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The Fergana
Fergana
Valley
Valley
(alternatively Farghana or Ferghana; Uzbek: Farg‘ona vodiysi, Фарғона водийси, فەرغانە ۉادىيسى; Kyrgyz: Фергана өрөөнү, Ferğana öröönü, فەرعانا ۅرۅۅنۉ [ɸerɢɑnɑ ørøːny]; Tajik: Водии Фарғона, Vodiyi Farğona / Vodiji Farƣona; Russian: Ферганская долина, Ferganskaja dolina; Persian: وادی فرغانه‎, Vâdiye Ferqâna; Dungan: Фыйрганна Пенды, Xiao'erjing: فِ عَر قًا نَ پٌ دِ) is a valley in Central Asia spread across eastern Uzbekistan, southern Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
and northern Tajikistan. Divided into three republics of the former Soviet Union, the valley is ethnically diverse and in the early 21st century was the scene of ethnic conflict. A large triangular valley in what is an often dry part of Central Asia, the Fergana
Fergana
owes its fertility to two rivers, the Naryn and the Kara Darya, which run from the east, joining near Namangan, forming the Syr Darya
Syr Darya
river. The valley's history stretches back over 2300 years, when its population was conquered by Greco-Bactrian
Greco-Bactrian
invaders from the west. Chinese chroniclers date its towns to more than 2,100 years ago, as a path between Greek, Chinese, Bactrian and Parthian civilisations. It was home to Babur, founder of the Mughal Dynasty, tying the region to modern Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and South Asia. The Russian Empire
Russian Empire
conquered the valley at the end of the 19th century, and it became part of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in the 1920s. Its three Soviet republics gained independence in 1991. The area largely remains Muslim, populated by ethnic Uzbek, Tajik and Kyrgyz people, often intermixed and not matching modern borders. Historically there have also been substantial numbers of Russian, Kashgarians, Kipchaks, Bukharan Jews
Bukharan Jews
and Romani minorities. Mass cotton cultivation, introduced by the Soviets, remains central to the economy, along with a wide range of grains, fruits and vegetables. There is a long history of stock breeding, leatherwork and a growing mining sector, including deposits of coal, iron, sulfur, gypsum, rock-salt, naphtha and some small known oil reserves.[citation needed]

Contents

1 Geography and geology 2 Climate 3 History

3.1 Achaemenid Empire 3.2 Hellenistic settlement 3.3 Interaction with China 3.4 Bactrian, Kushan, Sassanid, Hepthalite, Chinese and Gokturk rules 3.5 Islamic influence 3.6 Samanid, Karakhanid and Khwarezmid rules 3.7 Mongol–Turkic rule 3.8 Russian Empire 3.9 Soviet and post-Soviet periods

4 Agriculture 5 Industry 6 Trade 7 Transport 8 Historical demography 9 Administrative divisions

9.1 Regions wholly or partially within the Fergana
Fergana
Valley

10 Border disputes 11 See also 12 Notes 13 Sources 14 External links

Geography and geology[edit]

Fergana
Fergana
Valley
Valley
on map showing Sakastan about 100BC

The Fergana
Fergana
Valley
Valley
is an intermountain depression in Central Asia, between the mountain systems of the Tien-Shan in the north and the Gissar-Alai in the south. The valley is approximately 300 kilometres (190 mi) long and up to 70 kilometres (43 mi) wide, forming an area covering 22,000 square kilometres (8,500 sq mi). Its position makes it a separate geographic zone.[1] The valley owes its fertility to two rivers, the Naryn and the Kara Darya, which unite in the valley, near Namangan, to form the Syr Darya. Numerous other tributaries of these rivers exist in the valley including the Sokh River. The streams, and their numerous mountain effluents, not only supply water for irrigation, but also bring down vast quantities of sand, which is deposited alongside their courses, more especially alongside the Syr Darya
Syr Darya
where it cuts its way through the Khujand-Ajar ridge and forms the valley. This expanse of quicksand, covering an area of 1,900 km2 (750 sq mi), under the influence of south-west winds, encroaches upon the agricultural districts. The central part of the geological depression that forms the valley is characterized by block subsidence, originally to depths estimated at 6 to 7 kilometres (3.7 to 4.3 mi), largely filled with sediments that range in age as far back as the Permian-Triassic boundary. Some of the sediments are marine carbonates and clays. The faults are upthrusts and overthrusts. Anticlines associated with these faults form traps for petroleum and natural gas, which has been discovered in 52 small fields.[2] Climate[edit] The climate of this valley is dry and warm. In March the temperature reaches 20 °C (68 °F), and then rapidly rises to 35 °C (95 °F) in June, July and August. During the five months following April precipitation is rare, but increases in frequency starting in October. Snow and frost, down to -20 °C (-4 °F) occurs in December and January. History[edit]

