The FOKKER F28 FELLOWSHIP is a short range jet airliner designed and
built by Dutch aircraft manufacturer
* 1 Design and development
* 2 Operational history
* 3 Variants
* 4 Operators
* 4.1 Military operators
* 5 Accidents and incidents
* 6 Specifications
* 7 See also
* 8 References
DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT
Fokker in April 1962, production was a collaboration
between a number of European companies, namely
Fokker , MBB of West
Germany , Fokker-VFW (also of Germany), and
Short Brothers of Northern
Ireland . There was also government money invested in the project,
with the Dutch government providing 50% of Fokker's stake and the West
German government having 60% of the 35% German stake.
Projected at first to transport 50 passengers to 1,650 km (1,025 mi),
the plane was later designed to have 60–65 seats. On the design
sheet, the F28 was originally to mount
Bristol Siddeley BS.75
turbofans, but the prototype flew with the lighter Rolls-Royce "Spey
Junior", a simplified version of the
Rolls-Royce Spey .
The F28 was similar in design to the British
Aircraft Corporation BAC
Douglas DC-9 , as it had a
T-tail and engines mounted
at the rear of the fuselage. The aircraft had wings with a slight
crescent angle of sweep with ailerons at the tip, simple flaps , and
five-section liftdumper only operated after landing to dump the lift.
These were employed rather than reverse thrust as the designers felt
that doing so not only reduced weight, but maintenance also. Having no
reversers also meant that on unpaved airstrips there was less chance
of the engines ingesting debris. The leading edge was fixed (although
one experimental model had leading edge slats and these were offered
as an option) and was anti-iced by bleed air from the engines. The
tail cone could split and be hydraulically opened to the sides to act
as a variable air brake – also used on the contemporaneous Blackburn
Buccaneer . This design was also used on the HS-146, which became the
BAe-146 . The design is unique in that it not only slows the aircraft
down rapidly, it can aid in rapid descents from economic cruising
altitudes and also allowed the engines to be set at higher RPM which
helped eliminate 'lag time'. This means the engines respond faster if
needed for sudden speed increases or go-arounds on the approach to
landing. The Fellowship had a retractable tricycle landing gear which
used large low pressure tyres enabling the use of unpaved airstrips.
Large wheel brakes also helped in shortening the landing run.
In terms of responsibility for production,
Fokker designed and built
the nose section, centre fuselage and inner wing; MBB/Fokker-VFW
constructed the forward fuselage , rear fuselage and tail assembly;
and Shorts designed and built the outer wings.
Final assembly of the
Fokker F28 was at
Schiphol Airport in the
F28-2000 prototype (PH-JHG).
The F28-1000 prototype, registered PH-JHG, first flew on 9 May 1967,
flown by Chief Test Pilot Jas Moll, Test Pilot Abe van der Schraaf and
Flight Engineer Cees Dik. German certification was achieved on 24
February 1969. The first order was from German airline LTU , but the
first revenue-earning flight was by
Braathens (who operated five F28s)
on 28 March 1969. Third prototype leased to
The F28 with an extended fuselage was named F28-2000 and could seat
up to 79 passengers instead of the 65 seats on the F28-1000. The
prototype for this model was a converted F28-1000 prototype, and first
flew on 28 April 1971. The models F28-6000 and F28-5000 were modified
F28-2000 and F28-1000 respectively, with slats , greater wingspan, and
more powerful and quieter engines as the main features. The F28-6000
and F28-5000 were not a commercial success; only two F28-6000 and no
F28-5000 were built. After being used by
Fokker for a time, the
F28-6000 were sold to
Air Mauritanie , but not before they were
converted to F28-2000s.
The most successful F28 was the F28-4000, which debuted on 20 October
1976 with one of the world's largest
This version was powered by quieter Spey 555-15H engines, and had an
increased seating capacity (up to 85 passengers), a larger wingspan
with reinforced wings, a new cockpit and a new "wide-look" interior
featuring enclosed overhead lockers and a less 'tubular' look. The
F28-3000, the successor to the F28-1000, featured the same
improvements as the F28-4000.
