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Durban
Durban
(Zulu: eThekwini, from itheku meaning "bay/lagoon") is the largest city in the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal
KwaZulu-Natal
and the third most populous in South Africa
South Africa
after Johannesburg and Cape Town. It is also the second most important manufacturing hub in South Africa after Johannesburg. Located on the east coast of South Africa, Durban is famous for being the busiest port in the country. It is also seen as one of the major centres of tourism because of the city's warm subtropical climate and extensive beaches. Durban
Durban
forms part of the eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality, which includes neighboring towns and has a population of about 3.44 million,[6] making the combined municipality one of the biggest cities on the Indian Ocean coast of the African continent. It has the highest number of dollar millionaires added per year of any South African city with the number rising 200 per cent between 2000 and 2014.[7] In May 2015, Durban
Durban
was officially recognised as one of the New7Wonders Cities
New7Wonders Cities
together with Vigan, Doha, La Paz, Havana, Beirut, and Kuala Lumpur.[8]

Contents

1 History

1.1 First European settlers 1.2 Republic of Natalia

1.2.1 Durban's historic regalia

2 Government and politics 3 Geography

3.1 Climate

4 Demographics 5 Crime 6 Informal sector 7 Civil society 8 Nature and wildlife 9 Stadia and sports facilities 10 Communications and media 11 Sports teams and stadiums 12 Transport

12.1 Air 12.2 Sea 12.3 Rail 12.4 Roads 12.5 Buses 12.6 Taxis 12.7 Rickshaws

13 Educational institutions

13.1 Private schools 13.2 Public schools 13.3 Tertiary institutions

14 International relations

14.1 Twin towns and sister cities

15 See also 16 References 17 Bibliography 18 External links

History[edit] See also: Timeline of Durban Archaeological evidence from the Drakensberg
Drakensberg
mountains suggests that the Durban
Durban
area has been inhabited by communities of hunter-gatherers since 100,000 BC. These people lived throughout the area of present-day KwaZulu-Natal
KwaZulu-Natal
until the expansion of Bantu farmers and pastoralists from the north saw their gradual displacement, incorporation or extermination. Little is known of the history of the first residents, as there is no written history of the area until it was sighted by Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama, who sailed parallel to the KwaZulu-Natal
KwaZulu-Natal
coast at Christmastide in 1497 while searching for a route from Europe to India. He named the area "Natal", or Christmas in Portuguese.[9] First European settlers[edit] In 1822 Lieutenant James King Capt. of the ship Salisbury together with Lt. Francis George Farewell, both ex- Royal Navy
Royal Navy
officers from the Napoleonic Wars, were engaged in trade between the Cape and Delagoa Bay. On a return trip to the Cape in 1823 they were caught in a very bad storm and decided to risk the Bar and anchor in the Bay of Natal. The crossing went off well and they found safe anchor from the storm. Lt. King decided to map the Bay and named the "Salisbury and Farewell Islands". In 1824 Lt. Farewell together with a trading company called J.R.Thompson & Co. decided to open trade relations with Shaka
Shaka
the Zulu King and establish a trading station at the Bay. Henry Francis Fynn, another trader at Delagoa Bay was also involved in this venture. Fynn left Delagoa Bay and sailed for The Bay of Natal on the brig Julia while Farewell followed six weeks later on the Antelope. Between them they had 26 possible settlers, but only 18 stayed. On a visit to King Shaka, Henry Francis Fynn was able to befriend the King by helping him recover from a stab wound suffered as a result of an assassination attempt by one of his half-brothers. As a token of Shaka’s gratitude, he granted Fynn a “25-mile strip of coast a hundred miles in depth.” On 7 August 1824 they concluded negotiations with King Shaka
Shaka
for a cession of land, including the Bay of Natal and land extending ten miles south of the Bay, twenty-five miles north of the Bay and one hundred miles inland. Farewell took possession of this grant and raised the Union Jack
Union Jack
with a Royal Salute, which consisted of 4 cannon shots and twenty musket shots. Of the original 18 would be settlers, only 6 remained, and they can be regarded as the founding members of Port
Port
Natal as a British colony. These 6 were joined by Lt. James Saunders King and Nathaniel Isaacs in 1825. The modern city of Durban
Durban
thus dates from 1824 when the settlement was established on the northern shores of the bay near today's Farewell Square."[10] During a meeting of 35 European residents in Fynn's territory on 23 June 1835, it was decided to build a capital town and name it "d'Urban" after Sir Benjamin d'Urban, then governor of the Cape Colony.[11] Republic of Natalia[edit] Main article: Battle of Congella The Voortrekkers
Voortrekkers
established the Republic of Natalia in 1839, with its capital at Pietermaritzburg. Tension between the Voortrekkers
Voortrekkers
and the Zulus prompted the governor of the Cape Colony to dispatch a force under Captain Charlton Smith to establish British rule in Natal, for fear of losing British control in Port
Port
Natal. The force arrived on 4 May 1842 and built a fortification that was later to be The Old Fort. On the night of 23/24 May 1842 the British attacked the Voortrekker camp at Congella. The attack failed, and the British had to withdraw to their camp which was put under siege. A local trader Dick King
Dick King
and his servant Ndongeni were able to escape the blockade and rode to Grahamstown, a distance of 600 km (372.82 mi) in fourteen days to raise reinforcements. The reinforcements arrived in Durban
Durban
20 days later; the Voortrekkers retreated, and the siege was lifted.[12] Fierce conflict with the Zulu population led to the evacuation of Durban, and eventually the Afrikaners accepted British annexation in 1844 under military pressure. Durban's historic regalia[edit] When the Borough of Durban
Durban
was proclaimed in 1854, the council had to procure a seal for official documents. The seal was produced in 1855 and was replaced in 1882. The new seal contained a coat of arms without helmet or mantling that combined the coats of arms of Sir Benjamin D’Urban and Sir Benjamin Pine. An application was made to register the coat of arms with the College of Arms
College of Arms
in 1906, but this application was rejected on grounds that the design implied that D’Urban and Pine were husband and wife. Nevertheless, the coat of arms appeared on the council’s stationery from about 1912. The following year, a helmet and mantling was added to the council’s stationery and to the new city seal that was made in 1936. The motto reads "Debile principium melior fortuna sequitur"—"Better fortune follows a humble beginning". The blazon of the arms registered by the South African Bureau of Heraldry and granted to Durban
Durban
on 9 February 1979. The coat of arms fell into disuse with the re-organisation of the South African local government structure in 2000. The seal ceased to be used in 1995.[13][14]

