According to the Hebrew Bible, Solomon's Temple, also known as the
First Temple, was the Holy Temple (Hebrew:
בֵּית־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ: Beit HaMikdash) in ancient
Jerusalem before its destruction by
Nebuchadnezzar II after the Siege
Jerusalem of 587 BCE and its subsequent replacement with the Second
Temple in the 6th century BCE.
Hebrew Bible states that the temple was constructed under Solomon,
king of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah and that during the
Kingdom of Judah, the temple was dedicated to Yahweh, and is said to
have housed the Ark of the Covenant. Jewish historian
that "the temple was burnt four hundred and seventy years, six months,
and ten days after it was built", although rabbinic sources state
that the First Temple stood for 410 years and, based on the
2nd-century work Seder Olam Rabbah, place construction in 832 BCE and
destruction in 422 BCE, 165 years later than secular estimates.
Because of the religious sensitivities involved, and the politically
volatile situation in Jerusalem, only limited archaeological surveys
Temple Mount have been conducted. No archaeological excavations
have been allowed on the
Temple Mount during modern times. Therefore,
there are very few pieces of archaeological evidence for the existence
of Solomon's Temple. An
Ivory pomegranate which mentions priests in
the house "of ---h", and an inscription recording the Temple's
restoration under Jehoash have both appeared on the antiquities
market, but their authenticity has been challenged and they are the
subject of controversy.
1 In the Tanakh
1.1 Architectural description
1.1.1 Holy of Holies
184.108.40.206 Use in architecture
1.1.6 Molten Sea
3 Other contemporary temples
7 Popular culture
8 See also
11 Further reading
12 External links
In the Tanakh
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In an artistic representation, King
Solomon dedicates the Temple at
Jerusalem (painting by
James Tissot or follower, c. 1896–1902)
The only source of information on the First Temple is the Tanakh.
According to the biblical sources, the temple was constructed under
Solomon, during the united monarchy of Israel and Judah. The Bible
Hiram I of Tyre who furnished architects, workmen and cedar
timbers for the temple of his ally
Solomon at Jerusalem. He also
Solomon in mounting an expedition on the Red Sea. 1
Kings 6:1 puts the date of the beginning of building the temple "in
the fourth year of Solomon's reign over Israel". The conventional
dates of Solomon's reign are circa 970 to 931 BCE. This puts the date
of its construction in the mid-10th century BCE. Schmid and
Rupprecht are of the view that the site of the temple used to be a
Jebusite shrine which
Solomon chose in an attempt to unify the
Jebusites and Israelites. 1 Kings 9:10 says that it took
years altogether to build the Temple and his royal palace. The Temple
itself finished being built after 7 years. During the united
monarchy the Temple was dedicated to Yahweh, the God of Israel, and
housed the Ark of the Covenant. Rabbinic sources state that the
First Temple stood for 410 years and, based on the 2nd-century work
Seder Olam Rabbah, place construction in 832 BCE and destruction in
422 BCE (3338 AM), 165 years later than secular estimates.
The exact location of the Temple is unknown: it is believed to have
been situated upon the hill which forms the site of the 1st century
Second Temple and present-day Temple Mount, where the Dome of the Rock
is situated.
According to the Tanakh, the Temple was plundered by the
Neo-Babylonian Empire king
Nebuchadnezzar II when the Babylonians
Jerusalem during the brief reign of Jehoiachin c. 598 BCE (2
Kings 24:13). A decade later, Nebuchadnezzar again besieged Jerusalem
and after 30 months finally breached the city walls in 587 BCE,
subsequently burning the Temple, along with most of the city (2 Kings
25). According to Jewish tradition, the Temple was destroyed on Tisha
B'Av, the 9th day of Av (Hebrew calendar).
