ENGLISH HERALDRY is the form of coats of arms and other heraldic
bearings and insignia used in
England . It lies within the so-called
Gallo-British tradition . Coats of arms in
England are regulated and
granted to individuals by the English kings of arms of the College of
Arms . They are subject to a system of cadency to distinguish between
sons of the original holder of the coat of arms. The English heraldic
style is exemplified in the arms of British royalty, and is reflected
in the civic arms of cities and towns, as well as the noble arms of
individuals in England. Royal orders in England, such as the Order of
the Garter , also maintain notable heraldic bearings.
* 1 Characteristics
* 2 History
* 3 Rolls of Arms
* 4 Court of the
* 5 Nadir of English
* 6 Timeline
* 6.1 12th century
* 6.2 13th century
* 6.3 14th century
* 6.4 15th century
* 6.5 16th century
* 6.6 17th century
* 6.7 18th century
* 6.8 19th century
* 6.9 20th century
* 7 Regulation
* 9 Royal coat of arms
Coat of arms
Coat of arms of the
British Royal Family
British Royal Family
* 11 County families
* 12 Civic armory
* 13 Educational Institutions
* 14 Heraldists
Order of the Garter
* 16 See also
* 17 Notes
* 18 References
* 19 External links
Canting arms of
Like many countries' heraldry, there is a classical influence within
English heraldry, such as designs originally on Greek and Roman
pottery. Many coats of arms feature charges related to the bearer's
name or profession (e.g.
Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon , depicting bows
quartered with a lion ), a practice known as "canting arms ". Some
canting arms make references to foreign languages, particularly
French, such as the otter (loutre in French) in the arms of the
Representations in person of Saints or other figure are very rare,
although there are however a few uses, mostly originating from seals ,
where there have never been such limitations. Although many places
have dropped such iconography, the Metropolitan
Borough of St
London , includes a rendering of the Virgin Mary,
although this is never stated. This is also the case in many other
examples, particularly those depicting Christ, to remove religious
complications. Unlike in mainland Europe where family crests make a
large use of their eponymous Saints, these are few and far between in
Coat of arms
Coat of arms of
Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick
Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick
The lion is the most common charge, particularly in Royal heraldry.
Heraldic roses are also common in English heraldry, as in the War of
the Roses where both houses, Lancaster and York, used them, and in the
ensuing Tudor dynasty. The heraldic eagle , while common on the
European continent and particularly in Germany , is relatively rare in
English heraldry and, in early English heraldry, was often associated
with alliances with German princes.
The coat of arms of
Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick
Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick , pictured
on the left, uses almost all typical forms of heraldry in England: The
first quarter consists of his father-in-law, Richard Beauchamp , who
bore with an escutcheon of
De Clare quartering Despenser , now shown
in Neville's fourth quarter. The second quarter shows the arms of the
Montacutes (Montagu). The third quarter shows the arms of Neville
differenced by a label for Lancaster.
Two flags reproduced from the Bayeux tapestry Coat of
arms of Henry II
The first use of heraldry associated with the English was in the
Bayeux Tapestry , recounting the events of the
Battle of Hastings
Battle of Hastings in
1066, where both sides used emblems in similar ways.
The first Royal Coat of Arms was created in 1154 under Henry II, the
idea of heraldry becoming popular among the knights on the first and
second crusades , along with the idea of chivalry. Under Henry III it
gained a system of classification and a technical language, confirming
its place as a science. However, over the next two centuries the
system was abused, leading to the swamping of true coats-of-arms.
For the rest of the medieval period it was popular within the upper
classes to have a distinctive family mark for competitions and
tournaments, and was popular (although not prevalent) within the lower
classes. It found particular use with knights, for practice and in the
mêlée of battle, where heraldry was worn on embroidered fabric
covering their armour. Indeed, their houses' signs became known as
coats-of-arms in this way. They were also worn on shields, where they
were known as shields-of-arms. As well as military uses, the main
charge was used in the seals of households. These were used to prove
the authenticity of documents carried by heralds (messengers) and is
the basis of the word heraldry in English. One example of this is the
seal of John Mundegumri (1175), which bears a single fleur-de-lys .
