Erwin Rudolf Josef Alexander Schrödinger (/ˈʃroʊdɪŋər,
ˈʃreɪ-/;[3] German: [ˈɛɐ̯viːn ˈʃʁøːdɪŋɐ]; 12 August
1887 – 4 January 1961), sometimes written as Erwin Schrodinger or
Erwin Schroedinger, was a Nobel Prize-winning Austrian physicist who
developed a number of fundamental results in the field of quantum
theory, which formed the basis of wave mechanics: he formulated the
wave equation (stationary and time-dependent Schrödinger equation)
and revealed the identity of his development of the formalism and
matrix mechanics. Schrödinger proposed an original interpretation of
the physical meaning of the wave function.
In addition, he was the author of many works in various fields of
physics: statistical mechanics and thermodynamics, physics of
dielectrics, colour theory, electrodynamics, general relativity, and
cosmology, and he made several attempts to construct a unified field
theory. In his book
Contents 1 Biography 1.1 Early years 1.2 Middle years 1.3 Later years 1.4 Personal life 2 Scientific activities 2.1 Early career 2.2 Quantum mechanics 2.2.1 New quantum theory 2.2.2 Creation of wave mechanics 2.2.3 Work on a unified field theory 2.3 Colour 3 Legacy 4 Honors and awards 5 Published works 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links Biography
Early years
On 12 August 1887, Schrödinger was born in Erdberg (de), Vienna,
Austria, to Rudolf Schrödinger (de)[7] (cerecloth producer,
botanist[8]) and Georgine Emilia Brenda Schrödinger (née Bauer)
(daughter of Alexander Bauer (de),[9][10][11] Professor of
Chemistry, Technische Hochschule Vienna). He was their only child.
His mother was of half Austrian and half English descent; his father
was Catholic and his mother was Lutheran. Although he was raised in a
religious household as a Lutheran, it is a matter of debate and
interpretation as to what his religious views precisely were.[12][13]
However, he had strong interests in Eastern religions, pantheism and
used religious symbolism in his works. He also believed his scientific
work was an approach to the godhead, albeit in a metaphorical
sense.[14]
He was also able to learn English outside of school, as his maternal
grandmother was British.[15] Between 1906 and 1910 Schrödinger
studied in
In 1914
Schrödinger (front row 2nd from right) and Valera (front row 4th from
left) at
In the same year he received a personal invitation from Ireland's
Taoiseach, Éamon de Valera, to reside in Ireland and agree to help
establish an Institute for Advanced Studies in Dublin.[21] He moved to
Clontarf, Dublin, became the Director of the School for Theoretical
Annemarie and Erwin Schrödinger's gravesite; above the name plate Schrödinger's quantum mechanical wave equation is inscribed: i ℏ ∂ ∂ t Ψ = H ^ Ψ displaystyle ihbar frac partial partial t Psi = hat H Psi
On 4 January 1961, Schrödinger died of tuberculosis, aged 73, in
Vienna. He left Anny a widow, and was buried in Alpbach, Austria, in a
Catholic cemetery. Although he was not Catholic, the priest in charge
of the cemetery permitted the burial after learning Schrödinger was a
member of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences.[29] His wife, Anny (born
3 December 1896) died on 3 October 1965.
Scientific activities
Early career
Early in his life, Schrödinger experimented in the fields of
electrical engineering, atmospheric electricity, and atmospheric
radioactivity, but he usually worked with his former teacher Franz
Exner. He also studied vibrational theory, the theory of Brownian
movement, and mathematical statistics. In 1912, at the request of the
editors of the Handbook of Electricity and Magnetism, Schrödinger
wrote an article titled Dieelectrism. That same year, Schrödinger
gave a theoretical estimate of the probable height distribution of
radioactive substances, which is required to explain the observed
radioactivity of the atmosphere, and in August 1913 executed several
experiments in Zeehame that confirmed his theoretical estimate and
those of Victor Franz Hess. For this work, Schrödinger was awarded
the 1920
"Theorie der Pigmente von größter Leuchtkraft", Annalen der Physik, (4), 62, (1920), 603–22 (Theory of Pigments with Highest Luminosity) "Grundlinien einer Theorie der Farbenmetrik im Tagessehen", Annalen der Physik, (4), 63, (1920), 397–456; 481–520 (Outline of a theory of colour measurement for daylight vision) "Farbenmetrik", Zeitschrift für Physik, 1, (1920), 459–66 (Colour measurement). "Über das Verhältnis der Vierfarben- zur Dreifarben-theorie", Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse,[clarification needed Which academy?] 134, 471, (On The Relationship of Four-Color Theory to Three-Color Theory). "Lehre von der strahlenden Energie", Müller-Pouillets Lehrbuch der Physik und Meteorologie, Vol 2, Part 1 (1926) (Thresholds of Color Differences). His work on the psychology of color perception follows the step of
Newton, Maxwell and von Helmholtz in the same area. Some of these
paper have been translated to English and can be found in: Sources of
Colour Science, Ed. David L. MacAdam, MIT Press (1970).