Plan of Solomon's Temple, published 1905
Solomon's Temple with measurements
The Temple of
Solomon is considered to be built according to
Phoenician design, and its description is considered the best
description of what a Phoenician temple looked like. The detailed
descriptions provided in the
Tanakh are the sources for
reconstructions of its appearance. Technical details are lacking,
since the scribes who wrote the books were not architects or
engineers. Nevertheless, the descriptions have inspired modern
replicas of the temple and influenced later structures around the
Reconstructions differ; the following is largely based on Easton's
Bible Dictionary and the Jewish Encyclopedia:
Holy of Holies
The Holy of Holies, or Kodesh haKodashim in Hebrew, (1 Kings 6:19;
8:6), also called the "Inner House" (6:27), (Heb. 9:3) was 20 cubits
in length, breadth, and height. The usual explanation for the
discrepancy between its height and the 30-cubit height of the temple
is that its floor was elevated, like the cella of other ancient
temples. It was floored and wainscotted with cedar of Lebanon (1
Kings 6:16), and its walls and floor were overlaid with gold (6:20,
21, 30) amounting to 600 talents (2 Chr. 3:8) or roughly 20 metric
tons. It contained two cherubim of olive-wood, each 10 cubits high (1
Kings 6:16, 20, 21, 23–28) and each having outspread wings of 10
cubits span, so that, since they stood side by side, the wings touched
the wall on either side and met in the center of the room. There was a
two-leaved door between it and the Holy Place overlaid with gold (2
Chr. 4:22); also a veil of tekhelet (blue), purple, and crimson and
fine linen (2 Chronicles 3:14; compare Exodus 26:33). It had no
windows (1 Kings 8:12) and was considered the dwelling-place of the
"name" of God.
The Kodesh haKodashim (the Holy of Holies) was prepared to receive and
house the Ark (1 Kings 6:19); and when the Temple was dedicated, the
Ark, containing the original tablets of the Ten Commandments, was
placed beneath the cherubim (1 Kings 8:6).
The Hekhal, or Holy Place, (1 Kings 8:8–10), is also called the
"greater house" (2 Chr. 3:5) and the "temple" (1 Kings 6:17); the word
also means "palace", was of the same width and height as the Holy
of Holies, but 40 cubits in length. Its walls were lined with cedar,
on which were carved figures of cherubim, palm-trees, and open
flowers, which were overlaid with gold. Chains of gold further marked
it off from the Holy of Holies. The floor of the Temple was of
fir-wood overlaid with gold. The door-posts, of olive-wood, supported
folding-doors of fir. The doors of the
Holy of Holies
Holy of Holies were of
olive-wood. On both sets of doors were carved cherubim, palm-trees,
and flowers, all being overlaid with gold (1 Kings 6:15 et seq.)
The Hebrew noun hekhal (Hebrew היכל) in Classical Hebrew means "a
large building". This can be either the main building of the Temple in
Jerusalem (that is the nave, or sanctuary, of the Temple), or a palace
such as the "palace" of Ahab, king of Samaria, or the "palace" of the
King of Babylon.
Hekhal is used 80 times in the
Masoretic Text of the Hebrew Bible. Of
these, 70 refer to the House of the LORD (in
Hebrew Bible בֵּית
יְהוָה beit Yahweh), the other 10 are references to palaces.
There is no reference to any part of the tabernacle using this term in
the Hebrew Bible.
"In the year that king
Uzziah died. I saw the LORD sitting upon a
throne high and lifted up, and His train filled the hekhal
Use in architecture
In older English versions of the Bible, including the King James
Version, the term "temple" is used to translate hekhal. In modern
versions more reflective of archaeological research, the distinction
is made of different sections of the whole Temple. Scholars and
archaeologists generally agree on the structure of
Solomon's Temple as
described in 1 Kings 6:3–5, with the main building, the hekhal, in
English now sometimes called "the sanctuary", the devir, the inner
sanctuary, and finally the Holy of Holies.
This main building was between the outer altar, where most sacrifices
were performed, and inside at the far end was the entry to the Holy of
Holies, originally containing the Ark of the Covenant. The main hekhal
contained a number of sacred ritual objects including the seven
branched candlestick, the inner altar for incense offerings (also
called the "Golden Altar"), and the table of the showbread.
The same architectural layout of the temple was adopted in synagogues
leading to the hekhal being applied in
Sephardi usage to the Ashkenazi
Torah ark, the equivalent of the nave.
The Ulam, or porch, acted as an entrance before the Temple on the east
(1 Kings 6:3; 2 Chr. 3:4; 9:7). This was 20 cubits long (corresponding
to the width of the Temple) and 10 cubits deep (1 Kings 6:3). (ESV 2
Chr. 3:4) notes that this porch was 120 cubits high. The description
does not specify whether a wall separated it from the next chamber. In
the porch stood the two pillars
Jachin and Boaz
Jachin and Boaz (1 Kings 7:21; 2 Kings
11:14; 23:3), which were 18 cubits in height.