Government and politics[edit] Further information: eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality and Mayors of Durban With the end of apartheid, Durban
Durban
was subject to restructuring of local government. The eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality was formed in 1994 after South Africa's first multiracial elections, with its first mayor being Sipho Ngwenya. The mayor is elected for a five-year term; however Sipho Ngwenya only served two years. In 1996, the city became part of the Durban
Durban
UniCity in July 1996 as part of transitional arrangements and to eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality in 1999, with the adoption of South Africa's new municipal governance system. In July 1996, Obed Mlaba
Obed Mlaba
was appointed mayor of Durban
Durban
UniCity; in 1999 he was elected to mayor of the eThekwini municipality and re-elected in 2006. Following the May 2011 local elections, James Nxumalo, the former Speaker of the Council, was elected as the new mayor. On 23 August 2016 Zandile Gumede was elected as the new mayor [15] The name of the Durban
Durban
municipal government, prior to the post-apartheid reorganisations of municipalities, was the Durban Corporation or City of Durban.[16] Geography[edit] Durban
Durban
is located on the East coast of South Africa, looking out upon the Indian Ocean. The city lies at the mouth of the Umgeni river, which demarcates parts of Durban's north city limit, while other sections of the river flow through the city itself. Durban
Durban
has a natural harbour, Durban
Durban
Harbour, which is the busiest port in South Africa and is the 4th-busiest in the Southern hemisphere. Climate[edit] Durban
Durban
has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa), with hot and humid summers and pleasantly warm and dry winters, which are snow- and frost-free. Durban
Durban
has an annual rainfall of 1,009 millimetres (39.7 in). The average temperature in summer ranges around 24 °C (75 °F), while in winter the average temperature is 17 °C (63 °F).

Climate data for Durban
Durban
(1961–1990)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 36.2 (97.2) 33.9 (93) 34.8 (94.6) 36.0 (96.8) 33.8 (92.8) 35.7 (96.3) 33.8 (92.8) 35.9 (96.6) 36.9 (98.4) 40.0 (104) 33.5 (92.3) 35.9 (96.6) 40.0 (104)

Mean maximum °C (°F) 32.6 (90.7) 31.7 (89.1) 32.0 (89.6) 30.4 (86.7) 30.2 (86.4) 28.8 (83.8) 28.9 (84) 29.7 (85.5) 30.3 (86.5) 30.5 (86.9) 30.6 (87.1) 32.0 (89.6) 34.5 (94.1)

Average high °C (°F) 27.8 (82) 28.0 (82.4) 27.7 (81.9) 26.1 (79) 24.5 (76.1) 23.0 (73.4) 22.6 (72.7) 22.8 (73) 23.3 (73.9) 24.0 (75.2) 25.2 (77.4) 26.9 (80.4) 25.2 (77.4)

