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Expressionism
Expressionism
was a modernist movement, initially in poetry and painting, originating in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century. Its typical trait is to present the world solely from a subjective perspective, distorting it radically for emotional effect in order to evoke moods or ideas.[1][2] Expressionist artists sought to express the meaning[3] of emotional experience rather than physical reality.[3][4] Expressionism
Expressionism
was developed as an avant-garde style before the First World War. It remained popular during the Weimar Republic,[1] particularly in Berlin. The style extended to a wide range of the arts, including expressionist architecture, painting, literature, theatre, dance, film and music. The term is sometimes suggestive of angst. In a general sense, painters such as Matthias Grünewald
Matthias Grünewald
and El Greco
El Greco
are sometimes termed expressionist, though in practice the term is applied mainly to 20th-century works. The Expressionist emphasis on individual perspective has been characterized as a reaction to positivism and other artistic styles such as Naturalism and Impressionism.[5]

Contents

1 Origin of the term 2 Expressionist visual artists 3 Expressionist groups of painters 4 Selected expressionist paintings 5 In other arts

5.1 Dance 5.2 Sculpture 5.3 Cinema 5.4 Literature

5.4.1 Journals 5.4.2 Drama 5.4.3 Poetry 5.4.4 Prose

5.5 Music 5.6 Architecture

6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links

Origin of the term[edit] While the word expressionist was used in the modern sense as early as 1850, its origin is sometimes traced to paintings exhibited in 1901 in Paris by obscure artist Julien-Auguste Hervé, which he called Expressionismes.[6] An alternative view is that the term was coined by the Czech art historian Antonin Matějček in 1910 as the opposite of impressionism: "An Expressionist wishes, above all, to express himself... (an Expressionist rejects) immediate perception and builds on more complex psychic structures... Impressions and mental images that pass through mental people's soul as through a filter which rids them of all substantial accretions to produce their clear essence [...and] are assimilated and condense into more general forms, into types, which he transcribes through simple short-hand formulae and symbols."[7] Important precursors of Expressionism
Expressionism
were the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche
Friedrich Nietzsche
(1844–1900), especially his philosophical novel Thus Spoke Zarathustra
Thus Spoke Zarathustra
(1883–92); the later plays of the Swedish dramatist August Strindberg
August Strindberg
(1849–1912), including the trilogy To Damascus 1898–1901, A Dream Play (1902), The Ghost Sonata (1907); Frank Wedekind
Frank Wedekind
(1864–1918), especially the "Lulu" plays Erdgeist (Earth Spirit) (1895) and Die Büchse der Pandora (Pandora's Box) (1904); the American poet Walt Whitman's (1819–92) Leaves of Grass (1855–91); the Russian novelist Fyodor Dostoevsky
Fyodor Dostoevsky
(1821–81); Norwegian painter Edvard Munch
Edvard Munch
(1863–1944); Dutch painter Vincent van Gogh (1853–90); Belgian painter James Ensor
James Ensor
(1860–1949);[8] and pioneering Austrian psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud
(1856–1939).

Wassily Kandinsky, 1911, Reiter (Lyrishes), oil on canvas, 94 × 130 cm, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen

In 1905, a group of four German artists, led by Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, formed Die Brücke
Die Brücke
(the Bridge) in the city of Dresden. This was arguably the founding organization for the German Expressionist movement, though they did not use the word itself. A few years later, in 1911, a like-minded group of young artists formed Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider) in Munich. The name came from Wassily Kandinsky's Der Blaue Reiter painting of 1903. Among their members were Kandinsky, Franz Marc, Paul Klee, and Auguste Macke. However, the term Expressionism
Expressionism
did not firmly establish itself until 1913.[9] Though mainly a German artistic movement initially[10] and most predominant in painting, poetry and the theatre between 1910 and 1930, most precursors of the movement were not German. Furthermore, there have been expressionist writers of prose fiction, as well as non-German-speaking expressionist writers, and, while the movement had declined in Germany with the rise of Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
in the 1930s, there were subsequent expressionist works.

Egon Schiele, 1910, Portrait of Eduard Kosmack, oil on canvas, 100 × 100 cm, Österreichische Galerie Belvedere

Expressionism
Expressionism
is notoriously difficult to define, in part because it "overlapped with other major 'isms' of the modernist period: with Futurism, Vorticism, Cubism, Surrealism
Surrealism
and Dadaism."[11] Richard Murphy also comments, “the search for an all-inclusive definition is problematic to the extent that the most challenging expressionists such as Kafka, Gottfried Benn
Gottfried Benn
and Döblin
Döblin
were simultaneously the most vociferous `anti-expressionists.' ”[12] What can be said, however, is that it was a movement that developed in the early twentieth century, mainly in Germany, in reaction to the dehumanizing effect of industrialization and the growth of cities, and that "one of the central means by which expressionism identifies itself as an avant-garde movement, and by which it marks its distance to traditions and the cultural institution as a whole is through its relationship to realism and the dominant conventions of representation."[13] More explicitly, that the expressionists rejected the ideology of realism.[14]

Mannerist View of Toledo by El Greco, 1595/1610 is a precursor of 20th-century expressionism.[15]

The term refers to an "artistic style in which the artist seeks to depict not objective reality but rather the subjective emotions and responses that objects and events arouse within a person."[16] It is arguable that all artists are expressive but there are many examples of art production in Europe from the 15th century onward which emphasize extreme emotion. Such art often occurs during times of social upheaval and war, such as the Protestant Reformation, German Peasants' War, and Eighty Years' War
Eighty Years' War
between the Spanish and the Netherlands, when extreme violence, much directed at civilians, was represented in propagandist popular prints. These were often unimpressive aesthetically but had the capacity to arouse extreme emotions in the viewer. Expressionism
Expressionism
has been likened to Baroque
Baroque
by critics such as art historian Michel Ragon[17] and German philosopher Walter Benjamin.[18] According to Alberto Arbasino, a difference between the two is that " Expressionism
Expressionism
doesn't shun the violently unpleasant effect, while Baroque
Baroque
does. Expressionism
Expressionism
throws some terrific 'fuck yous', Baroque doesn't. Baroque
Baroque
is well-mannered."[19] Expressionist visual artists[edit]