Chambers were built around the Temple on the southern, western and
northern sides (1 Kings 6:5–10). These formed a part of the building
and were used for storage. They were probably one story high at first;
two more may have been added later.
According to the Bible, two courts surrounded the Temple. The Inner
Court (1 Kings 6:36), or Court of the Priests (2 Chr. 4:9), was
separated from the space beyond by a wall of three courses of hewn
stone, surmounted by cedar beams (1 Kings 6:36). It contained the
Altar of burnt-offering (2 Chr. 15:8), the Brazen Sea laver (4:2–5,
10) and ten other lavers (1 Kings 7:38, 39). A brazen altar stood
before the Temple (2 Kings 16:14), its dimensions 20 cubits square and
10 cubits high (2 Chr. 4:1). The Great Court surrounded the whole
Temple (2 Chr. 4:9). It was here that people assembled to worship.
Jeremiah 19:14; 26:2).
Main article: Molten Sea
According to the Hebrew Bible, the
Molten Sea or Brazen Sea (ים
מוצק "cast metal sea") was a large basin in the Temple for
ablution of the priests. It is described in 1 Kings 7:23-26 and 2
Chronicles 4:2-5. It stood in the south-eastern corner of the inner
court. According to the Bible it was five cubits high, ten cubits in
diameter from brim to brim, and thirty cubits in circumference. The
brim was "like the calyx of a lily" and turned outward "about an hand
breadth"; or about four inches. It was placed on the backs of twelve
oxen, standing with their faces outward. The Book of Kings states that
it contains 2,000 baths (90 cubic meters), while Chronicles (2 Chr.
4:5–6) states it can hold up to 3,000 baths (136 cubic meters) and
states that its purpose was to afford opportunity for the purification
by immersion of the bodies of the priests.
The fact that it was a wash basin which was too large to enter from
above lends to the idea that water would likely have flowed from it
down into a subcontainer beneath. The water was originally supplied by
the Gibeonites, but was afterwards brought by a conduit from Solomon's
Pools. The molten sea was made of brass or bronze, which
taken from the captured cities of Hadarezer, the king of
Ahaz later removed this laver from the oxen, and
placed it on a stone pavement (2 Kings 16:17). It was destroyed by the
Chaldeans (2 Kings 25:13).
The lavers, each of which held "forty baths" (1 Kings 7:38), rested on
portable holders made of bronze, provided with wheels, and ornamented
with figures of lions, cherubim, and palm-trees. The author of the
books of the Kings describes their minute details with great interest
(1 Kings 7:27–37).
Josephus reported that the vessels in the Temple
were composed of orichalcum in Antiquities of the Jews. According to 1
Kings 7:48 there stood before the
Holy of Holies
Holy of Holies a golden Altar of
Incense and a table for showbread. This table was of gold, as were
also the five candlesticks on each side of it. The implements for the
care of the candles–tongs, basins, snuffers, and fire-pans–were of
gold; and so were the hinges of the doors.
1 Kings 8:10-66 and 2 Chronicles 6:1-42 recount the events of the
temple's dedication. When the priests emerged from the holy of holies
after placing the Ark there, the Temple was filled with an
overpowering cloud which interrupted the dedication ceremony, "for
the glory of the Lord had filled the house of the Lord" (1 Kings
8:10–11; 2 Chronicles 5:13, 14).
Solomon interpreted the cloud as
"[proof] that his pious work was accepted":
The Lord has said that he would dwell in thick darkness.
I have built you an exalted house, a place for you to dwell in
forever. (1 Kings 8:12-13)
The allusion is to Leviticus 16:2:
The Lord said to Moses:
Tell your brother
Aaron not to come just at any time into the
sanctuary inside the curtain before the mercy seat that is upon the
ark, or he will die; for I appear in the cloud upon the mercy seat.
Solomon then led the whole assembly of Israel in prayer, noting that
the construction on the temple represented a fulfilment of God's
promise to David, dedicating the temple as a place of prayer and
reconciliation for the people of Israel and for foreigners living in
Israel, and highlighting the paradox that God who lives in the heavens
cannot really be contained within a single building. The dedication
was concluded with sacrifices said to have included "twenty-two
thousand bulls and one hundred and twenty thousand sheep".