F28s of Ansett Transport Industries' Western Australian intrastate
MacRobertson Miller Airlines of
Western Australia , flew the
longest non-stop F28 route in the world, from Perth to
Kununurra , in
Western Australia – a distance of about 2,240 km (1,392 mi). This
was also the world's longest twin-jet route at the time. MMA'a F28's
also had the highest utilisation rates at the time, flying over 8
hours per day.
By the time production ended in 1987, 241 airframes had been built.
Ansett WA F28-1000 in the early 1980s
Data from F.28 Mk 1000 First variant derived from the third
prototype, with a maximum capacity of 65 passengers in a high-density
configuration. The Mk 1000 had a length of 27.40 m. It was powered by
Rolls-Royce RB.183-2 Mk.555-15 each with 43.8 kN (9,850 lbf) of
thrust. Maximum weight at take-off was 28,123 kg (62,001 Ib).
Garuda Indonesia Airways F28-3000 at Singapore Airport In 1974 F28
Mk 1000C All-cargo, passenger/cargo version derived from Mk 1000 with
a port-side cargo door. F.28 Mk 2000 It first flew on 28 April 1971,
being certified on 30 August 1972. This variant had a fuselage 2.21 m
longer than the Mk 1000, with a passenger capacity of 79 in
high-density single-class configuration. It began revenue service with
Nigeria Airways in October 1972. Ten were built. F.28 Mk 3000 With
the shorter fuselage of Mk 1000, it was one of the more successful
variants, with greater structural strength and increased fuel
capacity. It began revenue service with
Garuda Indonesia . F.28
Mk 3000 variant in VIP configuration from the
Colombian Air Force
F.28 Mk 4000 The first prototype appeared on 20 October 1976 and had
the longer fuselage of the Mk 2000 with a passenger capacity of 85.
Wingspan was increased by 1.57 m and more powerful Rolls-Royce RB183
Mk555-15P of 44 kN (9,901 lbf) thrust. It began service with Linjeflyg
(Sweden) at the end of 1976. F.28 Mk 5000 Derived from the Mk 6000,
was to combine the shorter fuselage of the Mk 3000 and an increased
wingspan. Slats were to be added to the wings and more powerful
Rolls-Royce RB183 Mk555-15H engines were to be used. Although expected
to be an excellent plane to operate in short runways due to its
superior power, it was finally not built and the project was
abandoned. F.28 Mk 6000 It first flew on 27 September 1973 and had
the longer fuselage of the Mk 2000/4000 with an increased wingspan and
the Slats . It was certified in October 1975. F.28 Mk 6600 Proposed
version. Not built.
Fairchild 228 Proposed 50 seat American version
assembled by Fairchild-Hiller with
Rolls-Royce RB.203 Trent engines.
Main article: List of
Fokker F28 operators
In August 2006 a total of 92
Fokker F28 aircraft remained in airline
service. Major operators included:
MacRobertson Miller Airlines ,
Ansett Group Australia (more than 15),
Toumaï Air Tchad (1),
AirQuarius Aviation (3),
SkyLink Arabia (1),
Satena (1), Gatari Air
AirQuarius Aviation (4) and Merpati Nusantara
Biman Bangladesh Airlines (2). Some 22 airlines operated
smaller numbers of the type. As of September 2015 F-28s are operated
by only two commercial airlines. They are:
Air Leasing Cameroon 3
COAN (ARA) F-28 at Comandante Espora airbase
Algerian Air Force (2) delivered in 1979
Argentine Air Force
Argentine Air Force (4)
Argentine Naval Aviation
Argentine Naval Aviation (3)
* Presidential Squadron (1)
Colombian Air Force (2)
Ghana Air Force (1)
Indonesian Air Force (4)
Malaysian Air Force
Malaysian Air Force (2)
Peruvian Air Force
Philippine Air Force
Philippine Air Force (1 – Used for domestic presidential
Flights, The aircraft was named "Kalayaan")
Tanzania Government Flight Agency (1)
ACCIDENTS AND INCIDENTS
Braathens SAFE Flight 239
The following is a list of
Fokker F28 accidents and incidents:
Braathens SAFE Flight 239 – 23 December 1972, (
Asker , suburb of
Norway ): 40 fatalities. First fatal crash of a Fokker
Itavia – 1 January 1974, (
Caselle Torinese , airport of
Italy ): 38 fatalities. Flight IH897 from Cagliari to Geneva with
intermediate stops in Bologna and Turin, crashed about 2 miles south
of Runway 36 while attempting to land in fog. Airplane involved was
* Turkish Airlines – 26 January 1974, (
Turkey ): 66
fatalities. the aircraft crashed down 100 m (330 ft) away from the
airfield during takeoff.