Part of a series on the

History of Tajikistan

Early history Medieval
Medieval
history Early modern history Russian vassalage Soviet rule Since independence

Timeline

Tajikistan
Tajikistan
portal

v t e

Achaemenid Empire[edit] As early as 500 BC, the western sections of the Fergana
Fergana
Valley
Valley
formed part of the Sogdiana
Sogdiana
region, which was ruled from further west and owed fealty to the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
at the time of Darius the Great. The independent and warlike Sogdiana[3] formed a border region insulating the Achaemenid Persians from the nomadic Scythians
Scythians
to the north and east.[4] The Sogdian Rock or Rock of Ariamazes, a fortress in Sogdiana, was captured in 327 BC by the forces of Alexander the Great; after an extended campaign putting down Sogdian resistance and founding military outposts manned by his Greek veterans, Alexander united Sogdiana
Sogdiana
with Bactria
Bactria
into one satrapy. Hellenistic settlement[edit] Main article: Dayuan

Probable Greek soldier in the Sampul tapestry, woollen wall hanging, 3rd-2nd century BC, Sampul, Urumqi
Urumqi
Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Museum.

In 329 BC, Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
founded a Greek settlement with the city of Alexandria Eschate
Alexandria Eschate
"The Furthest", in the southwestern part of the Fergana
Fergana
Valley, on the southern bank of the river Syr Darya (ancient Jaxartes), at the location of the modern city of Khujand, in the state of Tajikistan. It was later ruled by Seleucids
Seleucids
before secession of Bactria. After 250 BC, the city probably remained in contact with the Greco-Bactrian
Greco-Bactrian
Kingdom centered on Bactria, especially when the Greco-Bactrian
Greco-Bactrian
king Euthydemus extended his control to Sogdiana. There are indications that from Alexandria Eschate
Alexandria Eschate
the Greco- Bactrians
Bactrians
may have led expeditions as far as Kashgar
Kashgar
and Ürümqi
Ürümqi
in Chinese Turkestan, leading to the first known contacts between China and the West around 220 BC. Several statuettes and representations of Greek soldiers have been found north of the Tien Shan, on the doorstep to China, and are today on display in the Xinjiang
Xinjiang
museum at Urumqi (Boardman). Of the Greco-Bactrians, the Greek historian Strabo
Strabo
too writes that:

they extended their empire even as far as the Seres
Seres
(Chinese) and the Phryni.[5]

The Fergana
Fergana
area, called Dayuan
Dayuan
by the Chinese, remained an integral part of the Greco-Bactrian
Greco-Bactrian
Kingdom until after the time of Demetrius I of Bactria
Bactria
(c. 120 BC), when confronted with invasions by the Yuezhi from the east and the Sakas
Sakas
Scythians
Scythians
from the south. After 155 BC, the Yuezhi
Yuezhi
were pushed into Fergana
Fergana
by neighbors from the north and east. The Yuezhi
Yuezhi
invaded urban civilization of the Dayuan
Dayuan
in Fergana, eventually settling on the northern bank of the Oxus, in the region of Transoxiana, in modern-day Tajikistan
Tajikistan
and Uzbekistan, just north of the Hellenistic Greco-Bactrian
Greco-Bactrian
kingdom. The Greek city of Alexandria on the Oxus
Oxus
was apparently burnt to the ground by the Yuezhi
Yuezhi
around 145 BC.[6] Pushed by these twin forces, the Greco-Bactrian
Greco-Bactrian
kingdom reoriented itself around lands in what is now Afghanistan, while the new invaders were partially assimilated into the Hellenistic culture left in Fergana
Fergana
Valley. Interaction with China[edit] According to the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
Records of the Grand Historian
Records of the Grand Historian
or Shiji, based on the travels of Zhang Qian
Zhang Qian
and published around 126 BC, the region of Fergana
Fergana
is presented as the country of the Dayuan
Dayuan
(Ta-Yuan), possibly descendants of Greeks colonists ( Dayuan
Dayuan
may be a transliteration of "Great Ionians"). The area was renowned for its Heavenly Horses, which the Chinese tried to obtain from the Dayuan with little success until they waged war against them in 104 BC. The Dayuan
Dayuan
were identified by the Chinese as unusual in features, with a sophisticated urban civilization, similar to that of the Bactrians and Parthians: "The Son of Heaven on hearing all this reasoned thus: Fergana
Fergana
(Dayuan) and the possessions of Bactria
Bactria
and Parthia
Parthia
are large countries, full of rare things, with a population living in fixed abodes and given to occupations somewhat identical with those of the Chinese people, but with weak armies, and placing great value on the rich produce of China" (Book of the Later Han). Agricultural activities of the Dayuan
Dayuan
reported by Zhang Qian
Zhang Qian
included cultivation of grain and grapes for wine-making.[7] The area of Fergana
Fergana
was thus the theater of the first major interaction between an urbanized culture speaking Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
and the Chinese civilization, which led to the opening up the Silk Road
Silk Road
from the 1st century BC onwards. Bactrian, Kushan, Sassanid, Hepthalite, Chinese and Gokturk rules[edit]

Ancient cities of Bactria. Fergana, to the top right, formed a periphery to these less powerful cities and states.

