Valley (alternatively Farghana or Ferghana; Uzbek:
Farg‘ona vodiysi, Фарғона водийси, فەرغانە
ۉادىيسى; Kyrgyz: Фергана өрөөнү, Ferğana
öröönü, فەرعانا ۅرۅۅنۉ [ɸerɢɑnɑ ørøːny];
Tajik: Водии Фарғона, Vodiyi Farğona / Vodiji Farƣona;
Russian: Ферганская долина, Ferganskaja dolina;
Persian: وادی فرغانه, Vâdiye Ferqâna; Dungan:
Фыйрганна Пенды, Xiao'erjing: فِ عَر قًا نَ
پٌ دِ) is a valley in Central Asia spread across eastern
Kyrgyzstan and northern Tajikistan.
Divided into three republics of the former Soviet Union, the valley is
ethnically diverse and in the early 21st century was the scene of
ethnic conflict. A large triangular valley in what is an often dry
part of Central Asia, the
Fergana owes its fertility to two rivers,
the Naryn and the Kara Darya, which run from the east, joining near
Namangan, forming the
Syr Darya river. The valley's history stretches
back over 2300 years, when its population was conquered by
Greco-Bactrian invaders from the west.
Chinese chroniclers date its towns to more than 2,100 years ago, as a
path between Greek, Chinese, Bactrian and Parthian civilisations. It
was home to Babur, founder of the Mughal Dynasty, tying the region to
Afghanistan and South Asia. The
Russian Empire conquered the
valley at the end of the 19th century, and it became part of the
Soviet Union in the 1920s. Its three Soviet republics gained
independence in 1991. The area largely remains Muslim, populated by
ethnic Uzbek, Tajik and Kyrgyz people, often intermixed and not
matching modern borders. Historically there have also been substantial
numbers of Russian, Kashgarians, Kipchaks,
Bukharan Jews and Romani
Mass cotton cultivation, introduced by the Soviets, remains central to
the economy, along with a wide range of grains, fruits and vegetables.
There is a long history of stock breeding, leatherwork and a growing
mining sector, including deposits of coal, iron, sulfur, gypsum,
rock-salt, naphtha and some small known oil reserves.
1 Geography and geology
3.1 Achaemenid Empire
3.2 Hellenistic settlement
3.3 Interaction with China
3.4 Bactrian, Kushan, Sassanid, Hepthalite, Chinese and Gokturk rules
3.5 Islamic influence
3.6 Samanid, Karakhanid and Khwarezmid rules
3.7 Mongol–Turkic rule
3.8 Russian Empire
3.9 Soviet and post-Soviet periods
8 Historical demography
9 Administrative divisions
9.1 Regions wholly or partially within the
10 Border disputes
11 See also
14 External links
Geography and geology
Valley on map showing Sakastan about 100BC
Valley is an intermountain depression in Central Asia,
between the mountain systems of the Tien-Shan in the north and the
Gissar-Alai in the south. The valley is approximately 300 kilometres
(190 mi) long and up to 70 kilometres (43 mi) wide, forming
an area covering 22,000 square kilometres (8,500 sq mi). Its
position makes it a separate geographic zone. The valley owes its
fertility to two rivers, the Naryn and the Kara Darya, which unite in
the valley, near Namangan, to form the Syr Darya. Numerous other
tributaries of these rivers exist in the valley including the Sokh
River. The streams, and their numerous mountain effluents, not only
supply water for irrigation, but also bring down vast quantities of
sand, which is deposited alongside their courses, more especially
Syr Darya where it cuts its way through the Khujand-Ajar
ridge and forms the valley. This expanse of quicksand, covering an
area of 1,900 km2 (750 sq mi), under the influence of
south-west winds, encroaches upon the agricultural districts.