Prior to the 16th century, there was no regulation on the use of arms
ROLLS OF ARMS
One of the first contemporary records of medieval heraldry is a roll
of arms called Falkirk Rolls written soon after the Battle of Falkirk
in 1298. It includes the whole range of recognised heraldic colours
(including furs) and designs. This clearly demonstrates that English
heraldry was fully developed at this time, and although the language
is not quite identical, much of the terminology is the same as is
still used. It is an occasional roll of arms, meaning it charted the
heraldry visible on one occasion. Other rolls of arms covering England
Caerlaverock Poem (composed 1300 about siege of
Caerlaverock ) and Glover's Roll (a mixed and varied collection from
around the mid-13th century).
COURT OF THE EARL MARSHAL
The position of herald in
England was well defined, and so on January
William Bruges was appointed by King Henry V to be Garter
King of Arms. No such position had been created in other countries. A
succession of different titles was introduced over the next four
centuries for principal governor of arms, including King of Arms. Some
were members of the
College of Arms , some were not. Other holders of
positions included the Falcon King of Arms, a position created under
King Edward III . Other positions were created for important counties,
such as the Lancastrian King of Arms, but the balance of power between
them and those charged with larger regions remains unclear. A
Display of Heraldrie, early text on heraldry, published at
During the Tudor period, grants of arms were made for significant
contributions to the country by one of the Herald and Kings of Arms in
a standard format, as in the case of Thomas Bertie, granted arms on 10
July 1550. This was given as a passage read out by the herald.
Although many are written in English, it is possible they were also
read out in Latin.
The introduction in his case read:
To all noble and gentled the present letters reading hearing or
seeing, Thomas Hawley alias Clarencieulx principal Herald and King of
Arms of the south-east and west parts of this realm from the river
Trent southward, sendeth humble commendation and greeting.
This seems to be the standard introduction, each herald using their
name and position.
NADIR OF ENGLISH HERALDRY
The early 18th century is often considered the nadir of English
heraldry. The heraldic establishment was not held in high regard by
the public; the authority of the
Court of Chivalry (though not its
armorial jurisdiction) was challenged, and an increasing number of
'new men ' simply assumed arms, without any authority. This attitude
is evident even in the appointment of the heralds themselves—Sir
John Vanbrugh , a prominent dramatist and architect who knew nothing
of heraldry, was appointed to the office of
Clarenceux King of Arms ,
the second-highest office in the College of Arms. No new grants were
made between November 1704 and June 1707.
The situation slowly improved throughout the 18th and 19th centuries,
with the number of new grants per year slowly rising—14 in 1747, 40
in 1784 and 82 in 1884. These numbers reflect an increasing
geographical spread in grantees, due to a general increase of interest
in heraldry. This was caused by a number of factors, including the
creation of the
Order of the Bath
Order of the Bath in 1725, and grants of arms to its
members, augmentations for honour granted to successful military
commanders in the Peninsular and Napoleonic wars , and the rise in
popularity of name and arms clauses. The medieval period, and with it
heraldry, also became popular as a result of the
Romantic movement and
Gothic revival .
* 1127: King Henry I presents Count Geoffrey of Anjou with arms, the
earliest recorded royal bestowal of arms in the kingdom.
* 1198: King Richard the Lionheart introduces royal arms, depicting
three lions; they remain the arms of
England to this day.
* Early examples of arms in Wales: Prince David ap Llewellyn 1246
and John ap John of Grosmont in 1249.
* 1256: Walter le Vyelur, a painter, is an early example of a
tradesman bearing arms.
* c1276: The earliest reference to a
Norroy King of Arms .
* 1290s: The earliest known diocesan arms, for the See of Ely.
* 1334: The earliest reference to a
Clarenceux King of Arms .
* After claiming the French throne in 1340, King Edward III quarters
the French and English royal arms. The French arms remain part of the
English arms for 460 years.
* From 1340, the customary method of differencing the royal arms is
a label (plain for the prince of Wales, bearing charges for other
* 1345: The
Court of Chivalry hears its first heraldry case.
