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The Dzungar Khanate, also written as the Zunghar Khanate, was an Oirat khanate on the Eurasian Steppe. It covered the area called Dzungaria and stretched from the west end of the Great Wall of China
China
to present-day Kazakhstan, and from present-day Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
to southern Siberia. Most of this area today is part of the Xinjiang
Xinjiang
autonomous region in China, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan. The Dzungar Khanate
Dzungar Khanate
was the last major nomadic empire left from the Mongol
Mongol
Empire. In 1678, Galdan
Galdan
received from the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
the title of Boshogtu Khan, thus confirming the Dzungars
Dzungars
as the leading tribe within the Oirats. However, the Dzungar rulers bore the title of Khong Tayiji (deriving from the Chinese phrase Huang Taizi, which translates into English as "crown prince"), while the state itself was still referred to as the Dzungar Khanate.[4] Following the deaths of Galdan
Galdan
Boshogtu Khan in 1697 and his successor Tsewang Rabtan in 1727, the Khanate fell into a steep decline from which it would never recover, ultimately leading to its annexation and genocide by the Qing dynasty during the period of 1755–58.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Outline 2.2 Origin 2.3 Conquest of the Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
(Altishahr) and war with the Central Asians 2.4 Rivalry with Khalkha 2.5 Galdan's war against Qing 2.6 Intervention in Tibet 2.7 Collapse and Genocide

3 Leaders of the Dzungar Khanate 4 See also 5 References

5.1 Citations 5.2 Sources

6 External links

Etymology[edit]

Dzungar Khanate

Chinese name

Traditional Chinese 準噶爾汗國

Simplified Chinese 准噶尔汗国

Transcriptions

Standard Mandarin

Hanyu Pinyin Zhǔngá'ěr Hànguó

Tibetan name

Tibetan ཛེ་གུན་གར།།

Mongolian name

Mongolian ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠣ ᠣᠯᠣᠰ jegün γar-un qaγan-tu ulus

Uyghur name

Uyghur

جوڭغار Jongghar

A map of the Dzungar Khanate, by a Swedish officer in captivity there in 1716-1733, which include the region known today as Zhetysu

This map fragment shows territories of Oirats
Oirats
as in 1706. (Map Collection of the Library of Congress: "Carte de Tartarie" of Guillaume de L'Isle (1675-1726))

"Dzungar" is a compound of the Mongolian word jegün (züün), meaning "left" or "east" and γar meaning "hand" or "wing".[5] The region of Dzungaria
Dzungaria
derives its name from this confederation. Although the Dzungars
Dzungars
were located west of the Eastern Mongols, the derivation of their name has been attributed to the fact that they represented the left wing of the Oirats. In the early 17th century, the head of the Oirat confederation was the leader of the Khoshut, Gushi Khan. When Gushi Khan decided to invade Tibet
Tibet
to replace the local Tsangpa
Tsangpa
Khan in favor of the Tibetan Geluk Sect, the Oirat army were organized into left and right wing. The right wing consisting of Khoshuts and Torguts remained in Tibet
Tibet
while the Choros
Choros
and Khoid
Khoid
of the Left wing retreated north into the Tarim basin, since then the powerful empire of the Choros
Choros
became known as the Left Wing, i.e. Zuungar. History[edit]

