Erwin Rudolf Josef Alexander Schrödinger (/ˈʃroʊdɪŋər,
ˈʃreɪ-/; German: [ˈɛɐ̯viːn ˈʃʁøːdɪŋɐ]; 12 August
1887 – 4 January 1961), sometimes written as Erwin Schrodinger or
Erwin Schroedinger, was a Nobel Prize-winning Austrian physicist who
developed a number of fundamental results in the field of quantum
theory, which formed the basis of wave mechanics: he formulated the
wave equation (stationary and time-dependent Schrödinger equation)
and revealed the identity of his development of the formalism and
matrix mechanics. Schrödinger proposed an original interpretation of
the physical meaning of the wave function.
In addition, he was the author of many works in various fields of
physics: statistical mechanics and thermodynamics, physics of
dielectrics, colour theory, electrodynamics, general relativity, and
cosmology, and he made several attempts to construct a unified field
theory. In his book
What Is Life?
What Is Life? Schrödinger addressed the problems
of genetics, looking at the phenomenon of life from the point of view
of physics. He paid great attention to the philosophical aspects of
science, ancient and oriental philosophical concepts, ethics, and
religion. He also wrote on philosophy and theoretical biology. He
is also known for his "Schrödinger's cat" thought-experiment.
1.1 Early years
1.2 Middle years
1.3 Later years
1.4 Personal life
2 Scientific activities
2.1 Early career
2.2 Quantum mechanics
2.2.1 New quantum theory
2.2.2 Creation of wave mechanics
2.2.3 Work on a unified field theory
4 Honors and awards
5 Published works
7 Further reading
8 External links
On 12 August 1887, Schrödinger was born in Erdberg (de), Vienna,
Austria, to Rudolf Schrödinger (de) (cerecloth producer,
botanist) and Georgine Emilia Brenda Schrödinger (née Bauer)
(daughter of Alexander Bauer (de), Professor of
Chemistry, Technische Hochschule Vienna). He was their only child.
His mother was of half Austrian and half English descent; his father
was Catholic and his mother was Lutheran. Although he was raised in a
religious household as a Lutheran, it is a matter of debate and
interpretation as to what his religious views precisely were.
However, he had strong interests in Eastern religions, pantheism and
used religious symbolism in his works. He also believed his scientific
work was an approach to the godhead, albeit in a metaphorical
He was also able to learn English outside of school, as his maternal
grandmother was British. Between 1906 and 1910 Schrödinger
Franz S. Exner
Franz S. Exner (1849–1926) and Friedrich
Hasenöhrl (1874–1915). He also conducted experimental work with
Karl Wilhelm Friedrich "Fritz" Kohlrausch.
In 1911, Schrödinger became an assistant to Exner. At an early age,
Schrödinger was strongly influenced by Arthur Schopenhauer. As a
result of his extensive reading of Schopenhauer's works, he became
deeply interested throughout his life in colour theory and philosophy.
In his lecture "Mind and Matter", he said that "The world extended in
space and time is but our representation." This is a repetition of the
first words of Schopenhauer's main work.
Erwin Schrödinger as a young scientist
Erwin Schrödinger achieved
Habilitation (venia legendi).
Between 1914 and 1918 he participated in war work as a commissioned
officer in the Austrian fortress artillery (Gorizia, Duino, Sistiana,
Prosecco, Vienna). In 1920 he became the assistant to Max Wien, in
Jena, and in September 1920 he attained the position of ao. Prof.
(ausserordentlicher Professor), roughly equivalent to Reader (UK) or
associate professor (US), in Stuttgart. In 1921, he became o. Prof.
(ordentlicher Professor, i.e. full professor), in Breslau (now
In 1921, he moved to the University of Zürich. In 1927, he succeeded
Max Planck at the Friedrich Wilhelm University in Berlin. In 1934,
however, Schrödinger decided to leave Germany; he disliked the Nazis'
anti-semitism. He became a Fellow of
Magdalen College at the
University of Oxford. Soon after he arrived, he received the Nobel
Prize together with Paul Dirac. His position at Oxford did not work
out well; his unconventional domestic arrangements, sharing living
quarters with two women was not met with acceptance. In 1934,
Schrödinger lectured at Princeton University; he was offered a
permanent position there, but did not accept it. Again, his wish to
set up house with his wife and his mistress may have created a
problem. He had the prospect of a position at the University of
Edinburgh but visa delays occurred, and in the end he took up a
position at the
University of Graz
University of Graz in Austria in 1936. He had also
accepted the offer of chair position at Department of Physics,
Allahabad University in India.
