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Fürth
Fürth
(German pronunciation: [fʏʁt] ( listen); East Franconian: Färdd; Yiddish: פיורדא‎, Fiurda) is a city in northern Bavaria, Germany, in the administrative division (Regierungsbezirk[2]) of Middle Franconia. It is now contiguous with the larger city of Nuremberg, the centres of the two cities being only 7 km apart. Fürth
Fürth
is one of 23 "major centres" in Bavaria. Fürth, Nuremberg, Erlangen
Erlangen
and some smaller towns form the "Middle Franconian Conurbation", which is one of the 11 German metropolitan regions. Fürth
Fürth
celebrated its thousandth anniversary in 2007, its first mention being on 1 November 1007.

Contents

1 Geography

1.1 Neighbouring municipalities 1.2 Parts of town

2 History

2.1 Expansion 2.2 Population development

3 Religions

3.1 Christianity 3.2 Judaism

4 Nature 5 Politics

5.1 Coat of arms 5.2 Administration

6 International relations 7 Economy and infrastructure

7.1 Transport

7.1.1 Airports 7.1.2 Rail 7.1.3 Water transport 7.1.4 Local public transport

7.2 Media 7.3 Companies in Fürth 7.4 Education 7.5 Municipal amenities

8 Culture and sights

8.1 Theatre 8.2 Pubs, restaurants, shopping etc.

9 Sights

9.1 Monuments 9.2 Museums 9.3 Churches 9.4 Secular buildings 9.5 Parks 9.6 Regular events 9.7 Prizes awarded by the town of Fürth

10 Sport and leisure

10.1 Sport 10.2 Leisure

11 Notable people associated with Fürth 12 Notes 13 Sources 14 Further reading 15 Literature (in German) 16 Literature (in English) 17 External links

Geography[edit]

City Hall, seen from the Schwabacher Straße

The historic centre of the town is to the east and south of the rivers Rednitz
Rednitz
and Pegnitz, which join to form the Regnitz
Regnitz
to the northwest of the Old Town. To the west of the town, on the far side of the Main-Danube Canal, is the Fürth
Fürth
municipal forest (Fürther Stadtwald). To the east of Fürth, at roughly the same latitude, lies Nuremberg, and to the north is the fertile market-gardening area known as the Knoblauchsland (garlic country), some of which is within the borders of the urban district of Fürth. To the south of the town is an area consisting of wide roads, the canal, and meadows. Neighbouring municipalities[edit] The following towns and municipalities share borders with Fürth; they are listed in clockwise order, starting in the north: Erlangen
Erlangen
and Nuremberg, which are independent urban districts; Stein, Oberasbach, Zirndorf, Cadolzburg, Seukendorf, Veitsbronn, and Obermichelbach, which are municipalities within the rural district (Landkreis) of Fürth. Parts of town[edit] Beyond the town proper, the urban district comprises another 20 localities:

Atzenhof Bislohe Braunsbach bei Fürth Burgfarrnbach Dambach Flexdorf Herboldshof Kronach Mannhof Oberfürberg Poppenreuth Ritzmannshof Ronhof Sack Stadeln Steinach Unterfarrnbach Unterfürberg Vach Weikershof

History[edit]

Bond of the City of Fürth, issued 30. December 1903

The first mention of the settlement of Fürth, which had probably already existed for some time, was in a document dated 1 November 1007, in which the Emperor Heinrich II donated his property in Fürth to the newly created Bishopric of Bamberg.[3] The name "Fürth" derives from the German word for "ford", as the first settlements originated around a ford. In the following years, Fürth
Fürth
was granted market privileges, but these were later lost to the neighbouring Nuremberg, under Heinrich III. From 1062 onward, Fürth
Fürth
was again permitted to have a market, but by that time Nuremberg
Nuremberg
was already the more important town. In the following centuries, the town was under varying authority, involving the Bishopric of Bamberg, the Principality of Ansbach
Principality of Ansbach
and the City of Nuremberg. For a long time, the character of the settlement remained largely agricultural, and in 1600 the population was probably still only between 1000 and 2000. In the Thirty Years War, Fürth
Fürth
was almost completely destroyed by fire. In 1835, the first German railway was opened between Nuremberg
Nuremberg
and Fürth. Throughout the Cold War, Fürth
Fürth
had a significant NATO
NATO
presence, especially the U.S. Army, due to its proximity to both the East German and Czech borders. Expansion[edit] In the course of time, a number of municipalities or other administrative divisions were integrated into the urban district of Fürth:

1 January 1899: the western part of the municipality of Höfen, including Weikershof (to the south of the Schwabacher Straße) 1 January 1900: the municipality of Poppenreuth (to the east of the historic centre of the city, on the far side of the river Pegnitz) 1 January 1901: the municipality of Dambach (to the west of the current Südstadt (South Town), as well as Unterfürberg and Oberfürberg 1 January 1918: Atzenhof (to the north-west, on the right bank of the River Zenn between Unterfarrnbach and Vach) 1 January 1918: the municipality of Unterfarrnbach (to the west, on the bank of the river Farrnbach) 3 December 1923: the municipality of Burgfarrnbach (to the north-west, on the far side of the canal, not contiguous with Fürth
Fürth
proper) 1 July 1927: the municipality of Ronhof, and Kronach[4] 1 July 1972: the municipality of Sack, including Bislohe, which is north of the Knoblauchsland and is not separately listed in official documents.[5] 1 July 1972: the municipality of Stadeln[5] 1 July 1972: the municipality of Vach[5] (to the north of Fürth, north of the river Zenn and west of river Regnitz 1 July 1972: Herboldshof and Steinach, previously parts of the municipality of Boxdorf [5]