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v t e

Outline[edit] The Dzungar Khanate
Dzungar Khanate
is memorable because it was the last of the steppe nomadic empires and because of its influence on the westward expansion of the Chinese state. About 1620 the Oirats
Oirats
or western Mongols
Mongols
became united in Dzungaria. By about 1680 they had conquered the Tarim Basin to the south. In 1688 Galdan
Galdan
defeated the Khalkhas
Khalkhas
or eastern Mongols, many of whom fled southeast to Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
where they became and remained Manchu subjects. In 1696, the Manchu defeated Galdan
Galdan
near Ulan Bator, chased him westward and gained control over Outer Mongolia. In 1717 Tsewang Rabtan sent an army to Tibet. The Manchu drove the Dzungars
Dzungars
out and established a protectorate over Tibet. In 1750-57, the Manchu took advantage of a Dzungar civil war to conquer Dzungaria
Dzungaria
and killed a large part of the population. The Manchu turned south and annexed the Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
by 1759, thus completing the current western border of China. Origin[edit] The chiefs of the Dzungars
Dzungars
were of the Choros
Choros
lineage and reckoned their descent from the Oirat taishis Toghoon (d. 1438) and Esen (r. 1438-54). At the beginning of the 17th century, a young leader named Khara Khula emerged to unite the Oirats
Oirats
to fight Sholui Ubashi Khong Tayiji, the first Altan Khan of the Khalkha, who few years earlier expelled the Oirats
Oirats
from their home in the Kobdo region in present-day northwest Mongolia.[6] Early in his reign, Khara Kula united the Choros, Dorbod and Khoid
Khoid
tribes, thus forming the Dzungar nation. In the 1620s wars against the Khalkha, he could gain decisive victory over the Eastern Mongols. The Oirats
Oirats
homeland was under the dominion of Jasaghtu Khan
Jasaghtu Khan
of the Khalkha. In 1623 the Oirat confederation killed Ubashi Khong Tayiji, and secured their independence. At the time, only Torobaikhu, a leader of the Khoshud tribe could claim the title of Khan while Baatur Dalai Taishi of the Dorbods was considered the most powerful Oirat chief. Even so, Khara Khula's son Baatur Khung Taiji (d. 1653) joined the 1636–42 expedition to Tibet
Tibet
led by Güshi Khan
Güshi Khan
Torobaikhu.[7] After Baatur returned to Dzungaria
Dzungaria
with the title Erdeni (given by the Dalai Lama) and much booty, he made three expeditions against the Kazakhs. With the migrations of the Torghuds, the Khoshuds and the Dorbods from 1630 to 1677, the Dzungars' relative power was increased in Zungaria. The conflicts by the Dzungars
Dzungars
are remembered in a Kazakh ballad Elim-ai.[8] The Dzungars
Dzungars
went to war against the Kyrgyz, Tajiks, Uzbeks, and Kazakhs
Kazakhs
when the Dzungars
Dzungars
invaded deep into Central Asia
Central Asia
to Yasi (Turkestan) and Tashkent
Tashkent
in 1643 under Ba'atur Khongtaiji.[9] In 1653 Sengge succeeded his father Baatur Khung Taiji as Dzungarian chief, but an internal strife with his half brother Chechen Tayiji involved the Khoshuud.[10] From 1657 on, Amin-Dara's sons Sengge and Galdan
Galdan
faced disafection from their half-brothers. With the support of Ochirtu Khan of the Khoshuud, this strife ended with Sengge's victory in 1661. In 1667 he captured Erinchin Lobsang Tayiji, the third and last Altan Khan. However, he himself was assassinated by his half brothers Chechen Tayiji and Zotov in a coup in 1670.[11] Sengge's younger brother Galdan
Galdan
immediately returned from Tibet
Tibet
to lay life and took revenge on Chechen. As a Buddhist priest, Galdan
Galdan
had been to Tibet
Tibet
at the age of thirteen and had trained under the fourth Panchen Lama
Panchen Lama
and then the Fifth Dalai Lama. Allied with Ochirtu Sechen of the Khoshuud, Galdan
Galdan
defeated Chechen, and drove Zotov out of Zungaria. However, Sengge's two sons Sonom Rabdan and Tsewang Rabtan revolted against him, but they were also crushed in the end. In 1671 The Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
bestowed the title of Khan on Galdan. Although, already married Anu-Dara, granddaughter of Ochirtu, he came into conflict with his grandfather in law. Fearing of Galdan's popularity, Ochirtu supported his uncle and rival Choqur Ubashi who refused to recognize Galdan's title. The victory over Ochirtu in 1677 resulted in the establishment of hegemony over the Oirats. In the next year the Dalai Lama gave the highest title of Boshoghtu (or Boshughtu) Khan to him,[12] Galdan
Galdan
thus united the entire Oirats
Oirats
in Zungaria and Western Mongolia. Brigitta Scherzenfeldt
Brigitta Scherzenfeldt
and Johan Gustaf Renat
Johan Gustaf Renat
spent time in the Dzungar Khanate
Dzungar Khanate
as prisoners of war. Conquest of the Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
(Altishahr) and war with the Central Asians[edit] Main article: Dzungar conquest of Altishahr