Daily mean °C (°F) 24.1 (75.4) 24.3 (75.7) 23.7 (74.7) 21.6 (70.9) 19.1 (66.4) 16.6 (61.9) 16.5 (61.7) 17.7 (63.9) 19.2 (66.6) 20.1 (68.2) 21.4 (70.5) 23.1 (73.6) 20.6 (69.1)

Average low °C (°F) 21.1 (70) 21.1 (70) 20.3 (68.5) 17.4 (63.3) 13.8 (56.8) 10.6 (51.1) 10.5 (50.9) 12.5 (54.5) 15.3 (59.5) 16.8 (62.2) 18.3 (64.9) 20.0 (68) 16.5 (61.7)

Mean minimum °C (°F) 17.3 (63.1) 17.1 (62.8) 16.1 (61) 12.1 (53.8) 8.7 (47.7) 5.9 (42.6) 5.8 (42.4) 7.3 (45.1) 10.0 (50) 11.9 (53.4) 13.8 (56.8) 15.9 (60.6) 5.3 (41.5)

Record low °C (°F) 14.0 (57.2) 13.3 (55.9) 11.6 (52.9) 8.6 (47.5) 4.9 (40.8) 3.5 (38.3) 2.6 (36.7) 2.6 (36.7) 4.5 (40.1) 8.3 (46.9) 10.3 (50.5) 11.8 (53.2) 2.6 (36.7)

Average rainfall mm (inches) 134 (5.28) 113 (4.45) 120 (4.72) 73 (2.87) 59 (2.32) 38 (1.5) 39 (1.54) 62 (2.44) 73 (2.87) 98 (3.86) 108 (4.25) 102 (4.02) 1,019 (40.12)

Average rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm) 15.2 12.9 12.6 9.2 6.8 4.5 4.9 7.1 11.0 15.1 16.0 15.0 130.3

Average relative humidity (%) 80 80 80 78 76 72 72 75 77 78 79 79 77

Mean monthly sunshine hours 184.0 178.8 201.6 206.4 223.6 224.9 230.4 217.0 173.3 169.4 166.1 189.9 2,365.4

Source #1: World Meteorological Organization[17]

Source #2: NOAA (sun, extremes and humidity)[18]

Demographics[edit]

Geographical distribution of home languages in eThekwini metropole

  Afrikaans   English

  Xhosa   Zulu

  No language dominant

Durban
Durban
is ethnically diverse, with a cultural richness of mixed beliefs and traditions. Zulus form the largest single ethnic group. It has a large number of people of British descent and has the most Indians of any city outside India. The influence of Indians in Durban has been significant, bringing with them a variety of cuisine, culture and religion.[19] In the years following the end of Apartheid
Apartheid
there was a population boom as Africans were allowed to move into the city. The population grew by 2.34% between 1996 and 2001. This led to shanty towns forming around the city which were often demolished. Between 2001 and 2011 the population growth slowed down to 1.08% per year and shanty towns have become less common as the government builds low income housing.[20] Durban
Durban
has seen substantial urban sprawl and circa 1930 the entire settlement only consisted of central Durban, the Berea and the Bluff. The white population has not increased much since that time but many have left this area and moved to more distant suburbs such as Umhlanga which has become a major centre for companies.[21] The population of the city of Durban
Durban
and central suburbs such as Durban
Durban
North, Durban
Durban
South and the Berea increased 10.9% between 2001 and 2011 from 536,644 to 595,061.[22][23] The number of Black Africans increased while the number of people in all the other racial groups decreased. Black Africans increased from 34.9% to 51.1%. Indian or Asians decreased from 27.3% to 24.0%. Whites decreased from 25.5% to 15.3%. Coloureds
Coloureds
decreased from 10.26% to 8.59%. A new racial group, Other, was included in the 2011 census at 0.93%. The city’s demographics indicate that 68% of the population are of working age, and 38% of the people in Durban
Durban
are under the age of 19 years.[24] Crime[edit] There were 1,237 homicides in the Durban
Durban
metropolitan area (Ethekwini) in 2015. The murder rate in 2015 was 35.9 per 100,000 people (for comparison, Detroit had a murder rate of 43.9 per 100,000 people in 2015).[25] The murder rate for the whole of South Africa
South Africa
was 33 per 100,000.[26][27] Today, Durban
Durban
is more dangerous than Johannesburg but much safer than Cape Town which had a murder rate of 65.53 per 100,000 in 2014. This is a radical shift from previous decades when Johannesburg was the most dangerous of these cities and Cape Town the safest.[28] Criminals usually avoid targeting tourists because they know that the police response will be greater.[29] Heists or theft is a common crime in the city.[30] There was a period of intense violence in the 1990s and the Durban area recorded a murder rate of 83 per 100,000 in 1999.[31] The murder rate dropped rapidly in the 2000s and has been slowly increasing in the 2010s. Durban
Durban
is one of the main drug trafficking routes for drugs exiting and entering Sub-Saharan Africa. The drug trade has increased significantly over the past 20 years.[32] Informal sector[edit] Durban
Durban
has a number of informal and semi-formal street vendors. The Warwick Junction Precinct is home to a number of street markets, with vendors selling goods from traditional medicince, to clothing and spices.[33] The city's treatment of shack dwellers has been strongly criticised by a report from the United Nations
United Nations
linked Centre on Housing Rights and Evictions[34] and there has also been strong criticism of the city's treatment of street traders,[35][36] street children[37] and sex workers.[38] Durban
Durban
is known throughout the world for its strain of cannabis called ' Durban
Durban
Poison'. It is one of the most common strains sold by car guards and street dealers throughout eThekweni.[39] Civil society[edit] There are a number of prominent civil society organisations based in Durban. These include: Abahlali baseMjondolo
Abahlali baseMjondolo
(shackdwellers') movement,[40] the Diakonia Council of Churches, the Right2Know Campaign, the South Durban
Durban
Community Environmental Alliance and the South African Unemployed Peoples' Movement.[41][42][43][44][45][46] The Durban Art Gallery was founded in 1892. Nature and wildlife[edit] Main article: List of nature reserves in eThekwini

