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Esox
Esox
is a genus of freshwater fish, the only living genus in the family Esocidae—the esocids which were endemic to North America
North America
and Eurasia
Eurasia
during the Paleogene through present.[2] The species of this genus are known as pike and pickerel.[3][4] The type species is E. lucius, the northern pike. The big pike species are native to the Palearctic
Palearctic
and Nearctic ecozones, ranging across northern North America
North America
and from Western Europe to Siberia
Siberia
in Eurasia. Pikes have the elongated, torpedo-like form of predatory fishes, with sharply pointed heads and sharp teeth. Their coloration is typically grey-green with a mottled or spotted appearance with stripes along their backs, providing camouflage among weeds. Individual pike marking patterns are unique, like fingerprints. Pike can grow to a maximum recorded length of 1.83 m (6 ft), reaching a maximum recorded weight of 35 kg (77 lb).[citation needed]

Contents

1 Species 2 Etymology 3 Diet 4 Angling 5 Cuisine 6 In mythology 7 Submarines and tanks 8 Heraldry 9 References 10 External links

Species[edit] Currently, seven recognized species are placed in this genus:

Esox aquitanicus Denys, Dettai, Persat, Hautecœur & Keith, 2014 (Aquitanian pike) [5] Esox americanus
Esox americanus
J. F. Gmelin, 1789 (American pickerel)

Esox americanus
Esox americanus
americanus J. F. Gmelin, 1789 (Redfin pickerel) Esox americanus
Esox americanus
vermiculatus Lesueur, 1846 (Grass pickerel)

Esox cisalpinus
Esox cisalpinus
Bianco & Delmastro, 2011 (Southern pike) [6] Esox lucius
Esox lucius
Linnaeus, 1758 (Northern pike) Esox masquinongy
Esox masquinongy
Mitchill, 1824 (Muskellunge)

Esox masquinongy
Esox masquinongy
masquinongy (Great Lakes muskellunge or Spotted muskellunge ) Esox masquinongy
Esox masquinongy
ohioensis (Chautauqua muskellunge or Barred muskellunge) Esox masquinongy
Esox masquinongy
immaculatus (Clear muskellunge)

Esox niger
Esox niger
Lesueur, 1818 (Chain pickerel) Esox reichertii
Esox reichertii
Dybowski, 1869 (Amur pike) Esox masquinongy
Esox masquinongy
X Esox lucius
Esox lucius
<Large>Dybowski, 1869 (Tiger Musskellunge)

One fossil species, Esox
Esox
kronneri Grande, 1999, is known from the Eocene
Eocene
of the Green River formation.[7] Two additional fossil species from this family are place in their own genera: Estesesox foxi Wilson, Brinkman & Neuman, 1992, and Oldmanesox canadensis Wilson, Brinkman & Neuman, 1992.[7] Etymology[edit] The generic name Esox
Esox
(pike fish) derives from the Greek ἴσοξ (ee-soks, a large fish) and appears to be both profoundly archaic and cognate with Celtic, Welsh eog and Irish Gaelic iasc (fish), as well as alpine Gaulic *esosk which is consistent with the original indoeuropean root for the common word for fish, *pei(k)sk. Pliny uses the Latin
Latin
form Esox
Esox
in reference to a large fish in the Rhine
Rhine
normally identified with Salmonidae
Salmonidae
(lax or salmon). Carolus Linnæus attributes Esox
Esox
to the pike fish which is of similar form and appearance but taxonomically different to the salmoniformes, whereas the first mention of Esox
Esox
as a marine animal appears in the writings of Hesych(ius) .

A young E. lucius specimen—a "Chain pickerel" in the original sense—in an aquarium.

The English common name "pike" is an apparent shortening of "pike-fish", in reference to its pointed head, Old English píc originally referring to a pickaxe. The plural of pike is pike. A northern English and Lowland Scots name for the pike, ged, similarly derives from Old Norse gaddr (spike) (cf. the modern Swedish name for the pike, gädda, the Danish "gedde", the Norwegian "gjedde" and Scottish Gaelic: geadais). The Dutch name for the pike (snoek) has been given to a wide variety of fish reminding sailors of the pike (see snoek, snook). The English "pike" originally referred specifically to the adult fish, the diminutive form "pickerel" (now used to name some of the smaller pike, E. americanus and E. niger) referring to the young. The walleye (Sander vitreus) is sometimes called a pickerel, but it is unrelated to the pike, being a member of the perch family (Percidae). Pike are not to be confused with the unrelated pikeminnows (traditionally known as squawfish) of genus Ptychocheilus
Ptychocheilus
(family Cyprinidae) or pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) which is more akin to walleye than to pike. Pike are also called "jackfish" in North America
North America
and informally "slough shark" in Western Canada. Diet[edit]