Alvar Cawén, Sokea soittoniekka (Blind Musician), 1922

"Elbe Bridge I" by Rolf Nesch

Franz Marc, Die großen blauen Pferde (The Large Blue Horses), (1911)

Some of the style's main visual artists of the early 20th century were:

Armenia: Martiros Saryan Australia: Sidney Nolan, Charles Blackman, John Perceval, Albert Tucker and Joy Hester Austria: Egon Schiele, Oskar Kokoschka, Josef Gassler
Josef Gassler
and Alfred Kubin Belgium: Flemish Expressionism: Constant Permeke, Gustave De Smet, Frits Van den Berghe, James Ensor, Albert Servaes, Floris Jespers and Gustave Van de Woestijne. Brazil: Anita Malfatti, Cândido Portinari, Di Cavalcanti, Iberê Camargo and Lasar Segall. Estonia: Konrad Mägi, Eduard Wiiralt Finland: Tyko Sallinen,[20] Alvar Cawén, Juho Mäkelä and Wäinö Aaltonen. France: Frédéric Fiebig, Georges Rouault, Georges Gimel, Gen Paul and Chaim Soutine Germany: Ernst Barlach, Max Beckmann, Fritz Bleyl, Heinrich Campendonk, Otto Dix, Conrad Felixmüller, George Grosz, Erich Heckel, Carl Hofer, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Käthe Kollwitz, Wilhelm Lehmbruck, Elfriede Lohse-Wächtler, August Macke, Franz Marc, Ludwig Meidner, Paula Modersohn-Becker, Otto Mueller, Gabriele Münter, Rolf Nesch, Emil Nolde, Max Pechstein, and Karl Schmidt-Rottluff Greece: George Bouzianis Hungary: Tivadar Kosztka Csontváry Iceland: Einar Hákonarson Ireland: Jack B. Yeats Indonesia: Affandi Italy: Emilio Giuseppe Dossena Mexico: Mathias Goeritz
Mathias Goeritz
(German émigré to Mexico), Rufino Tamayo Netherlands: Charles Eyck, Willem Hofhuizen, Herman Kruyder, Jaap Min, Jan Sluyters, Vincent van Gogh, Jan Wiegers and Hendrik Werkman Norway: Edvard Munch, Kai Fjell Poland: Henryk Gotlib Portugal: Mário Eloy, Amadeo de Souza Cardoso Russia: Wassily Kandinsky, Marc Chagall, Alexej von Jawlensky, Natalia Goncharova, Mstislav Dobuzhinsky, and Marianne von Werefkin (Russian-born, later active in Germany and Switzerland). Romania:Horia Bernea South Africa: Maggie Laubser, Irma Stern Sweden: Axel Törneman Switzerland: Carl Eugen Keel, Cuno Amiet, Paul Klee Ukraine: Alexis Gritchenko (Ukraine-born, most active in France), Vadim Meller United Kingdom: Francis Bacon, Frank Auerbach, Leon Kossoff, Lucian Freud, Patrick Heron, John Hoyland, Howard Hodgkin, John Walker United States: Ivan Albright, David Aronson, Milton Avery, Leonard Baskin, George Biddle, Hyman Bloom, Peter Blume, Charles Burchfield, David Burliuk, Stuart Davis, Lyonel Feininger, Wilhelmina Weber Furlong, Elaine de Kooning, Willem de Kooning, Beauford Delaney, Arthur G. Dove, Norris Embry, Philip Evergood, Kahlil Gibran, William Gropper, Philip Guston, Marsden Hartley, Albert Kotin, Yasuo Kuniyoshi, Rico Lebrun, Jack Levine, Alfred Henry Maurer, Robert Motherwell, Alice Neel, Abraham Rattner, Ben Shahn, Harry Shoulberg, Joseph Stella, Harry Sternberg, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Dorothea Tanning, Wilhelmina Weber, Max Weber, Hale Woodruff, Karl Zerbe, among others.

Expressionist groups of painters[edit] The style originated principally in Germany and Austria. There were a number of groups of expressionist painters, including Der Blaue Reiter and Die Brücke. Der Blaue Reiter
Der Blaue Reiter
(The Blue Rider, named for a magazine) was based in Munich and Die Brücke
Die Brücke
was based originally in Dresden
Dresden
(although some members later relocated to Berlin). Die Brücke was active for a longer period than Der Blaue Reiter, which was only together for a year (1912). The Expressionists had many influences, among them Edvard Munch, Vincent van Gogh, and African art.[21] They were also aware of the work being done by the Fauves in Paris, who influenced Expressionism's tendency toward arbitrary colours and jarring compositions. In reaction and opposition to French Impressionism, which emphasized the rendering of the visual appearance of objects, Expressionist artists sought to portray emotions and subjective interpretations. It was not important to reproduce an aesthetically pleasing impression of the artistic subject matter, they felt, but rather to represent vivid emotional reactions by powerful colours and dynamic compositions. Kandinsky, the main artist of Der Blaue Reiter group, believed that with simple colours and shapes the spectator could perceive the moods and feelings in the paintings, a theory that encouraged him towards increased abstraction. The ideas of German expressionism influenced the work of American artist Marsden Hartley, who met Kandinsky in Germany in 1913.[22] In late 1939, at the beginning of World War II, New York City
New York City
received a great number of major European artists. After the war, Expressionism influenced many young American artists. Norris Embry (1921–1981) studied with Oskar Kokoschka
Oskar Kokoschka
in 1947 and during the next 43 years produced a large body of work in the Expressionist tradition. Norris Embry has been termed "the first American German Expressionist". Other American artists of the late 20th and early 21st century have developed distinct styles that may be considered part of Expressionism. Another prominent artist who came from the German Expressionist "school" was Bremen-born Wolfgang Degenhardt. After working as a commercial artist in Bremen, he migrated to Australia in 1954 and became quite well known in the Hunter Valley region. American Expressionism[23] and American Figurative Expressionism, particularly the Boston figurative expressionism,[24] were an integral part of American modernism
American modernism
around the Second World War.