Burman Bush The Durban Botanic Gardens
Durban Botanic Gardens
offer great scenery and occasional musical events near the lake. Hawaan Forest New Germany
Germany
Nature Reserve[47] Pigeon Valley
Pigeon Valley
Nature reserve Umgeni River Bird Park Umhlanga Lagoon Nature Reserve

Stadia and sports facilities[edit]

Moses Mabhida Stadium. Activities include a Skycar ride or Adventure Walk to the top of the arch with 360 degree views over Durban; Guinness world record Bungee swing; Segway gliding tours of the stadium; Cafes and Restaurants; Monthly I Heart Durban
Durban
market; Kingsmead Cricket Ground
Kingsmead Cricket Ground
is a major test match and one-day cricket venue. Kings Park Stadium
Kings Park Stadium
is host to the internationally renowned Sharks Rugby Team. Greyville Racecourse (home of the Durban
Durban
July Handicap) and Durban Country Club and golf course. Durban Ice Arena Activities include leisure ice skating, birthday parties, school excursions, sporting events, teambuilding activities, corporate functions and group bookings.

Communications and media[edit]

View of Durban
Durban
harbor

Two major English-language daily newspapers are published in Durban, both part of the Independent Newspapers, the national group owned by Irish media magnate Tony O'Reilly. These are the morning editions of The Mercury and the afternoon Daily News. Like most news media in South Africa, they have seen declining circulations in recent years. Major Zulu language
Zulu language
papers comprise Isolezwe ( Independent Newspapers), UmAfrika and Ilanga, the latter being seen to be politically aligned to the IFP. Independent Newspapers also publish Post, a newspaper aimed largely at the Indian community. A national Sunday paper, the Sunday Tribune is also published by Independent Newspapers as is the Independent on Saturday. A major city initiative is the eZasegagasini Metro Gazette.[48] It is the official newspaper of the eThekwini Municipality, through which ratepayers and residents are kept informed about local projects, programmes and activities. It is also a forum for readers' views. Published fortnightly, the newspaper hits the streets on Friday mornings, with 400 000 copies distributed in English and Zulu. The publication is an in-house product of the municipality's Communications Department. The national broadcaster, the SABC, has regional offices in Durban
Durban
and operates two major stations there. The Zulu language
Zulu language
Ukhozi FM has a huge national listenership of over 6.67 million, which makes it the second largest radio station in the world. The SABC also operates Radio Lotus, which is aimed at South Africans of Indian origin. The other SABC national stations have smaller regional offices in Durban, as does TV for news links and sports broadcasts. A major English language radio station, East Coast Radio,[49] operates out of Durban and is owned by SA media giant Kagiso Media. There are a number of smaller stations which are independent, having been granted licences by ICASA, the national agency charged with the issue of broadcast licences. Sports teams and stadiums[edit]