The central part of the geological depression that forms the valley is
characterized by block subsidence, originally to depths estimated at 6
to 7 kilometres (3.7 to 4.3 mi), largely filled with sediments
that range in age as far back as the Permian-Triassic boundary. Some
of the sediments are marine carbonates and clays. The faults are
upthrusts and overthrusts. Anticlines associated with these faults
form traps for petroleum and natural gas, which has been discovered in
52 small fields.
The climate of this valley is dry and warm. In March the temperature
reaches 20 °C (68 °F), and then rapidly rises to
35 °C (95 °F) in June, July and August. During the five
months following April precipitation is rare, but increases in
frequency starting in October. Snow and frost, down to -20 °C
(-4 °F) occurs in December and January.
Part of a series on the
History of Tajikistan
Early modern history
As early as 500 BC, the western sections of the
part of the
Sogdiana region, which was ruled from further west and
owed fealty to the
Achaemenid Empire at the time of Darius the Great.
The independent and warlike Sogdiana formed a border region
insulating the Achaemenid Persians from the nomadic
Scythians to the
north and east. The Sogdian Rock or Rock of Ariamazes, a fortress
in Sogdiana, was captured in 327 BC by the forces of Alexander the
Great; after an extended campaign putting down Sogdian resistance and
founding military outposts manned by his Greek veterans, Alexander
Bactria into one satrapy.
Main article: Dayuan
Probable Greek soldier in the Sampul tapestry, woollen wall hanging,
3rd-2nd century BC, Sampul,
In 329 BC,
Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great founded a Greek settlement with the
Alexandria Eschate "The Furthest", in the southwestern part of
Fergana Valley, on the southern bank of the river Syr Darya
(ancient Jaxartes), at the location of the modern city of Khujand, in
the state of Tajikistan. It was later ruled by
secession of Bactria.
After 250 BC, the city probably remained in contact with the
Greco-Bactrian Kingdom centered on Bactria, especially when the
Greco-Bactrian king Euthydemus extended his control to Sogdiana. There
are indications that from
Alexandria Eschate the Greco-
have led expeditions as far as
Ürümqi in Chinese
Turkestan, leading to the first known contacts between China and the
West around 220 BC. Several statuettes and representations of Greek
soldiers have been found north of the Tien Shan, on the doorstep to
China, and are today on display in the
Xinjiang museum at Urumqi
(Boardman). Of the Greco-Bactrians, the Greek historian
they extended their empire even as far as the
Seres (Chinese) and the
Fergana area, called
Dayuan by the Chinese, remained an integral
part of the
Greco-Bactrian Kingdom until after the time of Demetrius I
Bactria (c. 120 BC), when confronted with invasions by the Yuezhi
from the east and the
Scythians from the south. After 155 BC,
Yuezhi were pushed into
Fergana by neighbors from the north and
Yuezhi invaded urban civilization of the
Dayuan in Fergana,
eventually settling on the northern bank of the Oxus, in the region of
Transoxiana, in modern-day
Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, just north of
Greco-Bactrian kingdom. The Greek city of Alexandria
Oxus was apparently burnt to the ground by the
145 BC. Pushed by these twin forces, the
reoriented itself around lands in what is now Afghanistan, while the
new invaders were partially assimilated into the Hellenistic culture
Interaction with China
According to the
Records of the Grand Historian
Records of the Grand Historian or Shiji,
based on the travels of
Zhang Qian and published around 126 BC, the
Fergana is presented as the country of the
possibly descendants of Greeks colonists (
Dayuan may be a
transliteration of "Great Ionians"). The area was renowned for its
Heavenly Horses, which the Chinese tried to obtain from the Dayuan
with little success until they waged war against them in 104 BC.
Dayuan were identified by the Chinese as unusual in features, with
a sophisticated urban civilization, similar to that of the Bactrians
and Parthians: "The Son of Heaven on hearing all this reasoned thus:
Fergana (Dayuan) and the possessions of
Parthia are large
countries, full of rare things, with a population living in fixed
abodes and given to occupations somewhat identical with those of the
Chinese people, but with weak armies, and placing great value on the
rich produce of China" (Book of the Later Han).