Rehe im Walde (Deer in Woods), 1914, by Franz Marc

Major figurative Boston Expressionists included: Karl Zerbe, Hyman Bloom, Jack Levine, David Aronson. The Boston figurative Expressionists post World War II
World War II
were increasingly marginalized by the development of abstract expressionism centered in New York City. After World War II, figurative expressionism influenced worldwide a large number of artists and styles. Thomas B. Hess wrote that "the ‘New figurative painting’ which some have been expecting as a reaction against Abstract Expressionism
Expressionism
was implicit in it at the start, and is one of its most lineal continuities."[25]

New York Figurative Expressionism[26][27] of the 1950s represented New York figurative artists such as Robert Beauchamp, Elaine de Kooning, Robert Goodnough, Grace Hartigan, Lester Johnson, Alex Katz, George McNeil (artist), Jan Muller, Fairfield Porter, Gregorio Prestopino, Larry Rivers and Bob Thompson. Lyrical Abstraction, Tachisme[28] of the 1940s and 1950s in Europe represented by artists such as Georges Mathieu, Hans Hartung, Nicolas de Staël and others. Bay Area Figurative Movement[29][30] represented by early figurative expressionists from the San Francisco area Elmer Bischoff, Richard Diebenkorn, and David Park. The movement from 1950 to 1965 was joined by Theophilus Brown, Paul Wonner, James Weeks, Hassel Smith, Nathan Oliveira, Bruce McGaw, Jay DeFeo, Joan Brown, Manuel Neri, Frank Lobdell, Joan Savo and Roland Peterson. Abstract expressionism
Abstract expressionism
of the 1950s represented American artists such as Louise Bourgeois, Hans Burkhardt, Mary Callery, Nicolas Carone, Willem de Kooning, Jackson Pollock, Philip Guston, and others[31][32] that participated with figurative expressionism. In the United States and Canada, Lyrical Abstraction
Lyrical Abstraction
beginning during the late 1960s and the 1970s. Characterized by the work of Dan Christensen, Peter Young, Ronnie Landfield, Ronald Davis, Larry Poons, Walter Darby Bannard, Charles Arnoldi, Pat Lipsky
Pat Lipsky
and many others.[33][34][35] Neo-expressionism
Neo-expressionism
was an international revival style that began in the late 1970s and included artists from many nations:

Germany: Anselm Kiefer
Anselm Kiefer
and Georg Baselitz
Georg Baselitz
and others; USA: Jean-Michel Basquiat, Eric Fischl, David Salle
David Salle
and Julian Schnabel; Spain: Antonio Peris carbonell Cuba: Pablo Carreno; France: Rémi Blanchard, Hervé Di Rosa, Bernard Buffet
Bernard Buffet
and others; Italy: Francesco Clemente, Paolo Salvati, Sandro Chia
Sandro Chia
and Enzo Cucchi; England: David Hockney, Frank Auerbach
Frank Auerbach
and Leon Kossoff Belarus: Natalia Chernogolova

Selected expressionist paintings[edit]

August Macke, Lady in a Green Jacket, 1913

Franz Marc, Fighting Forms, 1914.

Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Nollendorfplatz, 1912

Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Self-Portrait as a Soldier, 1915

In other arts[edit]

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The Expressionist movement included other types of culture, including dance, sculpture, cinema and theatre.

Mary Wigman, pioneer of Expressionist dance
Expressionist dance
(left)

Dance[edit] Main article: Expressionist dance Exponents of expressionist dance included Mary Wigman, Rudolf von Laban, and Pina Bausch. Sculpture[edit] Some sculptors used the Expressionist style, as for example Ernst Barlach. Other expressionist artists known mainly as painters, such as Erich Heckel, also worked with sculpture. Cinema[edit] Main article: German Expressionism There was an Expressionist style in German cinema, important examples of which are Robert Wiene's The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari
The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari
(1920), The Golem: How He Came into the World (1920), Fritz Lang's Metropolis (1927) and F. W. Murnau's Nosferatu, a Symphony of Horror (1922) and The Last Laugh (1924). The term "expressionist" is also sometimes used to refer to stylistic devices thought to resemble those of German Expressionism, such as film noir cinematography or the style of several of the films of Ingmar Bergman. More generally, the term expressionism can be used to describe cinematic styles of great artifice, such as the technicolor melodramas of Douglas Sirk or the sound and visual design of David Lynch's films. Literature[edit] Journals[edit] Two leading Expressionist journals published in Berlin
Berlin
were Der Sturm, published by Herwarth Walden
Herwarth Walden
starting in 1910,[36] and Die Aktion, which first appeared in 1911 and was edited by Franz Pfemfert. Der Sturm published poetry and prose from contributors such as Peter Altenberg, Max Brod, Richard Dehmel, Alfred Döblin, Anatole France, Knut Hamsun, Arno Holz, Karl Kraus, Selma Lagerlöf, Adolf Loos, Heinrich Mann, Paul Scheerbart, and René Schickele, and writings, drawings, and prints by such artists as Kokoschka, Kandinsky, and members of Der blaue Reiter. Drama[edit]