London assumes civic arms.
* 1385–90: The famous case of
Scrope v Grosvenor in the Court of
* 1390s: Johannes de Bado Aureo publishes Tractatus de Armis.
* By 1410, "a non-armigerous gentlemen is a rarity needing
* 1411: Thomas Arundel, Archbishop of Canterbury, is an early
example of bishops impaling their personal arms with those of their
* 1415: King Henry V establishes the office of
Garter King of Arms ,
and makes him senior to the other kings of arms.
William Bruges is the
first Garter 1415–50.
* 1418: Henry V temporarily prohibits the bearing of self-assumed
arms during his campaign in France; for some reason, this was later
interpreted as a ban on self-assumed arms throughout England.
* The three kings of arms are authorised to grant coats of arms,
but self-assumption remains the norm.
* By 1423, St Bartholomew\'s Hospital in
London has assumed arms –
probably the oldest example of medical heraldry in the kingdom.
* 1439: Garter Bruges grants arms to the Worshipful Company of
Drapers – the earliest known grant by a king of arms.
* King Henry VI grants arms to King\'s College (Cambridge) in 1441
Eton College in 1449 – the earliest examples of academic
heraldry in England.
* 1484: King Richard III organises the royal kings of arms, heralds,
and pursuivants into a
College of Arms , under authority of the Earl
* 1485: King Henry VII revokes the College of Arms' charter.
* c1500: Garter
John Wrythe introduces a system of distinguishing
younger sons by adding marks of cadency to their paternal arms.
* In Wales, the bards attribute arms wholesale to the ancestors of
the tribes. These are then "inherited" by their descendants.
* 1530: King Henry VIII introduces heraldic visitations to record
arms in use and prohibit any that are usurped or are borne by men of
inferior social status.
Gloucester obtains a grant of arms, the first civic arms to
be granted in England.
* 1555: Queen Mary I of
England reincorporates the College of Arms
with a new charter.
* 1561: The
College of Arms rules that heraldic heiresses may not
transmit their fathers' crests to their descendants.
* 1562: Gerard Leigh publishes The Accedence of Armory.
* 1573: The
University of Cambridge is granted arms.
* 1574: Arms of the
University of Oxford
University of Oxford and its colleges are
recorded in a visitation.
* 1603: King
James VI of
Scotland inherits the English throne in
1603. The English and Scottish royal arms are combined, and a
quartering depicting a harp is devised for Ireland.
* 1610: John Guillim publishes A Display of Heraldry.
* 1646: During its civil war again King Charles I, Parliament closes
Court of Chivalry and appoints its own kings of arms in place of
those who have remained loyal to the king.
* 1649–60: While
England is a republic ('Commonwealth'), the royal
arms are replaced by new state arms.
* 1660: The monarchy is restored and King Charles II nullifies
grants made by the Commonwealth heralds.
* 1667: The
Court of Chivalry reopens.
* Garter Sir
William Dugdale states that assumed arms that have been
used in a family for around 80 years are allowed to be borne by
* 1672: Charles II makes the office of
Earl Marshal hereditary to
the Dukes of Norfolk.
* 1673: The
College of Arms opens a register of arms.
* From 1673, the kings of arms require the Earl Marshal's authority
for each grant of arms.
* 1681–87: The last round of visitations is held. The system
lapses after the 'Glorious Revolution' 1688–89.
* Garter Henry St George begins to undermine the principle of
bearing self-assumed arms by prescription by refusing to confirm them
without formally granting them.
Scotland unite to form the Kingdom of Great
Britain, but retain their separate heraldry laws and authorities.
* 1737: The
Court of Chivalry ceases to function.
* From 1741, gentlemen have to be "eminent" to be eligible for
grants of arms.
* 1780: Joseph Edmondson publishes A Complete Body of Heraldry.
* 1798: Annual licensing of coats of arms is introduced to raise
money for the war with France. It is discontinued after the war.
