In human social affairs, discrimination is treatment or consideration
of, or making a distinction in favor of or against, a person based on
the group, class, or category to which the person is perceived to
belong rather than on individual attributes. This includes treatment
of an individual or group, based on their actual or perceived
membership in a certain group or social category, "in a way that is
worse than the way people are usually treated". It involves the
group's initial reaction or interaction going on to influence the
individual's actual behavior towards the group leader or the group,
restricting members of one group from opportunities or privileges that
are available to another group, leading to the exclusion of the
individual or entities based on logical or irrational decision
Discriminatory traditions, policies, ideas, practices and laws exist
in many countries and institutions in every part of the world,
including in territories where discrimination is generally looked down
upon. In some places, controversial attempts such as quotas have been
used to benefit those who are believed to be current or past victims
of discrimination—but they have sometimes been called reverse
discrimination. In the US, a government policy known as affirmative
action was instituted to encourage employers and universities to seek
out and accept groups such as
African Americans and women, who have
been subject to discrimination for a long time.
3.7 Race or ethnicity
3.9 Religious beliefs
3.10 Sex, sex characteristics, gender, and gender identity
3.11 Sexual orientation
3.12 Drug use
3.13 Reverse discrimination
United Nations documents
5.1 Labeling theory
5.2 Game theory
6 State vs. free market
7 See also
9 External links
The term discriminate appeared in the early 17th century in the
English language. It is from the Latin discriminat- 'distinguished
between', from the verb discriminare, from discrimen 'distinction',
from the verb discernere. Since the
American Civil War
American Civil War the term
"discrimination" generally evolved in
American English usage as an
understanding of prejudicial treatment of an individual based solely
on their race, later generalized as membership in a certain socially
undesirable group or social category. "Discrimination" derives from
Latin, where the verb discrimire means "to separate, to distinguish,
to make a distinction".
Moral philosophers have defined discrimination as disadvantageous
treatment or consideration. This is a comparative definition. An
individual need not be actually harmed in order to be discriminated
against. They just need to be treated worse than others for some
arbitrary reason. If someone decides to donate to help orphan
children, but decides to donate less, say, to black children out of a
racist attitude, then they would be acting in a discriminatory way
despite the fact that the people they discriminate against actually
benefit by receiving a donation. In addition to this discrimination
develops into a source of oppression. It is similar to the action of
recognizing someone as 'different' so much that they are treated
inhumanly and degraded.
Based on realistic-conflict theory and social-identity theory,
Rubin and Hewstone have highlighted a distinction among three
types of discrimination:
Realistic competition is driven by self-interest and is aimed at
obtaining material resources (e.g., food, territory, customers) for
the in-group (e.g., favouring an in-group in order to obtain more
resources for its members, including the self).
Social competition is driven by the need for self-esteem and is aimed
at achieving a positive social status for the in-group relative to
comparable out-groups (e.g., favouring an in-group in order to make it
better than an out-group).
Consensual discrimination is driven by the need for
accuracy[clarification needed] and reflects stable and legitimate
intergroup status hierarchies (e.g., favouring a high-status in-group
because it is high status).
United Nations stance on discrimination includes the statement:
"Discriminatory behaviors take many forms, but they all involve some
form of exclusion or rejection." International bodies United
Nations Human Rights Council work towards helping ending
discrimination around the world.
Main article: Ageism
Ageism or age discrimination is discrimination and stereotyping based
on the grounds of someone's age. It is a set of beliefs, norms,
and values which used to justify discrimination or subordination based
on a person's age.
Ageism is most often directed towards old
people, or adolescents and children.
