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EU member states

  EEA member

  Provisional EEA member (Croatia)

EFTA
EFTA
member states

  EEA member

   EFTA
EFTA
signatories that have not ratified (Switzerland)

Institutions  • Governance  • Regulators  • Courts

EEA Joint Committee

EEA Council

EC EFTA
EFTA
SA

ECJ EFTA
EFTA
Court

Member states[1][2]

27 EU states

 Austria  Belgium  Bulgaria  Cyprus  Czech Republic  Denmark  Estonia  Finland  France  Germany  Greece  Hungary  Ireland  Italy  Latvia  Lithuania  Luxembourg  Malta  Netherlands  Poland  Portugal  Romania  Slovakia  Slovenia  Spain  Sweden  United Kingdom

3 EFTA
EFTA
states

 Iceland  Liechtenstein  Norway

1 EU state with provisional membership

 Croatia

Establishment

• EEA Agreement signed

2 May 1992

• Entry into force

1 January 1994

Area

• Total

4,944,753 km2 (1,909,180 sq mi)

Population

• 2015 estimate

513,772,446

GDP (nominal) 2014 estimate

• Total

€14 trillion ($18 trillion)[3]

• Per capita

€27,300 ($34,000)

The European Economic Area
European Economic Area
(EEA) is the area in which the Agreement on the EEA provides for the free movement of persons, goods, services and capital within the European Single Market, including the freedom to choose residence in any country within this area. The EEA was established on 1 January 1994 upon entry into force of the EEA Agreement.[4] The EEA Agreement specifies that membership is open to member states of either the European Union
European Union
(EU) or European Free Trade Association (EFTA). EFTA
EFTA
states which are party to the EEA Agreement participate in the EU's internal market without being members of the EU. They adopt most EU legislation concerning the single market, however with notable exclusions including laws regarding agriculture and fisheries.[5] The EEA's "decision-shaping" processes enable EEA EFTA member states to influence and contribute to new EEA policy and legislation from an early stage.[6] Third country goods are excluded for these states on rules of origin. When entering into force in 1994, the EEA parties were 17 states and two European Communities: the European Community, which was later absorbed into the EU's wider framework, and the now defunct European Coal and Steel Community. Membership has grown to 31 states as of 2016: 28 EU member states, as well as three of the four member states of the EFTA
EFTA
(Iceland, Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
and Norway).[4] The Agreement is applied provisionally with respect to Croatia—the remaining and most recent EU member state—pending ratification of its accession by all EEA parties.[2][7] One EFTA
EFTA
member, Switzerland, has not joined the EEA, but has a series of bilateral agreements with the EU which allow it also to participate in the internal market.

Contents

1 Origins 2 Membership

2.1 Treaties 2.2 Ratification of the EEA Agreement 2.3 Notes

3 Future enlargement

3.1 New EU member states 3.2 Future EU member states 3.3 European microstates

4 Possible withdrawal of the United Kingdom 5 Rights and obligations 6 Legislation 7 Institutions 8 EEA and Norway
Norway
Grants 9 See also 10 References 11 External links

