Formula One (also Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of
single-seater auto racing sanctioned by the Fédération
Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) and owned by the Formula One
Group. The FIA
Formula One World Championship has been one of the
premier forms of racing around the world since its inaugural season in
1950. The "formula" in the name refers to the set of rules to which
all participants' cars must conform. A
Formula One season consists
of a series of races, known as Grands Prix (French for "grand
prizes" or "great prizes"), which are held worldwide on purpose-built
circuits and public roads.
The results of each race are evaluated using a points system to
determine two annual World Championships: one for drivers, the other
for constructors. Drivers must hold valid Super Licences, the highest
class of racing licence issued by the FIA. The races are required
to be held on tracks graded "1" (formerly "A"), the highest grade
rating issued by the FIA. Most events are held in rural locations
on purpose-built tracks, but there are several events in city centres
throughout the world, with the
Monaco Grand Prix
Monaco Grand Prix being the most
Formula One cars are the fastest road course racing cars in the world,
owing to very high cornering speeds achieved through the generation of
large amounts of aerodynamic downforce. The cars underwent major
changes in 2017, allowing wider front and rear wings, and wider
tyres, resulting in cornering forces closing in on 8g and top speeds
of up to approximately 375 km/h (230 mph). The hybrid
engines are currently limited in performance to a maximum of 15,000
rpm and the cars are very dependent on electronics—although traction
control and other driving aids have been banned since 2008—and also
on aerodynamics, suspension, and tyres.
While Europe is the sport's traditional base, the championship is
truly global, with 11 of the 21 races in the 2018 season taking place
outside Europe. With the annual cost of running a mid-tier
team—designing, building, and maintaining cars, pay,
transport—being US$120 million,
Formula One has a
significant economic and job-creation effect, and its financial and
political battles are widely reported. Its high profile and popularity
have created a major merchandising environment, which has resulted in
large investments from sponsors and budgets (in the hundreds of
millions for the constructors). On 8 September 2016, it was announced
Liberty Media had agreed to buy Delta Topco, the company that
controls Formula One, from private equity firm CVC Capital Partners
for $4.4 billion in cash, stock, and convertible debt. On 23
January 2017, it was confirmed that the acquisition had been
completed, for $8 billion.
1.1 Return of racing
1.2 British dominance
1.3 Technological developments
1.4 Big business
1.5 Manufacturers' return
1.6 Manufacturers' decline and return of the privateers
1.7 Political disputes
1.7.1 FISA–FOCA war
1.7.2 FIA–FOTA dispute
2 Outside the World Championship
2.1 European non-championship racing
2.2 South African
Formula One championship
Formula One Championship
3 Racing and strategy
3.1 Tyre rules
3.5 Points system
5.1 Feeder series
5.2 Beyond F1
6 Grands Prix
8 Cars and technology
9 Revenue and profits
11 Media coverage
12 Distinction between
Formula One and World Championship races
13 See also
15 Further reading
16 External links
Main article: History of Formula One
Formula One's iconic former 'flying one' logo, used from 1993 to 2017
Formula One series originated with the
European Grand Prix
European Grand Prix Motor
Racing (q.v. for pre-1947 history) of the 1920s and 1930s. The formula
is a set of rules that all participants' cars must meet. Formula One
was a new formula agreed upon after
World War II
World War II during 1946, with the
first non-championship races being held that year. A number of Grand
Prix racing organisations had laid out rules for a world championship
before the war, but due to the suspension of racing during the
conflict, the World Drivers' Championship was not formalised until
1947. The first world championship race was held at Silverstone,
United Kingdom in 1950. A championship for constructors followed in
1958. National championships existed in South Africa and the UK in the
1960s and 1970s. Non-championship
Formula One events were held for
many years, but due to the increasing cost of competition, the last of
these occurred in 1983. On 26 November 2017,
Formula One unveiled
its new logo following the 2017 season finale in Abu Dhabi during the
Abu Dhabi Grand Prix
Abu Dhabi Grand Prix at Yas Marina Circuit. The new logo replaces F1's
iconic 'flying one', which has been the sport's trademark since
Return of racing
Juan Manuel Fangio's 1951 title-winning Alfa Romeo 159
The first World Championship for Drivers was won by Italian Giuseppe
Farina in his Alfa Romeo in 1950, narrowly defeating his Argentine
teammate Juan Manuel Fangio. However, Fangio won the title in 1951,
1954, 1955, 1956, and 1957 (His record of five World Championship
titles stood for 45 years until German driver
Michael Schumacher took
his sixth title in 2003), his streak interrupted (after an injury) by
Alberto Ascari of Ferrari. Although the UK's
Stirling Moss was able to compete regularly, he was never able to win
the world championship, and is now widely considered to be the
greatest driver never to have won the title. Fangio, however,
is remembered for dominating Formula One's first decade and has long
been considered the "Grand Master" of Formula One.
This period featured teams managed by road car manufacturers Alfa
Romeo, Ferrari, Mercedes-Benz, and Maserati; all of whom had competed
before the war. The first seasons were run using pre-war cars like
Alfa's 158. They were front-engined, with narrow tyres and 1.5-litre
supercharged or 4.5-litre normally aspirated engines. The 1952 and
1953 World Championships were run to
Formula Two regulations, for
smaller, less powerful cars, due to concerns over the paucity of
Formula One cars available. When a new Formula One, for engines
limited to 2.5 litres, was reinstated to the world championship
Mercedes-Benz introduced the advanced W196, which featured
innovations such as desmodromic valves and fuel injection as well as
enclosed streamlined bodywork. Mercedes drivers won the championship
for two years, before the team withdrew from all motorsport in the
wake of the 1955 Le Mans disaster.
An era of British dominance was ushered in by
Mike Hawthorn and
Vanwall's championship wins in 1958, although
Stirling Moss had been
at the forefront of the sport without ever securing the world title.
Between Hawthorn, Jim Clark, Jackie Stewart,
John Surtees and Graham
Hill, British drivers won nine Drivers' Championships and British
teams won fourteen Constructors' Championship titles between 1958 and
1974. The iconic
British Racing Green
British Racing Green Lotus, with a revolutionary
aluminium-sheet monocoque chassis instead of the traditional
space-frame design, was the dominant car, and in 1968 the team broke
new boundaries when they were the first to carry advertising on their
Lotus 18 at the
Nürburgring during 1961
The first major technological development, Bugatti's re-introduction
of mid-engined cars (following Ferdinand Porsche's pioneering Auto
Unions of the 1930s), occurred with the Type 251, which was
unsuccessful. Australian Jack Brabham, world champion during 1959,
1960, and 1966, soon proved the mid-engined design's superiority. By
1961, all regular competitors had switched to mid-engined cars. The
Ferguson P99, a four-wheel drive design, was the last front-engined F1
car to enter a world championship race. It was entered in the 1961
British Grand Prix, the only front-engined car to compete that
During 1962, Lotus introduced a car with an aluminium-sheet monocoque
chassis instead of the traditional space-frame design. This proved to
be the greatest technological breakthrough since the introduction of
mid-engined cars. During 1968, Lotus painted
Imperial Tobacco livery
on their cars, thus introducing sponsorship to the sport.
Aerodynamic downforce slowly gained importance in car design from the
appearance of aerofoils during the late 1960s. During the late 1970s,
Lotus introduced ground-effect aerodynamics (previously used on Jim
Hall's Chaparral 2J during 1970) that provided enormous downforce and
greatly increased cornering speeds. So great were the aerodynamic
forces pressing the cars to the track (up to five times the car's
weight), extremely stiff springs were needed to maintain a constant
ride height, leaving the suspension virtually solid, depending
entirely on the tyres for any small amount of cushioning of the car
and driver from irregularities of the road surface.
Clay Regazzoni driving for
Ferrari at the 1976 German Grand Prix
Beginning in the 1970s,
Bernie Ecclestone rearranged the management of
Formula One's commercial rights; he is widely credited with
transforming the sport into the multibillion-dollar business it now
is. When Ecclestone bought the
Brabham team during 1971 he
gained a seat on the
Formula One Constructors' Association
Formula One Constructors' Association and during
1978 he became its president. Previously, the circuit owners
controlled the income of the teams and negotiated with each
individually, however Ecclestone persuaded the teams to "hunt as a
pack" through FOCA. He offered
Formula One to circuit owners as a
package, which they could take or leave. In return for the package
almost all that was required was to surrender trackside
The formation of the Fédération Internationale du Sport Automobile
(FISA) during 1979 set off the FISA–FOCA controversy, during which
FISA and its president
Jean-Marie Balestre disputed repeatedly with
FOCA over television revenues and technical regulations. The
Guardian said of FOCA that Ecclestone and
Max Mosley "used it to wage
a guerrilla war with a very long-term aim in view". FOCA threatened to
establish a rival series, boycotted a Grand Prix and FISA withdrew its
sanction from races. The result was the 1981 Concorde Agreement,
which guaranteed technical stability, as teams were to be given
reasonable notice of new regulations. Although FISA asserted its
right to the TV revenues, it handed the administration of those rights
Stefan Bellof driving for Tyrrell at the 1984 Dallas Grand Prix
FISA imposed a ban on ground-effect aerodynamics during 1983. By
then, however, turbocharged engines, which Renault had pioneered in
1977, were producing over 700 bhp (520 kW) and were
essential to be competitive. By 1986, a BMW turbocharged engine
achieved a flash reading of 5.5 bar pressure, estimated to be
over 1,300 bhp (970 kW) in qualifying for the Italian Grand
Prix. The next year power in race trim reached around 1,100 bhp
(820 kW), with boost pressure limited to only 4.0 bar.
These cars were the most powerful open-wheel circuit racing cars ever.
To reduce engine power output and thus speeds, the FIA limited fuel
tank capacity in 1984 and boost pressures in 1988 before banning
turbocharged engines completely in 1989.
The development of electronic driver aids began during the 1980s.
Lotus began to develop a system of active suspension, which first
appeared during 1982 on the 91. By 1987, this system had been
perfected and was driven to victory by
Ayrton Senna in the Monaco
Grand Prix that year. In the early 1990s other teams followed suit and
semi-automatic gearboxes and traction control were a natural
progression. The FIA, due to complaints that technology was
determining the outcome of races more than driver skill, banned many
such aids for 1994. This resulted in cars that were previously
dependent on electronic aids becoming very "twitchy" and difficult to
drive (particularly the Williams FW16). Many observers felt the ban on
driver aids was in name only as they "proved difficult to police
The teams signed a second
Concorde Agreement during 1992 and a third
in 1997, which expired on the last day of 2007.
Stefan Johansson driving for
Ferrari at the 1985 European Grand Prix
On the track, the
McLaren and Williams teams dominated the 1980s and
Brabham also being competitive during the early part of
the 1980s, winning two Drivers' Championships with Nelson Piquet.
Powered by Porsche, Honda, and Mercedes-Benz,
McLaren won sixteen
championships (seven constructors' and nine drivers') in that period,
while Williams used engines from Ford, Honda, and Renault to also win
sixteen titles (nine constructors' and seven drivers'). The rivalry
Ayrton Senna and
Alain Prost became F1's central focus
during 1988, and continued until Prost retired at the end of 1993.
Senna died at the
1994 San Marino Grand Prix
1994 San Marino Grand Prix after crashing into a
wall on the exit of the notorious curve Tamburello, having taken over
Prost's lead drive at Williams that year. The FIA worked to improve
the sport's safety standards since that weekend, during which Roland
Ratzenberger also lost his life in an accident during Saturday
qualifying. No driver had died of injuries sustained on the track at
the wheel of a
Formula One car
Formula One car for 20 years, until the 2014 Japanese
Grand Prix where
Jules Bianchi collided with a recovery vehicle after
aquaplaning off the circuit. Since 1994, three track marshals have
lost their lives, one at the 2000 Italian Grand Prix, the second
at the 2001 Australian Grand Prix and the third at the 2013
Canadian Grand Prix.