Age discrimination in hiring has been shown to exist in the United
States. Joanna Lahey, professor at The Bush School of Government and
Public Service at Texas A&M, found that firms are more than 40%
more likely to interview a young adult job applicant than an older job
applicant. In Europe, Stijn Baert, Jennifer Norga, Yannick Thuy
and Marieke Van Hecke, researchers at Ghent University, measured
comparable ratios in Belgium. Interestingly, they found that age
discrimination is heterogeneous by the activity older candidates
undertook during their additional post-educational years. In Belgium,
they are only discriminated if they have more years of inactivity or
In a survey for the University of Kent, England, 29% of respondents
stated that they had suffered from age discrimination. This is a
higher proportion than for gender or racial discrimination. Dominic
Abrams, social psychology professor at the university, concluded that
ageism is the most pervasive form of prejudice experienced in the UK
See also: Caste
UNICEF and Human Rights Watch, caste discrimination
affects an estimated 250 million people worldwide.
Discrimination based on caste, as perceived by UNICEF, is mainly
prevalent in parts of Asia, (India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, China,
Pakistan, Nepal, Japan),
Africa and others. As of 2011[update],
there were 200 million Dalits or
Scheduled Castes (formerly known as
"untouchables") in India.
Discrimination against people with disabilities in favor of people who
are not is called ableism or disablism.
which treats non-disabled individuals as the standard of 'normal
living', results in public and private places and services, education,
and social work that are built to serve 'standard' people, thereby
excluding those with various disabilities. Studies have shown,
employment is needed to not only provide a living but to sustain
mental health and well-being. Work fulfils a number of basic needs for
an individual such as collective purpose, social contact, status, and
activity. A person with a disability is often found to be socially
isolated and work is one way to reduce isolation.
In the United States, the
Americans with Disabilities Act
Americans with Disabilities Act mandates the
provision of equality of access to both buildings and services and is
paralleled by similar acts in other countries, such as the Equality
Act 2010 in the UK.
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Main article: Linguistic discrimination
Corsica sometimes spray-paint or shoot traffic signs
Diversity of language is protected and respected by most nations who
value cultural diversity.[dubious – discuss] However, people are
sometimes subjected to different treatment because their preferred
language is associated with a particular group, class or category.
Notable examples are the
Anti-French sentiment in the United States
Anti-French sentiment in the United States as
well as the
Anti-Quebec sentiment in
Canada targeting people who speak
the French language. Commonly, the preferred language is just another
attribute of separate ethnic groups.[dubious – discuss]
Discrimination exists if there is prejudicial treatment against a
person or a group of people who speak a particular language or
Another noteworthy example of linguistic discrimination is the
backdrop to the Bengali
Language Movement in erstwhile Pakistan, a
political campaign that played a key role in the creation of
Bangladesh. In 1948,
Mohammad Ali Jinnah
Mohammad Ali Jinnah declared
Urdu as the national
Pakistan and branded those supporting the use of Bengali,
the most widely spoken language in the state, as enemies of the
Language discrimination is suggested to be labeled linguicism or
logocism.[by whom?] Anti-discriminatory and inclusive efforts to
accommodate persons who speak different languages or cannot have
fluency in the country's predominant or "official" language, is
bilingualism such as official documents in two languages, and
multiculturalism in more than two languages.
Discrimination based on a persons name may also occur, with research
suggesting the presence of discrimination based on name meaning,
pronunciation, uniqueness, and racial affiliation.
Research has further shown that real world recruiters spend an average
of just six seconds reviewing each résumé before making their
initial "fit/no fit" screen-out decision and that a person's name is
one of the six things they focus on most. France has made it
illegal to view a person's name on a résumé when screening for the
initial list of most qualified candidates. Great Britain, Germany,
Sweden, and the
Netherlands have also experimented with name-blind
résumé processes. Some apparent discrimination may be explained
by other factors such as name frequency. The effects of name
discrimination based on name fluency is subtle, small and subject
significantly to changing norms.
Discrimination on the basis of nationality is usually included in
employment laws (see above section for employment discrimination
specifically). It is sometimes referred to as bound together with
racial discrimination although it can be separate. It may vary
from laws that stop refusals of hiring based on nationality, asking
questions regarding origin, to prohibitions of firing, forced
retirement, compensation and pay, etc., based on nationality.
