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Dithmarschen
Dithmarschen
(German pronunciation: [ˈdɪtmaʁʃən], Low Saxon pronunciation: [ˈdɪtmaːʃn̩], archaic English: Ditmarsh, Danish: Ditmarsken, Medieval Latin: Tedmarsgo) is a district in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. It is bounded by (from the north and clockwise) the districts of Nordfriesland, Schleswig-Flensburg, Rendsburg-Eckernförde, and Steinburg, by the state of Lower Saxony (district of Stade, from which it is separated by the Elbe
Elbe
river), and by the North Sea. From the 15th century up to 1559 Dithmarschen
Dithmarschen
was an independent peasants' republic within the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
and a member of the Hanseatic League.

Contents

1 Geography

1.1 Flora and fauna

2 History 3 Culture

3.1 Traditions 3.2 Language 3.3 Architecture

4 Education 5 Economy

5.1 Energy

6 Tourism 7 Coat of arms 8 Towns and municipalities 9 Twinning 10 Notable residents 11 References 12 Notes 13 External links

Geography[edit]

Marshland in northern Dithmarschen

Wadden sea at Büsum

The district is located on the North Sea. It is embraced by the Elbe estuary to the south and the Eider
Eider
estuary to the north. Today it forms a kind of artificial island, surrounded by the Eider
Eider
river in the north and the Kiel Canal
Kiel Canal
in both the east and southeast. It is a rather flat countryside that was once full of fens and swamps. To the north it borders on Nordfriesland
Nordfriesland
and Schleswig-Flensburg, to the east on Rendsburg-Eckernförde, and in the southeast on Steinburg. Its landward boundaries have remained basically the same since the times of Charlemagne. Land reclamation, however, has almost doubled the size of Dithmarschen
Dithmarschen
as land has been wrested from the sea. Important towns are Hamburg
Hamburg
and Itzehoe
Itzehoe
to the south, Husum
Husum
to the north, and Kiel
Kiel
and Rendsburg
Rendsburg
to the east. The main roads and rail lines in Schleswig-Holstein
Schleswig-Holstein
follow a north-south direction, making Hamburg
Hamburg
its most accessible city. The district has a maximum north–south length of 54 kilometers and an east–west length of 41 kilometers. The highest point, near Schrum in the geestland, is 78 meters above sea level and the lowest point, near Burg, is 0.5 meters below sea level. Dithmarschen's landscape owes its character to the North Sea. From west to east Dithmarschen
Dithmarschen
consists of the Wadden Sea, marsh, bog, and the geestland. The North Sea
North Sea
had a higher sea level 6,500 years ago than today and the coastline then ran along the geestland. About 4,500 years ago, geestland structures were connected by sand and gravel depositions that formed spits. Bogs, lakes, and swamps emerged as the area behind the spits no longer flooded. After the first plants (glasswort) took root, the land transformed first to salt marshes and finally to marshes. These marshes rank among the most fertile of Germany's soils. Vegetable farming in Dithmarschen
Dithmarschen
produces the highest yields in Schleswig-Holstein. Since about the 8th century, the people of Dithmarschen
Dithmarschen
have been living on warfts for protection from the sea. In the 12th century, they began building dikes to protect their pastures and fields. Since about the 15th century, they have been reclaiming land from the sea. Flora and fauna[edit]

Wind influences tree growth

While the Geest
Geest
has some woods, trees are found in marshlands only in form of wind protection around houses or villages. Traditional are the knicks, tree rows with strong underwood to protect agricultural land from the wind. In Dithmarschen
Dithmarschen
lay several bogs. A special position is taken with the "Weißes Moor" (White bog), the only bog still existing in quite natural shape in the Schleswig-Holstein
Schleswig-Holstein
marsh land.

Common seal
Common seal
on a sand bank

Barnacle goose
Barnacle goose
in flight

Part of the Schleswig-Holstein
Schleswig-Holstein
Wadden Sea
Wadden Sea
National Park is in Dithmarschen. It is the most important habitat in the district. Here live many molluscs, including Bivalvia and Gastropeda, Worms and Crustacea, which are welcome nourishment to bigger species. Especially fish use the Wadden Sea
Wadden Sea
as a "Kindergarten" where they can raise their offspring in a protected environment. Although many species of birds settle permanently in the Wadden Sea, use it as a winter habitat or as a resting place. Typical birds in Dithmarschen
Dithmarschen
are dunlin, red knot, bar-tailed godwit, lapwings, charadriidae, eurasian oystercatcher, many species of anatinae- and gulls, terns, sandwich tern, pied avocet, Brent goose
Brent goose
and barnacle goose. 200,000 common shelducks alone come in August, The shelducks lose their feathers in the Wadden Sea and therefore are for around three weeks unable to fly. It is almost the whole Common Shelduck colony in North Western Europe. Big Salt marsh are at the Friedrichskoog
Friedrichskoog
coast and in the Neufeld
Neufeld
Bay. Three sand banks, Trischen, Tertius and Blauort
Blauort
are in the sea. They are some of only a few still natural habitats at the German coast and of importance to sea birds and seals. After futile attempts in the 1930s to make them habitable to humans,they are now part of the national park, forbidden to humans. Many birds preferring wet grasslands live in the Eider-Treene Valley. History[edit]