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Main article: Expressionism
Expressionism
(theatre) Oskar Kokoschka's 1909 playlet, Murderer, The Hope of Women is often termed the first expressionist drama. In it, an unnamed man and woman struggle for dominance. The man brands the woman; she stabs and imprisons him. He frees himself and she falls dead at his touch. As the play ends, he slaughters all around him (in the words of the text) "like mosquitoes." The extreme simplification of characters to mythic types, choral effects, declamatory dialogue and heightened intensity all would become characteristic of later expressionist plays. The German composer Paul Hindemith
Paul Hindemith
created an operatic version of this play, which premiered in 1921. Expressionism
Expressionism
was a dominant influence on early 20th-century German theatre, of which Georg Kaiser
Georg Kaiser
and Ernst Toller
Ernst Toller
were the most famous playwrights. Other notable Expressionist dramatists included Reinhard Sorge, Walter Hasenclever, Hans Henny Jahnn, and Arnolt Bronnen. Important precursors were the Swedish playwright August Strindberg
August Strindberg
and German actor and dramatist Frank Wedekind. During the 1920s, Expressionism
Expressionism
enjoyed a brief period of popularity in American theatre, including plays by Eugene O'Neill
Eugene O'Neill
(The Hairy Ape, The Emperor Jones and The Great God Brown), Sophie Treadwell
Sophie Treadwell
(Machinal) and Elmer Rice (The Adding Machine). Expressionist plays often dramatise the spiritual awakening and sufferings of their protagonists. Some utilise an episodic dramatic structure and are known as Stationendramen (station plays), modeled on the presentation of the suffering and death of Jesus
Jesus
in the Stations of the Cross. August Strindberg
August Strindberg
had pioneered this form with his autobiographical trilogy To Damascus. These plays also often dramatise the struggle against bourgeois values and established authority, frequently personified by the Father. In Sorge's The Beggar, (Der Bettler), for example, the young hero's mentally ill father raves about the prospect of mining the riches of Mars and is finally poisoned by his son. In Bronnen's Parricide
Parricide
(Vatermord), the son stabs his tyrannical father to death, only to have to fend off the frenzied sexual overtures of his mother. In Expressionist drama, the speech is either expansive and rhapsodic, or clipped and telegraphic. Director Leopold Jessner became famous for his expressionistic productions, often set on stark, steeply raked flights of stairs (having borrowed the idea from the Symbolist director and designer, Edward Gordon Craig). Staging was especially important in Expressionist drama, with directors forgoing the illusion of reality to block actors in as close to two-dimensional movement. Directors also made heavy use of lighting effects to create stark contrast and as another method to heavily emphasize emotion and convey the play or a scene's message.[37] German expressionist playwrights:

Georg Kaiser
Georg Kaiser
(1878) Ernst Toller
Ernst Toller
(1893–1939) Hans Henny Jahnn
Hans Henny Jahnn
(1894–1959) Reinhard Sorge
Reinhard Sorge
(1892–1916) Bertolt Brecht
Bertolt Brecht
(1898–1956)

Playwrights influenced by Expressionism:

Seán O'Casey
Seán O'Casey
(1880–1964)[38] Eugene O'Neill
Eugene O'Neill
(1885–1953) Elmer Rice
Elmer Rice
(1892–1967) Tennessee Williams
Tennessee Williams
(1911–83)[39] Arthur Miller
Arthur Miller
(1915–2005) Samuel Beckett
Samuel Beckett
(1906–89)[40]

Poetry[edit] Among the poets associated with German Expressionism
German Expressionism
were:

Jakob van Hoddis Georg Trakl Gottfried Benn Georg Heym Else Lasker-Schüler Ernst Stadler August Stramm Rainer Maria Rilke
Rainer Maria Rilke
(1875–1926): The Notebooks of Malte Laurids Brigge (1910)[41] Geo Milev

Other poets influenced by expressionism:

T. S. Eliot[42] Rudolf Broby-Johansen[43] Tom Kristensen Pär Lagerkvist Harald Landt Momberg[43] Edith Södergran

Prose[edit] In prose, the early stories and novels of Alfred Döblin
Döblin
were influenced by Expressionism,[44] and Franz Kafka
Kafka
is sometimes labelled an Expressionist.[45] Some further writers and works that have been called Expressionist include:

Franz Kafka
Kafka
(1883–1924): "The Metamorphosis" (1915), The Trial (1925), The Castle (1926)[46] Alfred Döblin
Döblin
(1857–1957): Berlin
Berlin
Alexanderplatz (1929)[47] Wyndham Lewis
Wyndham Lewis
(1882–1957)[48] Djuna Barnes
Djuna Barnes
(1892–1982): Nightwood (1936)[49] Malcolm Lowry
Malcolm Lowry
(1909–57): Under the Volcano
Under the Volcano
(1947) Ernest Hemingway[50] James Joyce
James Joyce
(1882–1941): "The Nighttown" section of Ulysses (1922)[51] Patrick White
Patrick White
(1912–90)[52] D. H. Lawrence[53] Sheila Watson: Double Hook[54] Elias Canetti: Auto-da-Fé[55] Thomas Pynchon[56] William Faulkner[57] James Hanley (1897–1985)[58]

Music[edit] Main article: Expressionist music The term expressionism "was probably first applied to music in 1918, especially to Schoenberg", because like the painter Kandinsky he avoided "traditional forms of beauty" to convey powerful feelings in his music.[59] Arnold Schoenberg, Anton Webern
Anton Webern
and Alban Berg, the members of the Second Viennese School, are important Expressionists (Schoenberg was also an expressionist painter).[60] Other composers that have been associated with expressionism are Krenek (the Second Symphony), Paul Hindemith
Paul Hindemith
(The Young Maiden), Igor Stravinsky (Japanese Songs), Alexander Scriabin
Alexander Scriabin
(late piano sonatas) (Adorno 2009, 275). Another significant expressionist was Béla Bartók
Béla Bartók
in early works, written in the second decade of the 20th-century, such as Bluebeard's Castle
Bluebeard's Castle
(1911),[61] The Wooden Prince (1917),[62] and The Miraculous Mandarin (1919).[63] Important precursors of expressionism are Richard Wagner
Richard Wagner
(1813–83), Gustav Mahler
Gustav Mahler
(1860–1911), and Richard Strauss
Richard Strauss
(1864–1949).[64] Theodor Adorno
Theodor Adorno
describes expressionism as concerned with the unconscious, and states that "the depiction of fear lies at the centre" of expressionist music, with dissonance predominating, so that the "harmonious, affirmative element of art is banished" (Adorno 2009, 275–76). Erwartung
Erwartung
and Die Glückliche Hand, by Schoenberg, and Wozzeck, an opera by Alban Berg
Alban Berg
(based on the play Woyzeck
Woyzeck
by Georg Büchner), are examples of Expressionist works.[65] If one were to draw an analogy from paintings, one may describe the expressionist painting technique as the distortion of reality (mostly colors and shapes) to create a nightmarish effect for the particular painting as a whole. Expressionist music
Expressionist music
roughly does the same thing, where the dramatically increased dissonance creates, aurally, a nightmarish atmosphere.[66] Architecture[edit] Main article: Expressionist architecture