Agricultural activities of the
Dayuan reported by
Zhang Qian included
cultivation of grain and grapes for wine-making. The area of
Fergana was thus the theater of the first major interaction between an
urbanized culture speaking
Indo-European languages and the Chinese
civilization, which led to the opening up the
Silk Road from the 1st
century BC onwards.
Bactrian, Kushan, Sassanid, Hepthalite, Chinese and Gokturk
Ancient cities of Bactria. Fergana, to the top right, formed a
periphery to these less powerful cities and states.
Fergana, on the route to the Chinese
Tarim Basin from the west,
remained at the boundaries of a number of classical era empires. The
Kushan Empire formed from the same
Yuezhi who had conquered the
Hellenistic Fergana. The Kushan spread out in the 1st century AD from
Yuezhi confederation in the territories of ancient
Bactria on either
side of the middle course of the
Oxus River or
Amu Darya in what is
now northern Afghanistan, and southern
Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.
The Kushan conquered most of what is now northern India and Pakistan,
driving east through
Fergana into the
Tarim Basin against the Chinese.
Kushan power also consolidated long distance trade, linking Central
Asia to both
Han Dynasty China and the
Roman Empire in Europe. The
Kushans ruled the area as part of their larger empire until the 3rd
century AD, when the
Sassanid Empire invaded
Kushan territory from the southwest.
Fergana remained under shifting
local and Transoxian rulers thereafter. For periods in the 4th and 5th
Sassanid Empire directly controlled
Fergana, led by the conquests of
Shapur II and
Khosrau I against the
Kushans and the Hephthalite Empire. Sassanid rule of
interrupted by Hepthalites and was ended by
Gokturks in mid of 6th
Gokturks ruled it until first quarter of 8th century except
Chinese rule between 659 and 681.
During the 8th century,
Fergana was the location of fierce rivalry
Tang dynasty China and the expansion of
Muslim power, leading
Battle of Talas
Battle of Talas in 751, which resulted in a victory for the
Muslims and the disengagement of China from Central Asia. Two
antecedent battles in 715 and 717 had seen the Chinese prevail over
Arab forces. A series of Arab, Persian, and later Turkic Muslim
rulers reigned over the Fergana.
The tomb of Ali at Shakhimardan
Samanid, Karakhanid and Khwarezmid rules
Samanid Empire, rising from the Arab
Muslim conquest of Persia,
pushed into what was then called Greater Khorasan, including
Transoxiana and the
Valley from the West. In 819, Ahmad ibn
Asad—son of Asad ibn Saman—was granted authority over the city of
Fergana by Caliph Al-Ma'mun's governor of Khorasan, Ghassan ibn
'Abbad, as a reward for his support against the rebel Rafi' ibn Laith.
Following the death of his brother Nuh, who ruled in Samarkand, Ahmad
and another brother Yahya were given rule over the city by Abdallah,
the governor of Khurasan.
By the time of Ahmad's death in 864 or 865, he was the ruler of most
Bukhara and Khwarazm.
Fergana went to
his son, Nasr I of Samanid, leading to a series of
Muslim rulers of the valley. During demise of Samanids in 10th
Valley was conquered by Karakhanids. Eastern part of
Fergana later was under suzerenaity of Karakhitays. Karakhanid rule
lasted till 1212, when Khwarezmshahs conquered the western part of the
Turco-Mongol founder of the Mughal dynasty, was a native of
Andijan in the
Genghis Khan invaded
Fergana in 1219
during his conquest of Khwarazm. Before his death in 1227, he assigned
the lands of Western Central Asia to his second son Chagatai, and this
region became known as the Chagatai Khanate. But it was not long
before Transoxian Turkic leaders ruled the area, along with most of
central Asia as fiefs from the
Golden Horde of the Mongol Empire. The
Fergana became part of a larger
Turco-Mongol empire. This Mongolian
nomadic confederation known as Barlas, were remnants of the original
Mongol army of Genghis Khan. After the Mongol conquest of
Central Asia, the
Barlas settled in
Turkistan (which then became also
Moghulistan - "Land of Mongols") and intermingled to a
considerable degree with the local Turkic and Turkic-speaking
population, so that at the time of Timur's reign the
Barlas had become
thoroughly Turkicized in terms of language and habits. Additionally,
by adopting Islam, the Central Asian Turks and
Mongols also adopted
the Persian literary and high culture which had dominated Central
Asia since the early days of Islamic influence. Persian literature was
instrumental in the assimilation of the Timurid elite to the
Perso-Islamic courtly culture.
