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The Emirate
Emirate
of Sicily
Sicily
(Arabic: إِمَارَةُ صِقِلِّيَة‎) was an emirate on the island of Sicily
Sicily
which existed from 831 to 1091.[1] Its capital was Palermo. Muslim Arabs, who first invaded in 652, seized control of the entire island from the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
in a prolonged series of conflicts from 827 to 902. An Arab- Byzantine
Byzantine
culture developed, producing a multiconfessional and multilingual state. The Emirate
Emirate
was conquered by Christian Norman mercenaries under Roger I of Sicily, who founded the County of Sicily
County of Sicily
in 1071. The last Muslim city in the island, Noto, was conquered in 1091. Sicilian Muslims remained citizens of the multi-ethnic County and subsequent Kingdom of Sicily, until those who had not already converted were expelled in the 1240s. Until the late 12th century, and probably as late as the 1220s, Muslims formed the majority of the island's population.[2][3][4][5][6] Their influence remains in some elements of the Sicilian language, as well as surnames and locations.

Contents

1 First Muslim attempts to conquer Sicily 2 Revolt of Euphemius and gradual Muslim conquest of the island 3 Period as an emirate 4 Sicily
Sicily
under Arab rule 5 Decline and "Taifa" period 6 Aftermath 7 List of emirs 8 Taifa period 9 See also 10 References 11 Sources 12 External links

First Muslim attempts to conquer Sicily[edit] Further information: Arab– Byzantine
Byzantine
wars In 535, Emperor Justinian I
Justinian I
returned Sicily
Sicily
to the Roman Empire, now ruled from Constantinople
Constantinople
exclusively. As the power of what is now known as the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
waned in the West, Sicily
Sicily
was invaded by the Rashidun Caliphate
Rashidun Caliphate
during the reign of Caliph Uthman in the year 652. However, this first invasion was short-lived, and the Muslims left soon after. By the end of the 7th century, with the Umayyad conquest of North Africa, the Muslims had captured the nearby port city of Carthage, allowing them to build shipyards and a permanent base from which to launch more sustained attacks.[7] Around 700, the island of Pantelleria
Pantelleria
was captured by Muslims, and it was only discord among the Muslims that prevented an attempted invasion of Sicily
Sicily
coming next. Instead, trading agreements were arranged with the Byzantines, and Muslims merchants were allowed to trade goods at the Sicilian ports. The first true conquest expedition was launched in 740; in that year the Muslim prince Habib[disambiguation needed], who had participated on the 728 attack, successfully captured Syracuse. Ready to conquer the whole island, they were however forced to return to Tunisia
Tunisia
by a Berber revolt. A second attack in 752 aimed only to sack the same city. Revolt of Euphemius and gradual Muslim conquest of the island[edit] Main article: Muslim conquest of Sicily In 826 Euphemius, the commander of the Byzantine
Byzantine
fleet of Sicily, forced a nun to marry him. Emperor Michael II
Michael II
caught wind of the matter and ordered that General Constantine end the marriage and cut off Euphemius' nose. Euphemius rose up, killed Constantine and then occupied Syracuse; he in turn was defeated and driven out to North Africa.[1] He offered rule of Sicily
Sicily
over to Ziyadat Allah the Aghlabid
Aghlabid
Emir of Tunisia
Tunisia
in return for a place as a general and safety; a Muslim army was sent.[1] The latter agreed to conquer Sicily, promising to give it to Euphemius in exchange for a yearly tribute, and entrusted its conquest to the 70-year-old qadi Asad ibn al-Furat. The Muslim force counted 10,000 infantry, 700 cavalry and 100 ships, reinforced by Euphemius' ships and, after the landing at Mazara del Vallo. A first battle against the loyal Byzantine
Byzantine
troops occurred on July 15, 827, near Mazara, resulting in an Aghlabid
Aghlabid
victory. Asad subsequently conquered the southern shore of the island and laid siege to Syracuse. After a year of siege, and an attempted mutiny, his troops were however able to defeat a large army sent from Palermo, also backed by a Venetian fleet led by Doge Giustiniano Participazio. But when a plague killed many of the Muslim troops, as well as Asad himself, the Muslims retreated to the castle of Mineo. Later they returned to the offensive, but failed to conquer Castrogiovanni (the modern Enna, where Euphemius died) and retreated back to Mazara. In 830 they received a strong reinforcement of 30,000 Ifriqiyan and Andalusian troops. The Iberian Muslims defeated the Byzantine commander Teodotus in July–August of that year, but again a plague forced them to return to Mazara and then to Ifriqiya. The Ifriqiyan units sent to besiege Palermo
Palermo
managed to capture it after a year long siege in September 831.[8] Palermo
Palermo
became the Muslim capital of Sicily, renamed al-Madinah ("The City").[9] The conquest was a see-saw affair; with considerable resistance and many internal struggles, it took over a century for Byzantine
Byzantine
Sicily to be conquered. Syracuse held out for a long time but fell in 878, Taormina
Taormina
fell in 902, and the last Byzantine
Byzantine
outpost was taken in 965.[1] Period as an emirate[edit]