Einsteinturm in Potsdam

In architecture, two specific buildings are identified as Expressionist: Bruno Taut's Glass Pavilion
Glass Pavilion
of the Cologne
Cologne
Werkbund Exhibition (1914), and Erich Mendelsohn's Einstein Tower
Einstein Tower
in Potsdam, Germany completed in 1921. The interior of Hans Poelzig's Berlin theatre (the Grosse Schauspielhaus), designed for the director Max Reinhardt, is also cited sometimes. The influential architectural critic and historian Sigfried Giedion, in his book Space, Time and Architecture (1941), dismissed Expressionist architecture
Expressionist architecture
as a part of the development of functionalism. In Mexico, in 1953, German émigré Mathias Goeritz, published the Arquitectura Emocional ("Emotional Architecture") manifesto with which he declared that "architecture's principal function is emotion".[67] Modern Mexican architect Luis Barragán adopted the term that influenced his work. The two of them collaborated in the project Torres de Satélite
Torres de Satélite
(1957–58) guided by Goeritz's principles of Arquitectura Emocional. It was only during the 1970s that Expressionism
Expressionism
in architecture came to be re-evaluated more positively. References[edit]

^ a b Bruce Thompson, University of California, Santa Cruz, lecture on Weimar culture/Kafka'a Prague Archived 2010-01-11 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Chris Baldick Concise Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms, entry for Expressionism ^ a b Victorino Tejera, 1966, pages 85,140, Art and Human Intelligence, Vision Press Limited, London ^ The Oxford Illustrated Dictionary, 1976 edition, page 294 ^ Garzanti, Aldo (1974) [1972]. Enciclopedia Garzanti della letteratura (in Italian). Milan: Guido Villa. p. 963.  page 241 ^ John Willett, Expressionism. New York: World University Library, 1970, p.25; Richard Sheppard, "German Expressionism", in Modernism:1890–1930, ed. Bradbury & McFarlane, Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1976, p.274. ^ Cited in Donald E. Gordon, Expressionism: Art and Ideas. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987, p. 175. ^ R. S. Furness, Expressionism. London: Methuen, pp.2–14; Willett, pp. 20–24. ^ Richard Sheppard, p.274. ^ Note the parallel French movement Fauvism
Fauvism
and the English Vorticism: "The Fauvist movement has been compared to German Expressionism, both projecting brilliant colors and spontaneous brushwork, and indebted to the same late nineteenth-century sources, especially Van Gogh." Sabine Rewald, "Fauvism". In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/fauv/hd_fauv.htm (October 2004); and " Vorticism
Vorticism
can be thought of as English Expressionism." Sherrill E. Grace, Regression and Apocalypse: Studies in North American Literary Expressionism. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1989, p. 26. ^ Sherrill E. Grace, Regression and Apacaypse: Studies in North American Literary Expressionism. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1989, p.26). ^ Richard Murphy, Theorizing the Avant-Garde: Modernism, Expressionism, and the Problem of Postmodernity. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press,1999, p. 43. ^ Richard Murphy, p. 43. ^ Murphy, especially pp. 43–48; and Walter H. Sokel, The Writer in Extremis. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1959, especially Chapter One. ^ "El Greco". Artble. 2016. Retrieved 7 February 2016.  ^ Brittanica online Encyclopaedia(February, 2012). ^ Ragon, Michel (1968). Expressionism. There is no doubt that Expressionism
Expressionism
is Baroque
Baroque
in essence  ^ Benjamin, Walter (1998). Origin of German Tragic Drama. London: Verso. ISBN 978-1-85984-899-9.  ^ Pedullà, Gabriele; Arbasino, Alberto (2003). "Sull'albero di ciliegie – Conversando di letteratura e di cinema con Alberto Arbasino" [On the cherry tree – Conversations on literature and cinema with Alberto Arbasino]. CONTEMPORANEA Rivista di studi sulla letteratura e sulla comunicazione. L’espressionismo non rifugge dall’effetto violentemente sgradevole, mentre invece il barocco lo fa. L’espressionismo tira dei tremendi «vaffanculo», il barocco no. Il barocco è beneducato ( Expressionism
Expressionism
doesn't shun the violently unpleasant effect, while Baroque
Baroque
does. Expressionism
Expressionism
throws some terrific "Fuck yous", Baroque
Baroque
doesn't. Baroque
Baroque
is well-mannered.)  ^ Ian Chilvers, The Oxford dictionary of art, Volume 2004, Oxford University Press, p. 506. ISBN 0-19-860476-9 ^ Ian Buruma, "Desire in Berlin", New York Review of Books, December 8, 2008, p. 19. ^ "Hartley, Marsden", Oxford Art Online ^ Bram Dijkstra, American expressionism : art and social change, 1920–1950,(New York : H.N. Abrams, in association with the Columbus Museum of Art, 2003.) ISBN 0-8109-4231-3, ISBN 978-0-8109-4231-8 ^ Judith Bookbinder, Boston modern: figurative expressionism as alternative modernism (Durham, N.H. : University of New Hampshire Press ; Hanover : University Press of New England, ©2005.) ISBN 1-58465-488-0, ISBN 978-1-58465-488-9 ^ Thomas B. Hess, “The Many Deaths of American Art,” Art News 59 (October 1960), p.25 ^ Paul Schimmel and Judith E Stein, The Figurative fifties : New York figurative expressionism (Newport Beach, California : Newport Harbor Art Museum : New York : Rizzoli, 1988.) ISBN 978-0-8478-0942-4 ^ “Editorial,” Reality, A Journal of Artists’ Opinions (Spring 1954), p. 2. ^ Flight lyric, Paris 1945–1956, texts Patrick-Gilles Persin, Michel and Pierre Descargues Ragon, Musée du Luxembourg, Paris and Skira, Milan, 2006, 280 p. ISBN 88-7624-679-7. ^ Caroline A. Jones, Bay Area figurative art, 1950–1965, (San Francisco, California : San Francisco Museum of Modern Art ; Berkeley : University of California Press, ©1990.) ISBN 978-0-520-06842-1 ^ American Abstract and Figurative Expressionism: Style Is Timely Art Is Timeless (New York School Press, 2009.) ISBN 978-0-9677994-2-1 pp. 44–47; 56–59; 80–83; 112–115; 192–195; 212–215; 240–243; 248–251 ^ Marika Herskovic, American Abstract Expressionism