Heir to one of these confederations, Timur, founder of the Timurid
dynasty, added the valley to a newly consolidated empire in the late
14th century, ruling the area from Samarkand.
Located on the Northern
Silk Road, the
Fergana played a significant
part in the flowering of medieval Central Asian Islam. Its most famous
son is Babur, heir to
Timur and famous conqueror and founder of the
Mughal dynasty in
Medieval India. Islamic proselytizers from the
Valley such as al-Firghani الفرغاني, al-Andijani
الأندجاني, al-Namangani النمنگاني, al-Khojandi
الخوجندي spread Islam into parts of present-day Russia, China,
and South Asia.
Fergana valley was ruled by a series of
Muslim states in the
medieval period. For much of this period local and southwestern rulers
divided the valley into a series of small states. From the 16th
Shaybanid Dynasty of the
Fergana, replaced by the Janid Dynasty of
Bukhara in 1599. In 1709
Shaybanid emir Shahrukh of the Minglar
Uzbeks declared independence
Khanate of Bukhara, establishing a state in the eastern part
Fergana Valley. He built a citadel to be his capital in the
small town of Kokand. As the
Khanate of Kokand,
Kokand was capital of
a territory stretching over modern eastern
Uzbekistan and Tajikistan,
southern Kazakhstan and all of Kyrgyzstan.
Khan's Palace, Kokand.
Fergana or Ferghana was a province of Russian Turkestan, formed in
1876 out of the former khanate of Kokand. It was bounded by the
Syr-darya in the North and Northwest,
Samarkand in the
Zhetysu in the Northeast, by Chinese Turkestan (Kashgaria)
in the East, and by
Afghanistan in the South. Its southern
limits, in the Pamirs, were fixed by an Anglo-Russian commission in
Zorkul (Victoria Lake) to the Chinese frontier; and
Khignan, Roshan and
Wakhan were assigned to
Afghanistan in exchange
for part of Darvaz (on the left bank of the Panj), which was given to
Bukhara. The area amounted to some 53,000 km2
(20,463 sq mi), of which 17,600 km2
(6,795 sq mi) are in the Pamirs.
Not all the inhabitants of the area were happy with this state of
affairs. In 1898 Muhammed Ali Khalfa proclaimed a jihad against the
Russians. However, after about 20
Russians had been killed, Khalfa was
captured and executed. When the
1905 Revolution spread across the
Russian Empire, some Jadids were active in the
Fergana Valley. When
Tsarist regime extended the military draft to include Muslims,
this led to a revolt which was far more widespread than that of 1898,
and which was not entirely suppressed by the time of the Russian
Soviet and post-Soviet periods
Soviet negotiations with basmachi, Fergana, 1921
In 1924, the new boundaries separating the
Uzbek SSR and Kyrgyz SSR
cut off the eastern end of the
Fergana Valley, as well as the slopes
surrounding it. This was compounded in 1928 when the
Tajik ASSR became
a fully-fledged republic, and the area around
Khujand was made a part
of it. This blocked the valley's natural outlet and the routes to
Samarkand and Bukhara, but none of these borders was of any great
significance so long as Soviet rule lasted. The whole region was part
of a single economy geared to cotton production on a massive scale,
and the overarching political structures meant that crossing borders
was not a problem. With the breakup of the
Soviet Union in 1991 and
the establishment of independent republics, borders have been strongly
Uzbekistan regularly closes its borders with
Kyrgyzstan, strangling trade and causing immense difficulties for
those who live in the region.