Discrimination on the basis of nationality may show as a "level of
acceptance" in a sport or work team regarding new team members and
employees who differ from the nationality of the majority of team
UAE and other GCC states, for instance, nationality is not
frequently given to residents and expatriates. In the workplace,
preferential treatment is given to full citizens, even though many of
them lack experience or motivation to do the job. State benefits are
also generally available for citizens only.
Race or ethnicity
Main articles: Racism,
Discrimination based on skin color, and Ethnic
Anti-Arab sign in Pattaya Beach, Thailand
German warning in German-occupied Poland 1939 - "No entrance for
Antisemitic graffiti in Lithuania. The signs read "Jews out" and
African-American child at a segregated drinking fountain on a
courthouse lawn, North Carolina, US 1938.
Racial and ethnic discrimination differentiates individuals on the
basis of real and perceived racial and ethnic differences and leads to
various forms of the ethnic penalty. It has been official
government policy in several countries, such as South
the apartheid era. Discriminatory policies towards ethnic minorities
include the race-based discrimination of ethnic Indians and Chinese in
Malaysia After the Vietnam war, many Vietnamese refugees moved to
the United States, where they face discrimination. Many studies
report lower private sector earnings for racial minorities, although
it is often difficult to determine the extent to which this is the
result of racial discrimination.
As of 2013[update], aboriginal people (First Nations, Métis, and
Inuit) comprise 4 percent of Canada's population, but they account for
23.2 percent of the federal prison population. According to the
Australian government's June 2006 publication of prison statistics,
Aborigines make up 24% of the overall prison population in
In 2004, Māori made up just 15% of the total population of New
Zealand but 49.5% of prisoners. Māori were entering prison at eight
times the rate of non-Māori. A quarter of the people in England's
prisons are from an ethnic minority. The Equality and Human Rights
Commission found that in
England and Wales as of 2010[update], a black
person was five times more likely to be imprisoned than a white
person. The discrepancy was attributed to "decades of racial prejudice
in the criminal justice system".
In the United States, racial profiling of minorities by
law-enforcement officials has been called racial discrimination.
Within the criminal justice system in the United States, minorities
are convicted and imprisoned disproportionately when compared to the
majority. As early as 1866, the Civil Rights Act and Civil
Rights Act of 1871 provided a remedy for intentional racism in
employment by private employers and state and local public employers.
Civil Rights Act of 1991
Civil Rights Act of 1991 expanded the damages available in Title
VII cases and granted Title VII plaintiffs the right to a jury trial.
Racial discrimination in hiring has been shown to exist in the United
States and in Europe. By means of their path breaking field
Marianne Bertrand and Sendhil Mullainathan, showed that
applications from job candidates with white-sounding names got 50
percent more callbacks for interviews than those with
African-American-sounding names in the
United States at the start of
this millennium. A 2009 study by Devah Pager, Bruce Western, and
Bart Bonikowski found that black applicants to low-wage jobs were half
as likely as identically qualified white applicants to receive
callbacks or job offers. More recently, Stijn Baert, Bart Cockx,
Niels Gheyle and Cora Vandamme replicated and extended their field
experiment in Belgium, Europe. They found that racial discrimination
in the labour market is heterogeneous by the labour market tightness
in the occupation: compared to natives, candidates with a
foreign-sounding name are equally often invited to a job interview in
Belgium if they apply for occupations for which vacancies are
difficult to fill, but they have to send twice as many applications
for occupations for which labor market tightness is low.
See also: Regional discrimination in China
Regional or geographic discrimination is discrimination based on the
region in which a person lives or was born. It differs from national
discrimination in that it may not be based on national borders or the
country the victim lives in, but is instead based on prejudices
against a specific region of one or more countries. Examples include
discrimination against mainland Chinese within China, and
Americans from the southern or northern regions
of the United States. It is often accompanied by discrimination based
on accent, dialect, or cultural differences.