Population development[edit]

Population trend

In the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and early Renaissance, the population of Fürth grew slowly, owing to the numerous wars, epidemics and famines. In the Thirty Years War, the town lost about half its population. When Croatian soldiers set fire to Fürth
Fürth
in 1634, it burned for several days, and was almost completely destroyed. At the end of the war, the population was a mere 800. In 1685, Reformed Christians from France, or Huguenots, settled in Fürth. By 1700 the restoration of the town had been completed, and the population rose to about 6000. With the beginning of industrialization in the 19th century, the population began to increase rapidly. In 1800 Fürth
Fürth
had a population of 12,000; by 1895 it had multiplied fourfold to 47,000. In 1950 the population of the town exceeded 100,000, making it a Großstadt. At the end of 2005, as recorded by the Bavarian Statistical Office (Landesamt für Statistik und Datenverarbeitung), the population (based on principal residence) was 113,076, a historical record. This makes Fürth
Fürth
the second largest town in Middle Franconia, after Nuremberg, and the seventh largest town in Bavaria. As of 2015, the proportion of foreign nationals in Fürth
Fürth
is about 18 percent. [6] The following table shows the population of Fürth
Fürth
over time. Up to 1818 the figures are mainly estimates; after that they are mostly based on census results (¹) or official projections from the appropriate statistical offices or the town administration itself.

Year Population

1604 1,600

1648 800

1700 6,000

1795 12,000

1809 12,438

1818 12,700

1 July 1830 ¹ 13,900

1 December 1840 ¹ 15,100

3 December 1852 ¹ 16,700

3 December 1855 ¹ 17,341

3 December 1858 ¹ 18,241

3 December 1861 ¹ 19,100

3 December 1864 ¹ 21,100

3 December 1867 ¹ 22,500

1 December 1871 ¹ 24,580

Year Population

1 December 1875 ¹ 27,360

1 December 1880 ¹ 31,063

1 December 1885 ¹ 35,455

1 December 1890 ¹ 43,206

2 December 1895 ¹ 46,726

1 December 1900 ¹ 54,144

1 December 1905 ¹ 60,635

1 December 1910 ¹ 66,553

1 December 1916 ¹ 56,967

5 December 1917 ¹ 57,282

8 October 1919 ¹ 68,162

16 June 1925 ¹ 73,693

16 June 1933 ¹ 77,135

17 May 1939 ¹ 82,315

31 December 1945 86,515

Year Population

29 October 1946 ¹ 95,369

13 September 1950 ¹ 99,890

25 September 1956 ¹ 98,643

6 June 1961 ¹ 98,332

31 December 1965 96,125

27 May 1970 ¹ 94,774

31 December 1975 101,639

31 December 1980 99,088

31 December 1985 97,331

25 May 1987 ¹ 97,480

31 December 1990 103,362

31 December 1995 108,418

31 December 2000 110,477

30 December 2005 113,459

31 December 2010 114,628

31 December 2015 126,405

¹ Census
Census
result

Rank Nationality Population (2018)

1  Turkey 4,409

2  Greece 2,939

3  Romania 2,890

4  Bulgaria 1,592

5  Italy 1,396

6  Poland 1,249

7  Syria 783

8  Iraq 563

9  Russia 514

10  Serbia 416

Religions[edit]