People in the
Tajikistan city of
Khujand travelling to the Tajik
capital of Dushanbe, unable to take the more direct route through
Uzbekistan, have to cross a high mountain pass between the two cities
instead, along a terrible road. Communications between the Kyrgyzstan
Osh pass through difficult mountainous country
Ethnic tensions also flared into riots in 1990, most notably in the
town of Uzgen, near Osh. There has been no further ethnic violence,
and things appeared to have quieted down for several years.
However, the valley is a religiously conservative region which was
particularly hard-hit by President Karimov's secularization
legislation in Uzbekistan, together with his decision to close the
Kyrgyzstan in 2003. This devastated the local economy by
preventing the importation of cheap Chinese consumer goods. The
deposition of Askar Akayev in
Kyrgyzstan in April 2005, coupled with
the arrest of a group of prominent local businessmen brought
underlying tensions to a boil in the region around
Andijan and Qorasuv
during the May 2005 unrest in
Uzbekistan in which hundreds of
protestors were killed by troops. There was violence again in 2010 in
the Kyrgyz part of the valley, heated by ethnic tensions, worsening
economic conditions due to the global economic crisis, and political
conflict over the ouster of Kyrgyz President
Kurmanbek Bakiyev in
April 2010. In June 2010, about 200 people have been reported to be
killed during clashes in
Osh and Jalal-Abad, and 2000 more were
injured. Between 100,000 and 300,000 refugees, predominantly of
Uzbek ethnic origin, attempted to flee to Uzbekistan, causing a major
humanitarian crisis.
Confluence of Naryn and
Kara Darya seen from space (false color). Many
irrigated agricultural fields can be seen.
Tsarist times, out of some 3,000,000 acres (12,000 km2) of
cultivated land, about two thirds were under constant irrigation and
the remaining third under partial irrigation. The soil was considered
by the author of the 1911 Britannica article to be admirably
cultivated, the principal crops having been cotton, wheat, rice,
barley, maize, millet, lucerne, tobacco, vegetables and fruit.
Gardening was conducted with a high degree of skill and success. Large
numbers of horses, cattle and sheep were kept, and a good many camels
are bred. Over 17,000 acres (69 km2) were planted with vines, and
some 350,000 acres (1,400 km2) were under cotton.
Nearly 1,000,000 acres (4,000 km2) were covered with forests. The
government maintained a forestry farm at Marghelan, from which 120,000
to 200,000 young trees were distributed free every year amongst the
inhabitants of the province.
Silkworm breeding, formerly a prosperous
industry, had decayed, despite the encouragement of a state farm at
Coal, iron, sulfur, gypsum, rock-salt, and naphtha are all known to
exist, but only the last two have ever been extracted in significant
quantities. In the late 19th century there were a few small oil-wells
in Fergana, but these no longer function. In the
Tsarist period the
only industrial enterprises were some seventy or eighty factories
engaged in cotton cleaning. Leather, saddlery, paper and cutlery were
the principal products of the domestic or cottage industries. This was
not greatly added to in Soviet times, when industrialisation was
concentrated in the cities of
Samarkand and Bukhara.
Valley was an important staging-post on the
Silk Road for goods and people traveling from China to the Middle East
and Europe. After crossing the passes from
Kashgar in Xinjiang,
traders would have found welcome relief in the fertile abundance of
Fergana, as well as the possibility of purchasing further high-quality
silk manufactured in Margilan.