Buddha
Buddha
images and Tibetan mantra on rocks near Almaty

The Naqshbandi
Naqshbandi
Sufi
Sufi
Khojas had replaced the Chagatayid Khans as the ruling authority of the Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
in the early 17th century. They defeated the White Mountain.[clarification needed] The exiled ruler Afaq of the White Mountain asked the 5th Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
for military assistance in 1677. By the request of the latter, Galdan
Galdan
initiated the Dzungar conquest of Altishahr
Dzungar conquest of Altishahr
and conquered the Tarim Basin (Altishahr), installing Afaq as his client ruler there.[13] Galdan decreed that the Turkestanis would be judged by their own law except in cases affecting the Dzungar Empire. The Dzungars
Dzungars
kept control over the Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
until 1757. In 1680 the Black Khirgiz raided Moghulistan
Moghulistan
and occupied Yarkend. The inhabitants of Yarkend appealed to Galdan
Galdan
Khan for help. The Dzungars conquered Kashgar
Kashgar
and Yarkend, and Galdan
Galdan
had its ruler chosen by its inhabitants.[14] Then he invaded the north of Tengeri Mountain in modern Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
the next year, but failed to take Sairam city. Eventually, he could conquer Turfan and Hami the next year.[15] In 1683 Galdan's armies under Rabtan reached Tashkent
Tashkent
and the Syr Darya and crushed two armies of the Kazakhs. After that Galdan
Galdan
subjugated the Black Khirgiz and ravaged the Fergana valley. From 1685 Galdan's forces aggressively pushed the Kazakhs. His general Rabtan took Taraz city, and his main force forced the Kazakhs
Kazakhs
to immigrate westwards.[16] In 1698 Galdan's successor Tsewang Rabtan reached Tengiz lake and Turkestan, and the Dzungars
Dzungars
controlled Zhei-Su Tashkent
Tashkent
until 1745.[17] The Dzungars' war on the Kazakhs
Kazakhs
pushed them into seeking aid from Russia.[18] The Dzungar Khanate
Dzungar Khanate
extracted yasaq (tribute) from their Baraba Muslim underlings. Converting to Orthodox Christianity and becoming Russian subjects was a tactic by the Baraba to find an excuse not to pay yasaq to the Dzungars.[19] The Yenisei Kirghiz (Khakas people) were made to pay tribute in a treaty concluded between the Dzungars
Dzungars
and Russians
Russians
in 1635.[20] The Dzungar Oirat Kalmyks
Kalmyks
coerced the Yenisei Kirghiz into submission.[21][22] Some of the Yenisei Kirghiz were relocated into the Dzungar Khanate
Dzungar Khanate
by the Dzungars, and then the Qing moved them from Dzungaria
Dzungaria
to northeastern China
China
in 1761, where they became known as the Fuyu Kyrgyz.[23][24][25] Sibe Bannermen were stationed in Dzungaria
Dzungaria
while Northeastern China
China
(Manchuria) was where some of the remaining Öelet Oirats
Oirats
were deported to.[26] The Nonni basin was where Oirat Öelet deportees were settled. The Yenisei Kirghiz were deported along with the Öelet.[27] Chinese and Oirat replaced Oirat and Kirghiz during Manchukuo as the dual languages of the Nonni-based Yenisei Kirghiz.[28] Rivalry with Khalkha[edit] At first the Khalkhas
Khalkhas
and Oirats
Oirats
were in league, bound by the provisions of the Mongol-Oirat code.[29] In order to cement this union, Galdan
Galdan
attempted to ally with Zasaghtu Khan Shira who lost part of his subjects to Tushiyetu Khan Chakhundorji, and moved his ordo near the Altai Range. Tushiyetu Khan attacked the right wing of the Khalkhas
Khalkhas
and killed Shira in 1687. Galdan
Galdan