Legacy
The philosophical issues raised by
Nobel Prize for
The List of Erwin Schrödinger's publications, compiled by Auguste
Dick, Gabriele Kerber, Wolfgang Kerber and Karl von Meyenn's Erwin
Schrödinger: Publications
Science and the human temperament Allen & Unwin (1935), translated
and introduced by James Murphy, with a foreword by Ernest Rutherford
Nature and the Greeks and Science and Humanism Cambridge University
Press (1996) ISBN 0-521-57550-8.
The interpretation of Quantum Mechanics Ox Bow Press (1995)
ISBN 1-881987-09-4.
Statistical
References ^ Moore, p. 10
^
Further reading
External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to Erwin Schrödinger. Wikiquote has quotations related to: Erwin Schrödinger
v t e Laureates of the Nobel Prize in Physics 1901–1925 1901 Röntgen 1902 Lorentz / Zeeman 1903 Becquerel / P. Curie / M. Curie 1904 Rayleigh 1905 Lenard 1906 J. J. Thomson 1907 Michelson 1908 Lippmann 1909 Marconi / Braun 1910 Van der Waals 1911 Wien 1912 Dalén 1913 Kamerlingh Onnes 1914 Laue 1915 W. L. Bragg / W. H. Bragg 1916 1917 Barkla 1918 Planck 1919 Stark 1920 Guillaume 1921 Einstein 1922 N. Bohr 1923 Millikan 1924 M. Siegbahn 1925 Franck / Hertz 1926–1950 1926 Perrin 1927 Compton / C. Wilson 1928 O. Richardson 1929 De Broglie 1930 Raman 1931 1932 Heisenberg 1933 Schrödinger / Dirac 1934 1935 Chadwick 1936 Hess / C. D. Anderson 1937 Davisson / G. P. Thomson 1938 Fermi 1939 Lawrence 1940 1941 1942 1943 Stern 1944 Rabi 1945 Pauli 1946 Bridgman 1947 Appleton 1948 Blackett 1949 Yukawa 1950 Powell 1951–1975 1951 Cockcroft / Walton 1952 Bloch / Purcell 1953 Zernike 1954 Born / Bothe 1955 Lamb / Kusch 1956 Shockley / Bardeen / Brattain 1957 C. N. Yang / T. D. Lee 1958 Cherenkov / Frank / Tamm 1959 Segrè / Chamberlain 1960 Glaser 1961 Hofstadter / Mössbauer 1962 Landau 1963 Wigner / Goeppert-Mayer / Jensen 1964 Townes / Basov / Prokhorov 1965 Tomonaga / Schwinger / Feynman 1966 Kastler 1967 Bethe 1968 Alvarez 1969 Gell-Mann 1970 Alfvén / Néel 1971 Gabor 1972 Bardeen / Cooper / Schrieffer 1973 Esaki / Giaever / Josephson 1974 Ryle / Hewish 1975 A. Bohr / Mottelson / Rainwater 1976–2000 1976 Richter / Ting 1977 P. W. Anderson / Mott / Van Vleck 1978 Kapitsa / Penzias / R. Wilson 1979 Glashow / Salam / Weinberg 1980 Cronin / Fitch 1981 Bloembergen / Schawlow / K. Siegbahn 1982 K. Wilson 1983 Chandrasekhar / Fowler 1984 Rubbia / Van der Meer 1985 von Klitzing 1986 Ruska / Binnig / Rohrer 1987 Bednorz / Müller 1988 Lederman / Schwartz / Steinberger 1989 Ramsey / Dehmelt / Paul 1990 Friedman / Kendall / R. Taylor 1991 de Gennes 1992 Charpak 1993 Hulse / J. Taylor 1994 Brockhouse / Shull 1995 Perl / Reines 1996 D. Lee / Osheroff / R. Richardson 1997 Chu / Cohen-Tannoudji / Phillips 1998 Laughlin / Störmer / Tsui 1999 't Hooft / Veltman 2000 Alferov / Kroemer / Kilby 2001– present 2001 Cornell / Ketterle / Wieman 2002 Davis / Koshiba / Giacconi 2003 Abrikosov / Ginzburg / Leggett 2004 Gross / Politzer / Wilczek 2005 Glauber / Hall / Hänsch 2006 Mather / Smoot 2007 Fert / Grünberg 2008 Nambu / Kobayashi / Maskawa 2009 Kao / Boyle / Smith 2010 Geim / Novoselov 2011 Perlmutter / Riess / Schmidt 2012 Wineland / Haroche 2013 Englert / Higgs 2014 Akasaki / Amano / Nakamura 2015 Kajita / McDonald 2016 Thouless / Haldane / Kosterlitz 2017 Weiss / Barish / Thorne v t e Discovery of the
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