Arab-Norman art and architecture combined Occidental features (such as the Classical pillars and friezes) with typical Arabic decorations and calligraphy.

In succession, Sicily
Sicily
was ruled by the Sunni Aghlabid
Aghlabid
dynasty in Tunisia
Tunisia
and the Shiite Fatimids in Egypt. However, throughout this period, Sunni Muslims formed the majority of the Muslim community in Sicily,[10] with most (if not all) of the people of Palermo
Palermo
being Sunni,[11] leading to their hostility to the Shia Kalbids.[12] The Sunni population of the island was replenished following sectarian rebellions across north Africa from 943 to 47 against the Fatimids harsh religious policies, leading to several waves of refugees fleeing to Sicily
Sicily
in an attempt to escape Fatimid
Fatimid
retaliation.[13] The Byzantines took advantage of temporary discord to occupy the eastern end of the island for several years. After suppressing a revolt the Fatimid
Fatimid
caliph Ismail al-Mansur appointed al-Hasan al-Kalbi (948–964) as Emir of Sicily. He successfully managed to control the continuously revolting Byzantines and founded the Kalbid
Kalbid
dynasty. Raids into Southern Italy
Italy
continued under the Kalbids
Kalbids
into the 11th century, and in 982 a German army under Otto II, Holy Roman Emperor
Otto II, Holy Roman Emperor
was defeated near Crotone in Calabria. With Emir Yusuf al-Kalbi (986–998) a period of steady decline began. Under al-Akhal (1017–1037) the dynastic conflict intensified, with factions within the ruling family allying themselves variously with the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
and the Zirids. After this period, Al-Mu'izz ibn Badis
Al-Mu'izz ibn Badis
attempted to annex the island for the Zirids, while intervening in the affairs of the feuding Muslims; however, the attempt ultimately failed.[14] Sicily
Sicily
under Arab rule[edit]

Arab musicians in Palermo

The new Arab rulers initiated land reforms, which in turn increased productivity and encouraged the growth of smallholdings, a dent to the dominance of the landed estates. The Arabs
Arabs
further improved irrigation systems through Qanats. Introducing oranges, lemons, pistachio and sugarcane to Sicily. A description of Palermo
Palermo
was given by Ibn Hawqal, a Baghdad
Baghdad
merchant who visited Sicily
Sicily
in 950. A walled suburb called the Kasr (the palace) is the center of Palermo
Palermo
until today, with the great Friday mosque on the site of the later Roman cathedral. The suburb of Al-Khalisa (Kalsa) contained the Sultan's palace, baths, a mosque, government offices, and a private prison. Ibn Hawqual reckoned 7,000 individual butchers trading in 150 shops. By 1050, Palermo
Palermo
had a population of 350,000 (certainly a great overestimate, making it one of the largest cities in Europe, but behind Islamic Spain's capital Córdoba and the Byzantine
Byzantine
capital of Constantinople, which had populations over 450-500,000. Palermo's population dropped to 150,000 under Norman rule, while there was a greater decline in Córdoba's population as Muslims there weakened; by 1330 Palermo's population had declined to 51,000.[15] Arab traveler, geographer, and poet Ibn Jubair
Ibn Jubair
visited the area in the end of the 12th century and described Al-Kasr and Al-Khalisa (Kalsa):

The capital is endowed with two gifts, splendor and wealth. It contains all the real and imagined beauty that anyone could wish. Splendor and grace adorn the piazzas and the countryside; the streets and highways are wide, and the eye is dazzled by the beauty of its situation. It is a city full of marvels, with buildings similar to those of Córdoba [sic], built of limestone. A permanent stream of water from four springs runs through the city. There are so many mosques that they are impossible to count. Most of them also serve as schools. The eye is dazzled by all this splendor.