St. Michael, with West Tower

Christianity[edit] The population of Fürth
Fürth
was originally under the Bishopric of Würzburg
Würzburg
and from 1007 it belonged to the Bishopric of Bamberg. In 1524, as part of the Reformation, it became a Protestant
Protestant
town like Nuremberg, and it remained so for many years. However, because of the connections with Bamberg, there were always some Catholics
Catholics
in the town. After 1792, the Protestant
Protestant
congregations in Fürth
Fürth
were under the authority of the Prussian Ansbach
Ansbach
Consistory, and when Brandenburg- Ansbach
Ansbach
was ceded to Bavaria
Bavaria
they became part of the Bavarian Protestant
Protestant
Church, which initially comprised Lutheran and Reformed congregations. The congregations later belonged to the Deanery of Zirndorf. In 1885, Fürth
Fürth
became a deanery (Dekanat), subsidiary to Nuremberg. Beside the Bavarian Protestant
Protestant
Church there are also Protestant congregations of free churches in Fürth, e. g. a small congregation of the United Methodist Church. From the 18th century or earlier, the number of Catholics
Catholics
rose, and in 1829 the first Catholic church since the Reformation was consecrated: the Church of Our Lady. St. Michael Church was originally a Catholic church until taken by the Protestant's during the Reformation. In 1961, Fürth
Fürth
became a Catholic Deanery within the Archdiocese. The proportion of Protestants to Catholics
Catholics
in the 20th century was about two to one. Judaism[edit] The position enjoyed by Jews in Fürth
Fürth
(compared with other towns) led to the sobriquet "Franconian Jerusalem", though this is based on an older, pejoratively intended reference to Fürth. Jewish residents are mentioned as early as 1440; in 1528 the Margrave of Ansbach, George the Pious, permitted two Jews, Perman und Uriel, to settle in Fürth
Fürth
(in return for high taxes), and from then on the number of Jewish residents increased. By the 17th century, there was a local Yeshiva
Yeshiva
(Talmudic academy) of considerable repute, and in 1617, a synagogue was built. In 1653, the first Jewish hospital in Germany
Germany
(and Fürth's first hospital) was built. When Emperor Leopold I deported the Viennese Jews in 1670, many upper-class Jewish families moved to Fürth, and by 1716 there were about 400 Jewish families in the town. In 1807, the proportion of Jews in the overall population was about 19%. Following the Mediatization and the Bavarian Judenedikt (Jewish Edict) of 1813,[7] there were more restrictions on Jews. In particular, the Matrikelparagraph provisions prevented Jewish immigration. In 1824, the Talmudic academy was closed. The Bavarian Judenedikt of 1813, with its restrictions on Jewish life and Jewish immigration was rescinded by the law of 29 June 1851, and further laws dated 16 April 1868, and 22 April 1871, which led to further emancipation of the Jews, and restrictions on residence were removed.[8] By 1840, there were 2535 Jews living in Fürth, more than half of all Bavarian Jews. In 1862, a Jewish primary school was founded, followed by a secondary school in 1882. The highest number of Jewish residents was reached in 1880, at about 3,300. In 1933, there were 1,990 Jews in Fürth.[9][10] By early 1938 after the rise of the Nazis, there were 1,400 Jews in Fürth. In November 1938, there were about 1,200 when the synagogue was destroyed in the Kristallnacht pogroms, and 132 Jews were deported to Dachau. All except a handful of those who remained in Fürth
Fürth
after Kristallnacht either fled while they still could (abroad or to other areas in Germany) or were deported to concentration camps and/or death camps; virtually all those who remained in Germany
Germany
were deported to their deaths. By 1944, perhaps 23 Jews were left in Furth. Overall, 1,068 Jews from Furth died in the Holocaust.[10][11] After the end of the Second World War, a Displaced persons camp
Displaced persons camp
for Jewish Holocaust survivors was established in Fürth
Fürth
(Finkenschlag). In 1945 it housed 850 inhabitants; it was shut down in July 1950. There is a memorial to the Jewish community in the Geleitsgasse square, just off Königstrasse. Archaeologists discovered a Mikvah (ritual bath) in a house in the centre of Fürth. This building now houses the Jewish Museum of Franconia, which opened in 1998. The old Jewish cemetery (Weiherstraße), which was established in 1607, is one of the oldest in Germany. It suffered considerable destruction and desecration during the Nazi regime and the Second World War, but was restored in 1949 and is now one of the best preserved Jewish cemeteries in Germany. A new Jewish cemetery was consecrated in 1880, which has been in use from 1906 to the present day. Nature[edit] The "Nature Trail for Urban Ecology" was established in 1999 (3 km, 10 stops) and expanded in 2003 to include a second route (7 km, 10 stops). Both tours begin at the Stadthalle underground railway station. Along the nature trail, different habitats and their importance for the flora and fauna of the area are explained (e.g. the churchyard of St. Michael's Church, the municipal cemetery, Scherbsgraben stream). The trail references the designation of some areas as protected areas, and explains problems of measures that affect the environment, such as river regulation. Average sunshine duration is 1766 hours per year. The Gustav-Adolf natural spring, near Weikershof, by the River Rednitz was restored in 2000 and a pavilion was erected. Until the 1980s, the spring water, which comes out of the ground at 19 °C, was used for a swimming pool. Politics[edit] Coat of arms[edit] The Fürth
Fürth
coat of arms depicts a green trefoil (three-leaved clover) on a white (argent) background. The town colours are green and white. The trefoil first appeared on a seal of the governor of the city for the Bamberg
Bamberg
Diocese, which depicted a trefoil held by a hand and between two crescents. Its origin is unclear, but the trefoil probably represents the three powers responsible for Fürth
Fürth
during the Middle Ages as well as being a symbol of the Trinity. From 1792 onward, there were three trefoils on a triple hill. In 1818, the town acquired a new coat of arms depicting a green trefoil surrounded by an oak branch (acorned). This coat of arms was retained for over 100 years. However, in 1939, the oak branch was removed. At that time, a new flag was introduced; it had two green stripes on a green background and the coat of arms on a green background on the upper part. Later, however, the flag was simplified to the colours white (below) and green (above). Administration[edit] Until the end of the 18th century, the administration of Fürth
Fürth
was in the hands of a representative of the Diocese of Bamberg. Fürth
Fürth
was transferred to Bavaria
Bavaria
in 1806; in 1808 it was made a "class II" city[12] and was under the direct authority of the state. From 1818 Fürth
Fürth
became a "class I" city;[12] this meant that it was responsible for its own administration. Since 2002 Thomas Jung, (SPD), has been the First Mayor. International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany Fürth
Fürth
is twinned with:

Paisley (Scotland), since 1969 Limoges
Limoges
(France), since 1992 Marmaris
Marmaris
(Turkey), since 1995 Xylokastro
Xylokastro
(Greece), since 2006 ("friendship" since 2001)

Economy and infrastructure[edit]

Solar power collection on former landfill at Atzenhof

As of March 2016, unemployment in Fürth
Fürth
was 6.6 percent. The toy industry is a major employer in the Fürth
Fürth
economy, with a variety of toy-makers ranging from small crafts to large industrial enterprises. Brewing was once important in Fürth. The five large breweries were Humbser, Geismann, Grüner, Evora & Meyer, and Berg Bräu. Around the turn of the 19th century, Fürth
Fürth
was more important than Munich
Munich
as a "beer town". Quelle, once the largest mail-order company in Europe, was based in Fürth
Fürth
before its insolvency and liquidation in 2009. Fürth
Fürth
is also a centre of solar technology. The non-profit organization Solid, a centre for information and demonstration of solar technology, is based here. An average of two megawatt of electricity are fed into the grid on sunny days by Infra Fürth, the local energy utility, using photovoltaic technology. A ground-based plant in Atzenhof located on a former landfill produces 1 MW, the largest individual share. A new pumping station was built in 2003 near the confluence of the Pegnitz and Rednitz
Rednitz
rivers. It provides artificial irrigation to the Knoblauchsland market garden area to the north-east of the city. Transport[edit] Airports[edit]

Map of European air traffic 1924 from the Nordisk familjebok

In 1914, an aerodrome was built at Atzenhof for the Third Bavarian Army Corps, which was extended in the following years. After the First World War, it became "Fürth–Nuremberg" international airport, which saved it from being completely dismantled. Fürth- Nuremberg
Nuremberg
Airport was the eighth largest of the 88 German airports. The importance of the airport increased further when Junkers transferred first its central repair workshop, and then the final assembly line for its aircraft from Dessau to Fürth. Under the Nazis, the airport at Atzenhof was expanded and used as a flying school. After Fürth
Fürth
was occupied by Allied troops, the US Army used the site as a barracks, until 1993 ( Monteith Barracks Army Heliport. The US Army built the "Monteith Barracks" golf course on the site and maintained the historic buildings. In 1928, the city of Nuremberg
Nuremberg
took over the main share of the airport's operations. Until civil aviation operations ended in 1933, the airport was called " Flughafen Nuremberg-Fürth". There was a second airport built at Fürth-Hardhöhe by the Gothaer Waggonfabrik, later called Industrieflughafen. It existed from 1919 until 6. April 1955. 1919-1938 Gothaer Waggonfabrik, 1939-1945 Bachmann, v.Blumenthal, 1945-1949 U.S. Army Airfield R-30 and 1949-1955 "International Airport Nürnberg-Fürth". Rail[edit] The first railway line with steam trains in Germany
Germany
was between Fürth and Nuremberg, and opened on December 7, 1835. The locomotive, named Adler (Eagle) was built in Newcastle by Stephenson, the builder of the famous Rocket. Nuremberg
Nuremberg
and Fürth
Fürth
are joined by an underground railway (subway) connection. In Fürth
Fürth
there are currently seven underground stations: Stadtgrenze (partly in Fürth), Jakobinenstraße, Fürth
Fürth
Hauptbahnhof, Rathaus, Stadthalle, Klinikum, and Hardhöhe. See also: Fürth
Fürth
Hauptbahnhof, Nuremberg
Nuremberg
U-Bahn Water transport[edit] A canal between Bamberg
Bamberg
and Nuremberg
Nuremberg
started operation in 1843. There was a port at Poppenreuth. A new canal with a port in Fürth, the Rhine-Main-Danube Canal, was completed in 1992, creating a navigable connection from the Rhine delta in Rotterdam to the Danube Delta on the Black Sea. Local public transport[edit] Public transport is managed by Infra Fürth. Media[edit] The Fürther Nachrichten is published daily. It was first published in 1946 as a local page in Nürnberger Nachrichten; today it is a separate newspaper but is in fact the same newspaper as Nürnberger Nachrichten with some additional sections for the town and the rural district of Fürth, respectively. Another publishing company in Fürth
Fürth
is Computec Media AG, which has a number of publications in the field of electronic entertainment. Companies in Fürth[edit] The mail-order business Quelle, now merged with Karstadt to form KarstadtQuelle, was founded by Gustav Schickedanz on 26 October 1927. KarstadtQuelle
KarstadtQuelle
Versicherungen, an insurance arm, was created in 1984. Grundig
Grundig
had its headquarters and a number of manufacturing plants in Fürth, from the time the company was founded until the middle of 2000. The former headquarters on Kurgartenstraße was converted into a technology park ("Uferstadt Fürth"), and it now accommodates Technikum Neue Materialien (research center into new materials), an institute of the Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft, Sellbytel (a call centre operation), Computec Media AG, and the Radio Museum. Siemens AG, based in Munich
Munich
has several locations in Fürth. Uvex headquarters and a manufacturing unit are in Fürth. The toy manufacturers Simba Dickie Group (Simba, Dickie, BIG) and Bruder are based in Fürth.