Since the deaths of Senna and Ratzenberger, the FIA has used safety as
a reason to impose rule changes that otherwise, under the Concorde
Agreement, would have had to be agreed upon by all the teams –
most notably the changes introduced for 1998. This so-called 'narrow
track' era resulted in cars with smaller rear tyres, a narrower track
overall, and the introduction of grooved tyres to reduce mechanical
grip. There were to be four grooves on the front (three in the first
year) and rear that ran through the entire circumference of the tyre.
The objective was to reduce cornering speeds and to produce racing
similar to rainy conditions by enforcing a smaller contact patch
between tyre and track. This, according to the FIA, was to promote
driver skill and provide a better spectacle.
Damon Hill driving for Williams at the 1995 Canadian Grand Prix
Results have been mixed as the lack of mechanical grip has resulted in
the more ingenious designers clawing back the deficit with aerodynamic
grip – pushing more force onto the tyres through wings and
aerodynamic devices, which in turn has resulted in less overtaking as
these devices tend to make the wake behind the car 'dirty'
(turbulent), preventing other cars from following closely due to their
dependence on 'clean' air to make the car stick to the track. The
grooved tyres also had the unfortunate side effect of initially being
of a harder compound to be able to hold the grooved tread blocks,
which resulted in spectacular accidents in times of aerodynamic grip
failure as the harder compound could not grip the track as well.
Drivers from McLaren, Williams, Renault (formerly Benetton), and
Ferrari, dubbed the "Big Four", won every World Championship from 1984
to 2008. The teams won every Constructors' Championship from 1979 to
2008 as well as placing themselves as the top four teams in the
Constructors' Championship in every season between 1989 and 1997, and
winning every race but one (the 1996 Monaco Grand Prix) between 1988
and 1997. Due to the technological advances of the 1990s, the cost of
Formula One increased dramatically. This increased
financial burdens, combined with the dominance of four teams (largely
funded by big car manufacturers such as Mercedes-Benz), caused the
poorer independent teams to struggle not only to remain competitive,
but to stay in business, and forced several teams to withdraw. Since
1990, twenty-eight teams have withdrawn from Formula One. This has
prompted former Jordan owner
Eddie Jordan to say that the days of
competitive privateers are over.
Michael Schumacher won five consecutive titles with Ferrari
Michael Schumacher and
Ferrari won five consecutive Drivers'
Championships (2000–2004) and six consecutive Constructors'
Championships (1999–2004). Schumacher set many new records,
including those for Grand Prix wins (91), wins in a season (thirteen
of eighteen), and most Drivers' Championships (seven).
Schumacher's championship streak ended on 25 September 2005 when
Fernando Alonso became Formula One's youngest champion
at that time, until
Lewis Hamilton in 2008. During 2006, Renault and
Alonso won both titles again. Schumacher retired at the end of 2006
after sixteen years in Formula One, but came out of retirement for the
2010 season, racing for the newly formed Mercedes works team,
following the rebrand of Brawn GP.
During this period, the championship rules were changed frequently by
the FIA with the intention of improving the on-track action and
cutting costs. Team orders, legal since the championship started
during 1950, were banned during 2002 after several incidents in which
teams openly manipulated race results, generating negative publicity,
most famously by
Ferrari at the 2002 Austrian Grand Prix. Other
changes included the qualifying format, the points scoring system, the
technical regulations, and rules specifying how long engines and tyres
must last. A "tyre war" between suppliers
lap times fall, although at the
2005 United States Grand Prix
2005 United States Grand Prix at
Indianapolis, seven out of ten teams did not race when their Michelin
tyres were deemed unsafe for use, leading to
Bridgestone becoming the
sole tyre supplier to
Formula One for the 2007 season. During 2006,
Max Mosley outlined a "green" future for Formula One, in which
efficient use of energy would become an important factor.
Formula One had been dominated by specialist race teams
like Williams, McLaren, and Benetton, using engines supplied by large
car manufacturers like Mercedes-Benz, Honda, Renault, and Ford.
Starting in 2000, with Ford's creation of the largely unsuccessful
Jaguar team, new manufacturer-owned teams entered
Formula One for the
first time since the departure of Alfa Romeo and Renault at the end of
1985. By 2006, the manufacturer teams—Renault, BMW, Toyota, Honda,
and Ferrari—dominated the championship, taking five of the first six
places in the Constructors' Championship. The sole exception was
McLaren, which at the time was part-owned by Mercedes Benz. Through
Grand Prix Manufacturers Association (GPMA), they negotiated a
larger share of Formula One's commercial profit and a greater say in
the running of the sport.
Manufacturers' decline and return of the privateers
Formula One in 2010.
In 2008 and 2009, Honda, BMW, and Toyota all withdrew from Formula One
racing within the space of a year, blaming the economic recession.
This resulted in the end of manufacturer dominance within the sport.
The Honda F1 team went through a management buyout to become Brawn GP
with the notable F1 designer
Ross Brawn and
Nick Fry running and
owning the majority of the organisation.
Brawn GP went through a
painful size reduction, laying off hundreds of employees, but
eventually won the year's world championships with
Jenson Button and
Rubens Barrichello. BMW F1 was bought out by the original founder of
the team, Peter Sauber. The
Lotus F1 Team were another, formerly
manufacturer-owned team that has reverted to "privateer" ownership,
together with the buy-out of the Renault team by Genii Capital
investors in recent years. A link with their previous owners still
survived however, with their car continuing to be powered by a Renault
Power Unit until 2014.
McLaren also announced that it was to reacquire the shares in its team
Mercedes Benz (McLaren's partnership with Mercedes was reported
to have started to sour with the
McLaren Mercedes SLR road car project
and tough F1 championships which included
McLaren being found guilty
of spying on Ferrari). Hence, during the 2010 season, Mercedes Benz
re-entered the sport as a manufacturer after its purchase of Brawn GP,
and split with
McLaren after 15 seasons with the team. This left
Mercedes, McLaren, and
Ferrari as the only car manufacturers in the
sport, although both
Ferrari began as racing teams rather
The three teams that debuted in 2010 (HRT, Lotus/Caterham and
Virgin/Marussia/Manor) all disappeared within seven years of their
To compensate for the loss of manufacturer teams, four new teams were
accepted entry into the 2010 season ahead of a much anticipated
'cost-cap' (see below). Entrants included a reborn
Team Lotus –
which was led by a Malaysian consortium including Tony Fernandes, the
boss of Air Asia; Hispania Racing – the first Spanish Formula One
team; as well as
Virgin Racing – Richard Branson's entry into the
series following a successful partnership with Brawn the year before.
They were also joined by the US F1 Team, which planned to run out of
the United States as the only non-European based team in the sport.
Financial issues befell the squad before they even made the grid.
Despite the entry of these new teams, the proposed cost-cap was
repealed and these teams – who did not have the budgets of the
midfield and top-order teams – ran around at the back of the field
until they inevitably collapsed; HRT in 2012, Caterham (formerly
Lotus) in 2014 and Manor (formerly Virgin then Marussia), having
survived falling into administration in 2014, went under at the end of
A rule shake-up in 2014 meant Mercedes emerged as the dominant force,
Lewis Hamilton winning the championship closely followed by his
main rival and teammate, Nico Rosberg, with the team winning 16 out of
the 19 races that season (all other victories coming from Daniel
Ricciardo of Red Bull). 2014 also saw a financial crisis which
resulted in the backmarker Marussia and Caterham teams being put into
administration, alongside the uncertain futures of
Force India and
Sauber. Marussia returned under the Manor name in 2015, a season in
Ferrari were the only challengers to Mercedes, with Vettel
taking victory in the three Grands Prix Mercedes did not win.
The 2016 season began in dominant fashion for Nico Rosberg, winning
the first 4 Grands Prix. His charge was halted by Max Verstappen, who
took his maiden win in Spain in his debut race for Red Bull. After
that, the reigning champion
Lewis Hamilton decreased the point gap
between him and Rosberg to only one point, before taking the
championship lead heading into the summer break. Following the break,
the 1–2 positioning remained constant until an engine failure for
Hamilton in Malaysia left Rosberg in a commanding lead that he would
not relinquish in the 5 remaining races. Having won the title by a
mere 5 points, Rosberg retired from
Formula One at season's end. The
final team remaining from the 2010 new entries process, Manor Racing,
withdrew from the sport following the 2016 season, having lost 10th in
the Constructors' Championship to
Sauber with one race remaining,
leaving the grid at 20 cars as
Liberty Media took control of the
series in the off-season.
Renault returned to the sport in 2016 (pictured with Palmer)
In 2016, Renault came back to the sport after buying back the Lotus F1
team and in 2018,
Aston Martin became Red Bull's title sponsor,
indicating that the manufacturers are starting to come back to the
Main article: FISA–FOCA war
The battle for control of
Formula One was contested between the
Fédération Internationale du Sport Automobile (FISA), at the time an
autonomous subcommittee of the FIA, and FOCA (the Formula One
The beginnings of the dispute are numerous, and many of the underlying
reasons may be lost in history. The teams (excepting
Ferrari and the
other major manufacturers – Renault and Alfa Romeo in
particular) were of the opinion that their rights and ability to
compete against the larger and better funded teams were being
negatively affected by a perceived bias on the part of the controlling
organisation (FISA) toward the major manufacturers.
In addition, the battle revolved around the commercial aspects of the
sport (the FOCA teams were unhappy with the disbursement of proceeds
from the races) and the technical regulations which, in FOCA's
opinion, tended to be malleable according to the nature of the
transgressor more than the nature of the transgression.
The war culminated in a FOCA boycott of the 1982 San Marino Grand Prix
months later. In theory, all FOCA teams were supposed to boycott the
Grand Prix as a sign of solidarity and complaint at the handling of
the regulations and financial compensation (and extreme opposition to
the accession of Balestre to the position of FISA president: both
Colin Chapman of Lotus and Frank Williams of Williams stated clearly
that they would not continue in
Formula One with Balestre as its
governor).[original research?] In practice, several of the FOCA teams
backed out of the boycott, citing "sponsor obligations". Notable among
these were the Tyrrell and
Main article: FIA–FOTA dispute
During the 2009 season of Formula One, the sport was gripped in a
governance crisis. The FIA President
Max Mosley proposed numerous cost
cutting measures for the following season, including an optional
budget cap for the teams; teams electing to take the budget cap
would be granted greater technical freedom, adjustable front and rear
wings and an engine not subject to a rev limiter. The Formula One
Teams Association (FOTA) believed that allowing some teams to have
such technical freedom would have created a 'two-tier' championship,
and thus requested urgent talks with the FIA. However, talks broke
down and FOTA teams announced, with the exception of Williams and
Force India, that 'they had no choice' but to form a breakaway
Bernie Ecclestone, the former Chief Executive of the
Formula One Group
On 24 June, an agreement was reached between Formula One's governing
body and the teams to prevent a breakaway series. It was agreed teams
must cut spending to the level of the early 1990s within two years;
exact figures were not specified, and
Max Mosley agreed he would
not stand for re-election to the FIA presidency in October.
Following further disagreements after
Max Mosley suggested he would
stand for re-election, FOTA made it clear that breakaway plans
were still being pursued. On 8 July, FOTA issued a press release
stating they had been informed they were not entered for the 2010
season, and an FIA press release said the FOTA representatives had
walked out of the meeting. On 1 August, it was announced FIA and
FOTA had signed a new Concorde Agreement, bringing an end to the
crisis and securing the sport's future until 2012.
Outside the World Championship
The terms "
Formula One race" and "World Championship race" are
effectively synonymous; since 1984, every
Formula One race has counted
towards an official FIA World Championship, and every World
Championship race has been held to
Formula One regulations. In the
earlier history of Formula One, many races took place outside the
world championship, and local championships run to Formula One
regulations also occurred. These events often took place on circuits
that were not suitable for the World Championship, and featured local
cars and drivers as well as those competing in the Championship.