Throughout this reign, continued revolts by Byzantine
Byzantine
Sicilians occurred, especially in the east, and part of the lands were even re-occupied before being quashed.[16]

Aghlabid
Aghlabid
quarter dinar minted in Sicily, 879

The local population conquered by the Muslims were Romanized Catholic Sicilians in Western Sicily
Sicily
and Greek speaking Christians mainly in the eastern half of the island, but there were also a significant number of Jews.[17] Christians and Jews were tolerated under Muslim rule as dhimmis, but were subject to some restrictions. The dhimmis were also required to pay the jizya, or poll tax, and the kharaj or land tax, but were exempt from the tax that Muslims had to pay (Zakaat). Under Arab rule there were different categories of Jizya payers, but their common denominator was the payment of the Jizya
Jizya
as a mark of subjection to Muslim rule in exchange for protection against foreign and internal aggression. The conquered population could avoid this subservient status by converting to Islam. Whether by honest religious conviction or compulsion large numbers of native Sicilians converted to Islam. However, even after 100 years of Islamic rule, numerous Greek speaking Christian communities prospered, especially in north-eastern Sicily, as dhimmis. This was largely a result of the Jizya
Jizya
system which allowed co-existence. This co-existence with the conquered population fell apart after the reconquest of Sicily, particularly following the death of King William II of Sicily
Sicily
in 1189. Decline and "Taifa" period[edit] See also: Norman Kingdom of Sicily

Roger I of Sicily
Sicily
receiving the keys of Palermo

The Emirate
Emirate
of Sicily
Sicily
began to fragment as intra-dynastic quarrels took place within the Muslim regime.[1] In 1044, under emir Hasan al-Samsam, who established al-Samsam Emirate
Emirate
of Sicily, the island fragmented into four qadits, or small fiefdoms: the qadit of Trapani, Marsala, Mazara and Sciacca, a certain Abdallah ibn Mankut; that of Girgenti, Castrogiovanni and Castronuovo (Ibn al-Hawwàs); that of Palermo
Palermo
and Catania; and that of Syracuse (Ibn Thumna). By 1065, all of them had been unified by Ayyub ibn Tamim, the son of the Zirid
Zirid
emir of Ifriqiyya. In 1068 he left Sicily, and what remained under Muslim control fell under two qadits: one, led by Ibn Abbad (known as Benavert in western chronicles) in Syracuse, and the other under Hammud in Qas'r Ianni (modern Enna). By the 11th century mainland southern Italian powers were hiring Norman mercenaries, who were Christian descendants of the Vikings; it was the Normans
Normans
under Roger I who captured Sicily
Sicily
from the Muslims.[1] The Norman Robert Guiscard, son of Tancred, invaded Sicily
Sicily
in 1060 after taking Apulia
Apulia
and Calabria, Roger I occupied Messina
Messina
with an army of 700 knights. The Zirids of North Africa
North Africa
sent a support force, led by Ali and Ayyub ibn Tamin. However, Sicilians and Africans were defeated in 1063, in the Battle of Cerami. The sizeable Christian population rose up against the ruling Muslims.[18] In 1068, Roger de Hauteville and his men defeated again the Muslims forces commanded by Ayu ibn Tamim in Misilmeri. The Africans left Sicily
Sicily
in disarray after the defeat and Catania fell to the Normans
Normans
in 1071, followed, after one year of siege, by Palermo
Palermo
in 1072. Trapani capitulated the same year. The loss of the main port cities dealt a severe blow to Muslim power on the island. The last pocket of active resistance was Syracuse governed by Ibn Abbad (known by the Normans
Normans
as Benavert). He defeated Jordan, son of Roger of Sicily
Sicily
in 1075, and occupied Catania again in 1081 and raided Calabria
Calabria
shortly after. However, Roger besieged Syracuse in 1086, and Ibn Abbad tried to break the siege with naval battle, in which he died accidentally. Syracuse surrendered after this defeat. His wife and son fled to Noto
Noto
and Butera. Meanwhile the city of Qas'r Ianni (Enna) was still ruled by its emir, Ibn Al-Hawas, who held out for years. His successor, Hamud, surrendered, and converted to Christianity, only in 1087. After his conversion, Ibn Hamud subsequently became part of the Christian nobility and retired with his family to an estate in Calabria
Calabria
provided by Roger I. In 1091, Butera and Noto
Noto
in the southern tip of Sicily
Sicily
and the island of Malta, the last Arab strongholds, fell to the Christians with ease. After the conquest of Sicily, the Normans
Normans
removed the local emir, Yusuf Ibn Abdallah from power, but did so by respecting Arab customs.[19] Aftermath[edit] See also: Norman-Arab- Byzantine
Byzantine
culture