Education[edit] In Fürth, there are a total of 22 elementary schools. There are also 3 high schools (gymnasia), in order of foundation: Hardenberg-Gymnasium (1833), Heinrich-Schliemann-Gymnasium (1896), and Helene-Lange-Gymnasium (1907). There are two "commercial" schools (Wirtschaftsschule/Realschule): the Hans Böckler School and the Leopold Ullstein
Leopold Ullstein
School; there are also a number of vocational schools. The siting of Erlangen- Nuremberg
Nuremberg
University's Central Institute for New Materials and Process Technology in Fürth
Fürth
in 2004 makes Fürth
Fürth
a university town. Some practical trainings of Erlangen
Erlangen
University medicine studies are at Fürth
Fürth
municipal hospital. Wilhelm Löhe Hochschule für angewandte Wissenschaften is a private University of Applied Sciences for health care and welfare. Municipal amenities[edit] At Scherbsgraben, there was an indoor and an outdoor swimming pool, a diving pool with a 10-metre tower, a large pool for non-swimmers and a sauna. These facilities were completely renovated 2006/2007. The open-air pool was re-opened in June 2006 and a new thermal spa (called Fürthermare)was opened 2007. The complex is not longer run by the municipal authorities but is completely privatized and called Bäderland Fürth. Fürth
Fürth
has a municipal library, with a number of branches; since 2003 it has been possible to access the catalogue via the Internet. There is a town archive in Burgfarrnbach. Culture and sights[edit]

Stadttheater Fürth

Theatre[edit] The municipal theatre (Stadttheater Fürth) was built by the Viennese theatre architects Fellner & Helmer in the Italian Renaissance
Renaissance
and Baroque styles. It is very similar to the municipal theatre of the Ukrainian town of Chernivtsi, which was designed by the same architects. Another playhouse, the Comödie Fürth, is now housed in the Jugendstil
Jugendstil
building known as the Berolzheimerianum. Regular appearances are made by the Franconian cult comedians Volker Heißmann and Martin Rassau, better known by their alter egos Waltraud and Mariechen. The playhouse hosts other appearances by German stars of comedy theatre. Pubs, restaurants, shopping etc.[edit] Fürth's main district for eating out and drinking is around the Gustavstraße, which is in the Old Town, near the Rathaus. There are many small pubs, cafés and cocktail bars, as well as restaurants serving Franconian cuisine. Esp. in suburbs und Stadtwald are some traditional franconian restaurants with beer garden / open air area. Shopping facilities in Fürth
Fürth
include two malls City Center and Neue Mitte as well as many retail shops and an open market. Sights[edit] Monuments[edit]

Gauklerbrunnen at the "Grüner Markt", 2004

Fürth
Fürth
survived the Second World War
Second World War
with less damage than most German cities, and many historic buildings remain. Fürth
Fürth
has a very high density of historic buildings and monuments per head of population (17 per 1000 inhabitants). The city centre is typified by the streets with intact architecture from the 19th and early 20th centuries. In the old town, around the Church of St. Michael, there are ensembles of buildings from the 17th and 18th centuries. Of particular note is the Hornschuch Promenade with Gründerzeit
Gründerzeit
and Jugendstil
Jugendstil
apartment houses. The Südstadt, the southern part of the town, also has many historic buildings, but these tend to be former workers' tenements, so the house fronts are less grand. A lot of frame and freestones houses from 17.-19. century can be found in quarters and suburbs, f.e. Poppenreuth, Burgfarrnbach, Vach and Dambach. The Rathaus, built in the Italian style by Friedrich Bürklein
Friedrich Bürklein
between 1840 and 1850, is modelled on the Palazzo Vecchio
Palazzo Vecchio
in Florence. Museums[edit]

The Jewish Museum in Franconia' (Königstraße 89), which also has a branch in Schnaittach, was opened in 1999. The main part of the house goes back to the 17th century; Jewish families lived here until the late 19th century. The stucco ceilings, a historic Sukkah
Sukkah
and a Mikvah in the basement have remained intact. The museum is also meant to be a meeting place, and has a bookshop and a cafeteria. Fürth
Fürth
Radio museum (Kurgartenstraße 37) Stadtmuseum (Municipal/Town Museum), (Ottostr.2) at former Otto schoolhouse shows a lot of town history in a permanent exhibition and alternating special exhibitions The kunst galerie fürth (Königsplatz 1), which was opened at the end of 2002, is a place for modern art, with varying exhibitions. The Jakob-Henle-Haus houses a collection of dialysis technology.