Fergana, on the route to the Chinese Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
from the west, remained at the boundaries of a number of classical era empires. The Kushan Empire
Kushan Empire
formed from the same Yuezhi
Yuezhi
who had conquered the Hellenistic Fergana. The Kushan spread out in the 1st century AD from Yuezhi
Yuezhi
confederation in the territories of ancient Bactria
Bactria
on either side of the middle course of the Oxus
Oxus
River or Amu Darya
Amu Darya
in what is now northern Afghanistan, and southern Tajikistan
Tajikistan
and Uzbekistan.[8] The Kushan conquered most of what is now northern India and Pakistan, driving east through Fergana
Fergana
into the Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
against the Chinese. Kushan power also consolidated long distance trade, linking Central Asia to both Han Dynasty
Han Dynasty
China and the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in Europe. The Kushans ruled the area as part of their larger empire until the 3rd century AD, when the Zoroastrian
Zoroastrian
Persian Sassanid Empire
Sassanid Empire
invaded Kushan territory from the southwest. Fergana
Fergana
remained under shifting local and Transoxian rulers thereafter. For periods in the 4th and 5th centuries, the Sassanid Empire
Sassanid Empire
directly controlled Transoxiana
Transoxiana
and Fergana, led by the conquests of Shapur II
Shapur II
and Khosrau I
Khosrau I
against the Kushans and the Hephthalite Empire. Sassanid rule of Fergana
Fergana
was interrupted by Hepthalites and was ended by Gokturks
Gokturks
in mid of 6th century. Gokturks
Gokturks
ruled it until first quarter of 8th century except Chinese rule between 659 and 681. Islamic influence[edit] During the 8th century, Fergana
Fergana
was the location of fierce rivalry between Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
China and the expansion of Muslim
Muslim
power, leading to the Battle of Talas
Battle of Talas
in 751, which resulted in a victory for the Muslims and the disengagement of China from Central Asia. Two antecedent battles in 715 and 717 had seen the Chinese prevail over Arab forces.[9] A series of Arab, Persian, and later Turkic Muslim rulers reigned over the Fergana.

The tomb of Ali at Shakhimardan

Samanid, Karakhanid and Khwarezmid rules[edit] Main article: Samanid
Samanid
Empire The Samanid
Samanid
Empire, rising from the Arab Muslim
Muslim
conquest of Persia, pushed into what was then called Greater Khorasan, including Transoxiana
Transoxiana
and the Fergana
Fergana
Valley
Valley
from the West. In 819, Ahmad ibn Asad—son of Asad ibn Saman—was granted authority over the city of Fergana
Fergana
by Caliph Al-Ma'mun's governor of Khorasan, Ghassan ibn 'Abbad, as a reward for his support against the rebel Rafi' ibn Laith. Following the death of his brother Nuh, who ruled in Samarkand, Ahmad and another brother Yahya were given rule over the city by Abdallah, the governor of Khurasan. By the time of Ahmad's death in 864 or 865, he was the ruler of most of Transoxiana, Bukhara
Bukhara
and Khwarazm. Samarkand
Samarkand
and Fergana
Fergana
went to his son, Nasr I of Samanid, leading to a series of Samanid
Samanid
Dynasty Muslim
Muslim
rulers of the valley.[10] During demise of Samanids in 10th century, Fergana
Fergana
Valley
Valley
was conquered by Karakhanids. Eastern part of Fergana
Fergana
later was under suzerenaity of Karakhitays. Karakhanid rule lasted till 1212, when Khwarezmshahs conquered the western part of the valley. Mongol–Turkic rule[edit]

Babur, the Turco-Mongol
Turco-Mongol
founder of the Mughal dynasty, was a native of Andijan
Andijan
in the Fergana
Fergana
Valley.