In the midst of these tenure issues in 1935, after extensive
correspondence with Albert Einstein, he proposed what is now called
Schrödinger's cat thought experiment.
In 1938, after the Anschluss, Schrödinger had problems because of his
flight from Germany in 1933 and his known opposition to Nazism. He
issued a statement recanting this opposition (he later regretted doing
so and explained the reason to Einstein). However, this did not
fully appease the new dispensation and the University of Graz
dismissed him from his job for political unreliability. He suffered
harassment and received instructions not to leave the country, but he
and his wife fled to Italy. From there, he went to visiting positions
in Oxford and Ghent University.
Schrödinger (front row 2nd from right) and Valera (front row 4th from
Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies
Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies in 1942
In the same year he received a personal invitation from Ireland's
Taoiseach, Éamon de Valera, to reside in Ireland and agree to help
establish an Institute for Advanced Studies in Dublin. He moved to
Clontarf, Dublin, became the Director of the School for Theoretical
Physics in 1940 and remained there for 17 years. He became a
naturalized Irish citizen in 1948, but retained his Austrian
citizenship. He wrote about 50 further publications on various topics,
including his explorations of unified field theory.
In 1944, he wrote What Is Life?, which contains a discussion of
negentropy and the concept of a complex molecule with the genetic code
for living organisms. According to James D. Watson's memoir, DNA, the
Secret of Life, Schrödinger's book gave Watson the inspiration to
research the gene, which led to the discovery of the
DNA double helix
structure in 1953. Similarly, Francis Crick, in his autobiographical
book What Mad Pursuit, described how he was influenced by
Schrödinger's speculations about how genetic information might be
stored in molecules.
Schrödinger stayed in Dublin until retiring in 1955. He had a
lifelong interest in the
Vedanta philosophy of Hinduism, which
influenced his speculations at the close of
What Is Life?
What Is Life? about the
possibility that individual consciousness is only a manifestation of a
unitary consciousness pervading the universe. A manuscript
"Fragment From An Unpublished Dialogue of Galileo" from this time
recently resurfaced at
The King's Hospital
The King's Hospital boarding school, Dublin
after it was written for the School's 1955 edition of their Blue Coat
to celebrate his leaving of Dublin to take up his appointment as Chair
Physics at the University of Vienna.
In 1956, he returned to
Vienna (chair ad personam). At an important
lecture during the World Energy Conference he refused to speak on
nuclear energy because of his skepticism about it and gave a
philosophical lecture instead. During this period Schrödinger turned
from mainstream quantum mechanics' definition of wave–particle
duality and promoted the wave idea alone, causing
On 6 April 1920, Schrödinger married Annemarie (Anny) Bertel.
Schrödinger suffered from tuberculosis and several times in the 1920s
stayed at a sanatorium in Arosa. It was there that he formulated his
wave equation. As has been noted above, Schrödinger had an
unconventional personal life. When he migrated to Ireland in 1938, he
obtained visas for himself, his wife and also another woman, Mrs.
Hilde March. March was the wife of an Austrian colleague and
Schrödinger had fathered a daughter with her in 1934.
Schrödinger wrote personally to the Taoiseach,
Éamon de Valera
Éamon de Valera to
obtain the visa for Mrs. March. In October 1939 the ménage à trois
duly took up residence in Dublin. Schrödinger fathered two
further daughters by two different women during his time in
Ireland. His grandson, Professor Terry Rudolph, follows in
Schrödinger's footsteps as a quantum physicist who teaches at
Imperial College London.