Garuda Indonesia Airways Flight 150 - 24 September 1975 near
Indonesia ): 26 fatalities. Crashed on approach in fog
killing 25 people out of 61 passengers and crew. 1 person was killed
on the ground.
Garuda Indonesia Airways- 11 July 1979 . 61 fatalities. Crashed
Sibayak while on approach to Polonia International Airport
. There was bad weather at the time of the crash.
NLM CityHopper Flight 431 – 6 October 1981 (Moerdijk, North
Netherlands ): 17 fatalities, the aircraft flew into a
tornado which broke off one of the wings.
Garuda Indonesia Domestic Flight – 20 March 1982, runway overrun
at Tanjung Karang-Branti Airport in bad weather, 27 fatalities.
Air Ontario Flight 1363 – 10 March 1989 (
Dryden, Ontario ,
Canada ): 24 fatalities. Due to various factors including snow, ice
and lack of use of anti-icing measures.
USAir Flight 405 – 22 March 1992 (
Queens, New York
Queens, New York , United
States ): 27 fatalities. Due to ice buildup on the wings, pilot error
and improper deicing procedures at
Merpati Nusantara Airlines –
Fokker F-28 Mk-3000 Registered
GK-GFU - 1 June 1993. Domestic Flight (
Sorong, Papua ,
Indonesia ): 41
fatalities. Controlled flight Into terrain - The aircraft crashed onto
a rocky beach. On Bad Weather Landing procedures at
Iran Asseman Airlines Flight 746 – 12 October 1994 ( near Natanz
Iran ): 66 fatalities.
Air Mauritanie Flight 625 – 1 July 1994: All 4 crew and 76 of
the 89 passengers on board were killed when their plane crashed at
Tidjikja Airport .
Peru Flight 222 – 9 January 2003: None of the 46 passengers
Fokker F-28 survived after the aircraft hit a mountain near
89 ft 11 in (27.41 m)
97 ft 2 in (29.62 m)
89 ft 11 in (27.41 m)
97 ft 2 in (29.62 m)
97 ft 2 in (29.62 m)
SEATING CAPACITY :
77 ft 4 in (23.57 m)
82 ft 3 in (25.07 m)
822.4 sq ft (76.40 m2)
850.0 sq ft (78.97 m2)
MAX TAKEOFF WEIGHT:
65,000 lb (29,000 kg)
73,000 lb (33,000 kg)
MAX CRUISING SPEED:
528 mph (849 km/h)
523 mph (843 km/h)
35,000 ft (11,000 m)
Rolls-Royce RB183-2 Mk555-15
Rolls-Royce RB183-2 Mk555-15P turbofan engines
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Sud Aviation Caravelle
List of jet airliners
Wikimedia Commons has media related to FOKKER F28 FELLOWSHIP .
* ^ A B C D E F "Reactores Comerciales (1999a) (en: Commercial
Jetliners)". Antonio López Ortega (in Spanish). Agualarga Editores
S.l. ISBN 84-95088-87-8 . Retrieved 2008-09-26.
* ^ "What happened to the Fairchild 228?". AAHS Journal. Spring
Flight International , 3–9 October 2006
* ^ "Trade Registers".
Air International May 1988, p. 233.
* ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN
Fokker F-28 Fellowship
3000 PK-GFU Sorong-
Jefman Airport (SOQ)".
* "Andean Air Power...The Peruvian Air Force".
Air International .
Vol. 34 no. 5. May 1988. pp. 224–235, 240.
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