Churches[edit] The Protestant
Protestant
Church of St. Michael is the oldest building in Fürth. Its beginnings go back to around 1100, the 45-metre (150  ft) tower was added around 1400 at the beginning of the Late Gothic period, and most of the building work was carried out in the 15th century. The interior of the church is mainly Neo-Gothic
Neo-Gothic
in character, with most of the Late Gothic ornaments having been replaced in the 19th century. The only remaining late Gothic ornament is the tabernacle on the North wall; it is 6.8 metres (22 ft 4 in) high and was probably created around 1500-1510 by artists near to Adam Kraft. It is the church's most valuable work of art. Other churches with gothic parts from 14.-16. century are St.Johannis in Burgfarrnbach, St.Peter and Paul in Poppenreuth and St.Matthäus in Vach. St. Peter and Paul probably has some older parts, the previous building was probably founded around 900 - 1000 and was mother Church of many other churches f.e. St.Sebald in Nuremberg. The Catholic Church of Our Lady (1824-1828) is a Classical building, as is the Protestant
Protestant
"Church of the Resurrection" (1825/26), originally belonging to the cemetery and therefore aligned in a north-south direction. In the Südstadt area are the Neo-Gothic
Neo-Gothic
Church of St. Paul and the Neo-Baroque Church of St. Henry and Kunigunde. Other churches include the Catholic Church of Christ the King (Christkönig), which was built in the 1970s. Secular buildings[edit]

Hotel-Pyramide on the east bank of the Rhine- Main-Danube Canal
Main-Danube Canal
with a glass outside facade

The renovated Liershof was built in 1621 as a two-story stone-block building with high house ends and a two-story timber-framed spire. The Lochnersche Gartenhaus (Theaterstraße 33) was built about 1700; the polygonal staircase tower was probably added about 1750. Fürth
Fürth
Rathaus (Town Hall), with its 55 m high tower in the Italian style, was built in 1840-50 by Georg Friedrich Christian Bürklein with the help of Eduard Bürklein, both students of Friedrich von Gärtner. The tower is modelled on the Palazzo Vecchio
Palazzo Vecchio
in Florence
Florence
and is now the main landmark of Fürth. The Rathaus was built after Fürth was granted the right to self-administration. The station building of the historic main rail station was designed by Eduard Rüber and built in 1863/1864. in front of main station is Centaurenbrunnen, in naturalistic and neo baroque style. 1890 it was created by Rudolf Maison and was built to celebrate railway and water supply in Fürth. The former abattoir, now a "cultural" centre is to be found below the Stadthalle near the River Rednitz. On the Schwabacher Straße is a brewery with buildings from the beginning of the 20th century. The Gauklerbrunnen, (2004), created by Harro Frey at the Grüner Markt is the most recent fountain in Fürth; it comprises 3 independent groups of figures, two of which are connected by water elements. Schloss Burgfarrnbach (Burgfarrnbach Palace) built in 1830 - 1834 is South Germany's largest neo-classical palace. It was built by Leonhard Schmidtner as residence for the counts of Pückler-Limpurg. Since the 1980s it is used as municipal archive, academic library, for concerts and special exhibitions and Stadtmuseum depot. Schloss Steinach is a manor house from 17. century. Parks[edit] The Stadtpark (municipal park) is by the Pegnitz and there is a gradual transition to the water meadows further down the river. As well as paths and park benches, the park offers duck ponds, a children's playground, a minigolf course, a rose garden, a grassland orchard laid out in 2001, a few statues, and a botanical educational (school project) garden. In the latter half of 2004 the Südstadtpark, on a former barracks, was opened to the public. Regular events[edit]

May: Burgfarrnbach fair (Bürgerfest) Spring: International Klezmer Festival Spring and Autumn: Grafflmarkt flea market Summer: Fürth
Fürth
Festival (in town centre) Summer:Grüne Nacht (Green Night) - local Folk & Blues Festival at "Grüner Markt" (market place) Summer: New Orleans Festival at "Fürther Freiheit" Summer: Hardhöhe festival Summer: saints' day fairs in various locations (fairs to celebrate the consecration of the local church) September/October: Michaeliskirchweih fair. This is one of the largest of such events in Bavaria, and also the largest and most important festivals in Fürth, it has been going on for more than 800 years. It starts on September 29 (Michaelmas), if it is a Saturday, or on the first Saturday following September 29). It usually lasts 12 days. In 2007 it lasted 16 days in celebration of Fürth's 1000th anniversary. December: Christmas market (Weihnachtsmarkt) at Fürther Freiheit December: Old Town Christmas (Altstadtweihnacht) organized by the Old Town Association ( Altstadtverein) at Waagplatz.