Annemarie and Erwin Schrödinger's gravesite; above the name plate
Schrödinger's quantum mechanical wave equation is inscribed:
displaystyle ihbar frac partial partial t Psi = hat H Psi
On 4 January 1961, Schrödinger died of tuberculosis, aged 73, in
Vienna. He left Anny a widow, and was buried in Alpbach, Austria, in a
Catholic cemetery. Although he was not Catholic, the priest in charge
of the cemetery permitted the burial after learning Schrödinger was a
member of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences. His wife, Anny (born
3 December 1896) died on 3 October 1965.
Early in his life, Schrödinger experimented in the fields of
electrical engineering, atmospheric electricity, and atmospheric
radioactivity, but he usually worked with his former teacher Franz
Exner. He also studied vibrational theory, the theory of Brownian
movement, and mathematical statistics. In 1912, at the request of the
editors of the Handbook of Electricity and Magnetism, Schrödinger
wrote an article titled Dieelectrism. That same year, Schrödinger
gave a theoretical estimate of the probable height distribution of
radioactive substances, which is required to explain the observed
radioactivity of the atmosphere, and in August 1913 executed several
experiments in Zeehame that confirmed his theoretical estimate and
those of Victor Franz Hess. For this work, Schrödinger was awarded
Haitinger Prize (Haitinger-Preis) of the Austrian Academy of
Sciences. Other experimental studies conducted by the young
researcher in 1914 were checking formulas for capillary pressure in
gas bubbles and the study of the properties of soft beta-radiation
appearing in the fall of gamma rays on the surface of metal. The last
work he performed together with his friend Fritz Kohlrausch. In 1919,
Schrödinger performed his last physical experiment on coherent light
and subsequently focused on theoretical studies.
New quantum theory
In the first years of his career Schrödinger became acquainted with
the ideas of quantum theory, developed in the works of Max Planck,
Albert Einstein, Niels Bohr, Arnold Sommerfeld, and others. This
knowledge helped him work on some problems in theoretical physics, but
the Austrian scientist at the time was not yet ready to part with the
traditional methods of classical physics.
The first publications of Schrödinger about atomic theory and the
theory of spectra began to emerge only from the beginning of the
1920s, after his personal acquaintance with Sommerfeld and Wolfgang
Pauli and his move to Germany. In January 1921, Schrödinger finished
his first article on this subject, about the framework of the
Bohr-Sommerfeld effect of the interaction of electrons on some
features of the spectra of the alkali metals. Of particular interest
to him was the introduction of relativistic considerations in quantum
theory. In autumn 1922 he analyzed the electron orbits in an atom from
a geometric point of view, using methods developed by the
Hermann Weyl (1885–1955). This work, in which it was
shown that quantum orbits are associated with certain geometric
properties, was an important step in predicting some of the features
of wave mechanics. Earlier in the same year he created the
Schrödinger equation of the relativistic Doppler effect for spectral
lines, based on the hypothesis of light quanta and considerations of
energy and momentum. He liked the idea of his teacher Exner on the
statistical nature of the conservation laws, so he enthusiastically
embraced the articles of Bohr, Kramers, and Slater, which suggested
the possibility of violation of these laws in individual atomic
processes (for example, in the process of emission of radiation).
Although the experiments of
Hans Geiger and
Walther Bothe soon cast
doubt on this, the idea of energy as a statistical concept was a
lifelong attraction for Schrödinger and he discussed it in some
reports and publications.
Creation of wave mechanics
In January 1926, Schrödinger published in
Annalen der Physik the
paper "Quantisierung als Eigenwertproblem" (Quantization as an
Eigenvalue Problem) on wave mechanics and presented what is now
known as the Schrödinger equation. In this paper, he gave a
"derivation" of the wave equation for time-independent systems and
showed that it gave the correct energy eigenvalues for a hydrogen-like
atom. This paper has been universally celebrated as one of the most
important achievements of the twentieth century and created a
revolution in most areas of quantum mechanics and indeed of all
physics and chemistry. A second paper was submitted just four weeks
later that solved the quantum harmonic oscillator, rigid rotor, and
diatomic molecule problems and gave a new derivation of the
Schrödinger equation. A third paper, published in May, showed the
equivalence of his approach to that of Heisenberg and gave the
treatment of the Stark effect. A fourth paper in this series showed
how to treat problems in which the system changes with time, as in
scattering problems. In this paper he introduced a complex solution to
Wave equation in order to prevent the occurrence of fourth and
sixth order differential equations. (This was arguably the moment when
quantum mechanics switched from real to complex numbers.) When he
introduced complex numbers in order to lower the order of the
differential equations, something magical happened, and all of wave
mechanics was at his feet. (He eventually reduced the order to
one.) These papers were his central achievement and were at once
recognized as having great significance by the physics community.