Origins[edit] See also: 1995 enlargement of the European Union, 2004 enlargement of the European Union, and 2007 enlargement of the European Union In the late 1980s, the EFTA
EFTA
member states, led by Sweden, began looking at options to join the then European Communities. The reasons identified for this are manifold. Many authors cite the economic downturn in the beginning of the 1980s, and the subsequent adoption by the European Union
European Union
of the Europe
Europe
1992 agenda as a primary reason. Arguing from a liberal intergovernmentalist perspective, these authors argue that large multinational corporations in EFTA
EFTA
countries, especially Sweden, pressed for EEC
EEC
membership under threat of relocating their production abroad. Other authors point to the end of the Cold War, which made joining the EU less politically controversial for neutral countries.[8] Meanwhile, Jacques Delors, who was President of the European Commission at the time, did not like the idea of the EEC
EEC
enlarging with more member states, as he feared that it would impede the ability of the Community to complete the internal market reform and establish the monetary union. Delors proposed a European Economic Space (EES) in January 1989, which was later renamed the European Economic Area, as it is known today.[8] By the time the EEA was established, however, several developments hampered its credibility. First of all, Switzerland
Switzerland
rejected the EEA agreement in a national referendum on 6 December 1992 obstructing full EU- EFTA
EFTA
integration within the EEA. Furthermore, Austria
Austria
had applied for full EEC
EEC
membership in 1989, and was followed by Finland, Norway, Sweden, and Switzerland
Switzerland
between 1991 and 1992 (Norway's EU accession was rejected in a referendum, Switzerland
Switzerland
froze its EU application after the EEA agreement was rejected in a referendum). The fall of the Iron Curtain made the EU less hesitant to accept these highly developed countries as member states, since that would relieve the pressure on the EU's budget when the former socialist countries of Central Europe
Europe
were to join.[8] Membership[edit] The EEA Agreement was signed in Porto
Porto
on 2 May 1992 by the then seven states of the European Free Trade Association
European Free Trade Association
(EFTA), the European Community (EC) and its then 12 member states.[9][10] On 6 December 1992, Switzerland's voters rejected the ratification of the agreement in a constitutionally mandated referendum,[11] effectively freezing the application for EC membership submitted earlier in the year. Switzerland
Switzerland
is instead linked to the EU by a series of bilateral agreements. On 1 January 1995, three erstwhile members of the EFTA—Austria, Finland
Finland
and Sweden—acceded to the European Union, which had superseded the European Community
European Community
upon the entry into force of the Maastricht Treaty
Maastricht Treaty
on 1 November 1993. Liechtenstein's participation in the EEA was delayed until 1 May 1995.[12] As of 2014[update] the contracting parties to the EEA are 3 of the 4 EFTA
EFTA
member states and 27 of the 28 EU member states. The 28th and newest EU member, Croatia, finished negotiating their accession to the EEA in November 2013,[13] and since 12 April 2014 is provisionally applying the agreement pending its ratification by all EEA member states.[2][7] Treaties[edit] Besides the 1992 Treaty, 1 amending treaty was signed, as well as 3 treaties to allow for accession of new members of the European Union

Treaty Signature Entry into force original signatories comment

EEA agreement 000000001992-05-02-00002 May 1992 000000001994-01-01-00001 January 1994 19 states + EEC
EEC
and ECSC Entered into force as adjusted by the 1993 Protocol

Adjusting Protocol 000000001993-03-17-000017 March 1993 000000001994-01-01-00001 January 1994 18 states + EEC
EEC
and ECSC Allowing entry into force without Switzerland

Participation of 10 new States 000000002003-10-14-000014 October 2003 000000002005-12-06-00006 December 2005 28 states + EC following 2004 enlargement of the European Union

Participation of 2 new States 000000002007-07-25-000025 July 2007 000000002011-11-09-00009 November 2011 30 states + EC following 2007 enlargement of the European Union

Participation of 1 new State 000000002014-04-11-000011 April 2014 not in force 31 states + EU following 2013 enlargement of the European Union

Ratification of the EEA Agreement[edit]

State Signed [Note 1][1][14] Ratified [Note 1][1] Entered into force[1] Notes

 Austria 2 May 1992 15 October 1992 1 January 1994 EU member (from 1 January 1995) Acceded to the EEA as an EFTA
EFTA
member[14]

 Belgium 2 May 1992 9 November 1993 1 January 1994 EU member

 Bulgaria[15] 25 July 2007 29 February 2008 9 November 2011 EU member

 Croatia[2] 11 April 2014 24 March 2015[16] No EU member (from 1 July 2013) Provisional application from 12 April 2014[2]

 Cyprus[17] 14 October 2003 30 April 2004 6 December 2005 EU member (The agreement is not applied to Northern Cyprus[Note 2])

 Czech Republic[17] 14 October 2003 10 June 2004 6 December 2005 EU member

 Denmark 2 May 1992 30 December 1992 1 January 1994 EU member

 European Union 2 May 1992 13 December 1993 1 January 1994 originally as European Economic Community and European Coal and Steel Community

 Estonia[17] 14 October 2003 13 May 2004 6 December 2005 EU member

 Finland 2 May 1992 17 December 1992 1 January 1994 EU member (from 1 January 1995) Acceded to the EEA as an EFTA
EFTA
member[14]