The most famous export from the region were the 'blood-sweating'
Heavenly Horses which so captured the imagination of the Chinese
during the Han dynasty, but in fact these were almost certainly bred
on the Steppe, either west of
Bukhara or north of Tashkent, and merely
Fergana for sale. In the 19th century, not surprisingly, a
considerable trade carried on with Russia; raw cotton, raw silk,
tobacco, hides, sheepskins, fruit and cotton and leather goods were
exported, and manufactured wares, textiles, tea and sugar were
imported and in part re-exported to
Kashgaria and Bokhara. The total
Fergana reached an annual value of nearly £3.5 million in
1911. Nowadays it suffers from the same depression that affects all
trade that either originates in or has to pass through Uzbekistan. The
only significant international export is cotton, although the Daewoo
plant in Andizhan sends cars all over Uzbekistan.
Syr Darya river
Syr Darya river bridge at Khujand, Tajikistan, in the far west of
Until the late 19th century, Fergana, like everywhere else in Central
Asia, was dependent on the camel, horse and donkey for transport,
while roads were few and bad. The
Russians built a trakt or post-road
linking Andijan, Kokand,
Tashkent in the early 1870s. A new impulse was given to trade by the
extension (1898) of the
Transcaspian railway into
Fergana as far as
Andijan, and by the opening of the Orenburg-
Tashkent or Trans-Aral
Railway in (1906).
Until Soviet times and the construction of the
Pamir Highway from Osh
Khorog in the 1920s the routes to
Kashgaria and the Pamirs were
mere bridle-paths over the mountains, crossing them by lofty passes.
For instance, the passes of Kara-kazyk, 4,389 m (14,400 ft) and
Tenghiz-bai 3,413 m (11,200 ft), both passable all the year
round, lead from
Karateghin and the Pamirs, while Kashgar
is reached via
Osh and Gulcha, and then over the passes of
Terek-davan, 3,720 m (12,205 ft); (open all the year round),
Taldyk, 3,505 m (11,500 ft), Archat, 3,536 m (11,600 ft),
and Shart-davan, 4,267 m (14,000 ft). Other passes leading out of
the valley are the Jiptyk, 3,798 m (12,460 ft), S. of Kokand; the
Isfairam, 3,657 m (12,000 ft), leading to the glen of the
Surkhab, and the Kavuk, 3,962 m (13,000 ft), across the Alai
Angren-Pap railway line
Angren-Pap railway line was completed in 2016 (together with the
Kamchiq Tunnel), giving the region a direct railroad connection to the
rest of Uzbekistan.
The Pap-Namangan-Andijon railway line is going to be electrified.
The information contained in the 1911
Encyclopædia Britannica gives
the full information from the 1897 census, the only one held in the
Russian Empire before 1917, and helps illuminate a situation rendered
obscure by the vagaries of Soviet Nationalities policy in the 1920s
and 1930s. The population numbered 1,571,243 in 1897, and of that
number 707,132 were women and 286,369 were urban.
The population was estimated at 1,796,500 in 1906; two-thirds were
Sarts and Uzbek. They lived mostly in the valley, while the mountain
slopes above it were occupied by Kyrgyz, partly nomadic and pastoral,
partly agricultural and settled. The other nations were Kashgarians,
Bukharan Jews and Gypsies. The governing classes were of
course Russians, who constituted also the merchants and industrial
working class, such as it was. But the merchants of West Turkestan
were called all over Central Asia Andijanis, from the town of Andijan
in Fergana. The great mass of the population are Muslims (1,039,115 in
The divisions revealed by the 1897 census, between a largely
Tajik-speaking area around Khuhand, hill-regions populated by Kyrgyz
and a settled, population in the main body of the valley, roughly
reflect the borders as drawn after 1924. One exception is the town of
Osh, which had a majority Uzbek population but ended up in Kyrgyzstan.
The one significant element that is missing when looking at modern
accounts of the region are the Sarts. This term
Sart was abolished by
the Soviets as derogatory, but in fact there was a clear distinction
between long-settled, Persianised Turkic peoples, speaking a form of
Qarluq Turkic that is very close to Uyghur, and those who called
themselves Uzbeks, who were a Kipchak tribe speaking a Turkic dialect
much closer to Kazakh, who arrived in the region with
Shaibani Khan in
the mid-16th century. That this difference existed
and was felt in
Fergana is attested to in
Timur Beisembiev's recent
translation of the Life of Alimqul (London, 2003).
