World Feed", either
produced by the FOM (
Formula One Management) or occasionally, the
"host broadcaster". The only station that originally differed from
this was "Premiere"—a German channel which offers all sessions live
and interactive, with features such as the onboard channel. This
service was more widely available around Europe until the end of 2002,
when the cost of a whole different feed for the digital interactive
services was thought too much. This was in large part because of the
failure of the "
F1 Digital + " Channel launched through Sky in the
United Kingdom. Prices were too high for viewers, considering they
could watch both the qualifying and the races themselves free on ITV .
However, upon the commencement of its coverage for the 2009 season,
BBC reintroduced complementary features such as the "red button"
in-car camera angles, multiple soundtracks (broadcast commentary, CBBC
commentary for children, or ambient sound only) and a rolling
highlights package. Different combinations of these features are
available across the various digital platforms (Freeview ,
Sky , Virgin Media cable and the
BBC F1 web site) prior to, during,
and after the race weekend. Not all services are available across all
the various platforms due to technical constraints. The
broadcasts a post-race programme called "F1 Forum" on the digital
terrestrial platforms' "red button" interactive services.
Sebastian Vettel after securing pole position at the 2011 Malaysian
An announcement made on 12 January 2011, on the official Formula 1
website, announced that F1 would adopt the HD format for the 2011
season offering a world feed at a data rate of 42 Megabits/second
BBC subsequently announced later that day that their
2011 F1 coverage would be broadcast in HD which has been made
immediately possible due to SIS LIVE, the provider of the BBC's F1
outside broadcast coverage, having already upgraded their technical
facilities to HD as of the 2010 Belgian Grand Prix.
It was announced on 29 July 2011 that
Sky Sports and the
team up to show the races in F1 in 2012. In March 2012, Sky launched a
channel dedicated to F1, with an HD counterpart.
Sky Sports F1 covered
all races live without commercial interruption as well as live
practice and qualifying sessions, along with F1 programming, including
interviews, archive action and magazine shows. The deal secured
Formula 1 on Sky up to 2018. The
BBC in 2012 featured live coverage
of half of the races in the season: China, Spain, Monaco, Europe,
Britain, Belgium, Singapore, Korea, Abu Dhabi, and Brazil. The BBC
also showed live coverage of practice and qualifying sessions from
those races. For the races that the
BBC did not show live, "extended
highlights" of the race were available a few hours after the live
BBC ended their joint television contract after the 2015 season,
transferring their rights to
Channel 4 until the end of the 2018
season, with their coverage being presented by former _T4 _ presenter
Steve Jones .
Sky Sports F1 coverage will remain unaffected and BBC
Radio 5 Live and 5 Live Sports Extra will be extended until the 2021
Formula One has an extensive web following, with most major TV
companies covering it such as the
BBC . The official Formula One
used during the race to keep up with the leaderboard in real time.
Recently an official application has been made available in the iTunes
App Store and on
Google Play that allows iOS and Android users to see
a real time feed of driver positions, timing and commentary. The same
official application has been available for Android phones and tablets
To accommodate fans who were unable to view the races on live
Formula One Management's in-house production team began
producing exclusive race edits synchronized to music from some of the
world's top artists.
DISTINCTION BETWEEN FORMULA ONE AND WORLD CHAMPIONSHIP RACES
Currently the terms "
Formula One race" and "World Championship race"
are effectively synonymous; since 1984, every
Formula One race has
counted towards the World Championship, and every World Championship
race has been to
Formula One regulations. But the two terms are not
* The first
Formula One race was held in 1947, whereas the World
Championship did not start until 1950.
* In the 1950s and 1960s there were many
Formula One races that did
not count for the World Championship (e.g., in 1950, a total of
Formula One races were held, of which only six counted
towards the World Championship). The number of non-championship
Formula One events decreased throughout the 1970s and 1980s, to the
point where the last non-championship
Formula One race was the 1983
Race of Champions .
* The World Championship was not always exclusively composed of
Formula One events:
* The World Championship was originally established as the "World
Championship for Drivers", i.e., without the term "Formula One" in the
title. It only officially became the _
FIA FORMULA ONE WORLD
CHAMPIONSHIP_ in 1981.
* From 1950 to 1960, the
Indianapolis 500 counted towards the World
Championship. This race was run to AAA /USAC regulations, rather than
Formula One regulations. Only one of the World Championship
Alberto Ascari in 1952 , started at Indianapolis during this
* From 1952 to 1953, all races counting towards the World
Championship (except the Indianapolis 500) were run to Formula Two
Formula One was not "changed to Formula Two" during this
Formula One regulations remained the same, and numerous
Formula One races were staged during this time.