 France 2 May 1992 10 December 1993 1 January 1994 EU member

 Germany 2 May 1992 23 June 1993 1 January 1994 EU member

 Greece 2 May 1992 10 September 1993 1 January 1994 EU member

 Hungary[17] 14 October 2003 26 April 2004 6 December 2005 EU member

 Iceland 2 May 1992 4 February 1993 1 January 1994 EFTA
EFTA
member

 Ireland 2 May 1992 29 July 1993 1 January 1994 EU member

 Italy 2 May 1992 15 November 1993 1 January 1994 EU member

 Latvia[17] 14 October 2003 4 May 2004 6 December 2005 EU member

 Liechtenstein 2 May 1992 25 April 1995 1 May 1995 EFTA
EFTA
member

 Lithuania[17] 14 October 2003 27 April 2004 6 December 2005 EU member

 Luxembourg 2 May 1992 21 October 1993 1 January 1994 EU member

 Malta[17] 14 October 2003 5 March 2004 6 December 2005 EU member

 Netherlands 2 May 1992 31 December 1992 1 January 1994 EU member

 Norway 2 May 1992 19 November 1992 1 January 1994 EFTA
EFTA
member

 Poland[17] 14 October 2003 8 October 2004 6 December 2005 EU member

 Portugal 2 May 1992 9 March 1993 1 January 1994 EU member

 Romania[15] 25 July 2007 23 May 2008 9 November 2011 EU member

 Slovakia[17] 14 October 2003 19 March 2004 6 December 2005 EU member

 Slovenia[17] 14 October 2003 30 June 2005 6 December 2005 EU member

 Spain 2 May 1992 3 December 1993 1 January 1994 EU member

 Sweden 2 May 1992 18 December 1992 1 January 1994 EU member (from 1 January 1995) Acceded to the EEA as an EFTA
EFTA
member[14]

  Switzerland[14] 2 May 1992 No No EFTA
EFTA
member EEA ratification rejected in a 1992 referendum Removed as contracting party in 1993 protocol

 United Kingdom 2 May 1992 15 November 1993 1 January 1994 EU member, includes Gibraltar Voted in a 2016 referendum to leave the EU (planned to be effective by 29 March 2019) The future status of UK inclusion in the EEA remains unresolved.

Notes[edit]

^ a b Of the original agreement, or a subsequent agreement on participation of that particular state in the EEA. ^ Protocol 10 of the treaty of accession of the European Union
European Union
to Cyprus
Cyprus
suspended the application of the EU acquis to Northern Cyprus.[18][19] The EEA agreement states that it only applies to the territories of EU member states to which the EU treaties
EU treaties
apply.[20] A joint declaration to the Final Act of treaty on accession of Cyprus
Cyprus
to the EEA confirmed that this included the Protocol on Cyprus.[21]