European non-championship racing
In the early years of Formula One, before the world championship was
established, there were around twenty races held from late Spring to
early Autumn in Europe, although not all of these were considered
significant. Most competitive cars came from Italy, particularly Alfa
Romeo. After the start of the world championship, these
non-championship races continued. In the 1950s and 1960s, there were
Formula One races which did not count for the World Championship;
in 1950 a total of twenty-two
Formula One races were held, of which
only six counted towards the World Championship. In 1952 and 1953,
when the world championship was run for
Formula Two cars,
non-championship events were the only
Formula One races that took
Some races, particularly in the UK, including the Race of Champions,
International Gold Cup and the
International Trophy, were
attended by the majority of the world championship contenders. Other
smaller events were regularly held in locations not part of the
championship, such as the Syracuse and Danish Grands Prix, although
these only attracted a small amount of the championship teams and
relied on private entries and lower Formula cars to make up the
grid. These became less common through the 1970s and 1983 saw the
Formula One race; the
1983 Race of Champions
1983 Race of Champions at
Brands Hatch, won by reigning World Champion
Keke Rosberg in a
Cosworth in a close fight with American Danny Sullivan.
Formula One championship
Main article: South African
Formula One Championship
South Africa's flourishing domestic
Formula One championship ran from
1960 through to 1975. The frontrunning cars in the series were
recently retired from the world championship although there was also a
healthy selection of locally built or modified machines. Frontrunning
drivers from the series usually contested their local World
Championship Grand Prix, as well as occasional European events,
although they had little success at that level.
Formula One Championship
Main article: British
Formula One Championship
The DFV helped make the UK domestic
Formula One championship possible
between 1978 and 1980. As in South Africa a decade before, second hand
cars from manufacturers like Lotus and
Fittipaldi Automotive were the
order of the day, although some, such as the March 781, were built
specifically for the series. In 1980, the series saw South African
Desiré Wilson become the only woman to win a
Formula One race when
she triumphed at
Brands Hatch in a Wolf WR3.
Racing and strategy
Formula One racing, Racing flags, and Formula One
Nick Heidfeld and
Nico Rosberg on the street circuit of Albert Park in
the 2008 Australian Grand Prix.
Formula One Grand Prix event spans a weekend. It begins with two
free practice sessions on Friday (except in Monaco, where Friday
practices are moved to Thursday), and one free practice on Saturday.
Additional drivers (commonly known as third drivers) are allowed to
run on Fridays, but only two cars may be used per team, requiring a
race driver to give up his seat. A qualifying session is held after
the last free practice session. This session determines the starting
order for the race on Sunday.
The new rule for F1 tyre in 2016 is that the regulations would allow
Pirelli to select three different tyres for each race, and each team
could choose the tyre from those three depending on the strategies.
This concept would continue in 2017 but with Pirelli's thicker and
wider tyres that tested extensively last year.
Tyre selections are announced over a month before each event, with
Pirelli must announce compounds nine weeks before a
European round and 15 weeks before a long-haul event. Drivers
ordinarily select 10 of the 13 sets available for a race weekend,
though Pirelli's new tyres means the Italian company will force each
driver to stick to the same allocations for the first five races as it
learns about the new tyre.
That means for the opening five races, drivers will have seven of the
softest compound, four of the middle compound and two of the hardest
Pirelli has backup compounds for introduction
later in the season if its initial batch proves to be too conservative
in terms of performance or leads to greater levels of degradation than
A typical pitwall control centre, from which the team managers and
strategists communicate with their drivers and engineers over the
course of a testing session or a race weekend.
For much of the sport's history, qualifying sessions differed little
from practice sessions; drivers would have one or more sessions in
which to set their fastest time, with the grid order determined by
each driver's best single lap, with the fastest on pole position.
Grids were generally limited to 26 cars – if the race had more
entries, qualification would also decide which drivers would start the
race. During the early 1990s, the number of entries was so high that
the worst-performing teams had to enter a pre-qualifying session, with
the fastest cars allowed through to the main qualifying session. The
qualifying format began to change in the late 1990s, with the FIA
experimenting with limiting the number of laps, determining the
aggregate time over two sessions, and allowing each driver only one
Jarno Trulli pit-stop, for Lotus at the 2011 Brazilian Grand Prix.
The current qualifying system was adopted in the 2006 season. Known as
"knock-out" qualifying, it is split into three periods, known as Q1,
Q2, and Q3. In each period, drivers run qualifying laps to attempt to
advance to the next period, with the slowest drivers being "knocked
out" of qualification (but not necessarily the race) at the end of the
period and their grid positions set within the rearmost five based on
their best lap times. Drivers are allowed as many laps as they wish
within each period. After each period, all times are reset, and only a
driver's fastest lap in that period (barring infractions) counts. Any
timed lap started before the end of that period may be completed, and
will count toward that driver's placement. The number of cars
eliminated in each period is dependent on the total number of cars
entered into the championship. Currently, with 20 cars, Q1 runs
for 18 minutes, and eliminates the slowest five drivers. During this
period, any driver whose best lap takes longer than 107% of the
fastest time in Q1 will not be allowed to start the race without
permission from the stewards. Otherwise, all drivers proceed to the
race albeit in the worst starting positions. This rule does not affect
drivers in Q2 or Q3. In Q2, the 15 remaining drivers have 15 minutes
to set one of the ten fastest times and proceed to the next period.
Finally, Q3 lasts 12 minutes and sees the remaining ten drivers decide
the first ten grid positions. At the beginning of the 2016 Formula 1
season, the FIA introduced a new qualifying format, whereby drivers
were knocked out every 90 seconds after a certain amount of time had
passed in each session. The aim was to mix up grid positions for the
race, but due to unpopularity the FIA reverted to the above qualifying
format for the Chinese GP, after running the format for only two
Each car taking part in Q3 receives an 'extra' set of the softest
available tyre. This set has to be handed in after qualifying, drivers
knocked out in Q1 or Q2 can use this set for the race. The first ten
drivers, i.e. the drivers through to Q3 must start the race on the
tyre which set the fastest time in Q2, unless the weather requires the
use of wet-weather tyres. In which case all of the rules about the
tyres won't be followed. All of the drivers that did not
participate in Q3 have free tyre choice for the start of the race. Any
penalties that affect grid position are applied at the end of
qualifying. Grid penalties can be applied for driving infractions in
the previous or current Grand Prix, or for changing a gearbox or
engine component. If a car fails scrutineering, the driver will be
excluded from qualifying, but will be allowed to start the race from
the back of the grid at the race steward's discretion.
The race begins with a warm-up lap, after which the cars assemble on
the starting grid in the order they qualified. This lap is often
referred to as the formation lap, as the cars lap in formation with no
overtaking (although a driver who makes a mistake may regain lost
ground provided he has not fallen to the back of the field). The
warm-up lap allows drivers to check the condition of the track and
their car, gives the tyres a chance to warm up to increase traction,
and also gives the pit crews time to clear themselves and their
equipment from the grid.
Jacques Villeneuve qualifying at the
2005 United States Grand Prix
2005 United States Grand Prix in
Once all the cars have formed on the grid, a light system above the
track indicates the start of the race: five red lights are illuminated
at intervals of one second; they are all then extinguished
simultaneously after an unspecified time (typically less than 3
seconds) to signal the start of the race. The start procedure may be
abandoned if a driver stalls on the grid, signalled by raising his
arm. If this happens, the procedure restarts: a new formation lap
begins with the offending car removed from the grid. The race may also
be restarted in the event of a serious accident or dangerous
conditions, with the original start voided. The race may be started
from behind the
Safety Car if officials feel a racing start would be
excessively dangerous, such as extremely heavy rainfall. As of the
2017 season there will always be a standing restart. If due to heavy
rainfall a start behind the safety car is necessary, then after the
track has dried sufficiently, drivers will form up for a standing
start. There is no formation lap when races start behind the Safety
Under normal circumstances, the winner of the race is the first driver
to cross the finish line having completed a set number of laps. Race
officials may end the race early (putting out a red flag) due to
unsafe conditions such as extreme rainfall, and it must finish within
two hours, although races are only likely to last this long in the
case of extreme weather or if the safety car is deployed during the
In the 1950s, race distances varied from 300 km (190 mi) to
600 km (370 mi). The maximum race length was reduced to
400 km (250 mi) in 1966 and 325 km (202 mi) in
1971. The race length was standardised to the current 305 km
(190 mi) in 1989. However, street races like Monaco have shorter
distances, to keep under the two-hour limit.
Drivers may overtake one another for position over the course of the
race and are "Classified" in the order they finished 90% of the race
distance. If a leader comes across a back marker (slower car) who has
completed fewer laps, the back marker is shown a blue flag telling
him he is obliged to allow the leader to overtake him. The slower car
is said to be "lapped" and, once the leader finishes the race, is
classified as finishing the race "one lap down". A driver can be
lapped numerous times, by any car in front of him. A driver who fails
to finish a race, through mechanical problems, accident, or any other
reason is said to have retired from the race and is "Not Classified"
in the results. However, if the driver has completed more than 90% of
the race distance, he will be classified.
When required, the safety car will lead the field around the circuit
at reduced speed, until race officials deem the race safe to continue.
Mercedes-AMG GT safety car has been used in Formula 1 races since
the 2015 Australian Grand Prix.
Throughout the race, drivers may make pit stops to change tyres and
repair damage (from 1994 to 2009 inclusive, they could also refuel).
Different teams and drivers employ different pit stop strategies in
order to maximise their car's potential. Three dry tyre compounds,
with different durability and adhesion characteristics, are available
to drivers. Over the course of a race, drivers must use two of the
three available compounds. The different compounds have different
levels of performance, and choosing when to use which compound is a
key tactical decision to make. Different tyres have different colours
on their sidewalls; this allows spectators to understand the
strategies. Under wet conditions, drivers may switch to one of two
specialised wet weather tyres with additional grooves (one
"intermediate", for mild wet conditions, such as after recent rain,
one "full wet", for racing in or immediately after rain). A driver
must make at least one stop to use two tyre compounds; up to three
stops are typically made, although further stops may be necessary to
fix damage or if weather conditions change. If rain tyres are used,
drivers are no longer obliged to use both types of dry tyres.
As of 2017, the race director in
Formula One is Charlie Whiting. This
role involves him generally managing the logistics of each F1 Grand
Prix, inspecting cars in parc fermé before a race, enforcing FIA
rules and controlling the lights which start each race. As the head of
the race officials, he also plays a large role in sorting disputes
amongst teams and drivers. Penalties, such as drive-through penalties
(and stop-and-go penalties), demotions on a pre-race start grid, race
disqualifications, and fines can all be handed out should parties
In the event of an incident that risks the safety of competitors or
trackside race marshals, race officials may choose to deploy the
safety car. This in effect suspends the race, with drivers following
the safety car around the track at its speed in race order, with
overtaking not permitted. The safety car circulates until the danger
is cleared; after it comes in, the race restarts with a "rolling
start". Pit stops are permitted under the safety car. Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-AMG models to
Formula One to use as the safety cars.
Since 2000, the main safety car driver has been German ex-racing
driver Bernd Mayländer. On the lap in which the safety car returns to
the pits, the leading car takes over the role of the safety car until
the first safety car line, which is usually a white line after the pit
lane entrance. After crossing this line, drivers are allowed to start
racing for track position once more.
Indicates a hazard on or near the track (waved yellows indicate a
hazard on the track, frozen yellows indicate a hazard near
the track). Double waved yellows inform drivers that marshals are
working on or near to the track.
Shown in conjunction with a yellow flag to indicate that
the Safety Car is on track. Full course yellow flag applies.
Shown in conjunction with a yellow flag to indicate that the Virtual
Safety Car is in use. During this time, the drivers are given minimum
sector times that they must stay above. Full course yellow flag
Yellow and Red Striped
Slippery track, due to oil, water or loose debris. Can be seen
'rocked' from side-to-side (not waved) to indicate a small animal on
Normal racing conditions apply. This is usually shown following a
yellow flag to indicate that the hazard has been passed. A green flag
is shown at all stations for the lap following the end of a
full-course yellow (or safety car). A green flag is also shown at the
start of a session.
A blue flag indicates that the driver in front must let faster cars
Indicates that a slow moving car is ahead. Often waved at the end of
the pit lane when a car is about to leave the pits.
A red flag means a session has been stopped.
Driver is disqualified (usually accompanied by the driver's number).
Black with orange circle
Car is damaged and must pit immediately.