dispatched troops under his younger brother Dorji-jav against the Tushiyetu Khan the next year, but they were eventually defeated and Dorji-jav was killed in the ensuing battle. Chakhundorji murdered Degdeehei Mergen Ahai of the Zasaghtu Khan who was on the way to Galdan. The Qing court intervened and called off the Mongolian aristocrats to assemble a conference. To avenge the death of his brother and expand his influence over other Mongol
Mongol
areas, Galdan
Galdan
strategically prepared for a war with Khalkha. Galdan
Galdan
established a friendly relationship with the Russians
Russians
who were at war with Tushiyetu Khan over territories near Lake Baikal
Lake Baikal
in northern Khalkha. Bonded by a common interest in defeating Khalkha, both Galdan
Galdan
and the Russians
Russians
simultaneously attacked Khalkha
Khalkha
and conquered most of the territories of Khalkha. Armed with superior firearms bought from Russians, Galdan
Galdan
attacked the land of the late Zasaghtu Khan, and advanced to the dominion of Chakhundorji. The Russian Cossacks meanwhile attacked and defeated Khalkha's contingent of 10,000 near Lake Baikal. After two bloody battles with the Dzungars near Erdene Zuu Monastery
Erdene Zuu Monastery
and Tomor, Chakhundorji and his son Galdandorji fled to the Ongi River. The Dzungars
Dzungars
occupied the Khalkha
Khalkha
homeland, and forced the Jebtsundamba Khutuktu
Jebtsundamba Khutuktu
Zanabazar
Zanabazar
to flee. The Qing court strengthened its northern border garrisons, and advised the Khalkhas
Khalkhas
to resist Galdan. After being reinforced by fresh troops, the Tushiyetu Khan Chakhundorji counterattacked the Dzungars, and fought with them near Olgoi Lake on August 3, 1688. The Oirats
Oirats
won after a 3-day battle. Galdan's conquest of Khalkha
Khalkha
Mongolia
Mongolia
made Zanabazar
Zanabazar
and Chakhundorji submit to the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
in September of the same year. Galdan's war against Qing[edit] See also: Dzungar–Qing War By his victory in 1688, Galdan
Galdan
had driven the Khalkhas
Khalkhas
into the arms of the Qing and made himself a military threat to the Manchus. Unfortunately for Galdan, Kangxi was unusually vigorous and warlike. In 1690 the Manchus and Dzungars
Dzungars
fought at Ulan Butung and Galdan withdrew to the north. (The battle was fought 350 kilometers directly north of Peking near the western headwaters of the Liao River
Liao River
at the southern end of the Greater Khingan
Greater Khingan
Mountains). The problem with all of these nomad wars was that the Manchu could not maintain a permanent army on the steppe. If the Manchu sent an army the nomads would flee and come back when the Manchu ran out of supplies. In 1696 Galdan
Galdan
was on the upper Kerulen
Kerulen
River east of Ulaanbaatar about 700 km northwest of Peking. Kangxi's plan was to personally lead an army northwest to Galdan
Galdan
while sending a second army north from the Ordos Region to block his escape. Kangxi reached the Kerulen, found Galdan gone and was forced to turn back due to lack of supplies. On the same day that Kangxi turned back (June 12) Galdan
Galdan
blundered into the western army and was disastrously defeated in the battle of Jao Modo near the upper Tuul River
Tuul River
east of Ulan Bator
Ulan Bator
at Zuunmod. Galdan's wife, Anu, was killed and the Manchus captured 20,000 cattle and 40,000 sheep. Galdan
Galdan
fled with his remaining 40 or 50 men. He gathered a few thousand followers who later deserted due to hunger. In 1697 he was in the Altai Mountains
Altai Mountains
near Khovd with 300 men when he died suddenly under mysterious circumstances (April 4, 1697). He was succeeded by Tsewang Rabtan who had revolted against him. Intervention in Tibet[edit]