Mongol ruler Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
invaded Transoxiana
Transoxiana
and Fergana
Fergana
in 1219 during his conquest of Khwarazm. Before his death in 1227, he assigned the lands of Western Central Asia to his second son Chagatai, and this region became known as the Chagatai Khanate. But it was not long before Transoxian Turkic leaders ruled the area, along with most of central Asia as fiefs from the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
of the Mongol Empire. The Fergana
Fergana
became part of a larger Turco-Mongol
Turco-Mongol
empire. This Mongolian nomadic confederation known as Barlas, were remnants of the original Mongol army of Genghis Khan.[11][12] After the Mongol conquest of Central Asia, the Barlas
Barlas
settled in Turkistan
Turkistan
(which then became also known as Moghulistan
Moghulistan
- "Land of Mongols") and intermingled to a considerable degree with the local Turkic and Turkic-speaking population, so that at the time of Timur's reign the Barlas
Barlas
had become thoroughly Turkicized in terms of language and habits. Additionally, by adopting Islam, the Central Asian Turks and Mongols
Mongols
also adopted the Persian literary and high culture[13] which had dominated Central Asia since the early days of Islamic influence. Persian literature was instrumental in the assimilation of the Timurid elite to the Perso-Islamic courtly culture.[14] Heir to one of these confederations, Timur, founder of the Timurid dynasty, added the valley to a newly consolidated empire in the late 14th century, ruling the area from Samarkand. Located on the Northern Silk
Silk
Road, the Fergana
Fergana
played a significant part in the flowering of medieval Central Asian Islam. Its most famous son is Babur, heir to Timur
Timur
and famous conqueror and founder of the Mughal dynasty
Mughal dynasty
in Medieval
Medieval
India. Islamic proselytizers from the Fergana
Fergana
Valley
Valley
such as al-Firghani الفرغاني, al-Andijani الأندجاني, al-Namangani النمنگاني, al-Khojandi الخوجندي spread Islam into parts of present-day Russia, China, and South Asia.[15] The Fergana
Fergana
valley was ruled by a series of Muslim
Muslim
states in the medieval period. For much of this period local and southwestern rulers divided the valley into a series of small states. From the 16th century, the Shaybanid Dynasty
Shaybanid Dynasty
of the Khanate of Bukhara
Bukhara
ruled Fergana, replaced by the Janid Dynasty of Bukhara
Bukhara
in 1599. In 1709 Shaybanid emir Shahrukh of the Minglar Uzbeks
Uzbeks
declared independence from the Khanate of Bukhara, establishing a state in the eastern part of the Fergana
Fergana
Valley. He built a citadel to be his capital in the small town of Kokand. As the Khanate of Kokand, Kokand
Kokand
was capital of a territory stretching over modern eastern Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
and Tajikistan, southern Kazakhstan and all of Kyrgyzstan. Russian Empire[edit]

Khan's Palace, Kokand.

Fergana
Fergana
or Ferghana was a province of Russian Turkestan, formed in 1876 out of the former khanate of Kokand. It was bounded by the provinces of Syr-darya
Syr-darya
in the North and Northwest, Samarkand
Samarkand
in the West, and Zhetysu
Zhetysu
in the Northeast, by Chinese Turkestan (Kashgaria) in the East, and by Bukhara
Bukhara
and Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in the South. Its southern limits, in the Pamirs, were fixed by an Anglo-Russian commission in 1885, from Zorkul
Zorkul
(Victoria Lake) to the Chinese frontier; and Khignan, Roshan and Wakhan
Wakhan
were assigned to Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in exchange for part of Darvaz (on the left bank of the Panj), which was given to Bukhara. The area amounted to some 53,000 km2 (20,463 sq mi), of which 17,600 km2 (6,795 sq mi) are in the Pamirs. Not all the inhabitants of the area were happy with this state of affairs. In 1898 Muhammed Ali Khalfa proclaimed a jihad against the Russians. However, after about 20 Russians
Russians
had been killed, Khalfa was captured and executed. When the 1905 Revolution
1905 Revolution
spread across the Russian Empire, some Jadids were active in the Fergana
Fergana
Valley. When the Tsarist
Tsarist
regime extended the military draft to include Muslims, this led to a revolt which was far more widespread than that of 1898, and which was not entirely suppressed by the time of the Russian Revolution.[16] Soviet and post-Soviet periods[edit]