Half black/Half white
Warns a driver for unsportsmanlike behaviour. May be followed by a
black flag upon further infringement. Accompanied by the driver's
End of the session.
The format of the race has changed little through Formula One's
history. The main changes have revolved around what is allowed at pit
stops. In the early days of Grand Prix racing, a driver would be
allowed to continue a race in his teammate's car should his develop a
problem—in the modern era, cars are so carefully fitted to drivers
that this has become impossible. In recent years, the emphasis has
been on changing refuelling and tyre change regulations. From the 2010
season, refuelling—which was reintroduced in 1994—has not been
allowed, to encourage less tactical racing following safety concerns.
The rule requiring both compounds of tyre to be used during the race
was introduced in 2007, again to encourage racing on the track. The
safety car is another relatively recent innovation that reduced the
need to deploy the red flag, allowing races to be completed on time
for a growing international live television audience.
Points awarded for finishing
Main article: List of
Formula One World Championship points scoring
Various systems for awarding championship points have been used since
1950. The current system, in place since 2010, awards the top ten cars
points in the Drivers' and Constructors' Championships, with the
winner receiving 25 points. If both cars of a team finish in the
points, they both receive Constructors' Championship points. All
points won at each race are added up, and the driver and constructor
with the most points at the end of the season are crowned World
Champions. Regardless of whether a driver stays with the same team
throughout the season, or switches teams, all points earned by him
count for the Drivers' Championship.
A driver must be classified to receive points. To be classified, a
driver need not finish the race, but complete at least 90% of the
winner's race distance. Therefore, it is possible for a driver to
receive points even if they retired before the end of the race.
In the event that less than 75% of the race laps are completed by the
winner, only half of the points listed in the table are awarded to the
drivers and constructors. This has happened on only five occasions in
the history of the championship, and it had a notable influence on the
final standing of the 1984 season. The last occurrence was at the 2009
Malaysian Grand Prix
Malaysian Grand Prix when the race was called off after 31 laps due to
List of Formula One constructors and List of Formula One
World Constructors' Champions
Ferrari (pictured with Schumacher) have competed in every season.
Formula One teams have been required to build the
chassis in which they compete, and consequently the terms "team" and
"constructor" became more or less interchangeable. This requirement
distinguishes the sport from series such as the
IndyCar Series which
allows teams to purchase chassis, and "spec series" such as GP2, which
require all cars be kept to an identical specification. It also
effectively prohibits privateers, which were common even in Formula
One well into the 1970s.
The sport's debut season, 1950, saw eighteen teams compete, but due to
high costs many dropped out quickly. In fact, such was the scarcity of
competitive cars for much of the first decade of
Formula One that
Formula Two cars were admitted to fill the grids.
Ferrari is the
Formula One team, the only still-active team which competed in
McLaren (pictured with Senna) won all but one race in 1988 with engine
Renault (pictured here in 2007) has had an active role in Formula One
as both constructor and engine supplier since 1977.
Early manufacturer involvement came in the form of a "factory team" or
"works team" (that is, one owned and staffed by a major car company),
such as those of Alfa Romeo, Ferrari, or Renault. After having
virtually disappeared by the early 1980s, factory teams made a
comeback in the 1990s and 2000s and formed up to half the grid with
Ferrari, Jaguar, BMW, Renault, Toyota, and Honda either setting up
their own teams or buying out existing ones.
Mercedes-Benz owned 40%
McLaren team and manufactured the team's engines. Factory teams
make up the top competitive teams; in 2008 wholly owned factory teams
took four of the top five positions in the Constructors' Championship,
McLaren the other.
Ferrari holds the record for having won the
most Constructors' Championships (sixteen). However, by the end of the
2000s factory teams were once again on the decline with only Ferrari,
Mercedes-Benz and Renault lodging entries to the 2010 championship.
Companies such as Climax, Repco, Cosworth, Hart, Judd and Supertec,
which had no direct team affiliation, often sold engines to teams that
could not afford to manufacture them. In the early years,
Formula One teams sometimes also built their
engines, though this became less common with the increased involvement
of major car manufacturers such as BMW, Ferrari, Honda, Mercedes-Benz,
Renault, and Toyota, whose large budgets rendered privately built
engines less competitive.
Cosworth was the last independent engine
supplier. Beginning in 2007, the manufacturers' deep pockets and
engineering ability took over, eliminating the last of the independent
engine manufacturers. It is estimated the major teams spend
between €100 and €200 million ($125–$225 million) per
year per manufacturer on engines alone.
In the 2007 season, for the first time since the 1981 rule, two teams
used chassis built by other teams.
Super Aguri started the season
using a modified Honda Racing RA106 chassis (used by Honda the
previous year), while Scuderia
Toro Rosso used the same chassis used
by the parent
Red Bull Racing
Red Bull Racing team, which was formally designed by a
separate subsidiary. The usage of these loopholes was ended for 2010
with the publication of new technical regulations, which require each
constructor to own the intellectual property rights to their
chassis, which prevents a team using a chassis owned by another
Formula One constructor. The regulations continue to allow a team
to subcontract the design and construction of the chassis to a
third-party, an option used by the HRT team in 2010.
Although teams rarely disclose information about their budgets, it is
estimated they range from US$66 million to US$400 million
Entering a new team in the
Formula One World Championship requires a
£25 million (about US$47 million) up-front payment to the
FIA, which is then repaid to the team over the course of the season.
As a consequence, constructors desiring to enter
Formula One often
prefer to buy an existing team: BAR's purchase of Tyrrell and
Midland's purchase of Jordan allowed both of these teams to sidestep
the large deposit and secure the benefits the team already had, such
as TV revenue.
See also: List of
Formula One drivers, List of
Formula One World
Drivers' Champions, and List of
Formula One driver numbers
2005 Canadian Grand Prix:
Kimi Räikkönen leading Michael Schumacher,
Jarno Trulli (left) and
Takuma Sato fighting for position.
Every team in
Formula One must run two cars in every session in a
Grand Prix weekend, and every team may use up to four drivers in a
season. A team may also run two additional drivers in Free
Practice sessions, which are often used to test potential new
drivers for a career as a
Formula One driver or gain experienced
drivers to evaluate the car. Most modern drivers are
contracted for at least the duration of a season, with driver changes
taking place in between seasons, in comparison to early years where
drivers often competed at an ad hoc basis from race to race. Each
competitor must be in the possession of a
FIA Super Licence to compete
in a Grand Prix, which is issued to drivers who have met the
criteria of success in junior motorsport categories and having
achieved 300 kilometres (190 mi) of running in a
Formula One car.
Drivers may also be issued a Super Licence by the World Motor Sport
Council if they fail to meet the criteria. Teams also contract
test and reserve drivers, to stand in for regular drivers when
necessary and develop the team's car; although with the reduction on
testing the reserve drivers' role mainly takes places on a
simulator, such as rFactor Pro, which is used by most of
the F1 teams. Although most drivers earn their seat on
ability, commercial considerations also come into play with teams
having to satisfy sponsors and financial demands.
Each driver chooses an unassigned number from 2 to 99 (excluding
17) upon entering Formula One, and keeps that number during his
time in the series. The number one is reserved for the reigning
Drivers' Champion, who retains his previous number and may choose to
(but doesn't have to) use it instead of the number one. At the
onset of the championship, numbers were allocated by race organisers
on an ad-hoc basis from race to race, and competitors did not have a
permanent number throughout the season. Permanent numbers were
introduced in 1973 to take effect in 1974, when teams were allocated
numbers in ascending order based on the Constructors' Championship
standings at the end of the 1973 season. The teams would hold those
numbers from season to season with the exception of the team with the
world Drivers' Champion, which would swap its numbers with the one and
two of the previous champion's team. New entrants were allocated spare
numbers, with the exception of the number 13 which had been unused
since 1976. As teams kept their numbers for long periods of time,
car numbers became associated with a team, such as Ferrari's 27 and
28. A different system was used from 1996 to 2013: at the start of
each season, the current Drivers' Champion was designated number one,
his teammate number two, and the rest of the teams assigned ascending
numbers according to previous season's Constructors' Championship
A total of 33 separate drivers have won the world championship, with
Michael Schumacher holding the record for most championships with
seven, as well as holding the race wins record.
Juan Manuel Fangio
Juan Manuel Fangio has
won the next most, with five championships won during the 1950s, as
well as having won the greatest percentage of wins, with 24 out of 52
Jochen Rindt is the only posthumous World Champion, after his
points total was not overhauled despite his fatal accident at the 1970
Italian Grand Prix. Drivers from the
United Kingdom have been the most
successful in the sport, with 14 championships from 10 drivers, and
214 wins from 19.
Formula 2, the main F1 feeder series since 2017.
Most F1 drivers start in kart racing competitions, and then come up
through traditional European single seater series like Formula Ford
Formula Renault to Formula 3, and finally the GP2 Series. GP2
started in 2005, replacing Formula 3000, which itself had replaced
Formula Two as the last major stepping-stone into F1. Most champions
from this level graduate into F1, but 2006 GP2 champion Lewis Hamilton
became the first F2, F3000 or GP2 champion to win the Formula One
driver's title in 2008. Drivers are not required to have competed
at this level before entering Formula One.
British F3 has supplied
many F1 drivers, with champions including Nigel Mansell, Ayrton Senna
Mika Häkkinen having moved straight from that series to Formula
One. More rarely a driver may be picked from an even lower level, as
was the case with 2007 World Champion Kimi Räikkönen, who went
Formula Renault to F1, as well as Max Verstappen, who
made his debut following a single season in European F3.
American Championship Car Racing
American Championship Car Racing has also contributed to the Formula
One grid with mixed results. CART Champions
Mario Andretti and Jacques
Villeneuve became F1 World Champions, while
Juan Pablo Montoya
Juan Pablo Montoya won
seven races in F1. Other CART (also known as ChampCar) Champions, like
Michael Andretti and
Alessandro Zanardi won no races in F1. Other
drivers have taken different paths to F1;
Damon Hill raced motorbikes,
Michael Schumacher raced in sports cars, albeit after climbing
through the junior single seater ranks. Former F1 driver Paul di Resta
raced in DTM until he was signed with
Force India in 2011. To race,
however, the driver must hold an FIA Super Licence–ensuring that the
driver has the requisite skills, and will not therefore be a danger to
others. Some drivers have not had the licence when first signed to a
F1 team; Räikkönen received the licence despite having only 23 car
races to his credit.
LMP1 cars have become a popular destination for retired F1 drivers, in
this example Mark Webber.
Many Ex-F1 drivers compete regularly in the new
Formula E series.
Most F1 drivers retire in their mid to late 30s. Some F1 drivers have
left to race in the United States—
Nigel Mansell and Emerson
Fittipaldi duelled for the 1993 CART title,
Rubens Barrichello moved
IndyCar in 2012, while Jacques Villeneuve, Juan Pablo Montoya,
Nelson Piquet, Jr.
Nelson Piquet, Jr. and
Scott Speed moved to NASCAR.
Some drivers have moved from F1 to racing in disciplines with fewer
races during the season. The German touring car championship, the DTM,
is a popular category involving ex-drivers such as two-time champion
Mika Häkkinen and F1 race winners Jean Alesi,
David Coulthard and
Ralf Schumacher. In recent years, it has become common for former F1
drivers to take up factory seats driving
LMP1 cars in the FIA World
Endurance Championship, with notable drivers including Mark Webber,
Allan McNish, Anthony Davidson, Alexander Wurz, Kazuki Nakajima, and
Sébastien Buemi. A series for former
Formula One drivers, called
Grand Prix Masters, ran briefly in 2005 and 2006. Other drivers
have moved to
Formula E such as
Nelson Piquet Jr, Sebastien Buemi,
Bruno Senna, Jaime Alguersuari, Nick Heidfeld, Jarno Trulli, Jean-Eric
Vergne and more. Some drivers, such as Vitantonio Liuzzi, Narain
Jos Verstappen went on to race in the A1 Grand Prix
series. During its existence from 2008 to 2011, Superleague Formula
Formula One drivers like Sébastien Bourdais, Antônio
Pizzonia and Giorgio Pantano.