Landscape with ewes and lambs

In medieval times the marshland villages of Dithmarschen
Dithmarschen
enjoyed remarkable autonomy. Neighbouring princes often tried to bring Dithmarschen
Dithmarschen
under their control. After 1180 Prince-Archbishop Siegfried ceded Dithmarschen, which was supposed to belong to his Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen, to his brother Bernhard III, Duke of the younger Duchy of Saxony. In his new position of Duke of Saxony he held the Land of Hadeln, opposite of Dithmarschen
Dithmarschen
on the southern bank of the river Elbe. Adolf III of Schauenburg, Count of Holstein, at enmity with the Ascanians, had de facto taken a loose possession of Dithmarschen. So it was up to Bernhard to regain the territory, but he failed, he could only force Adolf to accept his overlordship in Dithmarschen. Prince-Archbishop Hartwig II prepared a campaign into Dithmarschen, religiously belonging to the Archdiocese of Bremen, represented by its subsidiary chapter at Hamburg
Hamburg
Concathedral, but rejecting Bremian secular princely overlordship. He persuaded Adolf III to waive his claim to Dithmarschen
Dithmarschen
in return for regular dues levied from the to be subjected Ditmarsians. In 1187 and 1188 Hartwig and his ally Maurice I, Count of Oldenburg, heading their troops, invaded Dithmarschen. The free peasants promised to pay him dues, only to mock about Hartwig, once he and his soldiers had left. The Ditmarsians gained support by Valdemar, steward of the Duchy of Schleswig
Duchy of Schleswig
and Bishop of Schleswig. Hartwig, owing dues to Adolf III and the soldiers' pay to Maurice I, was trapped and could not afford to wage a second war. In 1192 the Bremian Chapter elected Valdemar as its new Prince-Archbishop. Valdemar welcomed his election, hoping his new position could be helpful in his dispute with Duke Valdemar of Schleswig and his elder brother Canute VI of Denmark. Before entering the Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen
Bremen
he won the support of Dithmarschen. In the 15th century the Ditmarsians confederated in a peasants' republic. Several times neighbouring princely rulers, accompanied by their knights and mercenaries tried to subdue the independent ministate to feudalism, however, without success. In 1319 Gerhard III was repelled in the Battle of Wöhrden. After Eric IV, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg had raided Dithmarschen, the Ditmarsians blamed his son-in-law, Albert II, Count of Holstein-Rendsburg, of complicity, who then used this as a pretext for his own unsuccessful conquest attempt in 1403, dying during the campaign from inflicted injuries. In 1468 Dithmarschen
Dithmarschen
allied with Lübeck
Lübeck
to protect their common interest as to commerce and containing the spreading feudalism in the region.[2] Ditmarsians had established trade with Livonia
Livonia
and neighbouring Baltic destinations since the 15th century, based on the Hanseatic obligations and privileges since the pact with Lübeck.[2] Both parties renewed their alliance several times and it thus lasted until Dithmarschen's final defeat and Dano-Holsatian annexation in 1559.[2] In 1484 Magnus of Saxe-Lauenburg,[3] then vicegerent of the Land of Hadeln, failed to subject the free Frisian peasants in the Land of Wursten, de facto an autonomous region in a North Sea
North Sea
marsh at the Weser
Weser
estuary under the loose overlordship of the Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen.[4][5] This foreshadowed a series of feudal attempts to subdue regions of free peasants, an alarming signal for the Ditmarsians and the free peasants in other marshes in the area.[6] In April 1499 Count John XIV of Oldenburg invaded the Weser
Weser
and North Sea marshes of Stadland
Stadland
and Butjadingen, to both of which the Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen
Bremen
claimed its overlordship, in order to subject their free peasants.[5] Bremen's prince-archbishop Johann Rode then tried to form a war alliance to repel these and prevent further invasions, first gaining the cities of Bremen, Hamburg
Hamburg
and Stade, which considered the areas downstream the rivers Elbe
Elbe
and Weser
Weser
their own front yard essential for their free maritime trade connections. Rode further won the Ditmarsians for a defensive alliance in favour of Wursten, concluded on 1 May 1499.[7] On 1 August the allies, now also including Buxtehude, committed themselves to supply 1,300 warriors and equipment to defend Wursten and / or invade Hadeln.[5] Already on 24 November 1498 John V and his son Magnus of Saxe-Lauenburg had allied with Henry IV the Elder of Brunswick and Lunenburg, Prince of Wolfenbüttel to conquer Wursten.[4][5] Henry IV obliged to send 3,000 landsknechts, who should gain their payment by ravaging and plundering the free peasants of Wursten, once successfully subjected.[7] Rode then waged feud against John V of Saxe-Lauenburg on 9 September 1499.[8] The allied forces, with the Ditmarsians invading crossing the Elbe, easily conquered the Land of Hadeln, defeating Magnus and even driving him out of Hadeln.[4][9] While the cities wanted a peaceful front yard without powerful influence of whomsoever, the Ditmarsians were more in favour of autonomy of free peasants. Hamburg
Hamburg
and the Ditmarsians fell out with each other. On 16 September a landsknecht hired by Hamburg
Hamburg
slayed Cordt von der Lieth, a member of Bremian ministerialis, causing the Otterndorf
Otterndorf
Strife (Otterndorfer Streit).[10] The landsknecht rumoured a Ditmarsian had slain von der Lieth
Lieth
and fled. Hamburg's landsknechts then attacked the uninvolved Ditmarsians and slayed 76 men in their military camp near Otterndorf.[10] Thus Dithmarschen
Dithmarschen
cancelled its alliance with Rode, Bremen
Bremen
and Hamburg
Hamburg
and the Ditmarsians returned home.[10] Hamburg
Hamburg
aimed at reestablishing its rule in Hadeln, as wielded between 1407 and 1481 when Saxe-Lauenburg had pawned Hadeln to Hamburg
Hamburg
as security for a credit. The relationship between Dithmarschen
Dithmarschen
and Hamburg
Hamburg
then turned icy, Ditmarsians captured wrecked ships of Hamburg
Hamburg
and their freight, foundered near or at the shores of Dithmarschen, according to the traditional wrecking custom, which earlier Hamburg
Hamburg
and Dithmarschen
Dithmarschen
had already replaced by a reward for rescuing ships, freight and crew. The parties only reconciled in 1512. By 20 November 1499 Magnus hired the so-called Great or Black Guard of 6,000 ruthless and violent mostly Dutch and East Frisian mercenaries, commanded by Thomas Slentz, prior operating in the County of Oldenburg.[4][8] The Black Guard invaded the Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen, crossing through and ravaging areas in the Prince-Bishopric of Verden and the Brunswick-Lunenburgian Principality of Lunenburg-Celle, leaving behind a wake of devastation on the countryside and especially in the looted monasteries.[11][12] Finally on Christmas Eve arriving downstream the Weser
Weser
in Lehe the Black Guard tried to invade Wursten, however, the free peasants there repelled their attack near Weddewarden on 26 December.[13][14] So the Guard turned northeastwards, looting Neuenwalde Nunnery
Neuenwalde Nunnery
underways, into Hadeln, repressing the joint forces of Rode and the cities – lacking support by Bremian knights and the Ditmarsians –, recapturing it for Magnus in early 1500. Rode then converted Henry IV the Elder to his column, with Henry the Elder and his troops then hunting the Black Guard.[14] Magnus, unable to pay the mercenaries so that they turned even the more oppressive for the local population, was like the Sorcerer's Apprentice, who could not get rid of "the spirits that he called". By mid-January 1500 King John of Denmark hired the Guard and guaranteed for its safe conduct first southeastwards via Lunenburg-Cellean Winsen upon Luhe and Hoopte, crossing the Elbe
Elbe
by Zollenspieker Ferry
Zollenspieker Ferry
to the Hamburg-Lübeckian bi-urban condominium (Beiderstädtischer Besitz) of Bergedorf and Vierlande.[13]