* 1801: Great Britain and
Ireland amalgamate to form the United
Kingdom, but the English, Scottish and
Irish heraldry authorities
remain separate. The royal arms are altered to reflect the union, and
the French arms are dropped.
* From 1806, an officer of the
College of Arms is Inspector of
Regimental Colours , to oversee British army heraldry.
* 1815: The
College of Arms confirms that only peers and knights of
the Garter and the Bath are entitled to supporters to their arms.
* 1823–1944: Annual licensing of coats of arms (whether they are
officially recognised or not) is reintroduced.
* 1842: Bernard Burke publishes The General Armory.
* 1859: James Fairbairn publishes A
Book of Crests.
Charles Boutell publishes The Manual of Heraldry.
* 1889: West Sussex County Council obtains a grant of arms, the
first to a county council.
* 1889: Charles Elvin publishes A Dictionary of Heraldry.
* 1892: James Parker publishes A Glossary of Terms Used in Heraldry.
* 1894: Arthur Fox-Davies publishes The
Book of Public Arms.
* 1895: Arthur Fox-Davies publishes Armorial Families.
* 1894: Mr Lloyd of Stockton registers personal arms containing 323
* 1902: Joseph Foster publishes Some Feudal Coats of Arms.
* 1906: The
Earl Marshal authorises the granting of badges to
armigers of all ranks.
* 1909: Arthur Fox-Davies publishes A Complete Guide to Heraldry.
* 1919: The Royal Navy introduces a standard system of ships'
badges. HMS Warwick is the first to bear an official badge.
* 1924: The
Royal Air Force College Cranwell obtains a grant of
arms, the first to the RAF.
* 1927: Bocking is the first parish council to obtain a grant of
* 1935: A standard pattern for Royal Air Force unit badges is
Anthony Wagner (
Portcullis Pursuivant ) publishes Historic
Heraldry of Britain.
* 1943: King George VI transfers the office of Ulster King of Arms
College of Arms and combines it with the office of Norroy, with
jurisdiction limited to Northern Ireland.
Anthony Wagner publishes
Heraldry in England.
* 1947: The Society of Heraldic Antiquaries (later the Heraldry
Society) is established. It launches a journal, The Coat of Arms, in
* 1950: The
College of Arms introduces a mark of difference for the
arms of divorced women.
* 1951: The first grants of arms to Northern Ireland: Londonderry
* 1954: The
Court of Chivalry is reactivated for a test case between
Manchester City Council and a local theatre.
* 1960: The
Earl Marshal authorises the kings of arms to devise
arms, on request, for towns in the United States of America, subject
to approval by the relevant state governors. This is extended to other
corporate bodies in the USA in 1962.
* 1967: The
Earl Marshal authorises ecclesiastical hats for the arms
of Roman Catholic clergy.
* 1971: Geoffrey Briggs' Civic inter alia, married women may now
bear their arms on shields, with a mark of difference.
College of Arms The
College of Arms in
Coat of arms
Coat of arms of the
College of Arms
England is heavily regulated by the
College of Arms , who
issue the arms. A person can be issued the arms themselves, but the
College fields many requests from people attempting to demonstrate
descent from an armigerous (arms-bearing) person; a person descended
in the male line (or through heraldic heiresses ) from such an
ancestor may be reissued that ancestor's arms (with differencing marks
if necessary to distinguish from senior-line cousins). To that end,
the college is involved in genealogy and the many pedigrees (family
trees) in their records, although not open to the public, have
official status. Anyone may register a pedigree with the college,
where they are carefully internally audited and require official
proofs before being altered.
Applications are open to anyone with a 'reputable status' (normally
including a university degree, but officially down to the discretion
of the College).
College of Arms was incorporated in 1484 by King Richard III,
and is a corporate body consisting of the professional heralds who are
delegated heraldic authority by the British monarch. Based in London,
the College is one of the few remaining government heraldic
authorities in Europe. Its legal basis relies on the
Law of Arms ,
which makes the right to grant arms exclusively to due authority,
which has, since the late medieval period, been the Monarch or State,
who gives the
College of Arms this right and duty. Much of it is under
the personal responsibility of the Monarch and not government,
although the College has always been self-funded and independent.