Schrödinger was not entirely comfortable with the implications of
quantum theory. Schrödinger wrote about the probability
interpretation of quantum mechanics, saying: "I don't like it, and I'm
sorry I ever had anything to do with it."
Work on a unified field theory
Following his work on quantum mechanics, Schrödinger devoted
considerable effort to working on a
Unified Field Theory
Unified Field Theory that would
unite gravity, electromagnetism, and nuclear forces within the basic
framework of General Relativity, doing the work with an extended
correspondence with Albert Einstein. In 1947, he announced a
result, "Affine Field Theory," in a talk at the Royal Irish
Academy, but the announcement was criticized by Einstein as
"preliminary" and failed to lead to the desired unified theory.
Following the failure of his attempt at unification, Schrödinger gave
up his work on unification and turned to other topics.
Schrödinger had a strong interest in psychology, in particular colour
perception and colorimetry (German: Farbenmetrik). He spent quite a
few years of his life working on these questions and published a
series of papers in this area:
"Theorie der Pigmente von größter Leuchtkraft", Annalen der Physik,
(4), 62, (1920), 603–22 (Theory of Pigments with Highest Luminosity)
"Grundlinien einer Theorie der Farbenmetrik im Tagessehen", Annalen
der Physik, (4), 63, (1920), 397–456; 481–520 (Outline of a theory
of colour measurement for daylight vision)
"Farbenmetrik", Zeitschrift für Physik, 1, (1920), 459–66 (Colour
"Über das Verhältnis der Vierfarben- zur Dreifarben-theorie",
Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse,[clarification needed Which
academy?] 134, 471, (On The Relationship of Four-Color Theory to
"Lehre von der strahlenden Energie", Müller-Pouillets Lehrbuch der
Physik und Meteorologie, Vol 2, Part 1 (1926) (Thresholds of Color
His work on the psychology of color perception follows the step of
Newton, Maxwell and von Helmholtz in the same area. Some of these
paper have been translated to English and can be found in: Sources of
Colour Science, Ed. David L. MacAdam, MIT Press (1970).
The philosophical issues raised by
Schrödinger's cat are still
debated today and remain his most enduring legacy in popular science,
while Schrödinger's equation is his most enduring legacy at a more
technical level. To this day, Schrödinger is known as the father of
quantum mechanics. The large crater Schrödinger, on the far side of
the Moon, is named after him. The
Erwin Schrödinger International
Institute for Mathematical
Physics was established in
Vienna in 1993.
Schrödinger's portrait was the main feature of the design of the
1983–97 Austrian 1000-Schilling banknote, the second-highest
A building is named after him at the University of Limerick, in
Limerick, Ireland, as is the '
Erwin Schrödinger Zentrum' at
Adlershof in Berlin.
Schrödinger's 126th birthday anniversary was celebrated with a Google
Honors and awards
Nobel Prize for
Physics (1933) – for the formulation of the
Max Planck Medal (1937)
Elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society (ForMemRS) in 1949
Erwin Schrödinger Prize of the
Austrian Academy of Sciences
Austrian Academy of Sciences (1956)
Austrian Decoration for Science and Art
Austrian Decoration for Science and Art (1957)
Schrodinger's cat is named in his honour, see also list of things
named after Erwin Schrödinger.
The List of Erwin Schrödinger's publications, compiled by Auguste
Dick, Gabriele Kerber, Wolfgang Kerber and Karl von Meyenn's Erwin
Science and the human temperament Allen & Unwin (1935), translated
and introduced by James Murphy, with a foreword by Ernest Rutherford
Nature and the Greeks and Science and Humanism Cambridge University
Press (1996) ISBN 0-521-57550-8.