Because of the religious and political sensitivities involved, no
archaeological excavations and only limited surface surveys of the
Temple Mount have been conducted since Charles Warren's expedition of
1867–70. There is no archaeological evidence for the
existence of Solomon's Temple, and the building is not mentioned in
surviving extra-biblical accounts.
Israel Finkelstein and Neil
Asher Silberman argue that the first Jewish temple in
not built until the end of the 7th century BCE, around three hundred
years after Solomon. They believe the temple should not really be
assigned to Solomon, who they see as little more than a small-time
hill country chieftain, and argue that it was most likely built by
Josiah, who governed Judah from 639 to 609 BCE.
An ostracon (excavated prior to 1981), sometimes referred to as the
Yahweh ostracon, was discovered at Tel Arad, dated to 6th
century BCE which mentions a temple which is probably the Temple in
A thumb-sized ivory pomegranate (which came to light in 1979)
measuring 44 millimetres (1.7 in) in height, and bearing an
ancient Hebrew inscription "Sacred donation for the priests in the
House of ---h,]", was believed to have adorned a sceptre used by the
high priest in Solomon's Temple. It was considered the most important
item of biblical antiquities in the Israel Museum's collection.
However, in 2004, the Israel Antiquities Authority reported the
inscription to be a forgery, though the ivory pomegranate itself was
dated to the 14th or 13th century BCE. This was based on the
report's claim that three incised letters in the inscription stopped
short of an ancient break, as they would have if carved after the
ancient break was made. Since then, it has been proven that one of the
letters was indeed carved prior to the ancient break, and the status
of the other two letters are in question. Some paleographers and
others have continued to insist that the inscription is ancient, some
dispute this so the authenticity of this writing is still the object
Another artifact, the Jehoash Inscription, which first came to notice
in 2003, contains a 15-line description of King Jehoash's
ninth-century BCE restoration of the Temple. Its authenticity was
called into question by a report by the Israel Antiquities Authority,
which said that the surface patina contained microfossils of
foraminifera. As these fossils do not dissolve in water, they cannot
occur in a calcium carbonate patina, leading initial investigators to
conclude that the patina must be an artificial chemical mix applied to
the stone by forgers. As of late 2012, the academic community is split
on whether the tablet is authentic or not. Commenting on a 2012 report
by geologists arguing for the authenticity of the inscription, in
Hershel Shanks (who believes the inscription is genuine)
wrote the current situation was that most
Hebrew language scholars
believe that the inscription is a forgery and geologists that it is
genuine, and thus "Because we rely on experts, and because there is an
apparently irresolvable conflict of experts in this case, BAR has
taken no position with respect to the authenticity of the Jehoash
By 2006, the
Temple Mount Sifting Project had recovered numerous
artifacts dating from the 8th to 7th centuries BCE from soil removed
in 1999 by the Islamic Religious Trust (Waqf) from the Solomon's
Stables area of the Temple Mount. These include stone weights for
weighing silver and a First Temple period bulla, or seal impression,
containing ancient Hebrew writing which includes the name Netanyahu
ben Yaush. Netanyahu is a name mentioned several times in the Book of
Jeremiah while the name Yaush appears in the Lachish letters. However,
the combination of names was unknown to scholars.
In 2007, artifacts dating to the 8th to 6th centuries BCE were
described as being possibly the first physical evidence of human
activity at the
Temple Mount during the First Temple period. The
findings included animal bones; ceramic bowl rims, bases, and body
sherds; the base of a juglet used to pour oil; the handle of a small
juglet; and the rim of a storage jar.
Other contemporary temples
There is archaeological and written evidence of three Israelite
temples, either contemporary or of very close date, dedicated to
Elephantine temple, probably Arad too), either in the Land of
Israel or in Egypt. Two of them have the same general outline as given
by the Bible for the
The Israelite temple at
Tel Arad in Judah, 10th to 8th/7th century
BCE and possibly dedicated to
Yahweh and Asherah.
The Jewish temple at
Elephantine in Egypt, already standing in 525
The Israelite temple at Tel Motza, c. 750 BCE discovered in 2012 a few
kilometres west of Jerusalem.
Several Iron Age temples have been found in the region that have
striking similarities to the Temple of King Solomon. In particular the
Ain Dara (archaeological site), Ain Dara temple in northern Syria with
a similar age, size, plan and decorations.