According to one source, the number of grants of arms in each
half-century was roughly as follows:
Although the accuracy of the figures is in doubt, the general trend
is likely to be correct. It is clear that heraldry saw a resurgence
England in the early 19th century.
Since 1797, no case of free assumption of arms has ever been
successfully prosecuted in England. The Court of Chivalry, the court
of enforcement of such cases, has fallen into unimportance.
The English system of cadency involves the addition of a brisure , or
mark of difference to the coat of arms, to identify the bearer's rank
in the order of inheritance from the bearer of the original coat.
Although there is some debate over how strictly the system should be
followed, the accepted system is shown below:
label of three points
double quatrefoil †
†also known as an octofoil
Daughters have no special brisures, and customarily bear their
father's arms on a lozenge while they are unmarried. While she is
married, a woman may marshal (combine) her father's arms with her
husband's on a single shield, normally by impalement , but upon
becoming a widow, she returns to bearing her father's arms upon a
lozenge, though now impaled with her late husband's arms. Her
husband's arms are borne on the dexter side and her father's arms on
the sinister side.
ROYAL COAT OF ARMS
Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom, adopted 1837 Main
Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom
Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom
The royal coat of arms is the official coat of arms of the British
monarch , currently Queen Elizabeth II . These arms are used by the
Queen in her official capacity as monarch, and are also known as ARMS
OF DOMINION. Variants of the Royal Arms are used by other members of
the Royal Family ; and by the
British Government in connection with
the administration and government of the country. In
Scotland , the
Queen has a separate version of the Royal Arms, a variant of which is
used by the
Scotland Office .
The shield is quartered, depicting in the first and fourth quarters
the three lions passant guardant of
England ; in the second, the
rampant lion and double tressure flory-counter-flory of
Scotland ; and
in the third, a harp for
The crest is a lion statant guardant wearing the imperial crown ,
itself standing upon another representation of that crown.
The dexter supporter is a likewise crowned lion , symbolizing England
; the sinister, a unicorn , symbolising
Scotland . According to
legend, a free unicorn was considered a very dangerous beast;
therefore the heraldic unicorn is chained, as were both supporting
unicorns in the Royal coat of arms of
The coat features both the motto of
English monarchs , Dieu et mon
droit (God and my right), and the motto of the
Order of the Garter ,
Honi soit qui mal y pense (Shamed be he who thinks ill of it) on a
representation of the Garter behind the shield.
COAT OF ARMS OF THE BRITISH ROYAL FAMILY
Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom
Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom § Other
Children and male-line grandchildren of a monarch are usually granted
their own coats of arms. Although many are given peerage titles named
for places in
Wales or Scotland, the royal family follows English
heraldic tradition; indeed, most coats of arms of the royal family are
based on the royal arms as described above.
CHILDREN AND GRANDCHILDREN O
F A MONARCH IN THE MALE LINE
HRH The Prince of
Plain three-point label, and inescutcheon of the Coat of Arms of
the Principality of
HRH The Duke of Cambridge
Three-point label with a red escallop, alluding to the arms of his
mother, Lady Diana Spencer .
HRH Prince Henry of
Prince Harry )
Five-point label with three red escallops in alternate points.
HRH The Princess Royal
Three-point label, the points bearing a red cross, a red heart and
a red cross.
HRH The Duke of
Five-point label, the first, third and fifth points bearing a red
cross, the second and fourth points bearing a red lion.
HRH The Duke of Kent
Five-point label, the first, third and fifth points bearing a blue
anchor, the second and fourth points bearing a red cross.
HRH The Countess of Wessex
The arms of the Earl of Wessex impaled with those of her father,
Christopher Bournes Rhys-Jones.
HRH The Duchess of Cornwall
The arms of the Prince of
Wales impaled with those of her father,
Bruce Shand , crowned by the single-arched Crown of Prince of
Duke of Edinburgh
Duke of Edinburgh
Prince Philip was granted arms of his own in 1947, because men are
not entitled to bear the arms of their wives. His arms are quarterly
Denmark , Greece , and
Mountbatten , representing his ancestry, and
Edinburgh , representing his dukedom .