The Battle of Hemmingstedt
Battle of Hemmingstedt
in a history painting of 1910 by Max Friedrich Koch, assembly hall of the former District Building in Meldorf.

From there the Black Guard headed northwestwards again through Holstein
Holstein
in order to join more of King John's forces recruited in Holstein
Holstein
and by the Kalmar Union. These forces then invaded Dithmarschen
Dithmarschen
in order to subject the free Ditmarsians. The Ditmarsians took a vow to donate a monastery in honour of the then national patron saint Mary of Nazareth
Mary of Nazareth
if they could repel the invasion. On 17 February 1500, in the Battle of Hemmingstedt, the outnumbered Ditmarsians, led by Wulf Isebrand, defeated the invading armies and thus destroyed King John's dream of subjecting Dithmarschen.[10] In 1513 the Ditmarsians founded a Franciscan
Franciscan
Friary
Friary
in Lunden fulfilling their vow, however, the Hamburg
Hamburg
concathedral chapter, holding the ecclesiastical jurisdiction, demanded its say in appointing the prebendaries.[15] After years of dispute, the Council of the 48, the elected governing body of the farmers' republic of Ditmarsh, decided to found a Gallicanist kind of independent Catholic Church of Dithmarschen
Dithmarschen
in August 1523, denying Hamburg's capitular jurisdiction in all of Dithmarschen.[16] The chapter could not regain the jurisdiction, including its share in ecclesiastical fees and fines levied in Dithmarschen. After violently repelling the first preaching of proponents of the Reformation, slaying Henry of Zutphen in December 1524, Lutheranism
Lutheranism
nevertheless started to win over Ditmarsians.[17] In 1533 the Council of the 48 turned the Ditmarsian Catholic Church into a Lutheran state church.[18] After the victory of Hemmingstedt
Hemmingstedt
Dithmarschen
Dithmarschen
regularly sent its delegates to the Hanseatic Diets (Hansetage).[2] In 1554 the Hanseatic Diet confirmed, that free Ditmarsian peasants doing business cannot be considered equal to merchants being burghers of free or autonomous cities, but are, nevertheless, accepted as enjoying all Hanseatic advantages.[2] Thus Ditmarsian merchants, along with those from Teutonic Prussia, were the only beneficiaries of a quasi membership within the Hanse, although lacking the background of citizenship in an autonomous or free city.[2] It was not until 1559 and the Last Feud
Feud
between the King of Denmark and the Ditmarsians that the free peasants were forced to give up their political and religious autonomy by the successful invasion commanded by Count Johan Rantzau
Johan Rantzau
from Steinburg, one of the best strategists of the time. Since then the coat of arms of Dithmarschen has shown a warrior on horseback, representing a knight of Rantzau. This knight has later been identified with Saint George, then considered to be the patron of Dithmarschen. The conquerors – King Frederick II, Duke Adolf, and Duke John II the Elder – divided Dithmarschen
Dithmarschen
into two parts: the south became a part of Holstein
Holstein
in personal union with Denmark while the north came into the possession of the other Duke of Holstein. From 1773 all of Holstein
Holstein
was united in personal union with Denmark and remained so until 1864, when, following the Second Schleswig War, the Duchies of Holstein
Holstein
and of Schleswig became an occupied territory of the German Confederation. Two years later, following the Austro-Prussian War, Dithmarschen
Dithmarschen
became part of the Kingdom of Prussia, which annexed Holstein
Holstein
and Schleswig making them subsequently the Province of Schleswig-Holstein. The Middle Ages
Middle Ages
in Dithmarschen
Dithmarschen
are held to have continued into the 19th century, when the Kiel Canal
Kiel Canal
was completed, fens began to be drained, and agricultural reforms took place. Within the Bundesland Schleswig-Holstein, the area remained divided into the districts of Norderdithmarschen (Northern Ditmarsh) and Süderdithmarschen (Southern Ditmarsh) before they were united in 1970 as the district of Dithmarschen. Culture[edit] Traditions[edit]

"Cabbage Days"

The people of Dithmarschen
Dithmarschen
have displayed great pride in their history. In recent decades many traditions have been revitalized and new events in a traditional fashion have been created. (It may be hard to distinguish activities inspired by tradition and activities fostering tourism in the region.)