The Dzungar and Kalmyk states (a fragment of the map of Russian Empire of Peter The Great, that was created by a Sweden soldier in c. 1725).

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The Dzungars
Dzungars
led by Tsewang Rabtan's brother Tseren Dondup invaded Tibet
Tibet
- which was then dominated by the Khoshut Khanate
Khoshut Khanate
founded by the Khoshuts, another Oirat tribe - in 1717, deposed Yeshe Gyatso, a pretender to the position of the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
(who had been promoted by Lha-bzang Khan, the titular King of Tibet). The 5th Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
had encouraged Mongolian lamas to prevent any non-Ge-lugs-pa teaching among the Mongols. The Dzungars
Dzungars
soon began to loot Lhasa, thus losing initial Tibetan goodwill towards them. The Qing Kangxi Emperor retaliated in 1718, but his military expedition was annihilated by the Dzungars
Dzungars
in the Battle of the Salween River, not far from Lhasa.[30] Many Nyingmapa
Nyingmapa
and Bonpos were executed and Tibetans visiting Dzungar officials were forced to stick their tongues out so the Dzungars
Dzungars
could tell if the person recited constant mantras (which was said to make the tongue black or brown). This allowed them to pick the Nyingmapa and Bonpos, who recited many magic-mantras.[31] This habit of sticking one's tongue out as a mark of respect on greeting someone has remained a Tibetan custom until recent times. A second and larger expedition sent by Kangxi expelled Tsewang Rabtan's force from Tibet
Tibet
in 1720 and the troops were hailed as liberators. They brought Kälzang Gyatso with them from Kumbum to Lhasa
Lhasa
and he was installed as the 7th Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
in 1721.[32] Collapse and Genocide[edit] See also: Ten Great Campaigns § Campaigns against the Dzungars and the pacification of Xinjiang
Xinjiang
(1755–59), and Dzungar genocide