Future enlargement[edit] New EU member states[edit] Croatia
Croatia
acceded to the EU in July 2013, which obliged them to apply for EEA membership.[22] After Slovenia, Croatia
Croatia
has recovered best from the break-up of the former Yugoslavia and is the second former Yugoslav state to join the EU.[23] According to Eurostat, Croatia
Croatia
has a stable market economy and its GDP per capita in 2010 was 61 per cent of the EU average, exceeding that of four other EU member states.[24][25] EU accession negotiations were concluded on 30 June 2011,[26][27] and the Treaty of Accession was signed on 9 December 2011 in Brussels.[28] The Croatian government decided to submit their EEA membership application on 13 September 2012,[29] and negotiations started 15 March 2013 in Brussels, with the aim of achieving simultaneous accession to both the EU and the EEA on 1 July 2013.[30] However, this was not achieved.[31][32][33][34] Accession negotiations were expected to be completed by the autumn of 2013,[35] and on 20 November 2013 it was announced that an enlargement agreement was reached. The text was initialled on 20 December 2013, and following its signature in April 2014 the agreement is being provisionally applied pending ratification by Croatia, all EEA states, and the European Union.[7][13][36] As of June 2017[update], the agreement has been ratified by 17 out of 32 parties.[2] By comparison, following the 2007 enlargement of the EU, which saw Bulgaria
Bulgaria
and Romania
Romania
acceding to the EU on 1 January 2007, an EEA Enlargement Agreement was not signed until 25 July 2007 and only provisionally entered into force on 1 August 2007.[37][38][15] The agreement did not fully enter into force until 9 November 2011.[15] On the other hand, the EEA Agreement was applied on a provisional basis to the 10 acceding countries in May 2004 as from the date of their accession to the EU.[39] Future EU member states[edit] See also: Future enlargement of the European Union There are five recognised candidates for EU membership that are not already EEA members: Albania
Albania
(applied 2009), Macedonia (applied 2004), Montenegro
Montenegro
(applied 2008, negotiating since June 2012), Serbia (applied 2009, negotiating since January 2014) and Turkey
Turkey
(applied 1987, negotiating since October 2005).[40] Albania
Albania
and Macedonia have not yet started negotiations to join, nor has the European Union
European Union
set any negotiations start date.[41] Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
and Kosovo
Kosovo
are considered potential candidates for membership. Bosnia and Herzegovina signed a Stabilisation and Association Agreement
Stabilisation and Association Agreement
(SAA) with the EU and its member states, that went into effect in June 2015, which allowed the lodging of a membership application in February 2016,[42] while Kosovo, whose independence is unrecognised by 5 EU member states, finalised negotiations on a SAA that went into effect in April 2016.[43] In mid-2005, representatives of the Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
hinted at the possibility of their territory joining the EFTA.[44] However, the ability of the Faroes to join is uncertain because, according to Article 56 of the EFTA
EFTA
Convention, only states may become members of the Association.[45] The Faroes, which form part of the Danish Realm, is not a sovereign state, and according to a report prepared for the Faroes Ministry of Foreign Affairs "under its constitutional status the Faroes cannot become an independent Contracting Party to the EEA Agreement due to the fact that the Faroes are not a state".[46] However, the report went on to suggest that it is possible that the "Kingdom of Denmark
Denmark
in respect of the Faroes" could join the EFTA.[46] The Danish Government has stated that the Faroes cannot become an independent member of the EEA as Denmark
Denmark
is already a party to the EEA Agreement.[46] The Faroes already have an extensive bilateral free trade agreement with Iceland, known as the Hoyvík Agreement. European microstates[edit] See also: Microstates and the European Union In November 2012, after the Council of the European Union
European Union
had called for an evaluation of the EU's relations with the sovereign European microstates of Andorra, Monaco
Monaco
and San Marino, which they described as "fragmented",[47] the European Commission
European Commission
published a report outlining options for their further integration into the EU.[48] Unlike Liechtenstein, which is a member of the EEA via the EFTA
EFTA
and the Schengen Agreement, relations with these three states are based on a collection of agreements covering specific issues. The report examined four alternatives to the current situation: 1) a Sectoral Approach with separate agreements with each state covering an entire policy area, 2) a comprehensive, multilateral Framework Association Agreement (FAA) with the three states, 3) EEA membership, and 4) EU membership. The Commission argued that the sectoral approach did not address the major issues and was still needlessly complicated, while EU membership was dismissed in the near future because "the EU institutions are currently not adapted to the accession of such small-sized countries". The remaining options, EEA membership and a FAA with the states, were found to be viable and were recommended by the Commission. As EEA membership is currently only open to EFTA
EFTA
or EU members, the consent of existing EFTA
EFTA
