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The Formicinae
Formicinae
are a subfamily within the Formicidae containing ants of moderate evolutionary development. Formicines retain some primitive features, such as the presence of cocoons around pupae, the presence of ocelli in workers, and little tendency toward reduction of palp or antennal segmentation in most species, except subterranean groups. Extreme modification of mandibles is rare, except in the genera Myrmoteras
Myrmoteras
and Polyergus. However, some members show considerable evolutionary advancement in behaviors such as slave-making and symbiosis with root-feeding hemipterans. Finally, all formicines have very reduced stings and enlarged venom reservoirs, with the venom gland, specialized (uniquely among ants) for the production of formic acid.[citation needed] All members of the Formicinae
Formicinae
"have a one-segmented petiole in the form of a vertical scale".[1]

Contents

1 Identification 2 Tribes and genera 3 References 4 External links

Identification[edit] Formicine ants have a single node-like or scale-like petiole (postpetiole entirely lacking) and the apex of the abdomen has a circular or U-shaped opening (the acidopore), usually fringed with hairs. A functional sting is absent, and defense is provided by the ejection of formic acid through the acidopore. If the acidopore is concealed by the pygidium and difficult to discern, then the antennal sockets are located well behind the posterior margin of the clypeus (cf. Dolichoderinae). In most formicines, the eyes are well developed (ocelli may also be present), the antennal insertions are not concealed by the frontal carinae, and the promesonotal suture is present and flexible.[2] Tribes and genera[edit] The tribal structure of Formicinae
Formicinae
is not completely understood. This list follows the scheme at AntCat,[3] but other schemes and names are used.

Camponotini
Camponotini
Forel, 1878

Calomyrmex
Calomyrmex
Emery, 1895 Camponotus
Camponotus
Mayr, 1861 – carpenter ants (global) †Chimaeromyrma Dlussky, 1988 Echinopla
Echinopla
Smith, 1857 Opisthopsis
Opisthopsis
Dalla Torre, 1893 Overbeckia
Overbeckia
Viehmeyer, 1916 Polyrhachis
Polyrhachis
Smith, 1857 (Asian, African tropics) †Pseudocamponotus Carpenter, 1930

Formicini
Formicini
Latreille, 1809

Alloformica
Alloformica
Dlussky, 1969 Bajcaridris
Bajcaridris
Agosti, 1994 Cataglyphis
Cataglyphis
Foerster, 1850 †Cataglyphoides Dlussky, 2008 †Conoformica Dlussky, 2008 Formica
Formica
Linnaeus, 1758 Iberoformica Tinaut, 1990 Polyergus
Polyergus
Latreille, 1804 – Amazon ants Proformica
Proformica
Ruzsky, 1902 †Protoformica Dlussky, 1967 Rossomyrmex
Rossomyrmex
Arnol'di, 1928

Gesomyrmecini Ashmead, 1905

Gesomyrmex
Gesomyrmex
Mayr, 1868 †Prodimorphomyrmex Wheeler, 1915 Santschiella
Santschiella
Forel, 1916 †Sicilomyrmex Wheeler, 1915

Gigantiopini
Gigantiopini
Ashmead, 1905

Gigantiops
Gigantiops
Roger, 1863 (Neotropical)

Lasiini Ashmead, 1905

Acropyga
Acropyga
Roger, 1862 Anoplolepis
Anoplolepis
Santschi, 1914 Cladomyrma
Cladomyrma
Wheeler, 1920 †Glaphyromyrmex Wheeler, 1915 Lasiophanes
Lasiophanes
Emery, 1895 Lasius
Lasius
Fabricius, 1804 Myrmecocystus
Myrmecocystus
Wesmael, 1838 Prolasius
Prolasius
Forel, 1892 Stigmacros
Stigmacros
Forel, 1905 Teratomyrmex
Teratomyrmex
McAreavey, 1957

Melophorini
Melophorini
Forel, 1912

Melophorus
Melophorus
Lubbock, 1883 (Australian)

Myrmecorhynchini Wheeler, 1917

Myrmecorhynchus
Myrmecorhynchus
André, 1896 Notoncus
Notoncus
Emery, 1895 Pseudonotoncus
Pseudonotoncus
Clark, 1934