The last Dzungar Khan Dawachi

At the death of Galdan
Galdan
Tseren in 1745 the Dzungars
Dzungars
appeared still strong. However, the sudden collapse of the Khanate stemmed from Galdan
Galdan
Tseren's sons.[33] In 1749 Galden Tseren's son Lamdarjaa seized the throne from his younger brother. He was overthrown by his cousin Dawaachi (zh) and the Khoid
Khoid
noble Amursana. But they began to fight each other for succession. In 1753 Dawaachi's three relatives ruling the Dorbed and Bayad surrendered to the Qing after their conflict with Dawaachi, and migrated to Khalkha. Amursana
Amursana
of Khoid followed them. In spring 1755, the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
attacked Kulja leading to the capture of the Dzungar Khan, who was handed over by the Uqturpan County
Uqturpan County
Beg Khojis (霍集斯). Amarsana requested that he be made Dzungar Khan, but the Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor
would only make him Khan of Khoit, one among four equal Khans.[34] In summer, Amursanaa along with Chingünjav
Chingünjav
led a revolt against the Qing. Over the next two years, the Manchu and Mongol
Mongol
armies of the Qing Dynasty destroyed the remnants of the Dzungar khanate. Their last leader, Prince Amursanaa revolted against the Qing, and fled north to seek refuge with the Russians. Amursana
Amursana
died there of smallpox. In the spring of 1762 his frozen body was brought to Kyakhta
Kyakhta
for the Manchu to see. The Russians then buried it, refusing the Manchu request that it be handed over for posthumous punishment.[35] To commemorate his military victory, Qianlong established the Puning Temple
Puning Temple
Complex of Chengde
Chengde
in 1755. The Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor
then ordered genocide against the Dzungars
Dzungars
and moved the remaining Dzungar people
Dzungar people
to the mainland while at the same time ordering his generals to kill all the men in Barkol
Barkol
or Suzhou. Qianlong divided their wives and children amongst the Qing forces, which consisted of Manchu Bannermen.[36][37] Qing scholar Wei Yuan estimated the total population of Dzungars
Dzungars
before the fall at 600,000 people, or 200,000 households. Oirat officer Saaral betrayed and battled against the Oirats. In a widely cited[38][39][40] account of the war, Wei Yuan
Wei Yuan
wrote that about 40% of the Dzungar households were killed by smallpox, 20% fled to Russia
Russia
or Kazakh tribes, and 30% were killed by the Qing army of the Manchu Bannermen, leaving no yurts in an area of several thousands li except of those who had surrendered.[41] During this war Kazakhs
Kazakhs
attacked dispersed Oirats
Oirats
and Altays. Based on this account, Wen-Djang Chu wrote that 80% of the 600,000 or more Dzungars
Dzungars
(especially Choros, Olot, Khoid, Baatud and Zakhchin) were destroyed by disease and attack[42] which Michael Clarke described as "the complete destruction of not only the Dzungar state but of the Dzungars
Dzungars
as a people."[43] Historian Peter Perdue attributed the decimation of the Dzungars
Dzungars
to an explicit policy of extermination launched by Qianlong, but he also observed signs of a more lenient policy after mid-1757.[39] Mark Levene, a historian whose recent research interests focus on genocide, has stated that the extermination of the Dzungars
Dzungars
was "arguably the eighteenth century genocide par excellence."[44] It was not until generations later that Dzungaria
Dzungaria
rebounded from the destruction and near liquidation of the Dzungars
Dzungars