Prizes awarded by the town of Fürth[edit] Every two years, since 1996, Fürth
Fürth
has awarded the Jakob-Wassermann prize, a prize for literature in honour of Fürth's famous author Jakob Wassermann. Sport and leisure[edit] Sport[edit] In the sporting world, Fürth
Fürth
came to fame through its football club SpVgg Fürth, which was German football champion three times. Since merging with the football section of TSV Vestenbergsgreuth the club is now called SpVgg Greuther Fürth. After winning the 2nd Bundesliga in 2011-12, the team moved up to the top level Bundesliga for the first time. The football stadium is in Ronhof (Stadion am Laubenweg). The baseball team Fürth
Fürth
Pirates was promoted to the premier national baseball league in 2002 and became vice-champion in the 2004 season. Each August, Fürth
Fürth
plays host to the annual Paul Hunter Classic, which is now a pro-am minor ranking snooker event and part of the European Players Tour Championship. Leisure[edit] The largest public barbecue area within Fürth
Fürth
is on the Rednitz, near the railway line to Würzburg
Würzburg
and the swimming pool. It is shaded by trees and has barbecue facilities and fixed seating. There are minigolf courses in the Stadtpark, by the Rhine-Main-Danube Canal, near Burgfarrnbach, and by the Pegnitz, a little upstream from the confluence with the Rednitz
Rednitz
and near the municipal cemetery. Notable people associated with Fürth[edit]

Jakob Henle

Max Bernstein, (1854–1925; born in Fürth), lawyer, art- and theatre critic and author. Hans Böckler (1875–1951), German politician (SPD) and union leader. Hermann Boehm (1884-1962), eugenics, doctor, professor of "eugenics" and organizational structure of the SS Overview ranks SA-sanitary group leader in the Nazi era Sandra Bullock
Sandra Bullock
(1964- ; lived in Fürth), actress Ludwig Erhard
Ludwig Erhard
(1897–1977; born in Fürth), politician (CDU), former German chancellor Roger C. Field
Roger C. Field
(1945- ; lived in Fürth
Fürth
for three years), inventor, designer Albert Forster
Albert Forster
(1902–1952), German Nazi governor executed for war crimes Max Grundig
Grundig
(1908–1989; lived in Fürth), founder of electronics company Grundig. Jakob Henle
Jakob Henle
(1809-1885), anatomist, pathologist and doctor Ralph F. Hirschmann (1922–2009), biochemist who led synthesis of the first enzyme.[13] Heinrich Hoffmann (1885-1957), personal photographer of Adolf Hitler) Wilhelm Ihne
Wilhelm Ihne
(1821-1902), classicist and historian Henry Kissinger
Henry Kissinger
(1923- ; born in Fürth), former Secretary of State of the United States Kraft-Alexander zu Hohenlohe-Oehringen (1925–2006; died in Fürth), actor and artistic director Robert Kurz (1943-2012; lived in Fürth
Fürth
until his death), communist theorist

Leopold Ullstein
Leopold Ullstein
by Oscar Begas, 1882

Wilhelm Löhe
Wilhelm Löhe
(1808–1872; born in Fürth), Lutheran pastor Jean Mandel
Jean Mandel
(1911-1974; born in Fürth), footballer and politician, Bavarian senator Alfred Louis Nathan (1870-1922), philanthropist de:Alfred Nathan (Philanthrop) Julius Ochs (1826–1888; born in Fürth), father of Adolph Ochs, publisher of New York Times Edgar Rosenberg (1925-2015; born in Fürth), American scholar and Cornell University
Cornell University
professor Arthur Rosenthal (1887-1959), mathematician Gustav Schickedanz (1895–1977; born in Fürth), German entrepreneur. Alfred Schwarzmann
Alfred Schwarzmann
(1912-2000), gymnastic and olympic athlete Martin Segitz (1853-1927), union leader and politician (SPD) Leopold Ullstein
Leopold Ullstein
(1826–1899; born in Fürth), important German publisher. Jakob Wassermann
Jakob Wassermann
(1873–1934; born in Fürth), writer and novelist

Notes[edit]

^ "Fortschreibung des Bevölkerungsstandes". Bayerisches Landesamt für Statistik und Datenverarbeitung (in German). January 2018.  ^ literally "government district" ^ 1000 Jahre Fürth
Fürth
- Stadtgeschichte ^ Ohm, Barbara (2007). Fürth: Geschichte der Stadt (in German). Jungkunz. p. 290. ISBN 978-3-9808686-1-7.  ^ a b c d Ohm, Barbara (2007). Fürth: Geschichte der Stadt (in German). Jungkunz. p. 345. ISBN 978-3-9808686-1-7.  ^ "Stadtforschung und Statistik für Nürnberg und Fürth
Fürth
- Stadt Fürth, Ausländeranteil 2015" (PDF). nuernberg.de. Retrieved 2017-05-27.  ^ Edikt die Verhältnisse der jüdischen Glaubensgenossen im Königreiche Baiern betreffend vom 10. Juni 1813 ^ Dr. Michael Müller, Fürth
Fürth
(2006). "Seligman Bendit & Söhne Spiegelglas- und Fensterglas-Fabriken Aufstieg und Niedergang einer jüdischen Unternehmer-Familie der Fürther Spiegelglas-Industrie" (pdf). Fürther Geschichtsblätter (in German). 56th year (2/2006 and 3/2006,). Retrieved 2007-01-24.  ^ Chronik Fürth
Fürth
1933 – 1945 Der Israelitische. http://www.juedische-fuerther.de/images/pdf/chronik.pdf ^ a b Komitee zum Gedenken der Fürther Shoah-Opfer (Bearbeitung Gisela Naomi Blume): Memorbuch zum Gedenken an die von den Nazis Ermordeten Fürther Juden. Fürth
Fürth
1997. p. 13. ^ Fürther Nachrichten vom 3. Juni 2009, p. 1: Denkmal erweitert. ^ a b Official Fürth
Fürth
Website: Historical data and facts ^ Hevesi, Dennis "Ralph F. Hirschmann, Leading Scientist on Early Enzyme Research, Dies at 87", The New York Times, July 18, 2009. Accessed July 19, 2009.