Freemasonry refer to King
Solomon and the building of his
Temple. Masonic buildings, where Lodge members meet, are sometimes
called 'temples'; an allegoric reference to King Solomon's Temple.
Kabbalah views the design of the Temple of
Solomon as representative
of the metaphysical world and the descending light of the creator
Sephirot of the Tree of Life. The levels of the outer, inner
and priest's courts represent three lower worlds of Kabbalah. The Boaz
and Jachin pillars at the entrance of the temple represent the active
and passive elements of the world of Atziluth. The original menorah
and its seven branches represent the seven lower
Sephirot of the Tree
of Life. The veil of the
Holy of Holies
Holy of Holies and the inner part of the
temple represent the Veil of the Abyss on the Tree of Life, behind
Shekhina or Divine presence hovers.
Temple in Jerusalem
Temple in Jerusalem is mentioned in verse 7 of the surah Al-Isra
in the Quran; commentators of Quran such as Muhammad al-Tahir ibn
Ashur  postulate that this verse refers specifically to the Temple
Solomon's Temple appears in
Solomon and Sheba (1959) and in the novel
King Solomon's Mines
King Solomon's Mines (1885). It also appears in the video game
Assassin's Creed where the main character
Altaïr Ibn-La'Ahad deal
with Robert de Sablé. It appears too on Assassin's Creed
Unity (2014) where the
Jacques de Molay
Jacques de Molay is burned and
City of David
^ Josephus, Jew. Ant. 10.8.5
^ "Science & Nature – Horizon". BBC.co.uk. Retrieved
^ Dever, William G. Did God Have a Wife?: Archaeology and Folk
Religion in Ancient Israel. Wm B. Eerdmans. pp. 96–97.
ISBN 978-0802828521. Retrieved 7 February 2016.
^ Stevens, Marty E. (2006), Temples, tithes, and taxes: the temple and
the economic life of ancient Israel, Hendrickson Publishers,
p. 3, ISBN 1-56563-934-0
^ Clifford Mark McCormick (2002). Palace and Temple: A Study of
Architectural and Verbal Icons. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 31–.
^ 1 Kings 6:38
^ Achtemeier, Paul J.; Boraas, Roger S. (1996), The HarperCollins
Bible Dictionary, San Francisco: HarperOne, p. 1096
^ "Temple In Rabbinical Literature". JewishEncyclopedia.com. Retrieved
^ Yeisen, Yosef (2004), Miraculous journey: a complete history of the
Jewish people from creation to the present, Targum Press, p. 56,
^ Singer, Isidore; et al., eds. (1901–1906). "Ab, Ninth Day of".
Jewish Encyclopedia. New York: Funk & Wagnalls Company. Retrieved
15 July 2013.
^ According to Finkelstein in The Bible Unearthed, the description of
the temple is remarkably similar to that of surviving remains of
Phoenician temples of the time, and it is certainly plausible, from
the point of view of archaeology, that the temple was constructed to
the design of Phoenicians.
^ a b c d De Vaux, Roland; McHugh, John, ed. (1961). Ancient Israel:
Its Life and Institutions. NY: McGraw-Hill. CS1 maint: Extra
text: authors list (link)
Peter Schäfer The Origins of Jewish Mysticism. 2011. p. 59:
"Scholars have long observed that this three-part structure resembles
the structure of
Solomon's Temple as described in 1 Kings 6:3, 5: the
hekhal (sanctuary), the devir (inner sanctuary) or qodesh ha-qodashim
(Holy of Holies)..."
^ Meir Ben-Dov, The Golden Age: Synagogues of Spain in History and
Architecture, 2009: "Among Ashkenazic Jewry, even though these two
were the main foci of the synagogue, the terms used for them were
different. The hekhal (literally, "the Temple") was known as the aron
ha-kodesh (literally, ..."
^ a b Pulpit Commentary on 1 Kings 8, accessed 2 October 2017
^ 1 Kings 8:10-66
^ Warren, Charles (1876). Underground Jerusalem: An Account of Some of
the Principal Difficulties Encountered in Its Exploration and the
Results Obtained. With a Narrative of an Expedition through the Jordan
Valley and a Visit to the Samaritans. London: Richard Bentley.