Soviet negotiations with basmachi, Fergana, 1921

In 1924, the new boundaries separating the Uzbek SSR
Uzbek SSR
and Kyrgyz SSR cut off the eastern end of the Fergana
Fergana
Valley, as well as the slopes surrounding it. This was compounded in 1928 when the Tajik ASSR
Tajik ASSR
became a fully-fledged republic, and the area around Khujand
Khujand
was made a part of it. This blocked the valley's natural outlet and the routes to Samarkand
Samarkand
and Bukhara, but none of these borders was of any great significance so long as Soviet rule lasted. The whole region was part of a single economy geared to cotton production on a massive scale, and the overarching political structures meant that crossing borders was not a problem. With the breakup of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1991 and the establishment of independent republics, borders have been strongly enforced. Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
regularly closes its borders with Tajikistan
Tajikistan
and Kyrgyzstan, strangling trade and causing immense difficulties for those who live in the region. People in the Tajikistan
Tajikistan
city of Khujand
Khujand
travelling to the Tajik capital of Dushanbe, unable to take the more direct route through Uzbekistan, have to cross a high mountain pass between the two cities instead, along a terrible road. Communications between the Kyrgyzstan cities of Bishkek
Bishkek
and Osh
Osh
pass through difficult mountainous country Ethnic tensions also flared into riots in 1990, most notably in the town of Uzgen, near Osh. There has been no further ethnic violence, and things appeared to have quieted down for several years.[17] However, the valley is a religiously conservative region which was particularly hard-hit by President Karimov's secularization legislation in Uzbekistan, together with his decision to close the borders with Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
in 2003. This devastated the local economy by preventing the importation of cheap Chinese consumer goods. The deposition of Askar Akayev in Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
in April 2005, coupled with the arrest of a group of prominent local businessmen brought underlying tensions to a boil in the region around Andijan
Andijan
and Qorasuv during the May 2005 unrest in Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
in which hundreds of protestors were killed by troops. There was violence again in 2010 in the Kyrgyz part of the valley, heated by ethnic tensions, worsening economic conditions due to the global economic crisis, and political conflict over the ouster of Kyrgyz President Kurmanbek Bakiyev
Kurmanbek Bakiyev
in April 2010. In June 2010, about 200 people have been reported to be killed during clashes in Osh
Osh
and Jalal-Abad, and 2000 more were injured.[18] Between 100,000 and 300,000 refugees, predominantly of Uzbek ethnic origin, attempted to flee to Uzbekistan, causing a major humanitarian crisis.[citation needed] Agriculture[edit]

Confluence of Naryn and Kara Darya
Kara Darya
seen from space (false color). Many irrigated agricultural fields can be seen.

In Tsarist
Tsarist
times, out of some 3,000,000 acres (12,000 km2) of cultivated land, about two thirds were under constant irrigation and the remaining third under partial irrigation. The soil was considered by the author of the 1911 Britannica article to be admirably cultivated, the principal crops having been cotton, wheat, rice, barley, maize, millet, lucerne, tobacco, vegetables and fruit. Gardening was conducted with a high degree of skill and success. Large numbers of horses, cattle and sheep were kept, and a good many camels are bred. Over 17,000 acres (69 km2) were planted with vines, and some 350,000 acres (1,400 km2) were under cotton. Nearly 1,000,000 acres (4,000 km2) were covered with forests. The government maintained a forestry farm at Marghelan, from which 120,000 to 200,000 young trees were distributed free every year amongst the inhabitants of the province. Silkworm
Silkworm
breeding, formerly a prosperous industry, had decayed, despite the encouragement of a state farm at New Marghelan. Industry[edit] Coal, iron, sulfur, gypsum, rock-salt, and naphtha are all known to exist, but only the last two have ever been extracted in significant quantities. In the late 19th century there were a few small oil-wells in Fergana, but these no longer function. In the Tsarist
Tsarist
period the only industrial enterprises were some seventy or eighty factories engaged in cotton cleaning. Leather, saddlery, paper and cutlery were the principal products of the domestic or cottage industries. This was not greatly added to in Soviet times, when industrialisation was concentrated in the cities of Samarkand
Samarkand
and Bukhara.[citation needed] Trade[edit] Historically the Fergana
Fergana
Valley
Valley
was an important staging-post on the Silk Road
Silk Road
for goods and people traveling from China to the Middle East and Europe. After crossing the passes from Kashgar
Kashgar
in Xinjiang, traders would have found welcome relief in the fertile abundance of Fergana, as well as the possibility of purchasing further high-quality silk manufactured in Margilan. The most famous export from the region were the 'blood-sweating' Heavenly Horses which so captured the imagination of the Chinese during the Han dynasty, but in fact these were almost certainly bred on the Steppe, either west of Bukhara
Bukhara
or north of Tashkent, and merely brought to Fergana
Fergana
for sale. In the 19th century, not surprisingly, a considerable trade carried on with Russia; raw cotton, raw silk, tobacco, hides, sheepskins, fruit and cotton and leather goods were exported, and manufactured wares, textiles, tea and sugar were imported and in part re-exported to Kashgaria
Kashgaria
and Bokhara. The total trade of Fergana
Fergana
reached an annual value of nearly £3.5 million in 1911. Nowadays it suffers from the same depression that affects all trade that either originates in or has to pass through Uzbekistan. The only significant international export is cotton, although the Daewoo plant in Andizhan sends cars all over Uzbekistan.[citation needed] Transport[edit]

The Syr Darya river
Syr Darya river
bridge at Khujand, Tajikistan, in the far west of the Fergana
Fergana
Valley.