A 12th century Arab-Norman painting depicting Roger II

The Norman Kingdom of Sicily
Sicily
under Roger II
Roger II
has been characterized as multi-ethnic in nature and religiously tolerant.[20] Normans, Jews, Muslim Arabs, Byzantine
Byzantine
Greeks, Lombards and native Sicilians lived in relative harmony.[21][22] Arabic remained a language of government and administration for at least a century into Norman rule, and traces remain in the language of Sicily
Sicily
and evidently more in the language of Malta
Malta
today.[7] The Muslims also maintained their domination of industry, retailing and production, while Muslim artisans and expert knowledge in government and administration were highly sought after.[23] However, after the Normans
Normans
had conquered the island Muslims were faced with the choice of voluntary departure or subjection to Christian rule. Many Muslims chose to leave, provided they had the means to do so. “The transformation of Sicily
Sicily
into a Christian island”, remarks Abulafia, “was also, paradoxically, the work of those whose culture was under threat”.[24][25] Despite the presence of an Arab-speaking Christian population, it was Greek churchmen who attracted Muslim peasants to receive baptism and even adopt Greek Christian names; in several instances, Christian serfs with Greek names listed in the Monreale registers had living Muslim parents.[26][27] The Norman rulers followed a policy of steady Latinization by bringing in thousands of Italian settlers from the northwest of Italy
Italy
and some thousands from southeast France. To this day there are communities in central Sicily
Sicily
which speak the Gallo-Italic dialect. Some Muslims chose to feign conversion, but such a remedy could only provide individual protection and could not sustain a community.[28] "Lombard" pogroms against Muslims started in the 1160s. Muslim and Christian communities in Sicily
Sicily
became increasingly geographically separated. The island’s Muslim communities were mainly isolated beyond an internal frontier which divided the south-western half of the island from the Christian north-east. Sicilian Muslims, a subject population, were dependent on the mercy of their Christian masters and, ultimately, on royal protection. When King William the Good died in 1189, this royal protection was lifted, and the door was opened for widespread attacks against the island’s Muslims. This destroyed any lingering hope of coexistence, however unequal the respective populations might have been. Henry VI’s death in 1197, and that of his wife Constance a year later, plunged Sicily
Sicily
into political turmoil. With the loss of royal protection and with Frederick II still an infant in papal custody, Sicily
Sicily
became a battleground for rival German and papal forces. The island’s Muslim rebels sided with German warlords like Markward von Anweiler. In response, Innocent III declared a crusade against Markward, alleging that he had made an unholy alliance with the Saracens of Sicily. Nevertheless, in 1206 that same pope attempted to convince the Muslim leaders to remain loyal.[29] By this time, the Muslim rebellion was critical, with Muslims in control of Jato, Entella, Platani, Celso, Calatrasi, Corleone (taken in 1208), Guastanella and Cinisi. In other words, the Muslim revolt extended throughout a whole stretch of western Sicily. The rebels were led by Muhammad Ibn Abbād. He called himself the "prince of believers", struck his own coins, and attempted to find Muslim support from other parts of the Muslim world.[30][31] However, Frederick II, no longer a child, responded by launching a series of campaigns against the Muslim rebels in 1221. The Hohenstaufen
Hohenstaufen
forces rooted out the defenders of Jato, Entella, and the other fortresses. Rather than exterminate the Muslims, in 1223, Frederick II and the Christians began the first deportations of Muslims to Lucera
Lucera
in Apulia.[32] A year later, expeditions were sent against Malta
Malta
and Djerba, to establish royal control and prevent their Muslim populations from helping the rebels.[30] Paradoxically, Saracen archers were a common component of these “Christian” armies from this era.[33] The House of Hohenstaufen
Hohenstaufen
and their successors (Capetian House of Anjou and Aragonese House of Barcelona) gradually "Latinized" Sicily over the course of two centuries, and this social process laid the groundwork for the introduction of Latin (as opposed to Byzantine) Catholicism. The process of Latinization was fostered largely by the Roman Church and its liturgy. The annihilation of Islam
Islam
in Sicily
Sicily
was completed by the late 1240s, when the final deportations to Lucera took place.[34] List of emirs[edit]