Main article: Religious discrimination
Freedom of religion
Separation of church and state
Status by country
Central African Republic
Traditional African religion
Anti-Eastern Orthodox sentiment
Anti-Oriental Orthodox sentiment
New religious movements
Christian countercult movement
Religious discrimination is valuing or treating a person or group
differently because of what they do or do not believe or because of
their feelings towards a given religion. For instance, the indigenous
Christian population of the Balkans, known as the "rayah" or the
"protected flock", was discriminated against under the Ottoman
Kanun–i–Rayah. The word is sometimes translated as 'cattle' rather
than 'flock' or 'subjects' in order to emphasize the Christian
population's inferior status to that of the
Restrictions upon Jewish occupations were imposed by Christian
authorities. Local rulers and church officials closed many professions
to religious Jews, pushing them into marginal roles considered
socially inferior, such as tax and rent collecting and moneylending,
occupations only tolerated as a "necessary evil". The number of
Jews permitted to reside in different places was limited; they were
concentrated in ghettos and were not allowed to own land.
In a 1979 consultation on the issue, the
United States commission on
civil rights defined religious discrimination in relation to the civil
rights guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States
Constitution. Whereas religious civil liberties, such as the right to
hold or not to hold a religious belief, are essential for Freedom of
Religion (in the
United States secured by the First Amendment),
religious discrimination occurs when someone is denied "the equal
protection of the laws, equality of status under the law, equal
treatment in the administration of justice, and equality of
opportunity and access to employment, education, housing, public
services and facilities, and public accommodation because of their
exercise of their right to religious freedom".
In 2015, attorney and author
Roberta Kaplan stated that Kentucky
Kim Davis "is the clearest example of someone who wants
to use a religious liberty argument to discriminate".
Sex, sex characteristics, gender, and gender identity
Main article: Sexism
See also: Misogyny, Misandry,
Discrimination against intersex people,
Discrimination towards non-binary gender persons
Though gender discrimination and sexism refer to beliefs and attitudes
in relation to the gender of a person, such beliefs and attitudes are
of a social nature and do not, normally, carry any legal consequences.
Sex discrimination, on the other hand, may have legal consequences.
Though what constitutes sex discrimination varies between countries,
the essence is that it is an adverse action taken by one person
against another person that would not have occurred had the person
been of another sex.
Discrimination of that nature is considered a
form of prejudice and in certain enumerated circumstances is illegal
in many countries.
Sexual discrimination can arise in different contexts. For instance,
an employee may be discriminated against by being asked discriminatory
questions during a job interview, or by an employer not hiring or
promoting, unequally paying, or wrongfully terminating, an employee
based on their gender.
The gender gap in median earnings of full-time employees according to
Sexual discrimination can also arise when the dominant group holds a
bias against the minority group. One such example is. In the
Wikipedian community, around 13 percent of registered users are
women. This creates gender imbalances, and leaves room for
systemic bias. Women are not only more harshly scrutinized, but the
representation of women authors are also overlooked. Relative to men,
across all source lists, women have a 2.6 greater odds of omission in
Wikipedia. In an educational setting, there could be claims that a
student was excluded from an educational institution, program,
opportunity, loan, student group, or scholarship because of their
gender. In the housing setting, there could be claims that a person
was refused negotiations on seeking a house, contracting/leasing a
house or getting a loan based on their gender. Another setting where
there have been claims of gender discrimination is banking; for
example if one is refused credit or is offered unequal loan terms
based on one's gender. As with other forms of unlawful
discrimination, there are two types of sex discrimination – direct
discrimination and indirect discrimination. Direct sex discrimination
is fairly easy to spot – 'Barmaid wanted', but indirect sex
discrimination, where an unnecessary requirement puts one sex at a
disproportionate disadvantage compared to the opposite sex, is
sometimes less easy to spot, although some are obvious – 'Bar person
wanted – must look good in a mini skirt'. Another setting where
there is usually gender discrimination is when one is refused to
extend their credit, refused approval of credit/loan process, and if
there is a burden of unequal loan terms based on one's gender.
Socially, sexual differences have been used to justify different roles
for men and women, in some cases giving rise to claims of primary and
secondary roles. While there are alleged non-physical differences
between men and women, major reviews of the academic literature on
gender difference find only a tiny minority of characteristics where
there are consistent psychological differences between men and women,
and these relate directly to experiences grounded in biological
difference.[not in citation given] However, there are also some
psychological differences in regard to how problems are dealt with and
emotional perceptions and reactions that may relate to hormones and
the successful characteristics of each gender during longstanding
roles in past primitive lifestyles.