after the mass slayings of Dzungars.[45] Anti-Dzungar Uyghur rebels from the Turfan and Hami oases had submitted to Qing rule as vassals and requested Qing help for overthrowing Dzungar rule. Uyghur leaders like Emin Khoja were granted titles within the Qing nobility, and these Uyghurs helped supply the Qing military forces during the anti-Dzungar campaign.[46][47][48] The Qing employed Khoja Emin in its campaign against the Dzungars
Dzungars
and used him as an intermediary with Muslims from the Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
to inform them that the Qing were only aiming to kill Oirats
Oirats
and that they would leave the Muslims alone, and also to convince them to kill the Oirats themselves and side with the Qing since the Qing noted the Muslims' resentment of their former experience under Dzungar rule at the hands of Tsewang Rabtan.[49] There were 600,000 Khalkha Mongols
Khalkha Mongols
and 1,000,000 Oirats
Oirats
in 1755. According to 2010 estimate 2,500,000 Khalkhas
Khalkhas
and 520,000 Oirats living in 4 countries. There a few hundreds of Choros
Choros
people in Mongolia. The Qing "final solution" of genocide to solve the problem of the Dzungars, made the Manchu Qing sponsored settlement of millions of Han Chinese, Hui, Turkestani Oasis people (Uyghurs) and Manchu Bannermen in Dzungaria
Dzungaria
possible, since the land was now devoid of Dzungars.[50] Professor Stanley W. Toops noted that today's demographic situation is similar to that of the early Qing period in Xinjiang. In northern Xinjiang, the Qing brought in Han, Hui, Uyghur, Xibe, and Kazakh colonists after they exterminated the Oirats
Oirats
in the region, with one third of Xinjiang's total population consisting of Hui and Han in the northern are, while around two thirds were Uyghurs in southern Xinjiang's Tarim Basin.[51][52] In Dzungaria, the Qing established new cities like Ürümqi
Ürümqi
and Yining.[53] The Qing were the ones who unified Xinjiang
Xinjiang
and changed its demographic situation.[54] The Dzungarian basin, which used to be inhabited by Dzungars, is currently inhabited by Kazakhs.[55] The Dzungar genocide
Dzungar genocide
has been compared to the Qing extermination of the Jinchuan Tibetan people in 1776.[56] The depopulation of northern Xinjiang
Xinjiang
after the Buddhist Oirats
Oirats
were slaughtered, led to the Qing settling Manchu, Sibo (Xibe), Daurs, Solons, Han Chinese, Hui Muslims, and Turkic Muslim Taranchis in the north, with Han Chinese and Hui migrants making up the greatest number of settlers. Since it was the crushing of the Buddhist Oirats
Oirats
by the Qing which led to promotion of Islam and the empowerment of the Muslim Begs in southern Xinjiang, and migration of Muslim Taranchis to northern Xinjiang, it was proposed by Henry Schwarz that "the Qing victory was, in a certain sense, a victory for Islam".[57] Xinjiang was a unified defined geographic identity was created and developed by the Qing. It was the Qing who led to Turkic Muslim power in the region increasing since the Mongol
Mongol
power was crushed by the Qing while Turkic Muslim culture and identity was tolerated or even promoted by the Qing.[58] After the Qing were done conquering Dzungaria
Dzungaria
in 1759, they proclaimed that the new land which formerly belonged to the Dzungars, was now absorbed into "China" (Dulimbai Gurun) in a Manchu language memorial.[59][60][61] The Qing expounded on their ideology that they were bringing together the "outer" non-Han Chinese like the Inner Mongols, Eastern Mongols, Oirat Mongols, and Tibetans together with the "inner" Han Chinese, into "one family" united in the Qing state, showing that the diverse subjects of the Qing were all part of one family, the Qing used the phrase "Zhong Wai Yi Jia" (中外一家) or "Nei Wai Yi Jia" (內外一家, "interior and exterior as one family"), to convey this idea of "unification" of the different peoples.[62] Leaders of the Dzungar Khanate[edit]