al-Hasan ibn Ali al-Kalbi (948–953) Ahmad ibn al-Hasan al-Muizziyya (953–969) Yaish (usurper, 969) Ahmad ibn al-Hasan al-Muizziyya (969–970) Abu'l-Qasim Ali ibn al-Hasan al-Kalbi (970–982) Jabir ibn 'Ali (982–983) Ja'far ibn Muhammad (983–986) Abd Allah ibn Muhammad (986) Yusuf al-Kalbi (986–998) Ja'far OO (998–1019) Ahmad II al-Akhal (1017–1037) Abd Allah Abu Hafs (1035–1040, usurper; defeated and killed Ahmad II in 1037) Hasan al-Samsam (1040–1044; died 1053)

Taifa period[edit]

Catania :(1053 - ? ), Ibn al-Maklatí, defeated by Ibn Thumna Syracuse and later Catania (1053 - 1062) : Muhammed ibn Ibrahim (Ibn Thumna) Agrigento and Castrogiovanni (1053 - 1065) : Alí ibn Nima (Ibn al-Hawwàs) Trapani and Mazara (1053 - 1071) : Abdallah ibn Mankut Ayyub ibn Tamim (Zirid) : (1065-1068) (united the taifas)[35] Palermo
Palermo
(1068-1071) : republica Agrigento and Castrogiovanni(1065- 1087) :Hammad Syracuse and Catania :( 1071- 1086) : Ibn Abbad ( Benavert)

See also[edit]

Middle Ages portal Islam
Islam
portal Italy
Italy
portal

Emirate
Emirate
of Bari Fatimid
Fatimid
Caliphate History of Islam
Islam
in southern Italy History of Sicily Kalbids Persecution of Muslims

References[edit]