Median weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by sex,
race, and ethnicity, U.S., 2009.
Unfair discrimination usually follows the gender stereotyping held by
United Nations had concluded that women often experience a "glass
ceiling" and that there are no societies in which women enjoy the same
opportunities as men. The term "glass ceiling" is used to describe
a perceived barrier to advancement in employment based on
discrimination, especially sex discrimination. In the United
States in 1995, the Glass Ceiling Commission, a government-funded
group, stated: "Over half of all Master's degrees are now awarded to
women, yet 95% of senior-level managers, of the top Fortune 1000
industrial and 500 service companies are men. Of them, 97% are white."
In its report, it recommended affirmative action, which is the
consideration of an employee's gender and race in hiring and promotion
decisions, as a means to end this form of discrimination. As of
2010[update], women accounted for 51% of workers in high-paying
management, professional, and related occupations. They outnumbered
men in such occupations as public relations managers, financial
managers, and human resource managers.
In addition, women are found to experience a sticky floor. While a
glass ceiling implies that women are less like to reach the top of the
job ladder, a sticky floor is defined as the pattern that women are,
compared to men, less likely to start to climb the job ladder. A
sticky floor is related to gender differences at the bottom of the
wage distribution. It might be explained by both employer
discrimination and gender differences in career aspirations.
Intersex persons experience discrimination due to innate, atypical sex
characteristics. Multiple jurisdictions now protect individuals on
grounds of intersex status or sex characteristics. South
the first country to explicitly add intersex to legislation, as part
of the attribute of 'sex'.
Australia was the first country to add
an independent attribute, of 'intersex status'. Malta was the
first to adopt a broader framework of 'sex characteristics', through
legislation that also ended modifications to the sex characteristics
of minors undertaken for social and cultural reasons.
Transgender individuals, whether male-to-female, female-to-male, or
genderqueer, often experience transphobic problems that often lead to
dismissals, underachievement, difficulty in finding a job, social
isolation, and, occasionally, violent attacks against them.
Nevertheless, the problem of gender discrimination does not stop at
transgender individuals or with women. Men are often the victim in
certain areas of employment as men begin to seek work in office and
childcare settings traditionally perceived as "women's jobs". One such
situation seems to be evident in a recent case concerning alleged YMCA
discrimination and a Federal Court Case in Texas. The case
actually involves alleged discrimination against both men and black
people in childcare, even when they pass the same strict background
tests and other standards of employment. It is currently being
contended in federal court, as of fall 2009.
Discrimination in slasher films is relevant. Gloria Cowan had a
research group study on 57 different slasher films. Their results
showed that the non-surviving females were more frequently sexual than
the surviving females and the non-surviving males. Surviving as a
female slasher victim was strongly associated with the absence of
sexual behavior. In slasher films, the message appears to be that
sexual women get killed and only the pure women survive, thus
reinforcing the idea that female sexuality can be costly.
Protests in New York City against Uganda's Anti-
See also: Heterosexism, Heteronormativity, Biphobia, and Homophobia
One's sexual orientation is a "predilection for homosexuality,
heterosexuality, or bisexuality". Like most minority groups,
homosexuals and bisexuals are vulnerable to prejudice and
discrimination from the majority group. They may experience hatred
from others because of their sexual preferences; a term for such
hatred based upon one’s sexual orientation is often called
homophobia. Many continue to hold negative feelings towards those with
non-heterosexual orientations and will discriminate against people who
have them or are thought to have them. People of other uncommon sexual
orientations also experience discrimination. One study found its
sample of heterosexuals to be more prejudiced against asexuals than to
homosexuals or bisexuals.