Other former F1 drivers, like Jackie Stewart, Gerhard Berger, Alain
Niki Lauda returned to F1 as team owners while their former
competitors have become colour commentators for TV coverage such as
James Hunt (BBC),
Martin Brundle (BBC, ITV and Sky), David Hobbs
(NBC), Alan Jones (BBC,
Nine Network and Ten Network) David Coulthard
BBC and Channel 4),
Luciano Burti for Globo (Brazil), and Jean Alesi
for Italian national network RAI. Others, such as
Damon Hill and
Jackie Stewart, take active roles in running motorsport in their own
Carlos Reutemann became a politician and served as governor
of his native state in Argentina.
World map showing location of Formula 1 Grands Prix: countries marked
in green are on the 2018 race schedule, those in dark grey have hosted
Formula One race in the past
See also: List of
Formula One Grands Prix
The number of Grands Prix held in a season has varied over the years.
The inaugural 1950 world championship season comprised only seven
races, while the 2016 season contained twenty-one races. Although
throughout the first decades of the world championship there were no
more than eleven Grands Prix a season, a large number of
Formula One events also took place. The number of
Grands Prix increased to an average of sixteen/seventeen by the late
1970s; simultaneously non-championship events ended by 1983. More
Grands Prix began to be held in the 2000s, and recent seasons have
seen an average of 19 races. In 2016 the calendar peaked at twenty-one
events, the highest number of world championship races in one season.
Six of the original seven races took place in Europe; the only
non-European race that counted towards the World Championship in 1950
was the Indianapolis 500, which was held to different regulations and
later replaced by the United States Grand Prix. The F1 championship
gradually expanded to other non-European countries. Argentina hosted
the first South American Grand Prix in 1953, and Morocco hosted the
first African World Championship race in 1958. Asia (Japan in 1976)
and Oceania (Australia in 1985) followed, and the first race in the
Middle East was held in 2004. The nineteen races of the 2014 season
were spread over every populated continent except for Africa, with ten
Grands Prix held outside Europe.
Cars wind through the infield section of the Indianapolis Motor
Speedway at the 2003 United States Grand Prix
Some of the Grands Prix, such as the oldest recognised event the
French Grand Prix, pre-date the formation of the World Championship
and were incorporated into the championship as
Formula One races in
1950. The British and Italian Grands Prix are the only events to have
been held every
Formula One season; other long-running races include
the Belgian, German and currently defunct French Grands Prix. The
Monaco Grand Prix, first held in 1929 and run continuously since 1955,
is widely considered to be one of the most important and prestigious
automobile races in the world.
Traditionally each nation has hosted a single Grand Prix, which
carries the name of the country. If a single country hosts multiple
Grands Prix in a year they receive different names. In European
countries the second event has often been titled the European Grand
Prix, or named after a neighbouring state without a race. The United
States has held six separate Grands Prix, including the Indianapolis
500, with the additional events named after the host city. Grands Prix
are not always held at the same circuit each year, and may switch
locations due to the suitability of the track or the financial status
of the race organisers. The
German Grand Prix
German Grand Prix currently alternates
Hockenheimring circuits, and others such
as the American and French races have switched venues throughout their
All Grands Prix have traditionally been run during the day, until the
Singapore Grand Prix
Singapore Grand Prix hosted the first
Formula One night
race, which was followed in 2009 by the day–night Abu Dhabi
Grand Prix and then the
Bahrain Grand Prix
Bahrain Grand Prix which converted to a night
race in 2014. Along with holding races at night, other Grands Prix in
Asia have had their start times adjusted to benefit the European
Recent additions to the calendar include the Singapore Grand Prix
which, in September 2008, hosted the first night race ever held in
Formula One, the Abu Dhabi Grand Prix, which hosted the first
day-to-night race in November 2009, the Korean Grand Prix, first held
in October 2010 and the Indian Grand Prix, first held in October
United States Grand Prix
United States Grand Prix held its first race in Austin,
Texas, at the new
Circuit of the Americas
Circuit of the Americas in 2012. The first F1
Russian Grand Prix
Russian Grand Prix was held in 2014 at the new
Sochi circuit, that
runs around a venue used for the 2014 Winter Olympics.
See also: List of
Formula One circuits
Autódromo José Carlos Pace
Autódromo José Carlos Pace in São Paulo hosts the Brazilian Grand
The Autodromo Nazionale Monza, home to the Italian Grand Prix, is the
oldest purpose built track still in use today.
Sochi Autodrom, current host venue for the Russian Grand Prix
A typical circuit usually features a stretch of straight road on which
the starting grid is situated. The pit lane, where the drivers stop
for tyres, aerodynamic adjustments and minor repairs (such as changing
the car's nose due to front wing damage) during the race, retirements
from the race, and where the teams work on the cars before the race,
is normally located next to the starting grid. The layout of the rest
of the circuit varies widely, although in most cases the circuit runs
in a clockwise direction. Those few circuits that run anticlockwise
(and therefore have predominantly left-handed corners) can cause
drivers neck problems due to the enormous lateral forces generated by
F1 cars pulling their heads in the opposite direction to normal.
Most of the circuits currently in use are specially constructed for
competition. The current street circuits are Monaco, Melbourne,
Baku although races in other urban
locations come and go (
Las Vegas and Detroit, for example) and
proposals for such races are often discussed—most recently New
Jersey. Several circuits have been completely laid out on public roads
in the past, such as Valencia in Spain, though Monaco is the only one
that remains. The glamour and history of the Monaco race are the
primary reasons why the circuit is still in use, even though it does
not meet the strict safety requirements imposed on other tracks.
Three-time World champion
Nelson Piquet famously described racing in
Monaco as "like riding a bicycle around your living room".
Circuit design to protect the safety of drivers is becoming
increasingly sophisticated, as exemplified by the new Bahrain
International Circuit, added in 2004 and designed—like most of F1's
new circuits—by Hermann Tilke. Several of the new circuits in F1,
especially those designed by Tilke, have been criticised as lacking
the "flow" of such classics as Spa-Francorchamps and Imola. His
redesign of the Hockenheim circuit in
Germany for example, while
providing more capacity for grandstands and eliminating extremely long
and dangerous straights, has been frowned upon by many who argue that
part of the character of the Hockenheim circuits was the long and
blinding straights into dark forest sections. These newer circuits,
however, are generally agreed to meet the safety standards of modern
Formula One better than the older ones.
Old favourites the
Red Bull Ring
Red Bull Ring and the Autódromo Hermanos
Rodríguez, returned to the calendar in 2014 and 2015 respectively.
Circuit of the Americas
Circuit of the Americas in Austin, the
Sochi Autodrom in
Baku City Circuit
Baku City Circuit in
Azerbaijan have all been introduced as brand
new tracks since 2012.
A single race requires hotel rooms to accommodate at least 5,000
Cars and technology
Formula One car,
Formula One engines, and Formula One
Top view of the rear of a 2006
Formula One cars are mid-engined, hybrid, open cockpit, open
wheel single-seaters. The chassis is made largely of carbon-fibre
composites, rendering it light but extremely stiff and strong. The
whole car, including engine, fluids and driver, weighs only
691 kg (1,523 lb) – the minimum weight set by the
regulations. If the construction of the car is lighter than the
minimum, it can be ballasted up to add the necessary weight. The race
teams take advantage of this by placing this ballast at the extreme
bottom of the chassis, thereby locating the centre of gravity as low
as possible in order to improve handling and weight transfer.
The cornering speed of
Formula One cars is largely determined by the
aerodynamic downforce that they generate, which pushes the car down
onto the track. This is provided by "wings" mounted at the front and
rear of the vehicle, and by ground effect created by low air pressure
under the flat bottom of the car. The aerodynamic design of the cars
is very heavily constrained to limit performance and the current
generation of cars sport a large number of small winglets, "barge
boards", and turning vanes designed to closely control the flow of the
air over, under, and around the car.
The other major factor controlling the cornering speed of the cars is
the design of the tyres. From 1998 to 2008, the tyres in Formula One
were not "slicks" (tyres with no tread pattern) as in most other
circuit racing series. Instead, each tyre had four large
circumferential grooves on its surface designed to limit the cornering
speed of the cars. Slick tyres returned to
Formula One in the 2009
season. Suspension is double wishbone or multilink front and rear,
with pushrod operated springs and dampers on the chassis – one
exception being that of the 2009 specification
Red Bull Racing
Red Bull Racing car
(RB5) which used pullrod suspension at the rear, the first car to do
so since the
Minardi PS01 in 2001.
Ferrari used a pullrod suspension
at both the front and rear in their 2012 car. Both
McLaren (MP4-28) of the 2013 season used a pullrod suspension at
both the front and the rear.
Carbon-carbon disc brakes are used for reduced weight and increased
frictional performance. These provide a very high level of braking
performance and are usually the element which provokes the greatest
reaction from drivers new to the formula.
Formula One cars must have four uncovered wheels, all made of the same
metallic material, which must be one of two magnesium alloys specified
by the FIA. Magnesium alloy wheels made by forging are used to
achieve maximum unsprung rotating weight reduction.
BMW Sauber P86 V8 engine, which powered their 2006 F1.06.
Starting with the 2014 Formula 1 season the engines have changed from
a 2.4-litre naturally aspirated V8 to turbocharged 1.6-litre V6
"power-units". These get a significant amount of their power from
electric motors. In addition they include a lot of energy recovery
technology. Engines run on unleaded fuel closely resembling publicly
available petrol. The oil which lubricates and protects the engine
from overheating is very similar in viscosity to water. The 2006
generation of engines spun up to 20,000 rpm and produced up to
780 bhp (580 kW). For 2007, engines were restricted to
19,000 rpm with limited development areas allowed, following the
engine specification freeze from the end of 2006. For the 2009
Formula One season the engines were further restricted to
A wide variety of technologies—including active suspension and
ground effect aerodynamics —are banned under the current
regulations. Despite this the current generation of cars can reach
speeds in excess of 350 km/h (220 mph) at some
circuits. The highest straight line speed recorded during a Grand
Prix was 372.6 km/h (231.5 mph), set by Juan Pablo Montoya
during the 2005 Italian Grand Prix. A Honda
Formula One car,
running with minimum downforce on a runway in the Mojave Desert
achieved a top speed of 415 km/h (258 mph) in 2006.
According to Honda, the car fully met the FIA Formula One
regulations. Even with the limitations on aerodynamics, at
160 km/h (99 mph) aerodynamically generated downforce is
equal to the weight of the car, and the oft-repeated claim that
Formula One cars create enough downforce to "drive on the ceiling",
while possible in principle, has never been put to the test. Downforce
of 2.5 times the car's weight can be achieved at full speed. The
downforce means that the cars can achieve a lateral force with a
magnitude of up to 3.5 times that of the force of gravity (3.5g) in
cornering. Consequently, the driver's head is pulled sideways
with a force equivalent to the weight of 20 kg in corners. Such
high lateral forces are enough to make breathing difficult and the
drivers need supreme concentration and fitness to maintain their focus
for the one to two hours that it takes to complete the race. A
high-performance road car like the Enzo
Ferrari only achieves around
As of 2015, each team may have no more than two cars available for use
at any time. Each driver may use no more than four engines during
a championship season unless he drives for more than one team. If more
engines are used, he drops ten places on the starting grid of the
event at which an additional engine is used. The only exception is
where the engine is provided by a manufacturer or supplier taking part
in its first championship season, in which case up to five may be used
by a driver. Each driver may use no more than one gearbox for six
consecutive events; every unscheduled gearbox change requires the
driver to drop five places on the grid unless he failed to finish the
previous race due to reasons beyond the team's control.
Revenue and profits
Estimated budget split of a
Formula One team based on the 2006 season
In March 2007,
F1 Racing published its annual estimates of spending by
Formula One teams. The total spending of all eleven teams in 2006
was estimated at $2.9 billion US. This was broken down as
follows: Toyota $418.5 million,
Ferrari $406.5 m, McLaren
$402 m, Honda $380.5 m,
BMW Sauber $355 m, Renault
$324 m, Red Bull $252 m, Williams $195.5 m, Midland
F1/Spyker-MF1 $120 m,
Toro Rosso $75 m, and Super Aguri
Costs vary greatly from team to team. Honda, Toyota, McLaren-Mercedes,
Ferrari were estimated to have spent approximately
$200 million on engines in 2006, Renault spent approximately
$125 million and Cosworth's 2006 V8 was developed for
$15 million. In contrast to the 2006 season on which these
figures are based, the 2007 sporting regulations banned all
performance related engine development.