The distinction is most relevant when considering career summaries
and "all time lists". For example, in the List of
Formula One drivers
Clemente Biondetti is shown with 1 race against his name. Biondetti
actually competed in _four_
Formula One races in 1950, but only one
of these counted for the World Championship. Similarly, several
Indianapolis 500 winners technically won their first World
Championship race, though most record books choose to ignore this and
instead only record regular participants.
Formula One portal
Formula E Championship
List of Formula One fatal accidents
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* Tremayne, David padding:0.75em; background:#f9f9f9;"> Find more
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* Learning resources from Wikiversity
* Official website (in English) (in French) (in Spanish)
* "Grand Prix racing".
Encyclopædia Britannica _ Online.
Formula One – championship summary at DriverDB.com
* History of Grand Prix Motor Racing
Teams and drivers competing in the
2017 Formula One season
Force India -Mercedes
Red Bull Racing -
* 55. Carlos Sainz
OTHER DRIVERS: 22.
Jenson Button (
McLaren -Honda ), 36. Antonio
Ferrari ), 40.
Paul di Resta
Paul di Resta (Williams -Mercedes )
Formula One seasons
* _2018 _
Formula One Grands Prix
* United States
* Abu Dhabi
* French (returning, 2018 ), German (returning, 2018 )
* Caesars Palace
* San Marino
* South African
* United States West
Formula One circuits
* Marina Bay
* Mexico City
* Monte Carlo
* Yas Marina
* Hockenheim (returning, 2018 )
* Paul Ricard (returning, 2018 )
* Buenos Aires
* Caesars Palace
* East London
* Le Mans
* Long Beach
* Mosport Park
* Watkins Glen
Formula One constructors
* Red Bull
* Alfa Romeo
* Andrea Moda
* ATS (Italy)
* ATS (Germany)
* Leyton House
* Lola (Haas)
* Lotus (1958–1994)
* Lotus (2010–2011)
* Lotus (2012–2015)
* Williams (FWRC)
Although World Championship races held in 1952 and 1953 were run to
Formula Two regulations, constructors who only participated during
this period are included herein to maintain Championship continuity.
Constructors whose only participation in the World Championship was
Indianapolis 500 races between 1950 and 1960 are not listed.
Formula One drivers by country
* Czech Republic
* New Zealand
* South Africa
* United Kingdom
* United States
Formula One World Drivers\' Champions
1950 G. Farina
1951 J.M. Fangio
1952 A. Ascari
1953 A. Ascari
1954 J.M. Fangio
1955 J.M. Fangio
1956 J.M. Fangio
1957 J.M. Fangio
1958 M. Hawthorn
1961 P. Hill
1962 G. Hill
1963 J. Clark
1965 J. Clark
1967 D. Hulme
1968 G. Hill
1969 J. Stewart
1970 J. Rindt
1971 J. Stewart
1972 E. Fittipaldi
1973 J. Stewart
1974 E. Fittipaldi
1975 N. Lauda
1976 J. Hunt
1977 N. Lauda
1978 M. Andretti
1979 J. Scheckter
1980 A. Jones
1981 N. Piquet
1982 K. Rosberg
1983 N. Piquet
1984 N. Lauda
1985 A. Prost
1986 A. Prost
1987 N. Piquet
1988 A. Senna
1989 A. Prost
1990 A. Senna
1991 A. Senna
1992 N. Mansell
1993 A. Prost
1994 M. Schumacher
1995 M. Schumacher
1996 D. Hill
1997 J. Villeneuve
1998 M. Häkkinen
1999 M. Häkkinen
2000 M. Schumacher
2001 M. Schumacher
2002 M. Schumacher
2003 M. Schumacher
2004 M. Schumacher
2005 F. Alonso
2006 F. Alonso
2007 K. Räikkönen
2008 L. Hamilton
2009 J. Button
2010 S. Vettel
2011 S. Vettel
2012 S. Vettel
2013 S. Vettel
2014 L. Hamilton
2015 L. Hamilton
2016 N. Rosberg
Formula One World Constructors\' Champions
1950 not awarded
1951 not awarded
1952 not awarded
1953 not awarded
1954 not awarded
1955 not awarded
1956 not awarded
1957 not awarded
2010 Red Bull
2011 Red Bull
2012 Red Bull
2013 Red Bull
FIA World Motor Sport Council
Commission Internationale de Karting
FIA Institute Young Driver Excellence Academy
FIA Contract Recognition Board
FIA Foundation for the Automobile and Society
International Sporting Code
FIA WORLD CHAMPIONSHIPS
* Formula One
* World Endurance Championship
World Rally Championship
World Touring Car Championship
* World Karting Championship
FIA Cross-Country Rally World Cup
* Formula 2 Championship
FIA EUROPEAN CHAMPIONSHIPS