The interpretation of Quantum Mechanics Ox Bow Press (1995)
Thermodynamics Dover Publications (1989)
Collected papers Friedr. Vieweg & Sohn (1984)
My View of the World Ox Bow Press (1983) ISBN 0-918024-30-7.
Expanding Universes Cambridge University Press (1956).
Space-Time Structure Cambridge University Press (1950)
What Is Life?
What Is Life? Macmillan (1944).
What Is Life?
What Is Life? & Mind and Matter Cambridge University Press (1974)
^ Moore, p. 10
Erwin Schrödinger at the Mathematics Genealogy Project
^ "Schrödinger". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
^ a b Heitler, W. (1961). "Erwin Schrodinger. 1887–1961".
Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 7: 221–226.
doi:10.1098/rsbm.1961.0017. JSTOR 769408.
^ Moore, Walter J (1992). Schrödinger: Life and Thought. Cambridge
University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-43767-7.
^ O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Erwin Schrödinger",
MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St
^ "Rudolf Schrödinger". geni.com. Retrieved August 14, 2016.
^ Schrodinger, Rudolf. "The International Plant Names Index". IPNI.
Retrieved August 13, 2016.
^ "Alexander Emil Anton Bauer". geni.com. Retrieved August 14,
^ "Josefa Bauer". geni.com. Retrieved August 14, 2016.
^ "Alexander Josef Bauer". geni.com. Retrieved August 14, 2016.
^ Walter J. Moore (1994). A Life of Erwin Schrödinger. Cambridge
University Press. pp. 289–290. ISBN 9780521469340. In one
respect, however, he is not a romantic: he does not idealize the
person of the beloved, his highest praise is to consider her his
equal. "When you feel your own equal in the body of a beautiful woman,
just as ready to forget the world for you as you for her – oh my
good Lord – who can describe what happiness then. You can live it,
now and again – you cannot speak of it." Of course, he does speak of
it, and almost always with religious imagery. Yet at this time he also
wrote, "By the way, I never realized that to be nonbelieving, to be an
atheist, was a thing to be proud of. It went without saying as it
were." And in another place at about this same time: "Our creed is
indeed a queer creed. You others, Christians (and similar people),
consider our ethics much inferior, indeed abominable. There is that
little difference. We adhere to ours in practice, you don't."
^ Paul Halpern (2015). Einstein's Dice and Schrödinger's Cat. Perseus
Books Group. p. 157. ISBN 978-0-465-07571-3. In the
presentation of a scientific problem, the other player is the good
Lord. He has not only set the problem but also has devised the rules
of the game--but they are not completely known, half of them are left
for you to discover or deduce. I am very astonished that the
scientific picture of the real world around me is very deficient. It
gives a lot of factual information, puts all our experience in a
magnificently consistent order, but is ghastly silent about all that
is really near to our heart, that really matters to us. It cannot tell
us a word about red and blue, bitter and sweet, physical pain and
physical delight; it knows nothing of beautiful and ugly, good or bad,
God and eternity. Science sometimes pretends to answer questions in
these domains, but the answers are very often so silly that we are not
inclined to take them seriously. I shall quite briefly mention here
the notorious atheism of science. The theists reproach it for this
again and again. Unjustly. A personal God cannot be encountered in a
world picture that becomes accessible only at the price that
everything personal is excluded from it. We know that whenever God is
experienced, it is an experience exactly as real as a direct sense
impression, as real as one's own personality. As such He must be
missing from the space-time picture. "I do not meet with God in space
and time", so says the honest scientific thinker, and for that reason
he is reproached by those in whose catechism it is nevertheless
stated: "God is a Spirit." Whence came I and whither go I? That is the
great unfathomable question, the same for every one of us. Science has
no answer for it
^ Moore: "He rejected traditional religious beliefs (Jewish,
Christian, and Islamic) not on the basis of any reasoned argument, nor
even with an expression of emotional antipathy, for he loved to use
religious expressions and metaphors, but simply by saying that they
are naive." ... p. 4: "He claimed to be an atheist, but he always used
religious symbolism and believed his scientific work was an approach
to the godhead."
^ Hoffman, D. (1987). Эрвин Шрёдингер. Мир.