Expressionism
of the 1950s An Illustrated Survey, (New York School Press, 2000. ISBN 0-9677994-1-4. pp. 46–49; pp. 62–65; pp. 70–73; pp. 74–77; pp. 94–97; 262–264 ^ American Abstract and Figurative Expressionism: Style Is Timely Art Is Timeless: An Illustrated Survey With Artists' Statements, Artwork and Biographies(New York School Press, 2009. ISBN 978-0-9677994-2-1. pp.24–27; pp.28–31; pp.32–35; pp. 60–63; pp.64–67; pp.72–75; pp.76–79; pp. 112–115; 128–131; 136–139; 140–143; 144–147; 148–151; 156–159; 160–163; ^ Ryan, David (2002). Talking painting: dialogues with twelve contemporary abstract painters, p.211, Routledge. ISBN 0-415-27629-2, ISBN 978-0-415-27629-0. Available on Google Books. ^ "Exhibition archive: Expanding Boundaries: Lyrical Abstraction", Boca Raton Museum of Art, 2009. Retrieved 25 September 2009. ^ "John Seery", National Gallery of Australia. Retrieved 25 September 2009. ^ "Der Sturm". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. 2012. Retrieved 21 January 2012.  ^ Fulton, A. R. (1944). "Expressionism: Twenty Years After". The Sewanee Review. 52 (3): 398–399. doi:10.2307/27537525.  ^ Furness, pp.89–90. ^ Stokel, p.1. ^ Stokel, p.1; Lois Oppenheimer, The Painted Word: Samuel Beckett's Dialogue with Art. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2000, pp.74, 126–7, 128; Jessica Prinz, "Resonant Images: Beckett and German Expressionism", in Samuel Beckett
Samuel Beckett
and the Arts: Music, Visual Arts, and Non-Print Media, ed. Lois Oppenheim. New York: Garland Publishing, 1999. ^ Ulf Zimmermann, " Expressionism
Expressionism
and Döblin's Berlin
Berlin
Alexanderplatz, in Passion and Rebellion ^ R. S. Furness, Expressionism. London: Methuen, 1973, p.81. ^ a b http://denstoredanske.dk/Dansk_litteraturs_historie/Dansk_litteraturs_historie_4/Lyrisk_ekspressionisme ^ Cowan, Michael (2007). "Die Tücke Des Körpers: Taming The Nervous Body In Alfred Döblin's 'Die Ermordung Einer Butterblume' And 'Die Tänzerin Und Der Leib'". Seminar: A Journal of Germanic Studies. 43 (4): 482–498. doi:10.3138/seminar.43.4.482.  ^ Walter H. Sokel, The Writer in Extremis. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1959, pp 3, 29, 84 especially; Richard Murphy, Theorizing the Avant-Garde. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press,1999, especially pp 41,142. ^ Silvio Vietta, Franz Kafka, Expressionism, and Reification" in Passion and Rebellion: The Expressionist Heritage, eds. Stephen Bronner and Douglas Kellner. New York: Universe Books, 1983 pp, pp.201–16. ^ Richard Murphy, Theorizing the Avant-Garde: Modernism, Expressionism and the Problem of Postmodernity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999, pp.74–141; Ulf Zimmermann, " Expressionism
Expressionism
and Döblin's Berlin
Berlin
Alexanderplatz " in Passion and Rebellion, pp.217–234. ^ Sheila Watson, Wyndham Lewis
Wyndham Lewis
Expressionist. Ph.D Thesis, University of Toronto, 1965. ^ Sherrill E. Grace, Regression and Apocalypse: Studies in North American Literary Expressionism. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1989, pp.141–162. ^ Raymond S. Nelson, Hemingway, Expressionist Artist. Ames, Iowa University Press, 1979; Robert Paul Lamb, Art matters: Hemingway, Craft, and the Creation of the Modern Short Story. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, c.2010. ^ Walter H. Sokel, The Writer in Extremis. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1959, p.1; R. S. Furness, Expressionism. London: Methuen, 1973, p. 81. ^ Sherrill E. Grace, p.7. ^ Sherrill E. Grace, p.7 ^ Sherrill E. Grace, pp 185–209. ^ Sherrill E. Grace, p.12. ^ Sherrill E. Grace, p.7, 241–3. ^ Jeffrey Stayton, "Southern Expressionism: Apocalyptic Hillscapes, Racial Panoramas, and Lustmord in William Faulkner’s Light in August". The Southern Literary Journal, Volume 42, Number 1, Fall 2009, pp. 32–56. ^ Ken Worpole, Dockers and Detectives. London: Verso Editions, 1983, pp. 77–93. ^ The Norton Grove Concise Encyclopedia of Music, ed Stanley Sadie. New York: Norton1991, p. 244. ^ Theodor Adorno, Night Music: Essays on Music 1928–1962. (London: Seagull, 2009), p.274-8. ^ Nicole V. Gagné, Historical Dictionary of Modern and Contemporary Classical Music (Plymouth, England: Scarecrow Press, 2011), p.92. ^ Andrew Clements, "Classical preview: The Wooden Prince", The Guardian, 5 May 2007. ^ The Cambridge Companion to Bartók, ed. Amanda Bayley (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001), p.152. ^ "Expressionism," Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2000. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. Retrieved 2012-06-29. ; Donald Mitchell, Gustav Mahler: The Wunderhorn Years: Chronicles and Commentaries. Rochester, NY: Boydell Press, 2005 ^ Edward Rothstein New York Times Review/Opera: "Wozzeck; The Lyric Dresses Up Berg's 1925 Nightmare In a Modern Message". New York Times February 3, 1994; Theodor Adorno, Night Music (2009), p.276. ^ Theodor Adorno, Night Music (2009), pp275-6. ^ Mathias Goeritz, "El manifiesto de arquitectura emocional", in Lily Kassner, Mathias Goeritz, UNAM, 2007, p. 272-273