Employment discrimination based on sexual orientation varies by
country. Revealing a lesbian sexual orientation (by means of
mentioning an engagement in a rainbow organisation or by mentioning
one's partner name) lowers employment opportunities in
Greece but overall, it has no negative effect in
Belgium. In the latter country, even a positive effect
of revealing a lesbian sexual orientation is found for women at their
Besides these academic studies, in 2009,
ILGA published a report based
on research carried out by Daniel Ottosson at Södertörn University
College, Stockholm, Sweden. This research found that of the 80
countries around the world that continue to consider homosexuality
illegal, five carry the death penalty for homosexual activity, and two
do in some regions of the country. In the report, this is
described as "State sponsored homophobia". This happens in Islamic
states, or in two cases regions under Islamic authority. On
February 5, 2005, the
IRIN issued a reported titled "Iraq: Male
homosexuality still a taboo". The article stated, among other things
that honor killings by Iraqis against a gay family member are common
and given some legal protection. In August 2009, Human Rights
Watch published an extensive report detailing torture of men accused
of being gay in Iraq, including the blocking of men's anuses with glue
and then giving the men laxatives. Although gay marriage has been
legal in South
Africa since 2006, same-sex unions are often condemned
as "un-African". Research conducted in 2009 shows 86% of black
lesbians from the
Western Cape live in fear of sexual assault.
Further information: LGBT rights by country or territory
A number of countries, especially those in the Western world, have
passed measures to alleviate discrimination against sexual minorities,
including laws against anti-gay hate crimes and workplace
discrimination. Some have also legalized same-sex marriage or civil
unions in order to grant same-sex couples the same protections and
benefits as opposite-sex couples. In 2011, the
United Nations passed
its first resolution recognizing LGBT rights.
Global Marijuana March, Paris.
Discrimination against drug addicts
See also: Responsible drug use
Drug use discrimination is the unequal treatment people experience
because of the drugs they use. People who use or have used illicit
drugs may face discrimination in employment, welfare, housing, child
custody, and travel, in addition to imprisonment,
asset forfeiture, and in some cases forced labor, torture, and
execution. Though often prejudicially stereotyped as deviants
and misfits, most drug users are well-adjusted and productive members
of society. Drug prohibitions may have been partly motivated
by racism and other prejudice against minorities, and
racial disparities have been found to exist in the enforcement and
prosecution of drug laws.
Discrimination due to illicit
drug use was the most commonly reported type of discrimination among
Blacks and Latinos in a 2003 study of minority drug users in New York
City, double to triple that due to race. People who use legal
drugs such as tobacco and prescription medications may also face
Ideas of self-ownership and cognitive liberty affirm rights to use
drugs, whether for medicine recreation,
or spiritual fulfilment. Those espousing such ideas
question the legality of drug prohibition and cite the rights and
freedoms enshrined in such documents as the Declaration of
U.S. Constitution and Bill of Rights, the
European Convention on Human Rights, and the Universal
Declaration of Human Rights, as protecting personal drug choices.
They are inspired by and see themselves following in the tradition of
those who have struggled against other forms of discrimination in the
Drug policy reform organizations such as the Drug Policy
Alliance, the Drug Equality Alliance, the Transform Drug
Policy Foundation, and the Beckley Foundation have
highlighted the issue of stigma and discrimination in drug policy. The
Partnership for Drug-Free Kids
Partnership for Drug-Free Kids also recognizes this issue and
shares on its website stories that "break through the stigma and
discrimination that people with drug or drinking problems often
A report issued by the Global Commission on Drug Policy, critical of
the global war on drugs, states, under "Undermining Human Rights,
Punitive approaches to drug policy are severely undermining human
rights in every region of the world. They lead to the erosion of civil
liberties and fair trial standards, the stigmatization of individuals
and groups – particularly women, young people, and ethnic minorities
– and the imposition of abusive and inhumane punishments.
Although still illegal at the federal level, about half of U.S. states
have legalized marijuana for medical use and several of those states
have laws, or are considering legislation, specifically protecting
medical marijuana patients from discrimination in such areas as
education, employment, housing, child custody, and organ
Main article: Reverse discrimination
See also: Bumiputera (Malaysia)
Students protesting against racial quotas in Brazil: "Quer uma vaga?