Common shrimp

Language[edit] High German is by now the dominant language but Low German
Low German
in its Holsteinisch version still has a place in informal conversation. Until the 1960s Low German
Low German
was the prevailing language of everyday communication. Most Ditmarsians born before 1960 still consider Low German their mother tongue. Low German
Low German
is more common in rural regions than in urban regions and more likely to be spoken by older Ditmarsians. The best known author of "high literature" in Low German
Low German
was Klaus Groth from Heide. The best known Low German
Low German
speaker in Germany
Germany
today is probably Wilhelm Wieben, former anchorman of the popular German news Tagesschau, who now produces Low German
Low German
audiobooks. Only two episodes of the popular crime television show Tatort
Tatort
carried subtitles for its German audience. One of these episodes centered its plot in Dithmarschen: the Low German
Low German
in the dialogue was thought to be too difficult for a generic German audience to follow. Architecture[edit]

Marne church and city hall

The Dithmarschen
Dithmarschen
landscape was long dominated by churches. Palaces were never built in the farmers' republic. The few castles that were constructed played only minor roles and have long since been reduced to groundworks. In contrast, churches were symbols of not only spiritual but also worldly power. The medieval republic organised itself into Parishes ("Kirchspiele") centered on churches. A Dithmarschen
Dithmarschen
church was not just a sacral building; it was also the primary place for political meetings. Administration of spiritual and political matters was done by the same people in the same place, so little need for representative secular buildings arose. Political and religious life in Dithmarschen
Dithmarschen
remained undivided until Schleswig-Holstein's integration into Prussia in 1867. In the flat marshland of Dithmarschen, church towers can often be seen from more than 10 kilometers away. Churches are built on the highest point of the Terpen in the center of villages such as Wesselburen, Marne, and Wöhrden. Village streets run toward the central church, giving these villages a distinct medieval character. It is likely that older houses were removed to make room for these churches. In the Geest, the village church stands on the medieval rim of the village or with other houses within it; the settlements of the Geest
Geest
existed before their churches were built and there was no special need to protect these churches from flooding.

St. Secundus in Hennstedt

The most important church of Dithmarschen
Dithmarschen
was the so-called Sankt-Johannis-Kirche (St. John's the Baptist Church) in Meldorf, due to its size also called Meldorf
Meldorf
Cathedral. Between the 9th and 11th century it was the only church in Dithmarschen
Dithmarschen
and one of the few north of the Elbe
Elbe
River. In the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
the church was the venue of the representatives of the political parishes of Dithmarschen. The place around this church was the most important meeting place in Dithmarschen
Dithmarschen
and Meldorf
Meldorf
itself was the only settlement to develop a distinct urban structure. Even after the political center moved to Heide, the St. John's in Meldorf
Meldorf
remained the most important religious site in Dithmarschen. The Reformation in Dithmarschen
Dithmarschen
began there in 1524 with Dithmarschen
Dithmarschen
converting to Lutheranism. Today's church was built in the 14th century. While the outside was mainly rebuilt in the 19th century, inside one can still see Gothic architecture from the years 1250 to 1300. The paintings are among the most magnificent in Schleswig-Holstein, giving an impression of the former wealth of the farmers' republic. St. Jürgen church in Heide
Heide
began as a chapel built in the 15th century. Due to conflicts in Dithmarschen, Meldorf
Meldorf
lost its role as central meeting point. The people of northern Dithmarschen
Dithmarschen
began to meet in 1447 "auf der Heide" ("on the heath"); later, the Council of the 48—representatives of the most important families and the central decision body of Dithmarschen—met at St. Jürgen. The core of the long, single-nave church is still the 15th-century building. Its outer appearance is dominated by a late-renaissance three-story tower added by Johann Georg Schott in 1724. St. Bartholomäus in Wesselburen
Wesselburen
was also built in 1737/1738 by Johann Georg Schott. He constructed the baroque building from the remains of older churches after Wesselburen
Wesselburen
burned down in 1736. Its onion dome is highly unusual for Northern Germany. Also notable are the 12th-century church in Tellingstedt
Tellingstedt
and the churches in Hemme
Hemme
and Büsum, which display the traditional coat of arms of the "Geschlechter" inside. Education[edit] In 1993 Schleswig-Holstein's latest Fachhochschule (comparable to a Polytechnics) was established in Heide. There are 800 students studying economics, electrical engineering, information technology, international tourism management, and law at the Fachhochschule Westküste ( Fachhochschule West Coast). The Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel
Kiel
has an outpost in the Büsum-based Forschungs- und Technologiezentrum Westküste (Research and Technology Center West Coast), which researches coastal geology, coastal geography, and coastal protection. In 2004, 17,900 students were studying in Dithmarschen
Dithmarschen
schools. In the district there are six Gymnasia, three Fachgymnasia, two vocational schools, and 44 schools for primary education. Economy[edit] The Dithmarschen
Dithmarschen
economy consists mainly of tourism, agriculture, and energy. Tourism is concentrated in the north in Büsum
Büsum
and in the south in Friedrichskoog. Most tourists come as families to enjoy the North Sea
North Sea
beaches. A significant number of tourists also come for bicycle trekking. Almost all the approximately two million tourists each year come from Germany.