member states is required for the microstates to join the EEA without becoming members of the EU. In 2011, Jonas Gahr Støre, the then Foreign Minister of Norway
Norway
which is an EFTA member state, said that EFTA/EEA membership for the microstates was not the appropriate mechanism for their integration into the internal market because their requirements differed from those of larger countries such as Norway, and suggested that a simplified association would be better suited for them.[49] Espen Barth Eide, Støre's successor, responded to the Commission's report in late 2012 by questioning whether the microstates have sufficient administrative capabilities to meet the obligations of EEA membership. However, he stated that Norway
Norway
was open to the possibility of EFTA
EFTA
membership for the microstates if they decide to submit an application, and that the country had not made a final decision on the matter.[50][51][52][53] Pascal Schafhauser, the Counsellor of the Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
Mission to the EU, said that Liechtenstein, another EFTA
EFTA
member state, was willing to discuss EEA membership for the microstates provided their joining did not impede the functioning of the organisation. However, he suggested that the option of direct membership in the EEA for the microstates, outside both the EFTA
EFTA
and the EU, should be given consideration.[52] On 18 November 2013 the EU Commission concluded that "the participation of the small-sized countries in the EEA is not judged to be a viable option at present due to the political and institutional reasons", and that Association Agreements were a more feasible mechanism to integrate the microstates into the internal market.[54] Possible withdrawal of the United Kingdom[edit] Main articles: Membership of United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in the European Economic Area and Brexit A 2016 UK referendum voted to withdraw from the European Union. Staying in the EEA, possibly eventually as an EFTA
EFTA
member, is one of the suggested options. A 2013 research paper presented to the Parliament of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
proposed a number of alternatives to EU membership which would continue to allow it access to the EU's internal market, including continuing EEA membership as an EFTA
EFTA
member state, or the Swiss model of a number of bilateral treaties covering the provisions of the single market.[55] The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
was a co-founder of EFTA
EFTA
in 1960, but ceased to be a member upon joining the European Union. In the first meeting since the Brexit
Brexit
vote, EFTA reacted by saying both that they were open to a UK return and that Britain has many issues to work through[56] although the Norwegian Government later expressed reservations.[57] In January 2017, Theresa May, the British Prime Minister, announced a 12-point plan of negotiating objectives and confirmed that the UK government would not seek continued permanent membership in the single market.[58] The UK could be allowed by other member states to join the EEA or EFTA
EFTA
but existing EEA members such as Norway
Norway
would have concerns about taking the risk of opening a difficult negotiation with the EU that could lead them to lose their current advantages.[59] The Scottish Government has looked into membership of EFTA
EFTA
to retain access to the EEA.[60] However, other EFTA
EFTA
states have stated that only sovereign states are eligible for membership, so it could only join if it became independent from the UK.[61] Rights and obligations[edit] The EEA relies on the same "four freedoms" underpinning the European Single Market as does the European Union: the free movement of goods, persons, services, and capital among the EEA countries. Thus, the EEA countries that are not part of the EU enjoy free trade with the European Union. Also, '[t]he free movement of persons is one of the core rights guaranteed in the European Economic Area
European Economic Area
(EEA) ... [i]t is perhaps the most important right for individuals, as it gives citizens of the 31 EEA countries the opportunity to live, work, establish business and study in any of these countries'.[62] As a counterpart, these countries have to adopt part of the Law of the European Union. However they also contribute to and influence the formation of new EEA relevant policies and legislation at an early stage as part of a formal decision-shaping process.[6] Agriculture and fisheries are not covered by the EEA. Not being bound by the Common Fisheries Policy
Common Fisheries Policy
is perceived as very important by Norway
Norway
and Iceland, and a major reason not to join the EU. The Common Fisheries Policy would mean giving away fishing quotas in their waters. The EEA countries that are not part of the EU do not contribute financially to Union objectives to the same extent as do its members, although they contribute to the EEA Grants
EEA Grants
scheme to “reduce social and economic disparities in the EEA”. Additionally, some choose to take part in EU programmes such as Trans-European Networks and the European Regional Development Fund. Norway
Norway
also has its own Norway Grants scheme.[63] After the EU/EEA enlargement of 2004, there was a tenfold increase in the financial contribution of the EEA States, in particular Norway, to social and economic cohesion in the Internal Market (€1167 million over five years).[citation needed] Legislation[edit]