Formula One teams pay entry fees of $500,000, plus $5,000 per point
scored the previous year or $6,000 per point for the winner of the
Formula One drivers pay a FIA Super
Licence fee, which in 2013 was €10,000 plus €1,000 per point.
There have been controversies with the way profits are shared amongst
the teams. The smaller teams have complained that the profits are
unevenly shared, favouring established top teams. In September 2015,
Force India and
Sauber officially lodged a complaint with the European
Formula One questioning the governance and stating that
the system of dividing revenues and determining the rules is unfair
The cost of building a brand new permanent circuit can be up to
hundreds of millions of dollars, while the cost of converting a public
road, such as Albert Park, into a temporary circuit is much less.
Permanent circuits, however, can generate revenue all year round from
leasing the track for private races and other races, such as MotoGP.
International Circuit cost over $300 million
Istanbul Park circuit cost $150 million to build.
A number of
Formula One drivers earn the highest salary of any drivers
in auto racing. The highest paid driver in 2010 was Fernando Alonso,
who received $40 million in salary from Ferrari—a record for
any driver. The very top
Formula One drivers get paid more than
NASCAR drivers, however the earnings immediately fall off
after the top three F1 drivers and the majority of
NASCAR racers will
make more money than their F1 counterparts. Most top IndyCar
drivers are paid around a tenth of their Formula One
A sign announcing that the safety car (SC) is deployed.
The expense of
Formula One has seen the FIA and the Formula One
Commission attempt to create new regulations to lower the costs for a
team to compete in the sport. Cost-saving proposals have
included allowing customer cars, either by teams purchasing a car from
another constructor, or the series supplying a basic chassis and
engine to some teams at a low cost. Allowing teams to share
more car components such as the monocoque and safety components is
also under consideration. The FIA also continually researches new
ways to increase safety in the sport, which includes introducing new
regulations and accident procedures.
In the interest of making the sport truer to its role as a World
Bernie Ecclestone had initiated and organised a number
of Grands Prix in new countries. Proposals to hold future races are
regularly made by both new locations and countries and circuits that
have previously hosted a
Formula One Grand Prix. The most recent
addition is the
Azerbaijan Grand Prix in Baku, Azerbaijan.
Following their purchase of the commercial rights to the sport in
Liberty Media announced their vision for the future of Formula
One at the 2018 Bahrain Grand Prix. The proposal identified five key
areas, including streamlining the governance of the sport, emphasising
cost-effectiveness, maintaining the sport's relevance to road cars and
encouraging new manufacturers to enter the championship whilst
enabling them to be competitive. Liberty cited 2021 as their
target date as it coincided with the need to renew commercial
agreements with the teams and the end of the seven-year cycle of
engine development that started in 2014.
See also: List of
Formula One broadcasters
The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a
worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this article, discuss
the issue on the talk page, or create a new article, as appropriate.
(July 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Track photographers at the 2007 British Grand Prix
Formula One can be seen live or tape delayed in almost every country
and territory around the world and attracts one of the largest global
television audiences. The 2008 season attracted a global audience of
600 million people per race. It is a massive television
event; the cumulative television audience was calculated to be
54 billion for the 2001 season, broadcast to 200
During the early 2000s,
Formula One Group
Formula One Group created a number of
trademarks, an official logo, and an official website for the sport in
an attempt to give it a corporate identity. Ecclestone experimented
with a digital television package (known colloquially as Bernievision)
which was launched at the
1996 German Grand Prix
1996 German Grand Prix in co-operation with
German digital television service "DF1", 30 years after the first GP
colour TV broadcast, the 1967 German Grand Prix. This service offered
the viewer several simultaneous feeds (such as super signal, on board,
top of field, backfield, highlights, pit lane, timing) which were
produced with cameras, technical equipment and staff different from
those used for the conventional coverage. It was introduced in many
countries over the years, but was shut down after the 2002 season for
TV stations all take what is known as the "World Feed", either
produced by the FOM (
Formula One Management) or occasionally, the
"host broadcaster". The only station that originally differed from
this was "Premiere"—a German channel which offers all sessions live
and interactive, with features such as the onboard channel. This
service was more widely available around Europe until the end of 2002,
when the cost of a whole different feed for the digital interactive
services was thought too much. This was in large part because of the
failure of the "F1 Digital +" Channel launched through Sky in the
United Kingdom. Prices were too high for viewers, considering they
could watch both the qualifying and the races themselves free on ITV.
However, upon the commencement of its coverage for the 2009 season,
BBC reintroduced complementary features such as the "red button"
in-car camera angles, multiple soundtracks (broadcast commentary, CBBC
commentary for children, or ambient sound only) and a rolling
highlights package. Different combinations of these features are
available across the various digital platforms (Freeview, Freesat,
Sky, Virgin Media cable and the
BBC F1 web site) prior to, during, and
after the race weekend. Not all services are available across all the
various platforms due to technical constraints. The
broadcasts a post-race programme called "F1 Forum" on the digital
terrestrial platforms' "red button" interactive services.
Sebastian Vettel after securing pole position at the 2011 Malaysian
An announcement made on 12 January 2011, on the official Formula 1
website, announced that F1 would adopt the HD format for the 2011
season offering a world feed at a data rate of 42 Megabits/second
BBC subsequently announced later that day that
their 2011 F1 coverage would be broadcast in HD which has been
made immediately possible due to SIS LIVE, the provider of the BBC's
F1 outside broadcast coverage, having already upgraded their technical
facilities to HD as of the 2010 Belgian Grand Prix.
It was announced on 29 July 2011 that
Sky Sports and the
team up to show the races in F1 in 2012. In March 2012, Sky launched a
channel dedicated to F1, with an HD counterpart.
Sky Sports F1 covered
all races live without commercial interruption as well as live
practice and qualifying sessions, along with F1 programming, including
interviews, archive action and magazine shows. The deal secured
Formula 1 on Sky up to 2018. The
BBC in 2012 featured live
coverage of half of the races in the season: China, Spain, Monaco,
Europe, Britain, Belgium, Singapore, Korea, Abu Dhabi, and
BBC also showed live coverage of practice and
qualifying sessions from those races. For the races that the BBC
did not show live, "extended highlights" of the race were available a
few hours after the live broadcast.
BBC ended their joint television contract after the 2015 season,
transferring their rights to
Channel 4 until the end of the 2018
season, with their coverage being presented by former T4 presenter
Sky Sports F1 coverage will remain unaffected and
BBC Radio 5 Live and 5 Live Sports Extra will be extended until the
Formula One has an extensive web following, with most major TV
companies covering it such as the BBC. The official Formula One
used during the race to keep up with the leaderboard in real time. An
official application has been available for iOS in the Apple App Store
since 2009, and for Android on
Google Play since 2011, that
shows users a real-time feed of driver positions, timing and
Formula One Management's in-house production team produces race edits
synchronised to music. In March 2018
Formula One Management (FOM)
announced the launch of an Over-The-Top (OTT) streaming platform to be
known as F1 TV.
Formula One and World Championship races
Currently the terms "
Formula One race" and "World Championship race"
are effectively synonymous; since 1984, every
Formula One race has
counted towards the World Championship, and every World Championship
race has been to
Formula One regulations. But the two terms are not
Formula One race was held in 1947, whereas the World
Championship did not start until 1950.
In the 1950s and 1960s there were many
Formula One races that did not
count for the World Championship (e.g., in 1950, a total of
Formula One races were held, of which only six counted
towards the World Championship). The number of non-championship
Formula One events decreased throughout the 1970s and 1980s, to the
point where the last non-championship
Formula One race was the 1983
Race of Champions.
The World Championship was not always exclusively composed of Formula
The World Championship was originally established as the "World
Championship for Drivers", i.e., without the term "Formula One" in the
title. It only officially became the FIA
Formula One World
Championship in 1981.
From 1950 to 1960, the
Indianapolis 500 counted towards the World
Championship. This race was run to AAA/USAC regulations, rather
Formula One regulations. Only one of the World Championship
Alberto Ascari in 1952, started at Indianapolis during this
From 1952 to 1953, all races counting towards the World Championship
(except the Indianapolis 500) were run to Formula Two
Formula One was not "changed to Formula Two" during
this period; the
Formula One regulations
Formula One regulations remained the same, and
Formula One races were staged during this
The distinction is most relevant when considering career summaries and
"all time lists". For example, in the List of
Formula One drivers,
Clemente Biondetti is shown with 1 race against his name. Biondetti
actually competed in four
Formula One races in 1950, but only one
of these counted for the World Championship. Similarly, several
Indianapolis 500 winners technically won their first World
Championship race, though most record books choose to ignore this and
instead only record regular participants.
Formula One portal
Book: Formula racing
Formula E Championship
Formula One World Drivers' Champions
^ The formula was defined during 1946; the first
Formula One race was
during 1947; the first World Championship season was 1950.
^ "Discovering What Makes Formula One, Formula One – For
Dummies". Dummies.com. Retrieved 14 September 2009.
^ a b "
International Sporting Code" (PDF). FIA. 28 March 2007.
Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 August 2009. Retrieved 30 August
^ Barretto, Lawrence. "F1 2017 rule changes the biggest for
'decades'". Autosport.com. Retrieved 6 February 2018.
^ "The New F1 Cars Pull Nearly 8g in the Corners". Road & Track.
27 March 2017. Retrieved 6 February 2018.
^ Tovey, Alan (1 November 2014). "Formula One's vast costs are driving
small teams to ruin". The Telegraph.
^ Pfanner, Eric. "
Liberty Media Agrees to Acquire
Formula One for $4.4
Billion". Bloomberg.com. Bloomberg Media. Retrieved 8 September
Bernie Ecclestone removed as
Liberty Media completes $8bn
BBC Sport. 23 January 2017. Retrieved 23 January
^ a b c d "The last of the non-championship races". forix.com.
Archived from the original on 27 February 2007. Retrieved 17 November
Formula One unveils new logo". ESPN.
^ Lawton, James (28 August 2007). "Moss can guide Hamilton through
chicane of celebrity". The Independent. Newspaper Publishing.
^ Henry, Alan (12 March 2007). "Hamilton's chance to hit the grid
running". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 30 October 2007.
^ "Decade seasons 1950–1959". Autocourse. Archived from the original
on 7 August 2007. Retrieved 17 November 2007.
^ Tuckey, Bill (28 January 1994). "Moss returns to scene of GP
victory". The Age. Australia Company. the all-conquering Mercedes-Benz
cars... When the Germans withdrew from racing after the Le Mans
^ "A brief history of Formula One". ESPN UK. Retrieved 21 September
^ "Ferguson P99". gpracing.net. Archived from the original on 30 March
2008. Retrieved 17 November 2007.
^ Bartunek, Robert-Jan (18 September 2007). "Sponsorship, the big
business behind F1". CNN. Retrieved 8 November 2007.
^ The 72 would come to be called the John Player Special, or JPS,
Lotus, after the team's sponsor.
^ Staniforth, Allan (1994). Competition Car Suspension. Haynes.
p. 96. ISBN 0-85429-956-4.
^ a b c Williams, Richard (28 March 1997). "The Formula for Striking
It Rich". The Guardian. Guardian Newspapers.
^ a b "Face value: Mr Formula". The Economist. Economist Newspapers. 5
March 1997. p. 72.
^ Blunsden, John (20 December 1986). "Filling Balestre's shoes is no
job for a back-seat driver". Financial Times.
^ Roebuck, Nigel "Power struggles and techno wars" Sunday Times 7
^ The Racing Analyst (12 September 2013). "The FISA-FOCA War
Allinsport". Allinsport.ch. Retrieved 13 October 2015.