Bayer, the most important employer in the district.

The unemployment rate was 11.6% in September 2004. After the Hartz concept was implemented and new statistical methods were adopted, the unemployment rate rose to 17.4% in January 2005. The unemployment rate was far above the average for Schleswig-Holstein
Schleswig-Holstein
(12.7%) and the rest of Germany. The most important employers in the district are Bayer
Bayer
in Brunsbüttel
Brunsbüttel
(1,000 employees), the Sparkasse
Sparkasse
Westholstein (600), the Royal Dutch Shell
Royal Dutch Shell
refinery in Hemmingstedt
Hemmingstedt
(570), the Sasol
Sasol
chemistry works in Brunsbüttel
Brunsbüttel
(570), the printing company Evers in Meldorf (560), and the Beyschlag manufacturing plant in Heide. The Bundeswehr has a school for non-commissioned officers in Heide. In recent years the number of people who live in Dithmarschen
Dithmarschen
but work in Hamburg
Hamburg
and its surroundings has steadily risen. In 2002 9,200 people drove to work outside the district, including 1,700 who commuted to Hamburg. Energy[edit]

Wind turbines close to Poppenwurth

Old nodding donkey, Hemmingstedt

Hemmingstedt
Hemmingstedt
refinery

Commercial wind farming in Germany
Germany
began in Dithmarschen. Germany's first wind park was opened 1987 in Kaiser-Wilhelm-Koog, the experimental GROWIAN ("Große Windkraftanlage" – big wind turbine) stood there from 1983 to 1987. As of 2008 the tallest wind turbine in the world is the experimental Enercon E-126
Enercon E-126
near Emden. In Dithmarschen
Dithmarschen
stand around 800 wind turbines, almost all of them in marshland. That means that 5% of all German wind turbines stand on 0.15% of its area. Except for Büsum, where a small airport prevents their erection, and the nature reserve at Speicherkoog, the whole coastline is lined by wind turbines. In 2003 they produced around KWH of energy, which is about half the energy demand of Dithmarschen. According to E.on-Hanse, the local energy company, in the same time it paid 59 million Euro for the energy, 3 to 5 million Euro were paid to farmers on whose land the turbines stand. The income through taxes for the district is around 4 million Euro each year. Because commercial wind farming in Germany
Germany
began in Dithmarschen, many wind turbines are relative old and produce only a small amount of electricity. For people interested in wind turbines this makes an interesting contrast, though, since it is possible to see many working varieties of wind turbines standing close to each other. The offshore oil field Mittelplate
Mittelplate
close to the coast produces 2 million tons of petroleum, around 54% of German production. The refinery in Hemmingstedt
Hemmingstedt
processes around 4 million tons of oil each year, partly from Mittelplate
Mittelplate
and partly from oil delivered through the Brunsbüttel
Brunsbüttel
port. Another oil field between Heide
Heide
and Hemmingstedt
Hemmingstedt
was active until 1991. The nuclear power plant in Brunsbuttel is one of the oldest in Germany. It delivers cheap energy for the important aluminium industry in Schleswig-Holstein. It is supposed to close down in 2009. Tourism[edit]

Büsum
Büsum
beach

The main tourist attractions in Dithmarschen
Dithmarschen
are the North Sea
North Sea
and the Wadden Sea
Wadden Sea
National Park. The district owns about 10 kilometers of green beaches; Büsum
Büsum
also provides an artificial sandy beach. In 2003, 205,382 tourists spent 1,173,205 nights in Dithmarschen, most of them in Büsum
Büsum
(756,630 nights), which is ranked before Friedrichskoog (75,654) and Büsumer Deichhausen
Büsumer Deichhausen
(33,811). Tourism has declined slightly over the last few years but not as much as tourism on the Schleswig-Holstein
Schleswig-Holstein
Baltic coast. Recent competition with the former Warsaw Pact states and their Baltic coasts has had less impact on Dithmarschen
Dithmarschen
because their coastal formations are quite different. Entrance fees for beaches raise heated controversy in the district. Büsum
Büsum
(around 1,000,000 beach visits each year) and Friedrichskoog (300,000) impose a fee. However, most smaller villages nearby do not. The tourism industry in Dithmarschen
Dithmarschen
is trying to diversify tourist attractions. Fitness and health play an increasing role in German life, so tracks and roads for bicycles and inline skates are being built. Part of the North Sea
North Sea
Cycle Route crosses through Dithmarschen. In the east of Dithmarschen, ecological travel by canoe or kayak along the Eider
Eider
is promoted. Policy makers and tourism agencies also emphasize the cultural and historical roots of the district. Coat of arms[edit]

The district coat of arms displays a knight of Holstein. This coat of arms was unpopular for many years in Dithmarschen
Dithmarschen
because it was the sign of conquerors. These arms were used by governors but were not accepted by the people. In 1930, when these ancient hostilities had become irrelevant, this coat of arms was re-introduced in slightly different forms by both South Dithmarschen
Dithmarschen
and North Dithmarschen. When both districts were united in 1970, the arms of South Dithmarschen
Dithmarschen
became the symbol of the newly merged district.