^ Moore, pp. 278 ff.
^ "Schrödinger, Erwin Rudolf Josef Alexander" in Deutsche Biographie
^ "Bombay University Names Refugee Scientist to Faculty". Jewish
Telegraphic Agency. May 20, 1940. Retrieved August 14, 2016.
^ a b Akhlesh Lakhtakia (1996). Models and Modelers of Hydrogen:
Thales, Thomson, Rutherford, Bohr, Sommerfeld, Goudsmit, Heisenberg,
Schrödinger, Dirac, Sallhofer. World Scientific. pp. 147–.
^ a b "Erwin Rudolf Josef Alexander Schrödinger". MacTutor History of
Mathematics archive. Retrieved August 14, 2016.
^ Daugherty, Brian. "Brief Chronology". Erwin Schrödinger. Retrieved
10 December 2012.
^ Schrödinger, Erwin. My View of the World, chapter iv, and What Is
^ Ahlstrom, Dick (April 18, 2012) 'Quantum humour' beams back after
absence. Irish Times
^ Moore discusses Schrödinger's unconventional relationships,
including his affair with Hildegunde March, in chapters seven and
eight, "Berlin" and "Exile in Oxford".
^ Moore, p. 194
^ a b c Ronan Fanning, Eamon de Valera: A Will to Power, Faber &
^ Ryan, Greg (3 June 2013). "Searching for the Man Behind the Cat".
The Brooklyn Rail. Retrieved 2017-02-11.
^ Gribbin, John (2012).
Erwin Schrödinger and the Quantum Revolution.
Transworld. ISBN 9781446465714. Retrieved 2017-02-11.
^ Moore, p. 482: "There was some problem about burial in the
churchyard since Erwin was not a Catholic, but the priest relented
when informed that he was a member in good standing of the Papal
Academy, and a plot was made available at the edge of the Friedhof."
^ Mehra, J. and Rechenberg, H. (1987)
Erwin Schrödinger and the Rise
of Wave Mechanics. Springer. ISBN 978-0-387-95179-9
^ The Conceptual Development of Quantum Mechanics. New York:
McGraw-Hill, 1966; 2nd ed: New York: American Institute of Physics,
1989. ISBN 0-88318-617-9
^ Schrodinger, Erwin (1926). "Quantisierung als Eigenwertproblem".
Annalen der Physik. 384 (4): 273–376. Bibcode:1926AnP...384..361S.
doi:10.1002/andp.19263840404. Archived from the original on 14 March
2006. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
^ The Dreams That Stuff Is Made Of: The Most Astounding Papers of
Quantum Physics—and How They Shook the Scientific World, Stephen
Hawking, (editor), the papers by Schrodinger.
^ "A Quantum Sampler". The New York Times. 26 December 2005.
^ a b Halpern, Paul, Battle of the Nobel Laureates, April 2015
(accessed 2 April 2015).
^ Schrödinger, E., Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, Vol. 51A
(1947), pp. 163–171. (accessed 3 November 2017)
^ "Buildings at A Glance". University of Limerick. Retrieved 17
^ "EYCN Delegates Assembly". 2015. Retrieved 13 April 2015.
Physicist Erwin Schrödinger's Google doodle marks quantum
mechanics work". The Guardian. 13 August 2013. Retrieved 25 August
^ Williams, Rob (12 August 2013). "
Google Doodle honours quantum
Erwin Schrödinger (and his theoretical cat)". The
Independent. London. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
^ Taub, A. (1951). "Review: Space-time structure by Erwin
Schrödinger" (PDF). Bull. Amer. Math. Soc. 57 (3): 205–206.
John Gribbin (2012),
Erwin Schrödinger and the Quantum Revolution,
Medawar, Jean; Pyke, David (2012). Hitler's Gift : The True Story
of the Scientists Expelled by the Nazi Regime (Paperback). New York:
Arcade Publishing. ISBN 978-1-61145-709-4.
Moore, Walter J (29 May 1992). "Schrödinger, life and thought".
Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-43767-7. Retrieved 7
November 2011. .
Moore, Walter J (2003). A Life of
Erwin Schrödinger (Canto ed.).