Until the late 19th century, Fergana, like everywhere else in Central Asia, was dependent on the camel, horse and donkey for transport, while roads were few and bad. The Russians
Russians
built a trakt or post-road linking Andijan, Kokand, Margilan
Margilan
and Khujand
Khujand
with Samarkand
Samarkand
and Tashkent
Tashkent
in the early 1870s. A new impulse was given to trade by the extension (1898) of the Transcaspian railway
Transcaspian railway
into Fergana
Fergana
as far as Andijan, and by the opening of the Orenburg- Tashkent
Tashkent
or Trans-Aral Railway in (1906). Until Soviet times and the construction of the Pamir Highway
Pamir Highway
from Osh to Khorog
Khorog
in the 1920s the routes to Kashgaria
Kashgaria
and the Pamirs were mere bridle-paths over the mountains, crossing them by lofty passes. For instance, the passes of Kara-kazyk, 4,389 m (14,400 ft) and Tenghiz-bai 3,413 m (11,200 ft), both passable all the year round, lead from Marghelan
Marghelan
to Karateghin and the Pamirs, while Kashgar is reached via Osh
Osh
and Gulcha, and then over the passes of Terek-davan, 3,720 m (12,205 ft); (open all the year round), Taldyk, 3,505 m (11,500 ft), Archat, 3,536 m (11,600 ft), and Shart-davan, 4,267 m (14,000 ft). Other passes leading out of the valley are the Jiptyk, 3,798 m (12,460 ft), S. of Kokand; the Isfairam, 3,657 m (12,000 ft), leading to the glen of the Surkhab, and the Kavuk, 3,962 m (13,000 ft), across the Alai Mountains. The Angren-Pap railway line
Angren-Pap railway line
was completed in 2016 (together with the Kamchiq Tunnel), giving the region a direct railroad connection to the rest of Uzbekistan. The Pap-Namangan-Andijon railway line is going to be electrified.[19] Historical demography[edit] The information contained in the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
gives the full information from the 1897 census, the only one held in the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
before 1917, and helps illuminate a situation rendered obscure by the vagaries of Soviet Nationalities policy in the 1920s and 1930s. The population numbered 1,571,243 in 1897, and of that number 707,132 were women and 286,369 were urban. The population was estimated at 1,796,500 in 1906; two-thirds were Sarts and Uzbek. They lived mostly in the valley, while the mountain slopes above it were occupied by Kyrgyz, partly nomadic and pastoral, partly agricultural and settled. The other nations were Kashgarians, Kipchaks, Bukharan Jews
Bukharan Jews
and Gypsies. The governing classes were of course Russians, who constituted also the merchants and industrial working class, such as it was. But the merchants of West Turkestan were called all over Central Asia Andijanis, from the town of Andijan in Fergana. The great mass of the population are Muslims (1,039,115 in 1897). The divisions revealed by the 1897 census, between a largely Tajik-speaking area around Khuhand, hill-regions populated by Kyrgyz and a settled, population in the main body of the valley, roughly reflect the borders as drawn after 1924. One exception is the town of Osh, which had a majority Uzbek population but ended up in Kyrgyzstan. The one significant element that is missing when looking at modern accounts of the region are the Sarts. This term Sart
Sart
was abolished by the Soviets as derogatory, but in fact there was a clear distinction between long-settled, Persianised Turkic peoples, speaking a form of Qarluq Turkic that is very close to Uyghur, and those who called themselves Uzbeks, who were a Kipchak tribe speaking a Turkic dialect much closer to Kazakh, who arrived in the region with Shaibani Khan
Shaibani Khan
in the mid-16th century.[citation needed] That this difference existed and was felt in Fergana
Fergana
is attested to in Timur
Timur
Beisembiev's recent translation of the Life of Alimqul (London, 2003).[citation needed] There were few Kipchak- Uzbeks
Uzbeks
in Fergana, although they had at various times held political power in the region. In 1924, however, Soviet policy decreed that all settled Turks in Central Asia would thenceforth be known as "Uzbeks," (although the language chosen for the new Republic was not Kipchak but Qarluq) and the Fergana
Fergana
Valley
Valley
is now seen as an Uzbek heartland.[citation needed] Administrative divisions[edit] In 1911, the province was divided into five districts, the chief towns of which were Fergana, capital of the province (8,977 inhabitants in 1897); Andijan
Andijan
(49,682 in 1900); Kokand
Kokand
(86,704 in 1900); Namangan (61,906 in 1897); and Osh
Osh
(37,397 in 1900); but Old Marghelan
Marghelan
(42,855 in 1900) and Chust (13,686 in 1897) were also towns of importance. The Valley
Valley
is now divided between Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
and Tajikistan. In Tajikistan
Tajikistan
it is part of Soghd Region or vilayat, with the capital at Khujand. In Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
it is divided between the Namangan, Andijan
Andijan
and Fergana
Fergana
viloyati, while in Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
it contains parts of Batken, Jalal-abad
Jalal-abad
and Osh
Osh
oblasts, with Osh
Osh
being the main town for the southern part of the country.[citation needed] Cities in the Fergana
Fergana
Valley
Valley
include: In Uzbekistan:

Andijan Fergana Kokand Namangan

In Kyrgyzstan:

Batken Osh Jalal-Abad

In Tajikistan:

Khujand

Regions wholly or partially within the Fergana
Fergana
Valley[edit]

Country Region Capital Area (km²) Pop. Wholly within the Valley

Kyrgyzstan Batken Batken 17,000 469,700 No

Jalal-Abad Jalal-Abad 33,700 1,099,000 No

Osh
Osh
City Osh 50 265,200 Yes

Osh
Osh
Region Osh 29,200 1,199,900 No

Tajikistan Sughd Khujand 25,400 2,349,000 No

Uzbekistan Andijan Andijan 4,303 2,805,000 Yes

Fergana Fergana 7,005 3,386,000 Yes

Namangan Namangan 7,101 2,504,000 Yes

Totals:

1,23,759 14,000,000

Notes: 1). The bulk of the population of every region lies in the valley, despite the land area. 2). Population references for 2014 by respective national agencies. (Kyrghyz)[20](Uzbek),[21](Tajikistan 2013)[22] Border disputes[edit] The most complicated border negotiations in the Central Asia region involve the Fergana
Fergana
Valley
Valley
where multiple enclaves struggle to exist. Three countries share in the tangled border region; Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
and Tajikistan
Tajikistan
all have historic and economic claims to the region's transport routes and natural resources. Negotiations between the three countries are often tense and are prone to break down.[23] After the collapse of the Soviet Union, border negotiations left substantial Uzbek populations stranded outside of Uzbekistan. In south-western Kyrgyzstan, a conflict over land between Kyrgyz and Uzbeks
Uzbeks
exploded in 1990 into large-scale ethnic violence (reoccurring in 2010). By establishing political units on a mono-ethnic basis in a region where various peoples have historically lived side by side, the Soviet process of national delimitation sowed the seeds of today's inter-ethnic tensions.[24] Conflicts over water have contributed to border disputes. For instance, the border between Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
and Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
in Jalal-Abad Region is kept open in a limited way to help irrigation, however inter-ethnic disputes in border regions often turn into national border disputes. Even during the summer there are border conflicts over water, as there is not enough to share.[25] See also[edit]

Barak Great Fergana
Fergana
Canal Kayragach Kipchaks Meskhetian Turks Mount Imeon Pamir Mountains Shohimardon Silk
Silk
Road Vorukh Yaghnob Valley

Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
portal

Notes[edit]