Towns and municipalities[edit]

Wesselburen
Wesselburen
Skyline

Towns and municipalities in Dithmarschen
Dithmarschen
developed from the old parishes that were independent political divisions in the medieval farmers' republic. These parishes existed as primary political divisions until the 19th century. Only Meldorf
Meldorf
was able to develop an urban structure during the Middle Ages. In more recent times Heide
Heide
became a rival to Meldorf. Wesselburen
Wesselburen
and Wöhrden
Wöhrden
had some importance as central villages of the rich northern marshland. After Schleswig-Holstein
Schleswig-Holstein
was annexed by Prussia in 1867, some villages became towns and therefore administratively left their old parishes: Meldorf
Meldorf
in 1869, Heide
Heide
in 1878, Marne in 1891, and Wesselburen
Wesselburen
in 1899. The old village of Brunsbüttel
Brunsbüttel
and the newly founded Brunsbüttelkoog united in 1970 to become the town of Brunsbüttel. Parishes were finally dissolved and single villages became independent during the Nazi period. For efficient administration, municipalities are united in Ämtern, which for historical reasons are named Amt Kirchspielslandgemeinden (Amt Parish's Country Municipalities). The largest town by population is Heide. Büsum
Büsum
has a special role as tourist resort. Although a member of an Amt, its summertime population swells to become the largest in the district. In socio-geographics the difference between marshland and the higher, dryer uplands has played an important role. The fertile marshland was historically rich while the uplands were poor but less prone to flooding. The two most important towns, Heide
Heide
and Meldorf, were built on the safe geest but directly adjacent to marshland where people could have their fields.

(Population on 30 September 2005)

Independent towns

Brunsbüttel
Brunsbüttel
(13,789) Heide
Heide
(20,716)

Ämter Kirchspielslandgemeinden

1. Burg-Sankt Michaelisdonn

Averlak
Averlak
(640) Brickeln
Brickeln
(212) Buchholz (1,115) Burg Dith.1 (4,364) Dingen (714) Eddelak
Eddelak
(1,462) Eggstedt
Eggstedt
(836) Frestedt
Frestedt
(401) Großenrade
Großenrade
(529) Hochdonn
Hochdonn
(1,249) Kuden
Kuden
(664) Quickborn (199) Sankt Michaelisdonn
Sankt Michaelisdonn
(3,728) Süderhastedt
Süderhastedt
(874)

2. Büsum-Wesselburen

Büsum1 (4,880) Büsumer Deichhausen
Büsumer Deichhausen
(345) Friedrichsgabekoog
Friedrichsgabekoog
(71) Hedwigenkoog
Hedwigenkoog
(271) Hellschen-Heringsand-Unterschaar
Hellschen-Heringsand-Unterschaar
(169) Hillgroven
Hillgroven
(86) Norddeich (430) Oesterdeichstrich
Oesterdeichstrich
(273) Oesterwurth
Oesterwurth
(274) Reinsbüttel
Reinsbüttel
(427) Schülp (489) Strübbel
Strübbel
(96) Süderdeich
Süderdeich
(536) Warwerort
Warwerort
(284) Wesselburen2 (3,112) Wesselburener Deichhausen
Wesselburener Deichhausen
(142) Wesselburenerkoog
Wesselburenerkoog
(151) Westerdeichstrich
Westerdeichstrich
(908)

3. Eider

Barkenholm
Barkenholm
(189) Bergewöhrden
Bergewöhrden
(36) Dellstedt
Dellstedt
(801) Delve
Delve
(737) Dörpling
Dörpling
(611) Fedderingen
Fedderingen
(277) Gaushorn
Gaushorn
(213) Glüsing
Glüsing
(119) Groven
Groven
(128) Hemme
Hemme
(514) Hennstedt1 (1,880) Hollingstedt (338) Hövede
Hövede
(64) Karolinenkoog
Karolinenkoog
(132) Kleve (452) Krempel
Krempel
(663) Lehe (1,160) Linden (876) Lunden
Lunden
(1,655) Norderheistedt
Norderheistedt
(144) Pahlen (1,168) Rehm-Flehde-Bargen
Rehm-Flehde-Bargen
(609) Sankt Annen
Sankt Annen
(355) Schalkholz
Schalkholz
(595) Schlichting (239) Süderdorf
Süderdorf
(396) Süderheistedt
Süderheistedt
(542) Tellingstedt
Tellingstedt
(2,493) Tielenhemme
Tielenhemme
(178) Wallen (37) Welmbüttel
Welmbüttel
(465) Westerborstel
Westerborstel
(98) Wiemerstedt
Wiemerstedt
(165) Wrohm
Wrohm
(732)

4. Heider Umland [seat: Heide]

Hemmingstedt
Hemmingstedt
(2,989) Lieth
Lieth
(396) Lohe-Rickelshof
Lohe-Rickelshof
(1,942) Neuenkirchen (1,044) Norderwöhrden
Norderwöhrden
(287) Nordhastedt
Nordhastedt
(2,753) Ostrohe
Ostrohe
(963) Stelle-Wittenwurth
Stelle-Wittenwurth
(486) Weddingstedt
Weddingstedt
(2,321) Wesseln
Wesseln
(1,352) Wöhrden
Wöhrden
(1,334)

5. Marne-Nordsee

Diekhusen-Fahrstedt
Diekhusen-Fahrstedt
(734) Friedrichskoog
Friedrichskoog
(2,522) Helse
Helse
(964) Kaiser-Wilhelm-Koog
Kaiser-Wilhelm-Koog
(364) Kronprinzenkoog
Kronprinzenkoog
(965) Marne1, 2 (6,018) Marnerdeich
Marnerdeich
(341) Neufeld
Neufeld
(646) Neufelderkoog
Neufelderkoog
(144) Ramhusen
Ramhusen
(163) Schmedeswurth
Schmedeswurth
(215) Trennewurth
Trennewurth
(269) Volsemenhusen
Volsemenhusen
(368)