Myrmelachistini[4][5][6]

Brachymyrmex
Brachymyrmex
Mayr, 1868 Myrmelachista
Myrmelachista
Roger, 1863

Myrmoteratini
Myrmoteratini
Emery, 1895

Myrmoteras
Myrmoteras
Forel, 1893

Notostigmatini
Notostigmatini
Bolton, 2003

Notostigma
Notostigma
Emery, 1920

Oecophyllini
Oecophyllini
Emery, 1895

Oecophylla
Oecophylla
Smith, 1860 – weaver ants

Plagiolepidini
Plagiolepidini
Forel, 1886

Agraulomyrmex
Agraulomyrmex
Prins, 1983 Aphomomyrmex
Aphomomyrmex
Emery, 1899 Bregmatomyrma
Bregmatomyrma
Wheeler, 1929 Euprenolepis
Euprenolepis
Emery, 1906 Lepisiota
Lepisiota
Santschi, 1926 Nylanderia
Nylanderia
Emery, 1906 Paraparatrechina
Paraparatrechina
Donisthorpe, 1947 Paratrechina
Paratrechina
Motschoulsky, 1863 – crazy ants Petalomyrmex
Petalomyrmex
Snelling, 1979 Plagiolepis
Plagiolepis
Mayr, 1861 Prenolepis
Prenolepis
Mayr, 1861 Pseudolasius
Pseudolasius
Emery, 1887 Tapinolepis
Tapinolepis
Emery, 1925 Zatania
Zatania
LaPolla, Kallal & Brady, 2012

incertae sedis

Attopsis
Attopsis
Heer, 1850 †Leucotaphus Donisthorpe, 1920 †Liaoformica Hong, 2002 †Longiformica Hong, 2002 †Magnogasterites Hong, 2002 †Orbicapitia Hong, 2002 †Ovalicapito Hong, 2002 †Ovaligastrula Hong, 2002 †Protrechina Wilson, 1985 †Sinoformica Hong, 2002 †Sinotenuicapito Hong, 2002 †Wilsonia Hong, 2002

References[edit]

^ Klotz, John H. (2008). "Formicinae". Urban ants of North America and Europe: identification, biology, and management. Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-7473-6.  ^ "Subfamily: Formicinae". antweb.org. AntWeb. Retrieved 21 September 2013.  ^ Bolton, B. (2013), "An online catalog of the ants of the world.", AntCat, retrieved 22 September 2013  ^ Ward, Philip S.; Blaimer, Bonnie B.; Fisher, Brian L. (2016). "A revised phylogenetic classification of the ant subfamily Formicinae(Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with resurrection of the genera Colobopsis and Dinomyrmex". Zootaxa. Magnolia Press. 4072 (3). doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4072.3.4 .  ^ Christopher M. Wilson; Autumn Smith-Herron (2016). "Morphology of the male genitalia of Brachymyrmex
Brachymyrmex
and their implications in the Formicinae
Formicinae
phylogeny". Journal of Hymenoptera
Hymenoptera
Research. Pensoft Publishers. 50: 81–95. doi:10.3897/JHR.50.8697 . ISSN 1070-9428.  ^ "AntWeb". California Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 2018-03-10. 

External links[edit]

Media related to Formicinae
Formicinae
at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Formicinae
Formicinae
at Wikispecies

v t e

Ant
Ant
taxonomy

Kingdom Animalia Phylum Arthropoda Class Insecta Order Hymenoptera Family Formicidae

Subfamilies

Extant

Agroecomyrmecinae Amblyoponinae Aneuretinae Apomyrminae Dolichoderinae Dorylinae Ectatomminae Formicinae Heteroponerinae Leptanillinae Martialinae Myrmeciinae Myrmicinae Paraponerinae Ponerinae Proceratiinae Pseudomyrmecinae

Fossil

†Armaniinae †Brownimeciinae †Formiciinae †Sphecomyrminae

Genera

List of ant genera

incertae sedis

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q119691 ADW: Formicinae BugGuide: 31268 EoL: 2725331 Fauna Europaea: 81204 Fossilworks: 234234 iNaturalist: 244834 ITIS:

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