Passe no vestibular!" ("Do you want a spot? Pass the entrance exam!")
Some attempts at antidiscrimination have been criticized as reverse
discrimination. In particular, minority quotas (for example,
affirmative action) may discriminate against members of a dominant or
majority group or other minority groups. In its opposition to race
preferences, the American Civil Rights Institute's Ward Connerly
stated, "There is nothing positive, affirmative, or equal about
'affirmative action' programs that give preference to some groups
based on race."
The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a
worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this article, discuss
the issue on the talk page, or create a new article, as appropriate.
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Main article: List of anti-discrimination acts
Discrimination Act 1984
Ontario Human Rights Code 1962
Canadian Human Rights Act
Canadian Human Rights Act 1977
Discrimination Ordinance (1996)
Discrimination in Products, Services and Entry into
Places of Entertainment and Public Places Law, 2000
Employment (Equal Opportunities) Law, 1988
Article 137c, part 1 of
Wetboek van Strafrecht prohibits insults
towards a group because of its race, religion, sexual orientation
(straight or gay), handicap (somatically, mental or psychiatric) in
public or by speech, by writing or by a picture. Maximum imprisonment
one year of imprisonment or a fine of the third category.
Part 2 increases the maximum imprisonment to two years and the maximum
fine category to 4, when the crime is committed as a habit or is
committed by two or more persons.
Article 137d prohibits provoking to discrimination or hate against the
group described above. Same penalties apply as in article 137c.
Article 137e part 1 prohibits publishing a discriminatory statement,
other than in formal message, or hands over an object (that contains
discriminatory information) otherwise than on his request. Maximum
imprisonment is 6 months or a fine of the third category.
Part 2 increases the maximum imprisonment to one year and the maximum
fine category to 4, when the crime is committed as a habit or
committed by two or more persons.
Article 137f prohibits supporting discriminatory activities by giving
money or goods. Maximum imprisonment is 3 months or a fine of the
Equal Pay Act 1970
Equal Pay Act 1970 – provides for equal pay for comparable work
Sex Discrimination Act 1975
Sex Discrimination Act 1975 – makes discrimination against women or
men, including discrimination on the grounds of marital status,
illegal in the workplace.
Human Rights Act 1998
Human Rights Act 1998 – provides more scope for redressing all forms
of discriminatory imbalances
Equal Pay Act of 1963 – (part of the Fair Labor Standards Act)
– prohibits wage discrimination by employers and labor organizations
based on sex
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Civil Rights Act of 1964 – many provisions, including broadly
prohibiting discrimination in the workplace including hiring, firing,
workforce reduction, benefits, and sexually harassing conduct
Fair Housing Act of 1968 prohibited discrimination in the sale or
rental of housing based on race, color, national origin, religion,
sex, familial status, or disability. The Office of Fair Housing and
Equal Opportunity is charged with administering and enforcing the Act.
Discrimination Act, which amended Title VII of the Civil
Rights Act of 1964 – covers discrimination based upon pregnancy in
Violence Against Women Act
Racism is still rampant in real estate
United Nations documents
Important UN documents addressing discrimination include:
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Universal Declaration of Human Rights is a declaration adopted by
United Nations General Assembly on 10 December 1948. It states
that:" Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth
in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race,
colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national
or social origin, property, birth or other status."
The International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial
Discrimination (ICERD) is a
United Nations convention. The Convention
commits its members to the elimination of racial discrimination. The
convention was adopted and opened for signature by the United Nations
General Assembly on 21 December 1965, and entered into force on 4
The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination
against Women (CEDAW) is an international treaty adopted in 1979 by
United Nations General Assembly. Described as an international
bill of rights for women, it came into force on 3 September 1981.
Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities is an
international human rights instrument treaty of the United Nations.
Parties to the Convention are required to promote, protect, and ensure
the full enjoyment of human rights by persons with disabilities and
ensure that they enjoy full equality under the law. The text was
adopted by the
United Nations General Assembly on 13 December 2006,
and opened for signature on 30 March 2007. Following ratification by
the 20th party, it came into force on 3 May 2008.