Sahara Stadium Kingsmead, Durban
Durban
in 2009

Moses Mabhida stadium in Durban

Durban
Durban
was initially successful in its bid to host the 2022 Commonwealth Games,[50] but needed to withdraw in March 2017 from the role of hosts, citing financial constraints.[51] Birmingham, England will replace Durban
Durban
as the host city. Durban
Durban
is home to the Cell C Sharks, who compete in the domestic Currie Cup
Currie Cup
competition as well as in the international Super Rugby competition. The Sharks' home ground is the 56,000 capacity Kings Park Stadium, sometimes referred to as the Shark Tank. The city is home to two clubs in the Premier Soccer League
Premier Soccer League
— AmaZulu, and Golden Arrows. AmaZulu play most of their home games at the Moses Mabhida Stadium. Golden Arrows
Golden Arrows
play most of their home games at the King Zwelithini Stadium in the suburb of Umlazi, but sometimes play some of their matches at Moses Mabhida Stadium
Moses Mabhida Stadium
or Chatsworth Stadium.It is also a home to some teams tha are playing in the NFD such as Royal Eagles FC and Royal Kings Durban
Durban
is host to the KwaZulu-Natal
KwaZulu-Natal
cricket team, who play as the Dolphins when competing in the Sunfoil Series. Shaun Pollock, Jonty Rhodes, Lance Klusener, Barry Richards, Andrew Hudson, Hashim Amla, Vince van der Bijl, Kevin Pietersen, Dale Benkenstein
Dale Benkenstein
and David Miller are all players or past players of the Natal cricket team. International cricketers representing them include Malcolm Marshall, Dwayne Bravo and Graham Onions. Cricket in Durban
Durban
is played at Kingsmead cricket ground. Durban
Durban
hosted matches in the 2003 ICC Cricket World Cup. In 2007 the city hosted nine matches, including a semi-final, as part of the inaugural ICC World Twenty20. The 2009 IPL
2009 IPL
season was played in South Africa, and Durban
Durban
was selected as a venue. 2010 saw the city host six matches, including a semi-final, in the 2010 Champions League Twenty20. Durban
Durban
was one of the host cities of the 2010 FIFA World Cup, and A1GP held a race on a street circuit in Durban
Durban
from 2006–2008. Durban hosted the 123rd IOC Session in July 2011. The city is home to Greyville Racecourse, a major Thoroughbred horse racing venue which annually hosts a number of prestigious races including the country's premier event, the July Handicap, and the premier staying event in South Africa, the Gold Cup. Clairwood racecouse, south of the city, was a popular racing venue for many years, but was sold by the KZN racing authority in 2012.[52][53] Transport[edit] Air[edit]

King Shaka
Shaka
International Airport

Main article: List of airports in the Durban
Durban
area King Shaka
Shaka
International Airport services both domestic and international flights, with regularly scheduled services to Dubai, Istanbul, Doha, Addis Ababa, Mauritius, Lusaka, Windhoek, Gaborone
Gaborone
and Maputo, as well as eight domestic destinations. The airport's position forms part of the Golden Triangle between Johannesburg and Cape Town, which is important for convenient travel and trade between these three major South African cities. The airport opened in May 2010. King Shaka International Airport handled 5.22 million passengers in 2016/2017, up 5.9 percent from 2015/2016. King Shaka
Shaka
International was constructed at La Mercy, about 36 kilometres (22 mi) north of central Durban. All operations at Durban International Airport have been transferred to King Shaka
Shaka
International as of 1 May 2010, with plans for flights to Singapore, London, Mumbai, Kigali, Luanda, Lilongwe
Lilongwe
and Nairobi. Sea[edit]