A clickable Euler diagram
Euler diagram
showing the relationships between various multinational European organisations and agreements.

v t e

The non EU members of the EEA (Iceland, Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
and Norway) have agreed to enact legislation similar to that passed in the EU in the areas of social policy, consumer protection, environment, company law and statistics.[citation needed] These are some of the areas covered by the former European Community
European Community
(the "first pillar" of the European Union). The non-EU members of the EEA are not represented in Institutions of the European Union
European Union
such as the European Parliament
European Parliament
or European Commission. This situation has been described as “fax democracy”, with Norway
Norway
waiting for their latest legislation to be faxed from the Commission.[64][65] However, EEA countries are consulted about new EU legislative proposals and participate in shaping legislation at an early stage. The EEA Agreement contains provisions for input from the EEA/ EFTA
EFTA
countries at various stages before legislation is adopted, including consent at the EEA Joint Committee. Once approved at the EEA Joint Committee, it is part of the EEA Agreement and the EEA EFTA States must implement it in their national law.[66] Institutions[edit] See also: European Free Trade Association The EEA Joint Committee consists of the EEA- EFTA
EFTA
States plus the European Commission
European Commission
(representing the EU) and has the function of amending the EEA Agreement to include relevant EU legislation. An EEA Council meets twice yearly to govern the overall relationship between the EEA members. Rather than setting up pan-EEA institutions, the activities of the EEA are regulated by the European Union
European Union
institutions, as well as the EFTA Surveillance Authority and the EFTA
EFTA
Court. The EFTA
EFTA
Surveillance Authority and the EFTA Court
EFTA Court
regulate the activities of the EFTA members in respect of their obligations in the European Economic Area (EEA). The EFTA
EFTA
Surveillance Authority performs the European Commission's role as "guardian of the treaties" for the EFTA
EFTA
countries to ensure the EEA Agreement is being followed. The EFTA Court
EFTA Court
performs a similar role to the European Court of Justice's in that it resolves disputes under the EEA Agreement. While the ECJ and European Commission
European Commission
are respectively responsible for the interpretation and application of the EEA Agreement in the EU (between EU member states and within EU member states), and the EFTA Court and EFTA
EFTA
Surveillance Authority are likewise respectively responsible for interpreting and monitoring the application of the EEA Agreement among the EEA- EFTA
EFTA
states (between the EEA- EFTA
EFTA
states and within the EEA- EFTA
EFTA
states), disputes between an EU state and an EEA- EFTA
EFTA
state are referred to the EEA Joint Committee rather to either court. Only if the Joint Committee cannot provide a resolution within three months, would the disputing parties jointly submit to the ECJ for a ruling (if the dispute concerns provisions identical to EU law) or to arbitration (in all other cases).[67] The original plan for the EEA lacked the EFTA Court
EFTA Court
or the EFTA Surveillance Authority, as the "EEA court" (which would be composed of five European Court of Justice
European Court of Justice
members and three members from EFTA countries and which would be functionally integrated with the ECJ)[68] and the European Commission
European Commission
were to exercise those roles. However, during the negotiations for the EEA agreement, the European Court of Justice informed the Council of the European Union
European Union
(Opinion 1/91) that they considered that giving the EEA court jurisdiction with respect to EU law that would be part of the EEA law, would be a violation of the treaties, and therefore the current arrangement was developed instead. After having negotiated the Surveillance Authority, the ECJ confirmed its legality in Opinion 1/92. The EFTA
EFTA
Secretariat is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. The EFTA Surveillance Authority has its headquarters in Brussels, Belgium
Belgium
(the same location as the headquarters of the European Commission), while the EFTA Court
EFTA Court
has its headquarters in Luxembourg
Luxembourg
(the same location as the headquarters of the European Court of Justice). EEA and Norway
Norway
Grants[edit] Main article: EEA and Norway
Norway
Grants The EEA and Norway
Norway
Grants are the financial contributions of Iceland, Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
and Norway
Norway
to reduce social and economic disparities in Europe. In the period from 2004 to 2009, €1.3 billion of project funding is made available for project funding in the 15 beneficiary states in Central and Southern Europe. Established in conjunction with the 2004 enlargement of the European Economic Area (EEA), which brings together the EU, Iceland, Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
and Norway
Norway
in the Internal Market, the EEA and Norway Grants were administered by the Financial Mechanism Office, which is affiliated to the EFTA
EFTA
Secretariat in Brussels. See also[edit]

EudraVigilance European integration Free trade areas in Europe

Central European Free Trade Agreement EFTA

EU enlargement to EFTA
EFTA
states

Accession of Iceland
Iceland
to the European Union

Liechtenstein– European Union
European Union
relations Norway– European Union
European Union
relations Switzerland– European Union
European Union
relations National identity cards in the European Economic Area Parallel importation Passports of the European Economic Area Schengen Agreement European Customs Union Trade bloc Eurasian Economic Union

References[edit]

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Eurostat
- Tables, Graphs and Maps Interface (TGM) table". Epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu. 2016-08-11. Retrieved 2017-05-07.  ^ a b "AGREEMENT ON THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AREA". European Free Trade Association. 19 August 2016. Retrieved 7 May 2017.  ^ "The Basic Features of the EEA Agreement European Free Trade Association". Efta.int. Retrieved 2017-05-07.  ^ a b "2182-BULLETIN-2009-07:1897-THIS-IS-EFTA-24" (PDF). Retrieved 2017-05-07.  ^ a b c " Croatia
Croatia
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Croatia
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Slovenia
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European Council
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European Council
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European Economic Area
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Norway
congratulates Croatia
Croatia
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Croatia
one step closer to the EEA". European Free Trade Association. 20 December 2013. Retrieved 23 December 2013.  ^ "Enlargement of the EU and the EEA". Mission of Norway
Norway
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