Formula 3 European Championship
* Masters Historic
Formula One Championship
European Rally Championship
European Touring Car Championship
European Hill Climb Championship
* European Truck Racing Championship
* Alternative Energies Cup
* European Drag Racing Championship
* Etienne van Zuylen van Nijevelt (1904–1931)
* Robert de Vogüé (1931–1936)
* Jehan de Rohan-Chabot (1936–1958)
* Hadelin de Liedekerke Beaufort (1958–1963)
* Filippo Caracciolo di Castagneto (1963–1965)
Wilfred Andrews (1965–1971)
* Amaury de Merode (1971–1975)
Paul Alfons von Metternich-Winneburg (1975–1985)
Jean-Marie Balestre (1985–1993)
Max Mosley (1993–2009)
Jean Todt (2009–present)
FIA DRIVERS\' CATEGORISATION
List of FIA events
* List of
FIA member organisations
FIA Super Licence
FIA Global Pathway
FIA Heritage Certificate
FIA Historic Technical Passport
Classes of auto racing
Formula Car Challenge
Monoposto Racing Club
DEFUNCT FORMULA RACING
Formula A (SCCA)
Formula B (SCCA)
Formula C (SCCA)
Formula Super Vee
Australian National Formula
Grand Prix Masters
Formula Car Challenge
Formula Masters China
* Formula Toyota
World Series Formula V8 3.5
FIA Formula 2 Championship
DEFUNCT ONE-MAKE FORMULAE
ADAC Formel Masters
* Barber Pro
* FC Euro Series
* Formula Nissan
* Formula Opel/Vauxhall
TOURING CAR RACING
* Group F
* Group G
* Group H
* NGTC (TCN-1)
* TCR (TCN-2)
DEFUNCT TOURING CAR RACING
* Appendix J
* Group 1
* Group 2
* Group 5
Group C (Australia)
* Group E
Group N (Australia)
* Group S
* Class 1
Super Touring (Class 2)
STOCK CAR RACING
Allison Legacy Series
IMCA Sport Compact
* Monster Energy
* Whelen Euro Series
* PEAK Mexico
* Super Stock
* Street Stock
* BriSCA F1
* BriSCA F2
* Hot Rods
Sprint car racing
Midget car racing
Quarter Midget racing
* Group 1
* Group 2
* Group 4
* Group S
* Group 3
* Group 4
* Group 5
* Group 6
* Group 7
Group A Sports Cars
LM GTE (GT2)
* Appendix K
* Group D GT Cars
DEFUNCT GRAND TOURING
* Group 3
* Group 4
* Group 5
Group D Production Sports Cars
* GT1 (1993–99)
* GT2 (1993–99)
FIA GT1 (2000-12)
* IMSA AAGT
* IMSA GTO/GTS
* IMSA GTU
* IMSA GTX
Top Fuel Dragster (TF/D)
Top Alcohol Dragster (TA/D)
Funny Car (TF/FC)
Pro Stock (PS)
Pro Modified (Pro Mod)
* Super Comp/Quick Rod
DEFUNCT DRAG RACING
* Super Stock
List of world sports championships
* Association football
* men\'s club
* women\'s club
* Beach volleyball
* Field hockey
* Ice hockey
* Rugby sevens
* men\'s club
* women\'s club
* Water polo
* Aquatic sports
* race walking
* Bobsleigh and skeleton
* Boxing (amateur)
* mountain biking
* Equestrian Games
* show jumping
* Ice skating
* short track
* artificial track
* natural track
* Modern pentathlon
* Sport climbing
* Table tennis
* Basque pelota
* Roller hockey
* Amputee Football
* CP Football
* Ice sledge hockey
* Wheelchair basketball
* Wheelchair rugby
* Wheelchair curling
* Sitting volleyball
* Track cycling
* Road cycling
* Table tennis
* Carom billiards
* English billiards
* Pocket billiards
* straight pool
* draughts-64 women
* _Dota 2_
* _League of Legends_
* Alternative energy
* Solar car
* Electric car
* Formula One
* rally raid
* Sports car
* Touring car
* Ice racing
* Grand Prix
* Cross-country rally
* Aeroplane sport
* Aerobatic GP
* _Air Race_
* Radio-controlled racing
* 1:10 electric off-road
* American football
* Australian football
* 3x3 basketball
* men\'s club
* women\'s club
* Ball hockey
* Beach handball
* Beach soccer
* Canoe polo
* Formation Latin
* Flag football
* men\'s club
* Inline hockey
* Padel tennis
* Roll Ball
* Roller derby
* Rugby league
* men\'s club
* Rugby union
* Synchronized skating
* Air sports
* cross country
* half marathon
* 100 km
* mountain bike marathon
* fly fishing
* Inline speed skating
* mountain bike
* Professional boxing
* Mounted games
* practical handgun
* practical rifle
* practical shotgun
* Roller skating
* Ski mountaineering
* short course
* Water skiing
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* BNF : cb12002946q (data)
* NDL : 00960053
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