Durban
Durban
harbour

Durban
Durban
has a long tradition as a port city. The Port
Port
of Durban, formerly known as the Port
Port
of Natal, is one of the few natural harbours between Port Elizabeth
Port Elizabeth
and Maputo, and is also located at the beginning of a particular weather phenomenon which can cause extremely violent seas. These two features made Durban
Durban
an extremely busy port of call for ship repairs when the port was opened in the 1840s. Durban
Durban
is now the busiest port in South Africa, as well as the third busiest container port in the Southern Hemisphere. The modern Port of Durban
Port of Durban
grew around trade from Johannesburg, as the industrial and mining capital of South Africa
South Africa
is not located on any navigable body of water. Thus, products being shipped from Johannesburg outside of South Africa
South Africa
must be loaded onto trucks or railways and transported to Durban. The Port
Port
of Maputo
Maputo
was unavailable for use until the early 1990s due to civil war and an embargo against South African products. There is now an intense rivalry between Durban and Maputo
Maputo
for shipping business. Durban
Durban
has a very popular cruise industry. MSC Cruises
MSC Cruises
bases the MSC Sinfonia in Durban
Durban
from November to April every year. From the 2018/2019 Southern Africa cruise season MSC Cruises
MSC Cruises
will be basing the much larger and newer MSC Musica
MSC Musica
in Durban.[54] Durban
Durban
is the most popular cruise hub in Southern Africa. Cruise destinations from Durban on the MSC Sinfonia
MSC Sinfonia
include Mozambique, Mauritius, Réunion, Madagascar
Madagascar
and other domestic destinations such as Port Elizabeth
Port Elizabeth
and Cape Town. Many other ships cruise through Durban
Durban
every year, including some of the worlds biggest, such as the RMS Queen Mary 2, the biggest ocean liner in the world. Durban
Durban
will be building a brand new R200 million cruise terminal that will be operational in October 2019, the Durban
Durban
Cruise Terminal. The tender was awarded to KwaZulu Cruise Terminal (Pty) Ltd which is 70% owned by MSC Cruises
MSC Cruises
SA and 30% by Africa Armada Consortium. The new cruise terminal will be able to accommodate two cruise ships at any given time.[55] Naval Base Durban
Naval Base Durban
on Salisbury Island (now joined to the mainland and part of the Port
Port
of Durban), was established as a naval base during the Second World War. It was downgraded in 2002 to a naval station. In 2012 a decision was made to renovate and expand the facilities back up to a full naval base to accommodate the South African Navy's offshore patrol flotilla.[56] In December 2015 it was redesignated Naval Base Durban.[57] Rail[edit] Durban
Durban
featured the first operating steam railway in South Africa
South Africa
when the Natal Railway Company
Natal Railway Company
started operating a line between the Point and the city of Durban
Durban
in 1860.[58] Durban
Durban
is well-served by railways due to its role as the largest trans-shipment point for goods from the interior of South Africa. Shosholoza Meyl, the passenger rail service of Spoornet, operates two long-distance passenger rail services from Durban: a daily service to and from Johannesburg via Pietermaritzburg
Pietermaritzburg
and Newcastle, and a weekly service to and from Cape Town via Kimberley and Bloemfontein. These trains terminate at Durban
Durban
railway station. Metrorail operates a commuter rail service in Durban
Durban
and the surrounding area. The Metrorail network runs from Durban
Durban
Station outwards as far as Stanger
Stanger
on the north coast, Kelso on the south coast, and Cato Ridge
Cato Ridge
inland. A high-speed rail link has been proposed, between Johannesburg and Durban.[59] Roads[edit]

N3 freeway on its approach to Durban's CBD, with N2–N3 stack interchange in the foreground

The city's main position as a port of entry onto the southern African continent has led to the development of national roads around it. The N3 Western Freeway, which links Durban
Durban
with the economic hinterland of Gauteng, heads west out of the city. The N2 Outer Ring Road links Durban
Durban
with the Eastern Cape
Eastern Cape
to the south, and Mpumalanga
Mpumalanga
in the north. The Western Freeway is particularly important because freight is shipped by truck to and from the Witwatersrand
Witwatersrand
for transfer to the port. The N3 Western Freeway starts in the central business district and heads west under Tollgate Bridge and through the suburbs of Sherwood and Mayville. The EB Cloete Interchange (which is informally nicknamed the Spaghetti Junction) lies to the east of Westville, allowing for transfer of traffic between the N2 Outer Ring Road and the Western Freeway. The N2 Outer Ring Road cuts through the city from the north coast to the south coast. It provides a vital link to the coastal towns (such as Scottburgh
Scottburgh
and Stanger) that rely on Durban. Durban
Durban
also has a system of freeway and dual arterial metropolitan routes, which connect the sprawling suburbs that lie to the north, west and south of the city. The M4 exists in two segments. The northern segment, named the Ruth First Highway, starts as an alternative highway at Ballito
Ballito
where it separates from the N2. It passes through the northern suburbs of Umhlanga and La Lucia
La Lucia
where it becomes a dual carriageway and ends at the northern edge of the CBD. The southern segment of the M4, the Albert Lutuli
Albert Lutuli
[60] Highway, starts at the southern edge of the CBD, connecting through to the old, decommissioned Durban
Durban
International Airport, where it once again reconnects with the N2 Outer Ring Road. The M7 connects the southern industrial basin with the N3 and Pinetown via Queensburgh
Queensburgh
via the N2. The M19 connects the northern suburbs with Pinetown
Pinetown
via Westville. The M13 is an untolled alternative to the N3 Western Freeway (which is tolled at Mariannhill). It also feeds traffic through Gillitts, Kloof, and Westville. In the Westville area it is called the Jan Smuts Highway, while in the Kloof
Kloof
area it is named the Arthur Hopewell Highway. A number of streets in Durban
Durban
were renamed in the late 2000s to the names of figures related to the anti-apartheid struggle, persons related to liberation movements around the world (including Che Guevara, Kenneth Kaunda
Kenneth Kaunda
and SWAPO), and others associated with the governing African National Congress.[61] A few street names were changed in the first round of renaming, followed by a larger second round.[62] The renamings provoked incidents of vandalism,[63] as well as protests from opposition parties[64] and members of the public.[65] Buses[edit] Several companies run long-distance bus services from Durban
Durban
to the other cities in South Africa. Buses have a long history in Durban. Most of them have been run by Indian owners since the early 1930s. Privately owned buses which are not subsidised by the government also service the communities. Buses operate in all areas of the eThekwini Municipality. Since 2003 buses have been violently taken out of the routes and bus ranks by taxi operators.[66] Durban
Durban
was previously served by the Durban
Durban
trolleybus system, which first ran in 1935.[67] Taxis[edit] Durban
Durban
has two kinds of taxis: metered taxis and minibus taxis. Unlike in many cities, metered taxis are not allowed to drive around the city to solicit fares and instead must be called and ordered to a specific location. A number of companies service the Durban
Durban
and surrounding regions. These taxis can also be called upon for airport transfers, point to point pickups and shuttles. Mini bus taxis are the standard form of transport for the majority of the population who cannot afford private cars.[68][69][70] With the high demand for transport by the working class of South Africa, minibus taxis are often filled over their legal passenger allowance, making for high casualty rates when they are involved in accidents. Minibuses are generally owned and operated in fleets, and inter-operator violence flares up from time to time, especially as turf wars over lucrative taxi routes occur.[71] Rickshaws[edit] Durban
Durban
is known for its iconic Zulu rickshaw pullers navigating throughout the city. These colourful characters are famous for their giant, vibrant hats and costumes. Although they have been a mode of transportation since the early 1900s, they have been displaced by other forms of motorised transport, and the 25 or so remaining rickshaws mostly cater to tourists.[72] Educational institutions[edit] Private schools[edit]

