The DUTCH GUILDER (Dutch : gulden, IPA: ) or FL. was the currency of
The Dutch name gulden was a
Middle Dutch adjective meaning "golden",
and the name indicates the coin was originally made of gold . The
symbol ƒ or fl. for the
The exact exchange rate, still relevant for old contracts and for exchange of the old currency for euros at the central bank, is 2.20371 Dutch guilders (NLG) for 1 euro (EUR). Inverted, this gives EUR 0.453780 for NLG 1.
* 1 History * 2 Coins * 3 Banknotes * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links
Before the introduction of the first guilder, there were regional and foreign golden coins that were likely referred to as "gulden" in Dutch. The first internationally accepted Dutch coin called gulden dates from 1517: the Carolusgulden (not to be confused with the English Carolus ). Even before that, the County of Holland had minted golden coins since 1378.
An early guilder, a 10.61-gram .910 silver coin, was minted by the
States of Holland and West Friesland in 1680. The original guilder
design featured Pallas
Between 1810 and 1814, the
Following the German occupation , on 10 May 1940, the guilder was pegged to the Reichsmark at a rate of 1 guilder = 1.5 Reichsmark. This rate was reduced to 1.327 on 17 July of the same year. The liberating Allied forces set an exchange rate of 2.652 guilders = 1 U.S. dollar , which became the peg for the guilder within the Bretton Woods system . In 1949, the peg was changed to 3.8 guilders = 1 dollar, approximately matching the devaluation of the British pound . In 1961, the guilder was revalued to 3.62 guilders = 1 dollar, a change approximately in line with that of the German mark . After 1967 guilders were made from nickel instead of silver.
In 2002, the guilder was replaced by the euro at an exchange rate of
2.20371 guilders = 1
File:Netherlands-1850-proof.jpg William III of the
In the 18th century, coins were issued by the various provinces. There were copper 1 duit, silver 1, 2, 6 and 10 stuivers, 1 and 3 guilders, 1⁄2 and 1 rijksdaalder and 1⁄2 and 1 ducaton. Gold 1 and 2-ducat trade coins were also minted. Between 1795 and 1806, the Batavian Republic issued coins in similar denominations to the earlier provincial issues. The Kingdom of Holland minted silver 10 stuivers, 1 florin and 1 guilder (equivalent), 50 stuivers and 2 1⁄2 guilder (also equivalent) and 1 rijksdaalder, along with gold 10 and 20 guilders. Before decimalization, the Kingdom of the Netherlands briefly issued some 1 rijksdaalder coins.
The gold 1 and 2 ducat and silver ducat (rijksdaalder) are still minted today as bullion coins.
In 1817, the first coins of the decimal currency were issued, the copper 1 cent and silver 3 guilders. The remaining denominations were introduced in 1818. These were copper 1⁄2 cents, silver 5, 10 and 25 cents, 1⁄2 and 1 guilder, and gold 10 guilders. In 1826, gold 5-guilder coins were introduced.
In 1840, the silver content of the coinage was reduced (see above)
and this was marked by the replacement of the 3-guilder coin by a 2
1⁄2-guilder piece. The gold coinage was completely suspended in
1853, five years after the suspension of the gold standard. By 1874,
production of silver coins greater in value than 10 cents had ceased,
to be only fully resumed in the 1890s.
In 1941, following the German occupation, production of all earlier
coin types ceased and zinc coins were introduced by the occupational
government for 1 , 2 1⁄2 , 5 , 10 and 25 cents . Large quantities
of pre-war type silver 10 and 25 cents and 1-guilder coins were minted
In 1948, all half cents and 2 1⁄2 cents were taken out of circulation, though no further production of either denomination had continued after 1940 and 1942, respectively. New bronze 1 and 5 cent coins featuring Queen Wilhelmina on the obverse were issued, phasing out previous types. At the same time, new nickel 10 and 25 cent coins were introduced. In 1949, 1 and 2 1⁄2 guilder banknotes were introduced. Five years later, the silver 1-guilder coin was reintroduced, followed by the silver 2 1⁄2-guilder coin in 1959. The silver content was replaced with nickel in 1967, although no 2 1⁄2-guilder coins were minted in 1967 and 1968. The silver coins were demonetized in 1973. In 1950, Queen Juliana 's profile replaced the image of Wilhelmina on the obverse (front) of all coins.