^ Langmead, Donald; Garnaut, Christine (2001). Encyclopedia of
Architectural and Engineering Feats (3rd, illustrated ed.). ABC-CLIO.
^ Handy, Lowell (1997). The Age of Solomon: Scholarship at the Turn of
the Millennium. Brill. pp. 493–94.
^ a b c Finkelstein, Israel & Silberman, Neil Asher (2002). The
Bible Unearthed: Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the
Origin of Its Sacred Texts. Simon & Schuster. pp. 128–29.
^ T. C. Mitchell (1992). "Judah Until the Fall of Jerusalem". In John
Boardman; I. E. S. Edwards; E. Sollberger; N. G. L. Hammond. The
Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 3, Part 2: The Assyrian and
Babylonian Empires and Other States of the Near East, from the Eighth
to the Sixth Centuries BC. Cambridge University Press. p. 397.
^ Myre, Greg (December 30, 2004). "Israel Indicts 4 in 'Brother of
Jesus' Hoax and Other Forgeries". The New York Times.
Ivory pomegranate 'not Solomon's'". BBC News. December 24,
^ Shanks, Hershel (November–December 2011). "Fudging with
Forgeries". Biblical Archaeology Review. 37 (6): 56–58.
^ Shanks, Hershel (November–December 2012). "Authentic or Forged?
What to Do When Experts Disagree". Biblical Archaeology Review. First
Person (column). ISSN 0098-9444. Retrieved 2013-03-12.
^ "Building Remains From The Time Of The First Temple Were Exposed
West Of The Temple Mount". Israel Antiquities Authority. March 13,
2008. Retrieved 11 May 2015. a personal Hebrew seal made of a
semi-precious stone that was apparently inlaid in a ring. The
scarab-like seal is elliptical and measures c. 1.1 cm
(0.4 in) x 1.4 cm (0.6 in). The surface of the seal is
divided into three strips separated by a double line: in the upper
strip is a chain decoration in which there are four pomegranates and
in the two bottom strips is the name of the owner of the seal,
engraved in ancient Hebrew script. It reads: לנתניהו בן
יאש ([belonging] to Netanyahu ben Yaush). The two names are known
in the treasury of biblical names: the name נתניהו (Netanyahu)
is mentioned a number of times in the Bible (in the Book of Jeremiah
and in Chronicles) and the name יאש (Yaush) appears in the Lachish
letters. The name Yaush, like the name יאשיהו (Yoshiyahu) is, in
the opinion of Professor Shmuel Ahituv, derived from the root או"ש
which means “he gave a present” (based on Arabic and Ugaritic). It
is customary to assume that the owners of personal seals were people
that held senior governmental positions. It should nevertheless be
emphasized that this combination of names – נתניהו בן
יאוש (Netanyahu ben Yaush) – was unknown until now.
^ Shragai, Nadav (October 19, 2006). "
Temple Mount dirt uncovers First
Temple artifacts". Haaretz.
Temple Mount First Temple Period Discoveries". The Friends of the
Israel Antiquities Authority. Retrieved 2009-10-05.
^ Milstein, Mati (October 23, 2007). "
Solomon's Temple Artifacts Found
by Muslim Workers". National Geographic News.
^ Avraham Negev & Shimon Gibson (2001). Arad (Tel). Archaeological
Encyclopedia of the Holy Land. New York and London: Continuum.
p. 43. ISBN 0-8264-1316-1.
^ Mazar, Amihai. “The Divided Monarchy: Comments on Some
Archaeological Issues.” pp. 159–80 in The Quest for the Historical
Israel: Debating Archaeology and the History of Early Israel
(Archaeology and Biblical Studies) Society of Biblical Literature (Sep
2007) ISBN 978-1-58983-277-0 p. 176
^ "Ancient Sudan~ Nubia: Investigating the Origin of the Ancient
Jewish Community at Elephantine: A Review".
^ "Searching for the Temple of King Solomon". Biblical Archaeology
Society. 6 January 2017.
^ "Lodge Chelmsford No 261". Lodgechelmsford.com. Retrieved
^ Invalid Input. "Freemasons NSW & ACT – Home". Masons.org.au.
^ The Way of Kabbalah, Warren Kenton, Z'ev ben Shimon Halevi, Weiser
Books, 1976, p. 24.