^ Hamilton, Maurice (8 March 1998). "Pros and cons of being just
Williams; A quiet achiever keeps his head down as the new season gets
under way with familiar high anxiety and a squealing over brakes". The
Observer. Guardian Newspapers.
^ Bamsey, Ian; Benzing, Enrico; Stanniforth, Allan; Lawrence, Mike
(1988). The 1000 BHP Grand Prix cars. Guild Publishing.
pp. 8–9. ISBN 0-85429-617-4. BMW's performance at
the Italian GP is the highest qualifying figure given in Bamsey. The
figure is from Heini Mader, who maintained the engines for the
Benetton team, though maximum power figures from this period were
necessarily estimates; BMW's dynamometer, for example, was only
capable of measuring up to 1,100 bhp (820 kW). Figures
higher than this are estimated from engine plenum pressure readings.
Power in race trim at that time was lower than for qualifying due to
the need for greater reliability and fuel efficiency during the race.
^ "The technology behind
Formula One racing
Formula One racing cars". The Press. The
Christchurch Press Company. 26 December 2005. rivalling the 1200hp
turbocharged monsters that eventually had to be banned in 1989
^ Baldwin, Alan (17 February 2001). "F1 Plans Return of Traction
Control". The Independent. Newspaper Publishing.
^ "Who owns what in F1 these days?". Grandprix.com. Archived from the
original on 12 March 2007. Retrieved 17 November 2007.
^ a b "F1's pressing safety question".
BBC News. 5 March 2001.
Retrieved 26 December 2007.
^ "Jordan: Privateer era is over". ITV-F1.com. 24 August 2006.
Archived from the original on 29 September 2007.
^ "Schumacher makes history".
BBC Sport. 21 July 2002. Retrieved 12
^ "FIA Rules & Regulations Sporting Regulations: 2006 season
changes". Formula One. Archived from the original on 9 November 2006.
Retrieved 11 May 2006.
^ "The last of the non-championship races". FORIX. Archived from the
original on 17 October 2006. Retrieved 17 November 2007.
^ This is not the same team as the 1954–94 nor 2010–11 iterations.
^ "Everything to play for – 2015 Season Preview". Formula1.com.
Retrieved 6 March 2015.
^ a b "£40 million budget cap and 13 teams for 2010". Formula 1.
30 April 2009. Retrieved 21 March 2010.
^ "Mosley offers compromise on 2010".
BBC News. 18 June 2009.
Retrieved 21 March 2010.
^ a b Briggs, Gemma (19 June 2009). "How the formula one crisis
evolved". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 23 June 2009.
^ "F1 deal ends threat of breakaway".
BBC News. 24 June 2009.
Retrieved 25 June 2009.
^ "Mosley warning over F1 peace deal".
BBC News. 26 June 2009.
Retrieved 21 March 2010.
Max Mosley makes dramatic U-turn over his future as FIA president",
The Daily Telegraph, 26 June 2009
^ "Press release".
Formula One Teams Association
Formula One Teams Association (FOTA). 8 July 2009.
Archived from the original on 11 July 2009. Retrieved 8 July
^ "Press Release". FIA. 8 July 2009. Archived from the original on 10
July 2009. Retrieved 8 July 2009.
^ Beer, Matt;
Autosport (1 August 2009). "New Concorde Agreement
finally signed". Retrieved 1 August 2009.
^ a b "A timeline of Formula One". ESPN F1. Retrieved 20 February
^ "Desiré Wilson". f1rejects.com. Archived from the original on 5
June 2007. Retrieved 17 November 2007.
^ "Practice and qualifying". Formula One. Retrieved 21 October
^ a b c "Driver changes and additional drivers".
Formula One World
Championship. 10 June 2011. Retrieved 10 June 2011.
^ "2017 Grand Prix tyre compound selections". ESPN. ESPN Internet
Ventures. Retrieved 21 September 2017.
^ a b "Sporting regulations: Practice and qualifying". Formula1.com.
Formula One World Championship. Retrieved 3 January 2016.
^ "Sporting regulations: Tyres". Formula1.com.
Formula One World
Championship. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
^ "Tyres". Formula 1 - The Official F1 Website. Retrieved 19 May
^ "F1 race starting regulations". Formula One. Retrieved 16 October
^ "Flags". Formula One. 21 June 2003. Archived from the original on 2
July 2008. Retrieved 3 July 2008.
^ "New safety car driver announced". GPUpdate.net. 8 March 2000.
Retrieved 30 January 2011.
^ "Sporting regulations: Points". Formula1.com.
Formula One World
Championship. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
^ "Sporting regulations: Classification". Formula1.com. Formula One
World Championship. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
^ Baldwin, Alan (5 April 2009). "Button wins Malaysian GP cut short by
rain". Thomas Reuters Corporate. Reuters. Retrieved 25 May 2009.
^ Diepraam, Mattijs (21 November 2007). "Poachers turned gamekeepers:
how the FOCA became the new FIA Part 1: Introduction and timeline".
8W. FORIX/Autosport.com. Retrieved 16 October 2010.
Cosworth return unlikely says Stewart". F1-Live.com. Archived from
the original on 31 March 2008. Retrieved 1 February 2012.
^ Cooper, Adam. "Mosley Stands Firm on Engine Freeze". Speed TV.
Archived from the original on 5 November 2007. Retrieved 1 February
^ "First own-design for Toro Rosso". GPUpdate.net. 1 February 2010.
Retrieved 10 January 2015. Being recognised as a Constructor involves
owning the intellectual property rights to what are defined as the
listed parts: these are effectively the monocoque, the safety
structures that are subject to homologation and crash testing, which
means the rear and front structures, primary and secondary roll-over
structures and the complete aerodynamic package, the suspension, fuel
and cooling systems.
^ "Formula 1: Interview – Toro Rosso's Gerhard Berger". Formula
1. 23 May 2008. Retrieved 23 May 2008.
McLaren is F1's biggest spender". F1i. 16 June 2006. Archived from
the original on 9 February 2008. Retrieved 7 January 2007.
^ Saward, Joe (20 September 2010). "Jérôme d'Ambrosio and
Virgin‽". Joe Saward's Grand Prix Blog. Retrieved 11 June
^ "Klien signed as HRT Friday driver". Grandprix.com. 6 May 2010.
Retrieved 10 June 2011.
^ a b "APPENDIX L TO THE INTERNATIONAL SPORTING CODE" (PDF).
Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile. 7 April 2011. Archived
from the original (PDF) on 2 October 2011. Retrieved 10 June
^ Allen, James (11 October 2010). "Inside an F1 team's driving
simulator". James Allen on F1. Retrieved 10 June 2011.
^ "Taking the lag out of dynamics simulation". SAE Automotive
Engineering Magazine. Retrieved 31 August 2015.
Ferrari Changed His
Simulator Software". F1
Retrieved 31 August 2015.
^ Offermans, Marcel. "rFactor: Full Steam Ahead!". Planet Marrs.
Retrieved 31 August 2015.
^ "History of the Image Space Inc. Software Engine". Image Space
Incorporated. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015.
Retrieved 31 August 2015.
^ "Number 17 to be retired in Bianchi's honour". Formula1.com. 20 July
2015. Retrieved 31 August 2015.
^ Benson, Andrew (11 January 2014). "Formula 1's governing body
confirm drivers' numbers".
BBC Sport. Retrieved 21 March 2014.
^ a b Fearnly, Paul (5 December 2013). "F1's number conundrum".
MotorSport Magazine. Retrieved 21 March 2014.
^ Collantine, Keith (7 January 2008). "Your questions: F1 and the
number 13". F1Fanatic.co.uk. Retrieved 10 June 2011.
^ Collantine, Keith. "Your questions: F1 car numbers".
F1Fanatic.co.uk. Retrieved 10 May 2011.
^ Jack Brabham, F1 champion in 1959, 1960 and 1966, won the French
Formula Two championship in 1966, but there was no international F2
championship that year.
^ "Five F1 champions who wouldn't have made their debuts". crash.net.
Crash Media Group. 8 January 2015. Retrieved 12 October 2015.
^ "Masters series officially wound up". Autosport. 29 November 2007.
Retrieved 4 July 2008.
^ "His Serene Highness Prince Rainier of Monte Carlo awarded the first
FIA Gold Medal for Motor Sport". Fédération Internationale de
l'Automobile. 14 October 2004. Archived from the original on 15
November 2007. Retrieved 23 April 2014.
^ "Singapore confirms 2008 night race". Formula1.com. Formula One
Administration. 11 May 2007. Archived from the original on 17 May
2010. Retrieved 30 August 2009.
^ "Malaysia start time under review".
BBC Sport. British Broadcasting
Corporation. 6 April 2009. Retrieved 25 April 2014.
^ May, Andy (22 January 2009). "India 'will host 2011 Grand Prix'".
BBC News/. Retrieved 8 January 2010.
Formula One returns to the United States". formula1.com/. 25 May
2010. Retrieved 25 May 2010.
Sochi Grand Prix: F1 comes to Russia in 2014". Russia Today. 14
October 2010. Retrieved 11 May 2010.
^ "Monaco challenge remains unique – Formula 1". Motor Sport
Magazine. 24 May 2011. Retrieved 12 October 2013.
^ "Sport : F-1 race at Sohna or Greater Noida". The Hindu.
Chennai, India. 18 September 2007. Retrieved 16 October 2010.
^ "A racing revolution? Understanding 2014's technical regulations".
Formula1.com. 24 January 2014. Archived from the original on 9
November 2014. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
^ "Tyres". Formula One. Archived from the original on 18 December
2008. Retrieved 4 July 2008.
Ferrari – pre-launch overview".
Formula One World
Championship Ltd. Retrieved 2 February 2012.
^ "Tyres and wheels". Formula 1 - The Official F1 Website. Retrieved
19 May 2017.
^ Mintskovsky, Paul. "F1 Wheels". f1wheels.com. Retrieved 19 May
^ "2013 engine changes approved, but postponement possible". Formula
1. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
^ "FIA Sporting Regulations – Fuel". Formula 1. Retrieved 23
^ Renault F1 engine listing . Retrieved 1 June 2007.
^ "FIA Sporting Regulations – Engine". Formula 1. Retrieved 23
Formula One World Championship – 2009 Technical
Regulations" (PDF). FIA. Retrieved 4 April 2009.
^ "F1 regulations: Suspension and steering systems". Retrieved 9
^ "F1 regulations: Bodywork, dimensions, and cockpit". Retrieved 9
^ Grand Prix of Italy www.fia.com. Retrieved 12 October 2006. Archived
9 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Bonneville 400: Just for the Record". Archived from the original on
6 April 2012. Retrieved 26 August 2015.
^ "Bonneville 400". Racecar Engineering. 5 August 2008. Retrieved 30
^ "Official F1 website
Aerodynamics section". Formula One. Archived
from the original on 26 March 2014. Retrieved 30 August 2009.
Ferrari Enzo www.fast-autos.net. Retrieved 15 March 2007.
^ "F1 regulations: Spare Cars". Retrieved 9 August 2015.
^ "F1 regulations: Power unit and ERS". Retrieved 9 August 2015.
^ "F1 regulations: Gearboxes". Formula One. Retrieved 9 August
^ "Budgets and Expenses in Formula1". F1scarlet. Retrieved 30 August
^ "The real cost of F1"
F1 Racing (March 2007) Haymarket Publishing
^ "2007 FIA Regulations". McLaren. Archived from the original on 20
May 2007. Retrieved 23 May 2007.
^ Sylt, Christian (28 October 2013). "The Price of Power". Autoweek:
^ "F1 faces possible investigation from the European Union".
guardian.uk. 29 September 2015.
^ Benson, Andrew (27 September 2004). "High price takes shine off F1".
BBC News. Retrieved 30 August 2009.
^ "Pioneer Investors". Pioneer Investors. 7 February 2006. Archived
from the original on 23 August 2009. Retrieved 30 August 2009.
^ a b "Ferrari's forty-million dollar man". ESPN. Retrieved 7 October
^ Tutor, Chris. "Red Bull infographic compares and contrasts NASCAR
and F1". Autoblog. Retrieved 19 May 2017.