There were few Kipchak-
Uzbeks in Fergana, although they had at various
times held political power in the region. In 1924, however, Soviet
policy decreed that all settled Turks in Central Asia would
thenceforth be known as "Uzbeks," (although the language chosen for
the new Republic was not Kipchak but Qarluq) and the
now seen as an Uzbek heartland.
In 1911, the province was divided into five districts, the chief towns
of which were Fergana, capital of the province (8,977 inhabitants in
Andijan (49,682 in 1900);
Kokand (86,704 in 1900); Namangan
(61,906 in 1897); and
Osh (37,397 in 1900); but Old
in 1900) and Chust (13,686 in 1897) were also towns of importance.
Valley is now divided between Uzbekistan,
Tajikistan it is part of Soghd Region or vilayat, with
the capital at Khujand. In
Uzbekistan it is divided between the
Fergana viloyati, while in
contains parts of Batken,
Osh oblasts, with
the main town for the southern part of the country.
Cities in the
Valley include: In Uzbekistan:
Regions wholly or partially within the
Wholly within the Valley
Notes: 1). The bulk of the population of every region lies in the
valley, despite the land area. 2). Population references for 2014 by
respective national agencies. (Kyrghyz)(Uzbek),(Tajikistan
The most complicated border negotiations in the Central Asia region
Valley where multiple enclaves struggle to exist.
Three countries share in the tangled border region; Uzbekistan,
Tajikistan all have historic and economic claims to the
region's transport routes and natural resources. Negotiations between
the three countries are often tense and are prone to break down.
After the collapse of the Soviet Union, border negotiations left
substantial Uzbek populations stranded outside of Uzbekistan. In
south-western Kyrgyzstan, a conflict over land between Kyrgyz and
Uzbeks exploded in 1990 into large-scale ethnic violence (reoccurring
in 2010). By establishing political units on a mono-ethnic basis in a
region where various peoples have historically lived side by side, the
Soviet process of national delimitation sowed the seeds of today's
Conflicts over water have contributed to border disputes. For
instance, the border between
Uzbekistan in Jalal-Abad
Region is kept open in a limited way to help irrigation, however
inter-ethnic disputes in border regions often turn into national
border disputes. Even during the summer there are border conflicts
over water, as there is not enough to share.
^ grida.no: topography and hydrography of the Ferghana valley.
Petroleum Potential of
Fergana Intermontane Basin".
Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on October 27, 2009.
^ Independent Sogdiana: Lane Fox (1973, 1986:533) notes Quintus
Curtius, vi.3.9: with no satrap to rule them, they were under the
Bessus at Gaugamela, according to Arrian, iii.8.3.
^ "The province of Sogdia was to Asia what Macedonia was to Greece: a
buffer between a brittle civilization and the restless barbarians
beyond, whether the Scyths of Alexander's day and later or the White
Huns, Turks and
Mongols who eventually poured south to wreck the thin
veneer of Iranian society" (Robin Lane Fox,
Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great (1973)
^ Strabo, XI.XI.I
^ Bernard, P. (1994a): "Alexander and his successors in Central Asia."
In: History of civilizations of Central Asia, Volume II. The
development of sedentary and nomadic civilizations: 700 B.C. to A.D.
250, pp. 88–97. Harmatta, János, ed., 1994. Paris: UNESCO
^ The Megalithic
Portal and Megalith Map. "
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Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Ferghana Valley.
Ferghana.Ru Information Agency
Satellite picture by Google Maps
Fine arts of
Valley and Uzbekistan
Enclaves of the World
This article incorporates text from a publication now in
the public domain: Kropotkin, Peter; Bealby, John (1911).
"Ferghana". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 10 (11th
ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 270–271.
Coordinates: 40°44′24″N 72°37′48″E / 40.74000°N