Al Falaah College Clifton School Crawford College, La Lucia Crawford College, North Coast Durban
Durban
Girls' College Eden College Durban Highbury Preparatory School Hillcrest Christian Academy Holy Family College Inanda Seminary School Kearsney College Maris Stella School Orient Islamic School Roseway Waldorf School St. Henry's Marist Brothers' College St. Mary's Diocesan School for Girls, Kloof Thomas More College Verulam Islamic School

Public schools[edit]

Bechet High School Brettonwood High School Durban
Durban
Academy High School Durban Girls' High School (DGHS) Durban High School
Durban High School
(DHS) Durban North
Durban North
College George Campbell School of Technology Glenwood High School Hillcrest High School Isipingo Secondary School[73] Kharwastan Secondary School Kingsway High School Kloof
Kloof
High School Kloof
Kloof
Junior Primary School Kloof
Kloof
Pre-Primary School Kloof
Kloof
Senior Primary School Northlands Girls' High School Northwood School Ogwini Comprehensive High School Pinetown
Pinetown
Boys' High School Pinetown
Pinetown
Girls' High School Port
Port
Natal High School Queensburgh
Queensburgh
Girls' High School Savannah Park Secondary School Virginia Preparatory School[74] Westville Boys' High School Westville Girls' High School

Tertiary institutions[edit]

Memorial Tower Building, Howard College Campus, University of KwaZulu-Natal

Durban
Durban
University of Technology Mangosuthu University of Technology Regent Business School University of KwaZulu-Natal University of South Africa Varsity College

International relations[edit] Twin towns and sister cities[edit] Main article: List of twin towns and sister cities in South Africa Durban
Durban
is twinned with:[75]

Alexandria, Egypt Antwerp, Flanders, Belgium Bremen, Germany[76] Bulawayo, Zimbabwe Chicago, Illinois, US Gwangju, South Korea Eilat, Israel[77][78] Guangzhou, China[79] Le Port, Réunion[80][81] Kaohsiung, Taiwan Leeds, UK Maracaibo, Venezuela Maputo, Mozambique Nantes, France New Orleans, Louisiana, US Oran, Algeria Rotterdam, Netherlands

See also[edit]

South Africa
South Africa
portal

Art Deco in Durban Black December Durban Industry Climate Change Partnership Project
Durban Industry Climate Change Partnership Project
(DICCPP) Durban
Durban
International Film Festival Durban
Durban
Youth Council Emmanuel Cathedral World Conference against Racism 2001 – held in Durban

References[edit]