Sources[edit]

Official Fürth
Fürth
Web site (in German) Official site for Fürth's 1000th anniversary in 2007 (in German) Official Fürth
Fürth
Website: Historical data and facts(in German) Official Fürth
Fürth
web site Jewish history in Fürth
Fürth
(in German) Official Web site, Jewish Museum of Franconia in Fürth
Fürth
(in English) Web site of non-profit organization History for All, Institute for Regional History: Fürth
Fürth
(in German) Web site of non-profit organization History for All, Institute for Regional History: A home for centuries - history of the Jews in Fürth (in German) Bayern 2 state radio: Fürth
Fürth
- the Franconian Jerusalem (in German) Alemannia Judaica home page Alemannia Judaica: Fürth
Fürth
Jewish cemetery (in German) International Civic Heraldry web site: Fürth
Fürth
(in German) JewishEncyclopaedia.com: Fürth, by Gotthard Deutsch, A. Eckstein (in German)

Further reading[edit]

Bender, Oliver (1999). Doctoral dissertation: Die Entwicklung der fränkischen Industriestadt Fürth
Fürth
im 19. Jahrhundert - Aufbau und Interpretation eines geographischen Informationssystems auf Basis der Hausgrundstücke (Industrial Fuerth. The Urban Geography and a GIS-Presentation of a medium-sized town in Franconia, 1800-1914) (in German). Bamberg: (University of Bamberg). Archived from the original (pdf) on 2009-09-04. Retrieved 2007-01-24. (in German) Dr. Michael Müller, Fürth
Fürth
(2006). "Seligman Bendit & Söhne Spiegelglas- und Fensterglas-Fabriken Aufstieg und Niedergang einer jüdischen Unternehmer-Familie der Fürther Spiegelglas-Industrie (Seligman Bendit & Sons mirror glass and window glass factories - rise and fall od Jewish entrepreneurial familyin the Fürth
Fürth
mirror glass industry)" (pdf). Fürther Geschichtsblätter (in German). 56th year (2/2006 and 3/2006,). Retrieved 2007-01-24. (in German)

Literature (in German)[edit]

Georg Dehio: Handbuch der deutschen Kunstdenkmäler. Bayern. Bd I. Franken. Deutscher Kunstverlag, Munich
Munich
1999, P.363ff. ISBN 3-422-03051-4 Adolf Schwammberger: Fürth
Fürth
von A bis Z. Ein Geschichts-Lexikon. Fürth
Fürth
1968. Gerd Walther (Hrsg.): Fürth
Fürth
- Die Kleeblattstadt - Rundgänge durch Geschichte und Gegenwart". Städtebilder-Verlag, Fürth
Fürth
1991. ISBN 3-927347-22-1 Gerd Walther: Die Fürther Altstadt rund um Sankt Michael. Fürth 1990. ISBN 3-927347-21-3 Andrea Sommer: Die Fürther Südstadt. 4 parts. in: Fürther Heimatblätter. Published by the Verein für Heimatforschung Alt-Fürth. NF 39.1989, P.1, NF 40.1990, P.1, NF 40.1990, P.81 und NF 41.1991, P.10. Ralf Nestmeyer: Nürnberg, Fürth, Erlangen. Reisehandbuch. Michael Müller, Erlangen
Erlangen
2006. ISBN 3-89953-318-6. Deutsches Städtebuch. Handbuch städtischer Geschichte. vol. 5. Bayerisches Städtebuch. T 1. part volume Unter-, Mittel- und Oberfranken. Commissioned by the Arbeitsgemeinschaft der historischen Kommissionen and with the support of the Deutscher Städtetag, the Deutscher Städtebund and the Deutscher Gemeindetag, edited by Erich Keyser. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart
Stuttgart
1971. Katrin Bielefeldt: Geschichte der Juden in Fürth. Jahrhundertelang eine Heimat. Historische Spaziergänge. Vol. 3. Edited by Geschichte Für Alle e. V. Sandberg-Verlag, Nuremberg
Nuremberg
2005. ISBN 3-930699-44-3.

Literature (in English)[edit]

Simon Pearce: Bridget and Jane. A children's audio series set in Fürth
Fürth
in the early 19th century. Sydney 2006. Unpublished.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Fürth.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1920 Encyclopedia Americana
Encyclopedia Americana
article Fürth.

Fürth
Fürth
travel guide from Wikivoyage Official Fürth
Fürth
Site (in German) FürthWiki.de Free city wiki about Fürth
Fürth
(in German) KUNSTNÜRNBERG - Online - Magazine for Contemporary Art and History of Art in Fürth, Nuremberg
Nuremberg
and Franconia Fürth
Fürth
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) (in German)

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