6. Mitteldithmarschen

Albersdorf
Albersdorf
(3,588) Arkebek
Arkebek
(250) Bargenstedt
Bargenstedt
(925) Barlt
Barlt
(844) Bunsoh
Bunsoh
(871) Busenwurth
Busenwurth
(331) Elpersbüttel
Elpersbüttel
(915) Epenwöhrden
Epenwöhrden
(808) Gudendorf
Gudendorf
(425) Immenstedt (97) Krumstedt
Krumstedt
(556) Meldorf1, 2 (7,655) Nindorf
Nindorf
(1.165) Nordermeldorf
Nordermeldorf
(649) Odderade
Odderade
(325) Offenbüttel
Offenbüttel
(283) Osterrade
Osterrade
(462) Sarzbüttel
Sarzbüttel
(735) Schafstedt
Schafstedt
(1,343) Schrum
Schrum
(77) Tensbüttel-Röst
Tensbüttel-Röst
(692) Wennbüttel
Wennbüttel
(77) Windbergen
Windbergen
(841) Wolmersdorf
Wolmersdorf
(345)

1seat of the Amt Kirchspielslandgemeinde; 2town

Twinning[edit] Dithmarschen
Dithmarschen
is currently twinned with Restormel, a borough in the British county of Cornwall. The main link is between St Austell and Newquay and Heide. Notable residents[edit]

Hans Bothmann
Hans Bothmann
(1911–1946), Nazi SS concentration camp commandant

References[edit]

Elke Freifrau von Boeselager, „Das Land Hadeln bis zum Beginn der frühen Neuzeit", in: Geschichte des Landes zwischen Elbe
Elbe
und Weser: 3 vols., Hans-Eckhard Dannenberg and Heinz-Joachim Schulze (eds.), Stade: Landschaftsverband der ehem. Herzogtümer Bremen
Bremen
und Verden, 1995 and 2008, vol. I 'Vor- und Frühgeschichte' (1995; ISBN 3-9801919-7-4), vol. II 'Mittelalter (einschl. Kunstgeschichte)' (1995; ISBN 3-9801919-8-2), vol. III 'Neuzeit' (2008; ISBN 3-9801919-9-0), (=Schriftenreihe des Landschaftsverbandes der ehem. Herzogtümer Bremen
Bremen
und Verden; vols. 7–9), vol. II: pp. 321–388. Philippe Dollinger, Die Hanse [La Hanse (XIIe-XVIIe siècles), Paris: Aubier, 1964; German] (11966), ext. ed., Hans Krabusch and Marga Krabusch (trls.), Stuttgart: Kröner, 51998, (Kröners Taschenbuchausgabe; vol. 371). ISBN 3-520-37105-7. Karl Ernst Hermann Krause (1881), "Johann III. (Erzbischof von Bremen)", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie
Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie
(ADB) (in German), 14, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 183–185  Heinz-Joachim Schulze (1974), "Johann III. Rode", Neue Deutsche Biographie (NDB) (in German), 10, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 480–481  Michael Schütz, "Die Konsolidierung des Erzstiftes unter Johann Rode", in: Geschichte des Landes zwischen Elbe
Elbe
und Weser: 3 vols., Hans-Eckhard Dannenberg and Heinz-Joachim Schulze (eds.), Stade: Landschaftsverband der ehem. Herzogtümer Bremen
Bremen
und Verden, 1995 and 2008, vol. I 'Vor- und Frühgeschichte' (1995; ISBN 3-9801919-7-4), vol. II 'Mittelalter (einschl. Kunstgeschichte)' (1995; ISBN 3-9801919-8-2), vol. III 'Neuzeit' (2008; ISBN 3-9801919-9-0), (=Schriftenreihe des Landschaftsverbandes der ehem. Herzogtümer Bremen
Bremen
und Verden; vols. 7–9), vol. II: pp. 263–278.

Notes[edit]