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South Africa
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Durban
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Vigan
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Durban
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Durban
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Durban
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Durban
Archived 26 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine., Centre on Housing Rights & Evictions, Geneva, 2008 ^ From best practice to Pariah: the case of Durban, South Africa
South Africa
by Pat Horn, Street Net Archived 6 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Criminalising the Livelihoods of the Poor: The impact of formalising informal trading on female and migrant traders in Durban
Durban
by Blessing Karumbidza, Socio-Economic Rights Institute of South Africa
South Africa
(February 2011) ^ Life in 'Tin Can Town' for the South Africans evicted ahead of World Cup, David Smith, The Guardian, 1 April 2010 ^ The dirty shame of Durban's 'clean-up' campaign of city streets, The Daily Maverick, 24 December 2013 ^ "Cannabis Encyclopedia strain review: Durban Poison
Durban Poison
Marijuana and Cannabis News". Toke of the Town. 2013-11-06. Retrieved 2015-12-10.  ^ http://www.monthlyreview.org/0206pithouse.htm ^ The opening remarks of S'bu Zikode, President of the Abahlali baseMjondolo movement of South Africa, at the Center for Place, Culture and Politics at the CUNY Graduate Center (NYC), 16 November 2010 ^ ANC Intimidates Witness X, More Intimidation and More Killing in Kennedy Road, 23 December 2010 ^ Churches want justice ^ Independent Newspapers Online. "200 march against Information Bill". Independent Online.  ^ Churches Ask Parties to Preach Tolerance ^ No mercy, no grants, says Mkhize ^ "New Germany
Germany
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Durban
hosts 2022 Commonwealth Games". BBC
BBC
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Commonwealth Games
2022: Durban
Durban
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Durban
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Durban
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Bremen
– Unit 32 Twinning / International Relations]. Das Rathaus Bremen
Bremen
Senatskanzlei [Bremen City Hall – Senate Chancellery] (in German). Archived from the original on 2011-07-18. Retrieved 2013-08-09.  ^ "Sister Cities". Union of Local Authorities in Israel
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Guangzhou
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Port
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Durban
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Port
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Bibliography[edit] See also: Bibliography of the history of Durban External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Durban.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Durban.

eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality Durban
Durban
Tourism Bureau Snake City, National Geographic Wild

v t e

Communities of eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality, KwaZulu-Natal

Seat: Durban

Cities and towns

Adams Mission Amanzimtoti Assagay Buffelsdraai Cato Ridge Chatsworth Chesterville Clermont Doonside Drummond Durban EkuPhakameni Hillcrest Illovo Illovo Beach Inanda Inchanga Karridene Kingsburgh KwaMashu La Mercy Lamontville Mariannhill Mount Edgecombe Mount Moreland Mpumalanga New Germany Ntuzuma Phoenix Pinetown Tongaat Umbogintwini Umbumbulu Umdloti Umgababa Umhlanga Umkomaas Verulam Warner Beach Winklespruit

Suburbs of Durban

Central

Bellaire Berea The Bluff Cato Manor Essenwood Glenwood Kenville Montclair Morningside Mount Vernon North Beach Overport Palmiet Reservoir Hills Ridgeview Sherwood South Beach Stamford Hill Sydenham Umbilo uMkumbaan Wiggins Windermere Woodhaven Woodlands Yellowwood Park

Northern

Avoca Broadway Durban
Durban
North KwaMashu La Lucia Mount Edgecombe Phoenix Sea Cow Lake Umgeni Park

Western

Botha's Hill Cowies Hill Gillitts Hillcrest Kloof New Germany Queensburgh Shallcross Westville Winston Park

Southern

Amanzimtoti Athlone Park Isipingo Lotus Park Umlazi

v t e

Province of KwaZulu-Natal

Capital Pietermaritzburg Largest city Durban Population 10,819,130 (2011) Area 94,361 km2

Government

Premier Legislature High Court Municipalities

History

Zulu Kingdom Natalia Republic Colony of Natal Natal Province KwaZulu

Cities and major towns

Durban Pietermaritzburg Pinetown Empangeni Ladysmith Richards Bay Newcastle Queensburgh Kokstad Vryheid

v t e

Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
host cities

1930: Hamilton 1934: London 1938: Sydney 1950: Auckland 1954: Vancouver

1958: Cardiff 1962: Perth 1966: Kingston 1970: Edinburgh 1974: Christchurch

1978: Edmonton 1982: Brisbane 1986: Edinburgh 1990: Auckland 1994: Victoria

1998: Kuala Lumpur 2002: Manchester 2006: Melbourne 2010: Delhi 2014: Glasgow

2018: Gold Coast 2022: Birmingham 2026: TBA

Authority control

.