Further reading[edit]

Alfirevic Djordje (2012), Expressionism
Expressionism
as The Radical Creative Tendency in Architecture, Arhitektura i urbanizam, No.34, pp. 14–27. Antonín Matějček cited in Gordon, Donald E. (1987). Expressionism: Art and Idea, p. 175. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300033106 Jonah F. Mitchell (Berlin, 2003). Doctoral thesis Expressionism between Western modernism and Teutonic Sonderweg. Courtesy of the author. Friedrich Nietzsche
Friedrich Nietzsche
(1872). The Birth of Tragedy Out of The Spirit of Music. Trans. Clifton P. Fadiman. New York: Dover, 1995. ISBN 0-486-28515-4. Judith Bookbinder, Boston modern: figurative expressionism as alternative modernism, (Durham, N.H.: University of New Hampshire Press; Hanover: University Press of New England, ©2005.) ISBN 1-58465-488-0, ISBN 978-1-58465-488-9 Bram Dijkstra, American expressionism: art and social change, 1920–1950, (New York: H.N. Abrams, in association with the Columbus Museum of Art, 2003.) ISBN 0-8109-4231-3, ISBN 978-0-8109-4231-8 Ditmar Elger Expressionism-A Revolution in German Art ISBN 978-3-8228-3194-6 Paul Schimmel and Judith E Stein, The Figurative fifties: New York figurative expressionism, The Other Tradition (Newport Beach, California: Newport Harbor Art Museum: New York: Rizzoli, 1988.) ISBN 978-0-8478-0942-4 ISBN 978-0-91749312-6 Marika Herskovic, American Abstract and Figurative Expressionism: Style Is Timely Art Is Timeless (New York School Press, 2009.) ISBN 978-0-9677994-2-1. Lakatos Gabriela Luciana, Expressionism
Expressionism
Today, University of Art and Design Cluj Napoca, 2011

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Expressionist paintings.

Look up expressionism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Expressionism

Hottentots in tails A turbulent history of the group by Christian Saehrendt at signandsight.com German Expressionism
German Expressionism
A free resource with paintings from German expressionists (high-quality).

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Post-Impressionism

19th-century movements

Neo-impressionism Divisionism Pointillism Cloisonnism Les Nabis Synthetism Symbolism Art Nouveau

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See also

Impressionism Modernism Modern art Secessionism

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Avant-garde
movements

Visual art

Abstract expressionism Art Nouveau Art & Language Conceptual art Constructivism Cubism Proto-Cubism Cubo-Futurism De Stijl Devětsil Divisionism Fauvism Impressionism Neo-Impressionism Post-Impressionism Color Field Incoherents Lyrical Abstraction Mail art Minimalism Mir iskusstva Neue Slowenische Kunst Nonconformism Pop art Rayonism Suprematism Vorticism Nouveau réalisme

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Le Déjeuner sur l’herbe
Le Déjeuner sur l’herbe
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A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte
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The Starry Night
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Le bonheur de vivre
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Les Demoiselles d'Avignon
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The Firebird
(1910) Afternoon of a Faun (1912) Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2
Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2
(1912) The Rite of Spring
The Rite of Spring
(1913) In Search of Lost Time
In Search of Lost Time
(1913–1927) The Metamorphosis
The Metamorphosis
(1915) Black Square (1915) Fountain (1917) The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari
The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari
(1920) Six Characters in Search of an Author (1921) Ulysses (1922) The Waste Land
The Waste Land
(1922) The Magic Mountain
The Magic Mountain
(1924) Battleship Potemkin
Battleship Potemkin
(1925) The Sun Also Rises
The Sun Also Rises
(1926) The Threepenny Opera
The Threepenny Opera
(1928) The Sound and the Fury
The Sound and the Fury
(1929) Un Chien Andalou
Un Chien Andalou
(1929) Villa Savoye
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The Blue Lotus
(1936) Fallingwater
Fallingwater
(1936) Waiting for Godot
Waiting for Godot
(1953)

Literature

Guillaume Apollinaire Djuna Barnes Tadeusz Borowski André Breton Mikhail Bulgakov Anton Chekhov Joseph Conrad Alfred Döblin E. M. Forster William Faulkner Gustave Flaubert Ford Madox Ford André Gide Knut Hamsun Jaroslav Hašek Ernest Hemingway Hermann Hesse James Joyce Franz Kafka Arthur Koestler D. H. Lawrence Wyndham Lewis Thomas Mann Katherine Mansfield Filippo Tommaso Marinetti Guy de Maupassant Robert Musil Katherine Anne Porter Marcel Proust Gertrude Stein Italo Svevo Virginia Woolf

Poetry

Anna Akhmatova Richard Aldington W. H. Auden Charles Baudelaire Luca Caragiale Constantine P. Cavafy Blaise Cendrars Hart Crane H.D. Robert Desnos T. S. Eliot Paul Éluard Odysseas Elytis F. S. Flint Stefan George Max Jacob Federico García Lorca Amy Lowell Robert Lowell Mina Loy Stéphane Mallarmé Marianne Moore Wilfred Owen Octavio Paz Fernando Pessoa Ezra Pound Lionel Richard Rainer Maria Rilke Arthur Rimbaud Giorgos Seferis Wallace Stevens Dylan Thomas Tristan Tzara Paul Valéry William Carlos Williams W. B. Yeats