Pike in Haus des Meeres, Vienna

Pike feed on a wide range of food sources, predominantly smaller shoal fish. Pike are also cannibalistic, sometimes preying upon smaller members of their own species. This can be seen clearly in the northern pike. They will also prey on insects and amphibians such as newts or frogs in times when their usual food is scarce, and occasionally on small mammals like moles or mice when caught water-borne. Small birds such as ducklings may become a target for hungry pike. Pike are also known to prey on swimming snakes. They are, however, undeserving of their reputation for being overly vicious predators. There are few substantiated incidents of pike "attacks" on people. Pike's further reputation as a pest seems to lie predominantly amongst a small handful of anglers and fishery managers who think, perhaps unfairly, that pike are a threat to native rough fish and also other sport fish. Angling[edit]

Sign on the River Shannon, Ireland

A caught pike

Effective methods for catching this hard-fighting fish include dead baits, live baits, and lure fishing. Pike can easily be damaged when handled since they are not as robust as their reputation would suggest. Colour of lure can be influenced by water clarity and weather conditions. Since pike have numerous sharp teeth it is wise to take extreme care when unhooking them. The use of a wet leather gauntlet and surgical forceps to remove hooks is highly recommended on safety grounds. If practicing catch and release fishing, care for the pike should be the pike angler's utmost concern. The formerly recommended practice of grasping a pike by its eye sockets (tragically interpreted as "its eyes") resulted in countless released pike that quickly died from inability to see prey any longer. The current recommended method of grasping pike is to close the hand firmly over the gill covers, and to make the period of handling as short as possible before release. Grabbing a pike by the gill covers is not feasible when a pike is very big, but it is easy to handle a pike by inserting the fingers at the bottom of the gill opening and grabbing the lower jaw. Big pike should also be supported at the belly. When a pike is held this way it is also easier to keep the mouth open to remove a hook. Some anglers now use special grips to grab the pike's front lower jaw, which can add to the safety of an anglers because of the danger imposed by the hooks of the lure or tackle and the pike's teeth. However these can cause serious damage to a pike's lower jaw. The Pike Anglers Club was formed in 1977 to campaign for the preservation of pike and the sport of pike fishing. A practice known as gut hooking was previously widely used in catching pike. Upon taking the bait, the pike will hold it for a short time in its mouth as it moves off. The pike will then, usually, turn the bait in its mouth, so that it sits in alignment with its throat to ease swallowing. It is recommended that when pike fishing the process is not allowed to go this far and a strike is recommended as soon as a bite is indicated. Otherwise, what is known as gut hooking will result, which will normally kill or seriously injure the fish. Dutch research shows that cutting the line immediately when the fish is gut hooked will still give low mortality (14%). The hooks in the gut or stomach were either encapsulated or removed from the body.[8] Placing hooks near the rear of the bait reduces the risk of deep hooking.[9] Other methods of catching and handing pike that are now frowned upon are the gaff and the gag. The gaff is a metal hook on the end of a pole used to hook through the fish's body in place of a more humane landing net. A gag is a device for holding open the pike's mouth whilst unhooking. These are now illegal in Scotland, as they put a huge amount of pressure on a pike's jaw, thus causing irreparable damage. Cuisine[edit] The taste of pike and pickerel is highly esteemed, but the "multitude of long, fine, forked bones" are problematic.[10] [11] The dish of quenelles de brochet (pike dumplings), which puts the meat through a sieve, was invented to deal with this.[12] Indeed, Escoffier
Escoffier
believed, falsely, that quenelles had completely displaced the whole fish from the menu.[10] In mythology[edit]