In 1980, production of the one cent coin ceased and was demonetized the same year. Soon after, it was decided to replace the 5 guilder banknote with a coin of the same value. However, it wasn't until 1988 that a bronze-coated nickel 5 guilder coin was finally introduced. The 5-guilder banknote remained legal tender until 1995. The 2 1⁄2 guilder coin gradually began losing widespread use shortly after the introduction of the 5 guilder coin, and mintage figures for the denomination declined until the discontinuation of the guilder. 1980 also saw a circulating two coin commemorative series of 1 and 2 1⁄2 guilder coins celebrating Queen Beatrix 's ascension to the throne.
All circulating coins went through a complete redesign in 1982, a short while after Queen Beatrix's coronation. They depict abstract designs featuring grids and a layered silhouette profile of the Queen as opposed to the more formal designs of the previous generation of coins. Production of these coins ceased after 2001.
At the time of withdrawal, the following denominations of coins were circulating:
* 5 cents – stuiver —the name survived, although the stuiver had not been an official subunit of the guilder since decimalisation in 1817; * 10 cents – dubbeltje ("little double")—being small enough to fit into the center hole of a compact disc , it was the smallest coin in circulation. It was worth two stuivers, hence the name; * 25 cents – kwartje ("little quarter")—the kwartje was smaller than the stuiver, though larger than the dubbeltje and the cent; * 1 guilder – gulden, colloquially piek; * 2 1⁄2 guilders – rijksdaalder , colloquially riks or knaak; * 5 guilders – vijfje ("little five");
All the coins carried a profile image of the Queen on the obverse and a simple grid on the other side. The 1-guilder , 2 1⁄2-guilder, and 5-guilder coins had God zij met ons ("God be with us") inscribed on the edge.
One guilder, playing card money (1801). Prior to the formal introduction of paper currency, playing card money, denominated in Dutch guilders, was used in Dutch Guiana (1761–1826). Main article: Banknotes of the Dutch guilder
Between 1814 and 1838, The Dutch Bank issued notes in denominations of 25, 40, 60, 80, 100, 200, 300, 500 and 1000 guilders. These were followed, from 1846 by state notes (muntbiljetten) in denominations of 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 500, 1000 guilders, with the 10 and 50 guilders issued until 1914.
In 1904, the
In 1926, the
In 1938, silver notes were reintroduced for 1 and 2 1⁄2
World War II
Following the war, The Dutch Bank introduced notes for 10, 20, 25, 50, 100 and 1000 guilders. The last 20 guilder notes were dated 1955, whilst 5-guilder notes were introduced in 1966 (replaced by coins in 1987) and 250-guilder notes in 1985.
At the time of withdrawal, the following denominations of banknotes were circulating:
* ƒ10 – tientje ("little ten", see Diminutive ), joet * ƒ25 – geeltje (yellow one) * ƒ50 – zonnebloem (sunflower ) * ƒ100 – honderdje, meier, later: snip (snipe ) * ƒ250 – vuurtoren (lighthouse ) * ƒ1000 – duizendje, (rooie) rug (red back) / rooi(tj)e
At the time of withdrawal, all but the 50 and 250-guilder notes had been issued in a new series that was the same colour as the older, long-serving notes but with a mostly abstract pattern, featuring a different bird for each denomination.
Persons depicted on older banknotes were:
* ƒ5 – poet
Joost van den Vondel (until 1988, when the note was
replaced by a ƒ5 coin)
* ƒ10 – painter
These 1970s "face"-notes and the 1980s ƒ50 (sunflower), ƒ100
(snipe) and ƒ250 (lighthouse) were designed by
R.D.E. Oxenaar .
Eventually all faces were to be replaced by abstracts, designed by
* ^ J. Verdam, Middelnederlandsch Handwoordenboek, The Hague 1932
(reprint of 1994). In modern Dutch, the adjective still exists in
certain fossilised forms such as het Gulden Vlies ("the Golden Fleece
"). The modern equivalent is gouden.
* ^ "Rules for exchanging guilder notes".
De Nederlandsche Bank .
Retrieved 31 January 2011.
* ^ https://www.reppa.de/lexikon/carolus-dor
* ^ Krause, Chester; Clifford Mishler (2003). (3rd ed.). Krause
Publications . p. 932. ISBN 0-87349-666-3 .
* ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-01-11.
* ^ The size of the central hole in a CD was proposed by a Philips
engineer to be exactly the size of a dubbeltje. Beijen, Frank (6 March
Wikimedia Commons has media related to GULDEN .
* The Marteau Early 18th century Currency Converter with tools to convert early 18th