The massacre of Oroi-Jalatu, 1756. Manchu general Zhao Hui attacked the Dzungars
Dzungars
at night in present Wusu

Khara Khula, title: Khong Tayiji Erdeni Batur, title: Khong Tayiji Sengge, title: Khong Tayiji Galdan
Galdan
Boshugtu Khan, titles: Khong Tayiji, Boshogtu Khan Tsewang Rabtan, title: Khong Tayiji, Khan Galdan
Galdan
Tseren, title: Khong Tayiji Tsewang Dorji Namjal, title: Khong Tayiji Lama Dorji, title: Khong Tayiji Dawachi, title: Khong Tayiji Amursana‡

‡ Note: Although Amursana
Amursana
had de facto control of some areas of Dzungaria
Dzungaria
during 1755–1756, he could never officially become Khan due to the inferior rank of his clan, the Khoid. See also[edit]

Mongolia
Mongolia
portal Central Asia
Central Asia
portal Tibet
Tibet
portal History of Imperial China
China
portal

Choros Dzungar people Dzungaria Khoshut
Khoshut
Khanate Kalmyk Khanate

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ James A. Millward, Ruth W. Dunnell, Mark C. Elliott New Qing imperial history, p.99 ^ Predecessor of Modern Uyghur ^ Ethnic Groups of North, East, and Central Asia: An Encyclopedia, by James B. Minahan, p. 210. ^ C. P. Atwood Encyclopedia of Mongolia
Mongolia
and the Mongol
Mongol
Empire, p.622 ^ For the Mongols
Mongols
the primary direction was south. Gaunt, John (2004). Modern Mongolian: A Course-Book. London: RoutledgeCurzon. p. 165. ISBN 978-0-7007-1326-4.  Mongolian maps placed the south at the top, so west was to the right and east was to the left. Akira, Kamimura. "A Preliminary Analysis of Old Mongolian Manuscript Maps: Towards an Understanding of the Mongols' Perception of the Landscape" (PDF).  ^ Fred Walter Bergholz. The partition of the steppe, p. 522 ^ Henry Hoyle Howorth. History of the Mongols
Mongols
from the 9th to the 19th Century: Part 1, p. 595 ^ Genina, Anna (2015). Claiming Ancestral Homelandsː Mongolian Kazakh migration in Inner Asia (PDF) (A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Anthropology) in The University of Michigan). p. 113.  ^ Ahmad Hasan Dani; Vadim Mikhaĭlovich Masson; UNESCO
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(1 January 2003). History of Civilizations of Central Asia: Development in contrast: from the sixteenth to the mid-nineteenth century. UNESCO. pp. 116–. ISBN 978-92-3-103876-1.  ^ Ed. Reuven Amitai-Preiss, David Morgan The Mongol
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Tibet
and its History. Second Edition, Revised and Updated, pp. 48-9. Shambhala. Boston & London. ISBN 0-87773-376-7 (pbk) ^ Norbu, Namkhai. (1980). "Bon and Bonpos". Tibetan Review, December, 1980, p. 8. ^ Richardson, Hugh E. (1984). Tibet
Tibet
and its History. Second Edition, Revised and Updated, pp. 48-9. Shambhala. Boston & London. ISBN 0-87773-376-7 (pbk) ^ C. P. Atwood ibid, 623 ^ Millward 2007, p. 95. ^ G. Patrick March, Eastern Destiny: Russian in Asia and the Pacific, 1996, Chapter 12 ^ 《大清高宗純皇帝實錄》, 乾隆二十四年 ^ 《平定準噶爾方略》 ^ Lattimore, Owen (1950). Pivot of Asia; Sinkiang and the inner Asian frontiers of China
China
and Russia. Little, Brown. p. 126.  ^ a b Perdue 2005, p. 283-287 ^ ed. Starr 2004, p. 54. ^ Wei, Yuan. 《聖武記》(Military History of the Qing Dynasty). vol.4. 計數十萬戶中,先痘死者十之四,繼竄入俄羅斯哈薩克者十之二,卒殲於大兵者十之三。除婦孺充賞外,至今惟來降受屯之厄鲁特若干戶,編設佐領昂吉,此外數千里間,無瓦剌一氊帳。  ^ Chu, Wen-Djang (1966). The Moslem Rebellion in Northwest China 1862-1878. Mouton & co. p. 1.  ^ "Michael Edmund Clarke, ''In the Eye of Power'' (doctoral thesis), Brisbane 2004, p37" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 April 2008. Retrieved 19 February 2013.  ^ Levene 2008, p. 188 ^ Tyler 2004, p. 55. ^ Kim 2008, p. 308 ^ Kim 2008, p. 134 ^ Kim 2008, p. 49 ^ Kim 2008, p. 139. ^ Perdue 2009, p. 285. ^ ed. Starr 2004, p. 243. ^ Toops, Stanley (May 2004). "Demographics and Development in Xinjiang after 1949" (PDF). East-West Center Washington Working Papers. East–West Center
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(1): 1. Archived from the original on 16 July 2007. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ Millward 1998, p. 102. ^ Liu & Faure 1996, p. 71. ^ Tyler 2004, p. 4. ^ Theobald 2013, p. 21. ^ Liu & Faure 1996, p. 72. ^ Liu & Faure 1996, p. 76. ^ Dunnell 2004, p. 77. ^ Dunnell 2004, p. 83. ^ Elliott 2001, p. 503. ^ Dunnell 2004, pp. 76-77.

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China
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