^ "Statistikamt Nord – Bevölkerung der Gemeinden in Schleswig-Holstein
Schleswig-Holstein
4. Quartal 2016] (XLS-file)". Statistisches Amt für Hamburg
Hamburg
und Schleswig-Holstein
Schleswig-Holstein
(in German).  ^ a b c d e f Philippe Dollinger, Die Hanse [La Hanse (XIIe-XVIIe siècles); German], see references for bibliographical details, p. 124. ISBN 3-520-37105-7. ^ Magnus was a successor of Duke Bernhard III in the eighth generation. ^ a b c d Karl Ernst Hermann Krause, "Johann III., Erzbischof von Bremen", in: see references for bibliographical details, vol. 14, pp. 183–185, here p. 184. ^ a b c d Michael Schütz, "Die Konsolidierung des Erzstiftes unter Johann Rode", in: see references for bibliographical details, vol. II: pp. 263–278, here p. 266. ISBN 3-9801919-8-2. ^ Such as Altes Land, Land of Hadeln, Haseldorfer Marsch, Kehdingen, and Wilstermarsch, also known as the Elbe
Elbe
Marshes, Land of Wursten, Butjadingen
Butjadingen
and Stadland
Stadland
(both part of today's Weser
Weser
Marsh), as well as Stedingen, the Land of Würden, both marshes of free peasants also located on the banks of the Weser. Cf. Karl Ernst Hermann Krause, "Johann III., Erzbischof von Bremen", in: see references for bibliographical details, vol. 14, pp. 183–185, here p. 184. ^ a b Elke Freifrau von Boeselager, "Das Land Hadeln bis zum Beginn der frühen Neuzeit", in: see references for bibliographical details, vol. II: pp. 321–388, here p. 332. ISBN 3-9801919-8-2. ^ a b Michael Schütz, "Die Konsolidierung des Erzstiftes unter Johann Rode", in: see references for bibliographical details, vol. II: pp. 263–278, here p. 267. ISBN 3-9801919-8-2. ^ Heinz-Joachim Schulze, "Johann III. Rode", in: see references for bibliographical details, vol. 10, pp. 480seq., here p. 480. ^ a b c d Elke Freifrau von Boeselager, "Das Land Hadeln bis zum Beginn der frühen Neuzeit", in: see references for bibliographical details, vol. II: pp. 321–388, here p. 333. ISBN 3-9801919-8-2. ^ Karl Ernst Hermann Krause, "Johann III., Erzbischof von Bremen", in: see references for bibliographical details, vol. 14, pp. 183–185, here p. 185seq. ^ Michael Schütz, "Die Konsolidierung des Erzstiftes unter Johann Rode", in: see references for bibliographical details, vol. II: pp. 263–278, here pp. 267seq. ISBN 3-9801919-8-2. ^ a b Karl Ernst Hermann Krause, "Johann III., Erzbischof von Bremen", in: see references for bibliographical details, vol. 14, pp. 183–185, here p. 185. ^ a b Michael Schütz, "Die Konsolidierung des Erzstiftes unter Johann Rode", in: see references for bibliographical details, vol. II: pp. 263–278, here pp. 268. ISBN 3-9801919-8-2. ^ Thies Völker, Die Dithmarscher Landeskirche 1523–1559: Selbständige bauernstaatliche Kirchenorganisation in der Frühneuzeit, section 'Konfliktauslöser: Besetzung der Pfarrstellen und Klosterprojekt', posted on 16 July 2009 on: suite101.de: Das Netzwerk der Autoren. ^ Thies Völker, Die Dithmarscher Landeskirche 1523–1559: Selbständige bauernstaatliche Kirchenorganisation in der Frühneuzeit, section 'Gründung der Landeskirche 1523', posted on 16 July 2009 on: suite101.de: Das Netzwerk der Autoren. ^ Thies Völker, Die Dithmarscher Landeskirche 1523–1559: Selbständige bauernstaatliche Kirchenorganisation in der Frühneuzeit, section 'Heinrich von Zütphen 1524', posted on 16 July 2009 on: suite101.de: Das Netzwerk der Autoren. ^ Thies Völker, Die Dithmarscher Landeskirche 1523–1559: Selbständige bauernstaatliche Kirchenorganisation in der Frühneuzeit, section 'Sieg der Reformation 1533', posted on 16 July 2009 on: suite101.de: Das Netzwerk der Autoren.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dithmarschen.

Official Restormel
Restormel
Dithmarschen
Dithmarschen
Twinning Homepage (English) Official website (German) www.dithmarschen-wiki.de Enyclopaedia of Dithmarschen
Dithmarschen
(German) www.museum-albersdorf.de Museum Website, thorough information about the history of Dithmarschen, author: Dr. Volker Arnold (German with English abstracts) The Dithmarschen
Dithmarschen
Wars (English) Battle of Hemmingstedt, image

v t e

Towns and municipalities of Dithmarschen

Albersdorf Arkebek Averlak Bargenstedt Barkenholm Barlt Bergewöhrden Brickeln Brunsbüttel Buchholz Bunsoh Burg Busenwurth Büsum Büsumer Deichhausen Dellstedt Delve Diekhusen-Fahrstedt Dingen Dörpling Eddelak Eggstedt Elpersbüttel Epenwöhrden Fedderingen Frestedt Friedrichsgabekoog Friedrichskoog Gaushorn Glüsing Großenrade Groven Gudendorf Hedwigenkoog Heide Hellschen-Heringsand-Unterschaar Helse Hemme Hemmingstedt Hennstedt Hillgroven Hochdonn Hollingstedt Hövede Immenstedt Kaiser-Wilhelm-Koog Karolinenkoog Kleve Krempel Kronprinzenkoog Krumstedt Kuden Lehe Lieth Linden Lohe-Rickelshof Lunden Marnerdeich Marne Meldorf Neuenkirchen Neufeld Neufelderkoog Nindorf Norddeich Norderheistedt Nordermeldorf Norderwöhrden Nordhastedt Odderade Oesterdeichstrich Oesterwurth Offenbüttel Osterrade Ostrohe Pahlen Quickborn Ramhusen Rehm-Flehde-Bargen Reinsbüttel Sankt Annen Sankt Michaelisdonn Sarzbüttel Schafstedt Schalkholz Schlichting Schmedeswurth Schrum Schülp Stelle-Wittenwurth Strübbel Süderdeich Süderdorf Süderhastedt Süderheistedt Tellingstedt Tensbüttel-Röst Tielenhemme Trennewurth Volsemenhusen Wallen Warwerort Weddingstedt Welmbüttel Wennbüttel Wesselburen Wesselburener Deichhausen Wesselburenerkoog Wesseln Westerborstel Westerdeichstrich Wiemerstedt Windbergen Wöhrden Wolmersdorf Wrohm

v t e

Urban and rural districts in the state of Schleswig-Holstein
Schleswig-Holstein
in Germany
Germany

Urban districts

Flensburg Kiel Lübeck Neumünster

Rural districts

Dithmarschen Herzogtum Lauenburg Nordfriesland Ostholstein Pinneberg Plön Rendsburg-Eckernförde Schleswig-Flensburg Segeberg Steinburg Stormarn

Coordinates: 54°05′N 9°05′E / 54.08°N 9.08°E / 54.08; 9.08

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 162491

.