Cambridge University Press. Bibcode:1994les..book.....M.
ISBN 0-521-46934-1. .
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Erwin Schrödinger.
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Erwin Schrödinger
Erwin Schrödinger on an Austrian banknote.
1927 Solvay video with opening shot of Schrödinger on YouTube
"biographie" (in German) or
"Biography from the Austrian Central Library for Physics" (in English)
Encyclopædia Britannica article on Erwin Schrodinger
Physics 1922–1941, "
Erwin Schrödinger Biography"
Vallabhan, C. P. Girija, "Indian influences on Quantum Dynamics" [ed.
Schrödinger's interest in Vedanta]
Schrödinger Medal of the World Association of Theoretically Oriented
The Discovery of New Productive Forms of Atomic Theory Nobel Banquet
speech (in German)
Annotated bibliography for Erwin Schrodinger from the Alsos Digital
Library for Nuclear Issues
(in Italian) Critical interdisciplinary review of Schrödinger's "What
Laureates of the Nobel Prize in Physics
1902 Lorentz / Zeeman
1903 Becquerel / P. Curie / M. Curie
1906 J. J. Thomson
1909 Marconi / Braun
1910 Van der Waals
1913 Kamerlingh Onnes
1915 W. L. Bragg / W. H. Bragg
1922 N. Bohr
1924 M. Siegbahn
1925 Franck / Hertz
1927 Compton / C. Wilson
1928 O. Richardson
1929 De Broglie
1933 Schrödinger / Dirac
1936 Hess / C. D. Anderson
1937 Davisson / G. P. Thomson
1951 Cockcroft / Walton
1952 Bloch / Purcell
1954 Born / Bothe
1955 Lamb / Kusch
1956 Shockley / Bardeen / Brattain
1957 C. N. Yang / T. D. Lee
1958 Cherenkov / Frank / Tamm
1959 Segrè / Chamberlain
1961 Hofstadter / Mössbauer
1963 Wigner / Goeppert-Mayer / Jensen
1964 Townes / Basov / Prokhorov
1965 Tomonaga / Schwinger / Feynman
1970 Alfvén / Néel
1972 Bardeen / Cooper / Schrieffer
1973 Esaki / Giaever / Josephson
1974 Ryle / Hewish
1975 A. Bohr / Mottelson / Rainwater
1976 Richter / Ting
1977 P. W. Anderson / Mott / Van Vleck
1978 Kapitsa / Penzias / R. Wilson
1979 Glashow / Salam / Weinberg
1980 Cronin / Fitch
1981 Bloembergen / Schawlow / K. Siegbahn
1982 K. Wilson
1983 Chandrasekhar / Fowler
1984 Rubbia / Van der Meer
1985 von Klitzing
1986 Ruska / Binnig / Rohrer
1987 Bednorz / Müller
1988 Lederman / Schwartz / Steinberger
1989 Ramsey / Dehmelt / Paul
1990 Friedman / Kendall / R. Taylor
1991 de Gennes
1993 Hulse / J. Taylor
1994 Brockhouse / Shull
1995 Perl / Reines
1996 D. Lee / Osheroff / R. Richardson
1997 Chu / Cohen-Tannoudji / Phillips
1998 Laughlin / Störmer / Tsui
1999 't Hooft / Veltman
2000 Alferov / Kroemer / Kilby
2001 Cornell / Ketterle / Wieman
2002 Davis / Koshiba / Giacconi
2003 Abrikosov / Ginzburg / Leggett
2004 Gross / Politzer / Wilczek
2005 Glauber / Hall / Hänsch
2006 Mather / Smoot
2007 Fert / Grünberg
2008 Nambu / Kobayashi / Maskawa
2009 Kao / Boyle / Smith
2010 Geim / Novoselov
2011 Perlmutter / Riess / Schmidt
2012 Wineland / Haroche
2013 Englert / Higgs
2014 Akasaki / Amano / Nakamura
2015 Kajita / McDonald
2016 Thouless / Haldane / Kosterlitz
2017 Weiss / Barish / Thorne
Discovery of the
DNA Double Helix
Sir John Randall
ISNI: 0000 0001 0903 5603
BNF: cb11924128w (data)