^ grida.no: topography and hydrography of the Ferghana valley. ^ " Petroleum
Petroleum
Potential of Fergana
Fergana
Intermontane Basin". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on October 27, 2009. Retrieved 2014-03-26.  ^ Independent Sogdiana: Lane Fox (1973, 1986:533) notes Quintus Curtius, vi.3.9: with no satrap to rule them, they were under the command of Bessus
Bessus
at Gaugamela, according to Arrian, iii.8.3. ^ "The province of Sogdia was to Asia what Macedonia was to Greece: a buffer between a brittle civilization and the restless barbarians beyond, whether the Scyths of Alexander's day and later or the White Huns, Turks and Mongols
Mongols
who eventually poured south to wreck the thin veneer of Iranian society" (Robin Lane Fox, Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
(1973) 1986:301). ^ Strabo, XI.XI.I ^ Bernard, P. (1994a): "Alexander and his successors in Central Asia." In: History of civilizations of Central Asia, Volume II. The development of sedentary and nomadic civilizations: 700 B.C. to A.D. 250, pp. 88–97. Harmatta, János, ed., 1994. Paris: UNESCO Publishing. ^ The Megalithic Portal and Megalith Map. " Silk
Silk
Road, North China, C. Michael Hogan, the Megalithic Portal, ed. Andy Burnham". Megalithic.co.uk. Retrieved 2014-03-26.  ^ Hill, John E. (2009). Through the Jade Gate to Rome: A Study of the Silk
Silk
Routes during the Later Han Dynasty, First to Second Centuries CE. BookSurge. ISBN 978-1-4392-2134-1.  pp. 29, 318–350 ^ Shouyi Bai et al. (2003). A History of Chinese Muslim
Muslim
(Vol.2). Beijing: Zhonghua Book Company. ISBN 7-101-02890-X. ^ Ahmad Hasan Dani (1999). History of Civilizations of Central Asia: The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. pp. 274–280. ISBN 978-81-208-1540-7.  ^ "Timur", The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2001-05 Columbia University Press, (LINK) ^ "Consolidation & expansion of the Indo-Timurids", in Encyclopædia Britannica, (LINK) ^ B. Spuler, "Central Asia in the Mongol and Timurid periods", published in Encyclopædia Iranica, Online Edition, 2006/7, (LINK Archived 2009-02-24 at the Wayback Machine.): "... Like his father, Olōğ Beg was entirely integrated into the Persian Islamic cultural circles, and during his reign Persian predominated as the language of high culture, a status that it retained in the region of Samarqand until the Russian revolution 1917 [...] Ḥoseyn Bāyqarā encouraged the development of Persian literature and literary talent in every way possible ..." ^ David J. Roxburgh. The Persian Album, 1400-1600: From Dispersal to Collection. Yale University Press, 2005. pg 130: "Persian literature, especially poetry, occupied a central in the process of assimilation of Timurid elite to the Perso-Islamicate courtly culture, and so it is not surprising to find Baysanghur commissioned a new edition of Firdawsi's Shanama ^ Rashid, Ahmed. (2002). Jihad: The Rise of Militant Islam in Central Asia. New York: Yale University Press ^ "Uzbekistan". Hunmagyar. Retrieved 12 June 2013.  ^ Weisbrode, K. (2001) Central Eurasia -- Prize or Quicksand? Oxford University Press, pp 46-48. ^ "United Nations News Centre - UN asks for $71 million in relief appeal after ethnic violence in Kyrgyzstan". Un.org. Retrieved 2014-03-26.  ^ http://www.railwaygazette.com/news/news/asia/single-view/view/adb-loan-for-fergana-valley-electrification.html ^ "Kyrgyzstan". Retrieved 26 October 2014.  ^ "Uzbekistan". Retrieved 26 October 2014.  ^ "Tajikistan". Retrieved 26 October 2014.  ^ "Central Asia: Border Disputes and Conflict Potential". International Crisis Group. Archived from the original on 14 August 2014. Retrieved 14 August 2014.  ^ "U.S. ONLINE TRAINING FOR OSCE" (PDF). Retrieved 19 August 2014.  ^ International Crisis Group. "Water Pressures in Central Asia", CrisisGroup.org. 11 September 2014; retrieved 6 October 2014.

Sources[edit] By Russian turcologist Vasily Bartold:

"Sart" Encyclopaedia of Islam Vol. IV S-Z (Leiden & London) 1934 "Фергана" Работы по Исторической Географии (Moscow) 2002 pp527–539 (Also available in English in Vol. II of the original edition of the Encyclopaedia of Islam)

Other authors:

Rahmon Nabiyev, Из История Кокандского Ханства (Феодальное Хозяйство Худояр-Хана), Tashkent, 1973 Beisembiev T.K. "Ta'rikh-i SHakhrukhi" kak istoricheskii istochnik. Alma Ata: Nauka, 1987. 200 p. Summaries in English and French. S. Soodanbekov, Общественный и Государственный Строй Кокандского Ханства, Bishkek, 2000 Beisembiev T. K. Kokandskaia istoriografiia : Issledovanie po istochnikovedeniiu Srednei Azii XVIII-XIX vekov. Almaty, TOO "PrintS", 2009, 1263 pp., ISBN 9965-482-84-5. Beisembiev T. "Annotated indices to the Kokand
Kokand
Chronicles". Tokyo: Research Institute for Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies. Studia Culturae Islamica. № 91, 2008, 889 pp., ISBN 978-4-86337-001-2. Beisembiev T. "The Life of Alimqul: A Native Chronicle of Nineteenth Century Central Asia". Published 2003. Routledge (UK), 280 pages, ISBN 0-7007-1114-7.

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Ferghana Valley.

Ferghana.Ru Information Agency Satellite picture by Google Maps Fine arts of Fergana
Fergana
Valley
Valley
and Uzbekistan Enclaves of the World

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Kropotkin, Peter; Bealby, John (1911). "Ferghana". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 10 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 270–271.  Coordinates: 40°44′24″N 72°37′48″E / 40.74000°N 72.63000°E /

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