^ Roberts, James; Noble, Jonathan (23 January 2015). "Small F1 teams
hopeful of progress on cost cuts before season start". Autosport.com.
Haymarket Media. Retrieved 8 March 2015.
^ Benson, Andrew (13 February 2015). "Mercedes & Red Bull split on
changes to F1 cars for 2016".
BBC Sport. BBC. Retrieved 8 March
^ "Ecclestone still pushing customer teams plan". ESPN.co.uk. 8 March
2015. Retrieved 8 March 2015.
^ Weaver, Paul (9 November 2014). "
Force India and
Sauber attack F1's
move towards customer cars". TheGuardian.com. Guardian Media Group.
Retrieved 8 March 2015.
^ Rencken, Dieter; Noble, Jonathan (25 February 2015). "Formula 1's
small teams push for 'core car' plan". Autosport.com. Haymarket Media.
Retrieved 8 March 2015.
^ Galloway, James. "F1 expansion continues with
Azerbaijan to join the
calendar in 2016". Retrieved 28 July 2014.
Liberty Media tables F1 2021 vision to teams". Speedcafe. 7 April
^ "Formula 1's Global TV Audience Expands". paddocktalk.com/Global
Broadcast Report. Archived from the original on 23 November 2011.
Retrieved 29 June 2009.
BBC Sports, F1 viewing figures drop, 26 February 2002. Retrieved on
10 March 2007. The cumulative figure, which exceeds the total
population of the planet by many times, counts all viewers who watch
F1 on any programme at any time during the year.
Formula One Coverage goes HD for 2011". Formula1.com. 12 January
2011. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
^ "New role for
Eddie Jordan as
BBC F1 coverage goes HD".
12 January 2011. Retrieved 12 January 2011.
^ "SIS LIVE upgrades OB coverage of Formula 1 for
BBC Sport" (PDF).
sislive.tv. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 October 2011.
Retrieved 12 January 2011.
^ Mills, Adam (13 December 2011). "Q&A with Sky F1". Badger GP.
Archived from the original on 8 January 2012. Retrieved 21 December
Sky Sports Pack – Live Football, F1, Cricket, Rugby & More
Sports". F1.sky.com. Archived from the original on 5 December 2011.
Retrieved 12 October 2013.
BBC reveals F1 coverage schedule for 2012". BBC. 25 November 2011.
Retrieved 25 November 2011.
BBC and Sky awarded rights in new Formula 1 deal". BBC. 29 July
2011. Retrieved 30 July 2011.
^ "New details of co-operation between Sky and
BBC emerge". James
Allen on F1. 29 July 2011. Retrieved 30 July 2011.
Channel 4 becomes terrestrial home of Formula 1". Channel 4. 21
December 2015. Retrieved 23 December 2015.
BBC to end f1 TV".
BBC to end Formula 1 television contract early.
BBC. Retrieved 21 December 2015.
^ "Official timing application for iPhone announced". The Official
Formula One Website. 15 June 2009. Archived from the original on 17
June 2009. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
Google Play Store". play.google.com. Archived from the original on
10 November 2013. Retrieved 11 January 2014.
^ "iTunes Store". Itunes.apple.com. Retrieved 19 June 2009.
Formula One Website, Fédération Internationale de
^ "Formula 1 to launch F1 TV, a live Grand Prix subscription service".
F1. F1. Retrieved 10 March 2018.
^ a b c "Timeline of Formula One". ESPN. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
^ a b c d "The
Formula One Archives". www.silhouet.com. Retrieved 29
^ "Alberto Ascari". www.historicracing.com. Retrieved 29 May
^ "1952 Non-World Championship Grands Prix". www.silhouet.com.
Retrieved 29 May 2016.
^ "1953 Non-World Championship Grands Prix". www.silhouet.com.
Retrieved 29 May 2016.
Formula One race entries". ChicaneF1. Retrieved
29 May 2016.
Arron, Simon & Hughes, Mark (2003). The Complete
Book of Formula
One. Motorbooks International. ISBN 0-7603-1688-0.
Gross, Nigel et al. (1999). "Grand Prix Motor Racing". In, 100 Years
of Change: Speed and Power (pp. 55–84). Parragon.
Hayhoe, David & Holland, David (2006). Grand Prix Data
edition). Haynes, Sparkford, UK. ISBN 1-84425-223-X.
Higham, Peter (2003). The international motor racing guide. David
Bull, Phoenix, AZ, USA. ISBN 1-893618-20-X.
"Inside F1". (2011). The Official Formula 1 Website. Retrieved 11
Jones, Bruce (1997). The Ultimate Encyclopedia of Formula One. Hodder
Jones, Bruce (1998). Formula One: The Complete Stats and Records of
Grand Prix Racing. Parragon.
Jones, Bruce (2003). The Official ITV Sport Guide:
Formula One Grand
Prix 2003. Carlton. Includes foreword by Martin Brundle.
Jones, Bruce (2005). The Guide to 2005 FIA
Formula One World
Championship: The World's Bestselling Grand Prix Guide. Carlton.
Lang, Mike (1981–1992). Grand Prix! volumes 1–4. Haynes,
Menard, Pierre (2006). The Great Encyclopedia of Formula 1, 5th
edition. Chronosport, Switzerland. ISBN 2-84707-051-6
Miltner, Harry (2007). Race Travel Guide 2007. egoth: Vienna, Austria.
Small, Steve (2000). Grand Prix Who's Who (3rd edition). Travel
Publishing, UK. ISBN 1-902007-46-8.
Tremayne, David & Hughes, Mark (1999). The Concise Encyclopedia of
Formula One. Parragon
Twite, Mike. "Formula Regulations: Categories for International
Racing" in Northey, Tom, ed. The World Of Automobiles, Volume 6,
pp. 701–3. London: Phoebus, 1978.
Find more aboutFormula Oneat's sister projects
Definitions from Wiktionary
Media from Wikimedia Commons
News from Wikinews
Quotations from Wikiquote
Texts from Wikisource
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Travel guide from Wikivoyage
Learning resources from Wikiversity
Official website (in English) (in French) (in Spanish)
Official FIA website
"Grand Prix racing".
Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
Formula One – championship summary at DriverDB.com
History of Grand Prix Motor Racing
Teams and drivers competing in the 2018 FIA
Formula One World
5. Sebastian Vettel
7. Kimi Räikkönen
11. Sergio Pérez
31. Esteban Ocon
8. Romain Grosjean
20. Kevin Magnussen
2. Stoffel Vandoorne
14. Fernando Alonso
44. Lewis Hamilton
77. Valtteri Bottas
Red Bull Racing-TAG Heuer
Scuderia Toro Rosso-Honda
3. Daniel Ricciardo
33. Max Verstappen
27. Nico Hülkenberg
55. Carlos Sainz Jr.
9. Marcus Ericsson
16. Charles Leclerc
10. Pierre Gasly
28. Brendon Hartley
18. Lance Stroll
35. Sergey Sirotkin
Formula One seasons
Formula One Grands Prix
United States West
Formula One circuits
Formula One constructors
Although World Championship races held in 1952 and 1953 were run to
Formula Two regulations, constructors who only participated during
this period are included herein to maintain Championship continuity.
Constructors whose only participation in the World Championship was in
Indianapolis 500 races between 1950 and 1960 are not listed.
Formula One drivers by country
Formula One World Drivers' Champions
1950 G. Farina
1951 J.M. Fangio
1952 A. Ascari
1953 A. Ascari
1954 J.M. Fangio
1955 J.M. Fangio
1956 J.M. Fangio
1957 J.M. Fangio
1958 M. Hawthorn
1959 J. Brabham
1960 J. Brabham
1961 P. Hill
1962 G. Hill
1963 J. Clark
1964 J. Surtees
1965 J. Clark
1966 J. Brabham
1967 D. Hulme
1968 G. Hill
1969 J. Stewart
1970 J. Rindt
1971 J. Stewart
1972 E. Fittipaldi
1973 J. Stewart
1974 E. Fittipaldi
1975 N. Lauda
1976 J. Hunt
1977 N. Lauda
1978 M. Andretti
1979 J. Scheckter
1980 A. Jones
1981 N. Piquet
1982 K. Rosberg
1983 N. Piquet
1984 N. Lauda
1985 A. Prost
1986 A. Prost
1987 N. Piquet
1988 A. Senna
1989 A. Prost
1990 A. Senna
1991 A. Senna
1992 N. Mansell
1993 A. Prost
1994 M. Schumacher
1995 M. Schumacher
1996 D. Hill
1997 J. Villeneuve
1998 M. Häkkinen
1999 M. Häkkinen
2000 M. Schumacher
2001 M. Schumacher
2002 M. Schumacher
2003 M. Schumacher
2004 M. Schumacher
2005 F. Alonso
2006 F. Alonso
2007 K. Räikkönen
2008 L. Hamilton
2009 J. Button
2010 S. Vettel
2011 S. Vettel
2012 S. Vettel
2013 S. Vettel
2014 L. Hamilton
2015 L. Hamilton
2016 N. Rosberg
2017 L. Hamilton
Formula One World Constructors' Champions
1950 not awarded
1951 not awarded
1952 not awarded
1953 not awarded
1954 not awarded
1955 not awarded
1956 not awarded
1957 not awarded
2010 Red Bull
2011 Red Bull
2012 Red Bull
2013 Red Bull
FIA World Motor Sport Council
FIA Hall of Fame
Commission Internationale de Karting
FIA Institute Young Driver Excellence Academy
FIA Contract Recognition Board
FIA Foundation for the Automobile and Society
International Sporting Code
FIA World Championships
World Endurance Championship
World Rally Championship
World Touring Car Championship
World Karting Championship
FIA Cross-Country Rally World Cup
Formula 2 Championship
Formula 3 Championship (upcoming)
FIA European Championships
Formula 3 European Championship
Formula One Championship
European Rally Championship
European Touring Car Championship
European Hill Climb Championship
European Truck Racing Championship
Alternative Energies Cup
European Drag Racing Championship
Etienne van Zuylen van Nijevelt (1904–1931)
Robert de Vogüé (1931–1936)
Jehan de Rohan-Chabot (1936–1958)
Hadelin de Liedekerke Beaufort (1958–1963)
Filippo Caracciolo di Castagneto (1963–1965)
Wilfred Andrews (1965–1971)
Amaury de Merode (1971–1975)
Paul Alfons von Metternich-Winneburg (1975–1985)
Jean-Marie Balestre (1985–1993)
Max Mosley (1993–2009)
Jean Todt (2009–present)
FIA Drivers' Categorisation
List of FIA events
List of FIA member organisations
FIA Super Licence
FIA Global Pathway
FIA Heritage Certificate
FIA Historic Technical Passport
Classes of auto racing
Formula Car Challenge
Monoposto Racing Club
Defunct Formula racing
Formula A (SCCA)
Formula B (SCCA)
Formula C (SCCA)
Formula Super Vee
Australian National Formula
Grand Prix Masters
Formula Car Challenge
Formula Masters China
FIA Formula 2 Championship
Defunct one-make formulae
ADAC Formel Masters
FC Euro Series
Formula Palmer Audi
Grand Prix Masters
International Formula Master
World Series Formula V8 3.5
Touring car racing
Defunct touring car racing
Group C (Australia)
Group N (Australia)
Super Touring (Class 2)
Stock car racing
Allison Legacy Series
IMCA Sport Compact
Whelen Euro Series
Sprint car racing
Midget car racing
Quarter Midget racing
World Rally Car
Group A Sports Cars
LM GTE (GT2)
Group D GT Cars
Defunct grand touring
Group D Production Sports Cars
FIA GT1 (2000-12)
Top Fuel Dragster (TF/D)
Top Alcohol Dragster (TA/D)
Funny Car (TF/FC)
Pro Stock (PS)
Pro Modified (Pro Mod)
Super Comp/Quick Rod
Defunct drag racing
Side by Side (UTV)
List of world sports championships
Bobsleigh and skeleton
Para ice hockey
League of Legends
1:10 electric off-road
Long Distance Mountain running
mountain bike marathon
Inline speed skating
BNF: cb12002946q (d