HRH The Duchess of Cambridge
The arms of the Duke of Cambridge impaled with those of her father,
Mr. Michael Middleton.
The Heraldic Visitations of the several counties of
instituted in the 16th century and required each family which
displayed coat armour to report to the visiting heralds, generally
holding court in the county capital during a certain period, to
declare its pedigree to show it came from ancient gentry stock. This
has given rise to well recorded armorials of the ancient gentry
families from each county, which generally assumed amongst themselves
the administration of the county on behalf of the monarch, filling
such offices as Sheriff , Justice of the Peace, Commissioners, Knights
of the Shire or Members of Parliament, and in the feudal era if
tenants-in-chief fought in the royal army. This list is incomplete ;
you can help by expanding it .
The arms of Bath City Council
Almost every town council, city council and major educational
establishment has an official armorial bearing (coat of arms),
although the use of such arms varies wildly, due to the governance of
the institution, and who uses the arms, particularly concerning
unitary authorities . The
College of Arms grants arms only to people
or corporate bodies, and so coats of arms are attributed to Borough,
District or Town councils, rather than to a place or its populace.
Mottos are common but not universal. Arms of such councils may feature
the historical ecclesiastical arms of a local church , cathedral or
diocese , such as the arms of
Watford Borough Council which feature
the arms of the
Diocese of St. Albans . Similarly they can also
feature the arms of a local patron Saint, as in the arms of St.
Borough Council which features the coat of arms of Saint
Edmund . Another example is the use of the rose, the symbol of the
Virgin Mary . Others are derived from the arms of an associated
influential family or local organisation, or their creation is granted
as an honour to an influential person.
In local government, however, there has been a move away from
traditional heraldic style designs to clean, streamlined ones, as in
the case of
London . Whether this is a good or bad thing is a matter
Often use is restricted to certain events and institutions within the
town or city, its use superseded by the logo of the local borough
Arms Length Management Organisation . Current uses of
historical coats of arms normally include use in town halls and on
litter bins and benches (where corporate-style council logos are
Many British educational establishments have arms dating back
hundreds of years, but the
College of Arms continues to grant new arms
to schools, colleges and universities each year. The arms of
educational establishments often represent the aims of the institution
and history of the establishment, town or major alumni.
For instance the
Letters Patent granting Arms to the University of
Plymouth were presented by
Eric Dancer , CBE , JP ,
Lord Lieutenant of
Devon , in a ceremony at the University on 27 November 2008, in the
Henry Paston-Bedingfeld ,
York Herald of the College of
Arms , the Lord Mayor and Lady Mayoress of Plymouth, Judge William
Taylor, the Recorder of Plymouth, and Baroness Wilcox . The books
represent the University's focus on learning and scholarship. The
scattering of small stars represents navigation , which has played a
key role in the history of the city and the university. The scallop
shells in gold represent pilgrimage , a sign of the importance of the
departure of the Pilgrim Fathers from the Barbican aboard the
Mayflower in 1620. A Pelican and a
Golden Hind support the shield and
reflect both the original and later, better known, name of Sir Francis
Drake 's ship. The crest contains the Latin motto Indagate Fingite
Invenite ('Explore Dream Discover'), a quote from
Mark Twain ,
reflecting the university's ambitions for its students and Plymouth's
history of great seafarers.
In the arms of
Cranfield University (prepared by Sir Colin Cole , the
Garter Principal King of Arms ), the "bars wavy" in the chief
of the shield are intended in combination with the cranes to allude to
the name Cranfield. The three-branched torch in the base refers to
learning and knowledge in the sciences of engineering, technology and
management. In the crest, the astral crown alludes to the College of
Aeronautics and also commemorates the contribution of its founding
Chancellor, Lord Kings Norton , to the development of aeronautical
research. The keys signify the gaining of knowledge by study and
instruction. The owl , with its wings expanded, may also be taken to
represent knowledge in the widest sense. In the badge, which repeats
the keys, the crown rayonny refers both to the royal charter under
which Cranfield came into being and, by the finials composed of the
rays of the sun, to energy and its application through engineering and
technological skills to industry, commerce and public life. The chain
which surrounds the badge shows the links between the various
disciplines to be studied at the University and in itself also refers
to engineering where it plays so many parts.