Visual art

Josef Albers Jean Arp Balthus George Bellows Umberto Boccioni Pierre Bonnard Georges Braque Constantin Brâncuși Alexander Calder Mary Cassatt Paul Cézanne Marc Chagall Giorgio de Chirico Camille Claudel Joseph Cornell Joseph Csaky Salvador Dalí Edgar Degas Raoul Dufy Willem de Kooning Robert Delaunay Charles Demuth Otto Dix Theo van Doesburg Marcel Duchamp James Ensor Max Ernst Jacob Epstein Paul Gauguin Alberto Giacometti Vincent van Gogh Natalia Goncharova Julio González Juan Gris George Grosz Raoul Hausmann Jacques Hérold Hannah Höch Edward Hopper Frida Kahlo Wassily Kandinsky Ernst Ludwig Kirchner Paul Klee Oskar Kokoschka Pyotr Konchalovsky André Lhote Fernand Léger Franz Marc Albert Marque Jean Marchand René Magritte Kazimir Malevich Édouard Manet Henri Matisse Colin McCahon Jean Metzinger Joan Miró Amedeo Modigliani Piet Mondrian Claude Monet Henry Moore Edvard Munch Emil Nolde Georgia O'Keeffe Méret Oppenheim Francis Picabia Pablo Picasso Camille Pissarro Man Ray Odilon Redon Pierre-Auguste Renoir Auguste Rodin Henri Rousseau Egon Schiele Georges Seurat Paul Signac Alfred Sisley Edward Steichen Alfred Stieglitz Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec Édouard Vuillard Grant Wood

Music

George Antheil Milton Babbitt Jean Barraqué Alban Berg Luciano Berio Nadia Boulanger Pierre Boulez John Cage Elliott Carter Aaron Copland Henry Cowell Henri Dutilleux Morton Feldman Henryk Górecki Josef Matthias Hauer Paul Hindemith Arthur Honegger Charles Ives Leoš Janáček György Ligeti Witold Lutosławski Olivier Messiaen Luigi Nono Harry Partch Krzysztof Penderecki Sergei Prokofiev Luigi Russolo Erik Satie Pierre Schaeffer Arnold Schoenberg Dmitri Shostakovich Richard Strauss Igor Stravinsky Edgard Varèse Anton Webern Kurt Weill Iannis Xenakis

Theatre

Edward Albee Maxwell Anderson Jean Anouilh Antonin Artaud Samuel Beckett Bertolt Brecht Anton Chekhov Friedrich Dürrenmatt Jean Genet Maxim Gorky Walter Hasenclever Henrik Ibsen William Inge Eugène Ionesco Alfred Jarry Georg Kaiser Maurice Maeterlinck Vladimir Mayakovsky Arthur Miller Seán O'Casey Eugene O'Neill John Osborne Luigi Pirandello Erwin Piscator George Bernard Shaw August Strindberg John Millington Synge Ernst Toller Frank Wedekind Thornton Wilder Stanisław Ignacy Witkiewicz

Film

Ingmar Bergman Anton Giulio Bragaglia Luis Buñuel Marcel Carné Charlie Chaplin René Clair Jean Cocteau Maya Deren Alexander Dovzhenko Carl Theodor Dreyer Viking Eggeling Sergei Eisenstein Jean Epstein Robert J. Flaherty Abel Gance Isidore Isou Buster Keaton Lev Kuleshov Fritz Lang Marcel L'Herbier Georges Méliès F. W. Murnau Georg Wilhelm Pabst Vsevolod Pudovkin Jean Renoir Walter Ruttmann Victor Sjöström Josef von Sternberg Dziga Vertov Jean Vigo Robert Wiene

Dance

George Balanchine Merce Cunningham Clotilde von Derp Sergei Diaghilev Isadora Duncan Michel Fokine Loie Fuller Martha Graham Hanya Holm Doris Humphrey Léonide Massine Vaslav Nijinsky Alwin Nikolais Alexander Sakharoff Ted Shawn Anna Sokolow Ruth St. Denis Helen Tamiris Charles Weidman Mary Wigman

Architecture

Alvar Aalto Marcel Breuer Gordon Bunshaft Antoni Gaudí Walter Gropius Hector Guimard Raymond Hood Victor Horta Friedensreich Hundertwasser Philip Johnson Louis Kahn Le Corbusier Adolf Loos Konstantin Melnikov Erich Mendelsohn Pier Luigi Nervi Richard Neutra Oscar Niemeyer Hans Poelzig Antonin Raymond Gerrit Rietveld Eero Saarinen Rudolf Steiner Edward Durell Stone Louis Sullivan Vladimir Tatlin Paul Troost Jørn Utzon Ludwig Mies van der Rohe Frank Lloyd Wright

Related articles

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Medieval

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17th century

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18th century

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19th century

Naïve Nazarene Realism / Realism Historicism Biedermeier Gründerzeit Barbizon school Pre-Raphaelites Academic Aestheticism Decadent Macchiaioli Art Nouveau Peredvizhniki Impressionism Post-Impressionism Neo-impressionism Divisionism Pointillism Cloisonnism Les Nabis Synthetism Kalighat painting Symbolism Hudson River School

20th century

Arts and Crafts Fauvism Die Brücke Cubism Expressionism Neue Künstlervereinigung München Futurism Metaphysical art Rayonism Der Blaue Reiter Orphism Synchromism Vorticism Suprematism Ashcan Dada De Stijl Purism Bauhaus Kinetic art New Objectivity Neues Sehen Surrealism Neo-Fauvism Precisionism Scuola Romana Art Deco International Typographic Style Social realism Abstract expressionism Vienna School of Fantastic Realism Color Field Lyrical abstraction Tachisme COBRA Action painting New media art Letterist International Pop art Situationist International Lettrism Neo-Dada Op art Nouveau réalisme Art & Language Conceptual art Land art Systems art Video art Minimalism Fluxus Photorealism Performance art Installation art Endurance art Outsider art Neo-expressionism Lowbrow Young British Artists Amazonian pop art

21st century

Art intervention Hyperrealism Neo-futurism Stuckism Sound art Superstroke Superflat Relational art

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