^ Ibn Ashur, Muhammad al-Tahir. "al-Tahrir wa'l-tanwir". Al-Dar
Al-Tunasia Publication. Tunisia. 1984. vol. 15, p. 13
^ Bowden, Oliver (June 23, 2011). Assassin's Creed: The Secret
Crusade. Penguin UK. p. 464. ISBN 9780141966717.
^ Dansereau, François; Lowe, Ivan; Nadiger, James; Podar, Nitai;
Sutton, Megan; Whelton-Pane, Johathan; Wright, William (November
2011). Assassin's Creed Encyclopedia. UbiWorkshop. p. 256.
^ Worley, Seth. "
Assassin's Creed Unity
Assassin's Creed Unity (Video Game Review)". BioGamer
Girl Magazine. Retrieved January 10, 2018.
^ Bowden, Oliver (November 20, 2014). Assassin's Creed: Unity. Penguin
UK. p. 480. ISBN 9781405918855.
De Vaux, Roland (1961). John McHugh, ed. Ancient Israel: Its Life and
Institutions. NY: McGraw-Hill.
Draper, Robert (Dec 2010). "Kings of Controversy". National
Geographic: 66–91. ISSN 0027-9358. Retrieved 2010-12-18.
Neil Asher Silberman (2006).
David and Solomon:
In Search of the Bible's Sacred Kings and the Roots of the Western
Tradition. Free Press. ISBN 0-7432-4362-5.
Finkelstein, Israel; Neil Asher Silberman. The Bible Unearthed:
Archaeology's New Vision.
Glueck, Nelson (Feb 1944). "On the Trail of King Solomon's Mines".
National Geographic. 85 (2): 233–56. ISSN 0027-9358.
Goldman, Bernard (1966). The Sacred Portal: a primary symbol in
ancient Judaic art. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. It has a
detailed account and treatment of
Solomon's Temple and its
David Seely (2007). Solomon's Temple: Myth and
History. Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0-500-25133-9.
Mazar, Benjamin (1975). The Mountain of the Lord. NY: Doubleday.
Young, Mike. "Temple Measurements and Photo recreations".
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the
public domain: Easton, Matthew George (1897). "Temple,
Easton's Bible Dictionary
Easton's Bible Dictionary (New and revised ed.). T. Nelson
This article incorporates text from a publication now in
the public domain: Singer, Isidore; et al., eds. (1901–1906).
"Temple of Solomon". Jewish Encyclopedia. New York: Funk &
21st century resources
Barker, Margaret (2004), Temple Theology, an introduction, London: The
Society For Promoting Christian Knowledge, ISBN 028105634X .
Vaughn, Andrew G.; Killebrew, Ann E., eds. (2003),
Jerusalem in Bible
and Archaeology: The First Temple Period, Society of Biblical
Stevens, Marty E. (2006), Temples, tithes, and taxes: the temple and
the economic life of ancient Israel, Hendrickson Publishers,
ISBN 1-56563-934-0 .
Dever, William G. (2001-05-10), What Did The Biblical Writers Know and
When Did They Know It?, Wm. B. Eerdmans .
Jones, Floyd Nolen (1993–2004), The Chronology Of The Old Testament,
New Leaf Publishing Group .
Elizabeth Bloch-Smith, Who is the King of Glory?:
Solomon's Temple and
its Symbolism in Michael D. Coogan, J. Cheryl Exum, Lawrence E. Stager
(eds), "Scripture and Other Artifacts: Essays in Honor of Philip J.
King" (Westminster John Knox, 1994)
Gershon Galil, "The Chronology of the Kings of Israel and Judah"
Joseph Blenkinsopp, "Sage, Priest, Prophet: Religious and Intellectual
Leadership in Ancient Israel" (Westminster John Knox Press, 1995)
Jeremy Hughes, "Secrets of the times: myth and history in biblical
chronology" (Sheffield Academic Press, 1990)
Edwin R. Thiele, "The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings"
Watson E. Mills, Roger Aubrey Bullard (eds), "Mercer Dictionary of the
Bible" (Mercer University Press, 1990)
Paine, T. O. (1870). Solomon's temple: Including the tabernacle; first
temple; house of the king, or house of the forest of Lebanon;
idolatrous high places; the city on the mountain ... the oblation of
the holy portion; and the last temple. Boston: H.H. & T.W. Carter
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