^ a b c d e f "Brief history of Sicily" (PDF). Archaeology.Stanford.edu. 7 October 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 9, 2007.  ^ Alex Metcalfe (2009). The Muslims of Medieval Italy
Italy
(illustrated ed.). Edinburgh University Press. p. 142. ISBN 9780748620081.  ^ Michele Amari (1854). Storia dei musulmani di Sicilia. F. Le Monnier. p. 302 Vol III.  ^ Roberto Tottoli (19 Sep 2014). Routledge Handbook of Islam
Islam
in the West. Routledge. p. 56. ISBN 9781317744023.  ^ Graham A. Loud; Alex Metcalfe (1 Jan 2002). The Society of Norman Italy
Italy
(illustrated ed.). BRILL. p. 289. ISBN 9789004125414.  ^ Jeremy Johns (7 Oct 2002). Arabic Administration in Norman Sicily: The Royal Diwan. Cambridge University Press. p. 284. ISBN 9781139440196.  ^ a b Smith, Denis Mack, (1968). A History of Sicily: Medieval Sicily 800—1713,. Chatto & Windus, London,. ISBN 0-7011-1347-2. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Previte-Orton (1971), vol. 1, pg. 370 ^ Islam
Islam
in Sicily
Sicily
Archived 2011-07-14 at the Wayback Machine., by Alwi Alatas ^ Brian A. Catlos (26 Aug 2014). Infidel Kings and Unholy Warriors: Faith, Power, and Violence in the Age of Crusade and Jihad (illustrated ed.). Macmillan. p. 142. ISBN 9780374712051.  ^ Commissione mista per la storia e la cultura degli ebrei in Italia (1995). Italia judaica, Volume 5. Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, Divisione studi e pubblicazioni. p. 145. ISBN 9788871251028.  ^ Jonathan M. Bloom (2007). Arts of the City Victorious: Islamic Art and Architecture in Fatimid
Fatimid
North Africa
North Africa
and Egypt
Egypt
(illustrated ed.). Yale University Press. p. 190. ISBN 9780300135428.  ^ Stefan Goodwin (1 Jan 1955). Africa in Europe: Antiquity into the Age of Global Exploration. Lexington Books. p. 83. ISBN 9780739129944.  ^ Luscombe, David; Riley-Smith, Jonathan, eds. (2004). The New Cambridge Medieval History, Volume 2; Volume 4. Cambridge University Press. p. 696. ISBN 9780521414111.  ^ J. Bradford De Long and Andrei Shleifer (October 1993), "Princes and Merchants: European City Growth before the Industrial Revolution", The Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, 36 (2): 671–702 [678], doi:10.1086/467294  ^ Privitera, Joseph. Sicily: An Illustrated History. Hippocrene Books. ISBN 978-0-7818-0909-2.  ^ Archived link: From Islam
Islam
to Christianity: the Case of Sicily, Charles Dalli, page 153. In Religion, ritual and mythology : aspects of identity formation in Europe / edited by Joaquim Carvalho, 2006, ISBN 88-8492-404-9. ^ Saracen Door and Battle of Palermo ^ "Chronological - Historical Table Of Sicily". In Italy
Italy
Magazine. 7 October 2007.  ^ Normans
Normans
in Sicilian History ^ Roger II
Roger II
- Encyclopædia Britannica Archived 2007-05-23 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Tracing The Norman Rulers of Sicily ^ Badawi, El-Said M.; Elgibali, Alaa, eds. (1996). Understanding Arabic: Essays in Contemporary Arabic Linguistics in Honor of El-Said Badawi. American Univ in Cairo Press. p. 33. ISBN 9789774243721.  ^ Charles Dalli, From Islam
Islam
to Christianity: the Case of Sicily, p. 159 (archived link) ^ Abulafia, The end of Muslim Sicily
Sicily
cit., p. 109 ^ Charles Dalli, From Islam
Islam
to Christianity: the Case of Sicily, p. 159 (archived link) ^ J. Johns, The Greek church and the conversion of Muslims in Norman Sicily?, "Byzantinische Forschungen", 21, 1995; for Greek Christianity in Sicily
Sicily
see also V. von Falkenhausen, "Il monachesimo greco in Sicilia", in C.D. Fonseca (ed.), La Sicilia rupestre nel contesto delle civiltà mediterranee, vol. 1, Lecce 1986. ^ Charles Dalli, From Islam
Islam
to Christianity: the Case of Sicily, p. 160 (archived link) ^ Charles Dalli, From Islam
Islam
to Christianity: the Case of Sicily, p. 160-161 (archived link) ^ a b Charles Dalli, From Islam
Islam
to Christianity: the Case of Sicily, p. 161 (archived link) ^ Aubé, Pierre (2001). Roger Ii De Sicile - Un Normand En Méditerranée. Payot.  ^ A.Lowe: The Barrier and the bridge, op cit;p.92. ^ Saracen Archers in Southern Italy
Italy
Archived November 28, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Abulafia, David (1988). Frederick II: A Medieval Emperor. London: Allen Lane.  ^ http://www.historyfiles.co.uk/KingListsEurope/ItalySicily.htm

Sources[edit]

Previte-Orton, C. W. (1971). The Shorter Cambridge Medieval History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 

External links[edit]

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(1815–1859) Italian United Provinces
Italian United Provinces
(1831) Provisional Government of Milan (1848) Republic of San Marco
Republic of San Marco
(1848–1849) Roman Republic
Roman Republic
(1849) United Provinces of Central Italy
Italy
(1859–1860) Kingdom of Sardinia
Kingdom of Sardinia
(1814–1860) Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
(1816–1861) Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia
Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia
(1815–1866) Papal States
Papal States
(1814–1870)

Post-unification

Kingdom of Italy
Italy
(1861–1946)

Italian Empire
Italian Empire
(1869–1946)

Free State of Fiume
Free State of Fiume
(1920–1924) Italian Social Republic
Italian Social Republic
(1943–1945) Free Territory of T

.