Fossil Esox

Russian mythology holds that the pike is one of several forms assumed by evil water spirits called vodyanoy, and a ravenous mythical pike is traditionally blamed for decimating the fish population in the Sheksna River. Russian fairy tales, on the other hand, also tell about an old wise pike that can fulfil wishes of the one who catches it, if its catcher releases it back into its habitat.[citation needed] In the Finnish Kalevala, Väinämöinen
Väinämöinen
creates a kantele (string instrument) from the jawbone of the pike. Submarines and tanks[edit] Two United States Navy
United States Navy
submarines have been named Pike – SS-6 of 1903 and SS-173 of 1935 – and three – SS-22 of 1912, SS-177 of 1936, and SS-524 of 1944 – named Pickerel. In addition, the Soviet submarines known to NATO
NATO
as the Victor III class and Akula class are called the Shchuka (Щука, "pike") class in Russian. The Soviet Iosif Stalin tank (IS-3) was also nicknamed Shchuka, in reference to its sharply pointed hull front. Heraldry[edit] In heraldry, the pike is called a lucy (English heraldry) or a ged (Scottish heraldry).[3] It is usually blazoned either naiant (swimming), embowed (bowed) or hauriant (jumping), though pairs of lucies may appear addorsed (back to back), as in the arms of the Finnish town of Uusikaupunki
Uusikaupunki
(Argent, two lucies addorsed azure).[citation needed]

Uusikaupunki
Uusikaupunki
coat of arms

The canting arms of Lucie de Cockermouth: Gules, three lucies in pale argent, (2 and 1).

Coat of arms
Coat of arms
of Gimte, in Lower Saxony, Germany.

References[edit]

^ Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2008). "Esocidae" in FishBase. December 2008 version. ^ PaleoBiology Database: Esox, basic info ^ a b Fox-Davies, Arthur Charles (1909). A Complete Guide to Heraldry. London: T.C. & E.C. Jack. p. 255. LCCN 09023803.  ^ Woodward, John (1892). A treatise on heraldry, British and foreign. Edinburgh: W. & A.K. Johnston. p. 694. LCCN 02020303.  ^ Denys, Gaël Pierre Julien; Dettai, Agnès; Persat, Henri; Hautecœur, Mélyne; Keith, Philippe (2014). "Morphological and Molecular Evidence of Three Species of Pikes Esox
Esox
spp. (Actinopterygii, Esocidae) in France, including the Description of A New Species". Comptes Rendus Biologies. 337 (9): 521–34. doi:10.1016/j.crvi.2014.07.002.  ^ Lucentini, Puletti, Ricciolini, Gigliarelli, Fontaneto, Lanfaloni, Bilò, Natali, Panara (2011). Molecular and Phenotypic Evidence of a New Species of Genus
Genus
Esox
Esox
(Esocidae, Esociformes, Actinopterygii): The Southern Pike, Esox
Esox
flaviae. PLoS ONE 6(12): e25218. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0025218 ^ a b Grande, L. (1999). "The First Esox
Esox
(Esocidae: Teleostei) from the Eocene
Eocene
Green River Formation, and a Brief Review of Esocid Fishes". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 19 (2): 271–292. doi:10.1080/02724634.1999.10011141.  ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 March 2009. Retrieved 7 February 2009.  ^ http://www.pikeanglersclub.co.uk/coping-with-deep-hooked-pike/ ^ a b Waverley Root, Food, 1996, p. 353 ^ 'Piscator', "Pike Fishing", The Sportsman (Second Series), 2:3:139 (March 1840) ^ Marthe Daudet, Shirley King, translator and adaptor, Pampille's Table: Recipes and Writings from the French Countryside from Marthe Daudet's Les Bons Plats de France [1934], p. 153

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Esox.

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Esox

"Esox". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 5 December 2004.  Oxford English Dictionary, s.vv. "Esox", "Ged1", and "Pike, n.4". Pike in Your Waters, the Pike Anglers Club, pub 2003 Pike Preservation - Fishing Equipment, Pike Fishing Scotland Float Tube Fishing In Ireland
Ireland
Pike Fishing from a Float Tube Pike Fishing in Denmark Coarse Fishing in Denmark Pike Fishing in Scotland Coarse Fishing in the Highlands River Swimming Water Safety mentions Pike attack as a risk of open water swimming. Accessed on 21 October 2007

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Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q191674 ADW: Esox EoL: 25461 EPPO: 1ESOXG Fauna Europaea: 304649 Fossilworks: 83215 GBIF: 2346628 ITIS: 162138 NCBI:

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