English heraldists include:
Arthur Charles Fox-Davies , author of The Art of
Complete Guide to
Heraldry and the controversial The Right to Bear
(published under the pseudonym "X").
Charles Boutell , heraldic author and writer about antiques
Constance Egan , an English heraldist, as managing editor of the
Heraldry Society's journal The Coat of Arms.
John Brooke-Little , son of the above and writer.
Leslie Pine , an author , lecturer , and researcher in the areas
of genealogy , nobility , history, heraldry and animal welfare born in
Cecil Humphery-Smith , OBE , FSA , a British genealogist and
heraldist who founded the Institute of Heraldic and Genealogical
Guy Stair Sainty , English antiquary, art dealer, expert on
chivalric orders and heraldry; author of World Orders of Knighthood
and Merit, and other books.
ORDER OF THE GARTER
The arms of
John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough , are
encircled by both the Garter and the collar.
Members of the
Order of the Garter may encircle their arms with the
Garter and, if they wish, with a depiction of the collar as well.
However, the Garter is normally used alone, and the more elaborate
version is seldom seen. Stranger Knights and Ladies do not embellish
the arms they use in their countries with English decorations.
Knights and Ladies Companion are also entitled to receive heraldic
supporters , a privilege granted to few other private individuals.
While some families claim supporters by ancient use, and others have
been granted them as a special reward, only peers, Knights and Ladies
Companion of the Garter, Knights and Ladies of the Thistle, and
certain other knights and ladies are automatically entitled to them.
On January 5, 1420,
William Bruges was appointed by King Henry V to
be Garter King of Arms. Since the creation of the position, it has
been changed into the position
Garter Principal King of Arms , but the
duties remain the same.
Ex officio , it also makes the position's
holder head of the College of Arms, and subsequently is usually
appointed from among the other officers of arms at the College. The
Garter Principal is also the principal adviser to the Sovereign of the
United Kingdom (particularly
Wales and Northern
with respect to ceremonial and heraldry.
Heraldry of English county families:
* ^ Boutell (1914), p. 76.
* ^ Fox-Davies (1909), p. 158.
* ^ Fox-Davies (1909), p. 161.
* ^ Fox-Davies (1909), p. 174.
* ^ Boutell (1914), p.92.
* ^ Turnbull (1985), The
Book of the Medieval Knight.
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* ^ A B Boutell (1914), p. 9.
* ^ A B Boutell (1914), p. 2.
* ^ "English etymology of Heraldry". myEtymology. Jim Sinclair.
* ^ Illustrated in Boutell (1914), pp. 10–11.
* ^ A B C François R. Velde. "Regulation of
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* ^ Fox-Davies (1909), p. 28.
* ^ Fox-Davies (1909), pp. 28–34.
* ^ A B Williams (1967), p. 261.
* ^ Noble (1804), Appendix, p. viii.
* ^ A B Bedingfeld (1993), Heraldry, p. 67.
* ^ Wagner (1967), p. 318.
* ^ A B Woodcock & Robinson (1988), p. 43.
* ^ Wagner (1967), pp. 315–6.
* ^ Wagner (1967), pp. 329–30.
* ^ Wagner (1967), p. 342.
* ^ Bedingfeld (1993), pp. 68–71.
* ^ Woodcock & Robinson (1988), pp. 44–46.
* ^ Wagner (1946), p. 23.
* ^ Wagner, A. (1946).
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* ^ A B C D E F G H I J Woodcock, T. & Robinson, J.M. (1988). The
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* ^ A B Fox-Davies, A.C. (1915). The
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* ^ "Frequently Asked Questions". College of arms website.
* ^ "The history of the Royal heralds and the College of Arms".
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* ^ A B François Velde. "Number of Grants by the English Kings of
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* ^ "