Social theories such as egalitarianism assert that social equality
should prevail. In some societies, including most developed countries,
each individual's civil rights include the right to be free from
government sponsored social discrimination. Due to a belief in
the capacity to perceive pain or suffering shared by all animals,
"abolitionist" or "vegan" egalitarianism maintains that the interests
of every individual (regardless its species), warrant equal
consideration with the interests of humans, and that not doing so is
Discrimination, in labeling theory, takes form as mental
categorization of minorities and the use of stereotype. This theory
describes difference as deviance from the norm, which results in
internal devaluation and social stigma that may be seen as
discrimination. It is started by describing a "natural" social order.
It is distinguished between the fundamental principle of fascism and
social democracy.[clarification needed] The
Nazis in 1930s-era Germany
and the pre-1990
Apartheid government of South
Africa used racially
discriminatory agendas for their political ends. This practice
continues with some present day governments.
Yanis Varoufakis (2013) argues that "discrimination based on
utterly arbitrary characteristics evolves quickly and systematically
in the experimental laboratory", and that neither classical game
theory nor neoclassical economics can explain this. Varoufakis
and Shaun Hargreaves-Heap (2002) ran an experiment where volunteers
played a computer-mediated, multiround hawk-dove game (HD game). At
the start of each session, each participant was assigned a color at
random, either red or blue. At each round, each player learned the
color assigned to his or her opponent, but nothing else about the
opponent. Hargreaves-Heap and Varoufakis found that the players'
behavior within a session frequently developed a discriminatory
convention, giving a
Nash equilibrium where players of one color (the
"advantaged" color) consistently played the aggressive "hawk" strategy
against players of the other, "disadvantaged" color, who played the
acquiescent "dove" strategy against the advantaged color. Players of
both colors used a mixed strategy when playing against players
assigned the same color as their own.
The experimenters then added a cooperation option to the game, and
found that disadvantaged players usually cooperated with each other,
while advantaged players usually did not. They state that while the
equilibria reached in the original HD game are predicted by
evolutionary game theory, game theory does not explain the emergence
of cooperation in the disadvantaged group. Citing earlier
psychological work of Matthew Rabin, they hypothesize that a norm of
differing entitlements emerges across the two groups, and that this
norm could define a "fairness" equilibrium within the disadvantaged
State vs. free market
It is debated as to whether or not markets discourage discrimination
brought about by the state. One argument is that since discrimination
restricts access to customers and incurs additional expense, market
logic will punish discrimination. Opposition by companies to "Jim
Crow" segregation laws is an example of this. An alternative
argument is that markets don't necessarily undermine discrimination,
as it is argued that if discrimination is profitable by catering to
the "tastes" of individuals (which is the point of the market), then
the market will not punish discrimination. It is argued that
microeconomic analysis of discrimination uses unusual methods to
determine its effects (using explicit treatment of production
functions) and that the very existence of discrimination in employment
(defined as wages which differ from marginal product of the
discriminated employees) in the long run contradicts claims that the
market will function well and punishes discrimination.
Apostasy in Islam
Arab Slave Trade
Discrimination against people with HIV/AIDS
Ingroups and outgroups
Intersex human rights
List of countries by discrimination and violence against minorities
Realistic conflict theory
Statistical discrimination (economics)
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^ "Civil rights". Retrieved 2006. Check date values in:
^ Singer, Peter (1999) . "Equality for Animals?". Practical
Ethics (Second ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
pp. 57–58. ISBN 0-521-43971-X. If a being suffers, there
can be no moral justification for refusing to take that suffering into
consideration. ... This is why the limit of sentience ... is the
only defensible boundary of concern for the interests of others. ...
Similarly those I would call 'speciesists' give greater weight to
their own species when there is a clash between their interests and
the interests of those of other species.
^ Slattery, M. (2002). Key Ideas in Sociology. Nelson Thornes.
pp. 134–137. ISBN 978-0-7487-6565-2.
^ Adam, Heribert (1 July 1996). "Anti-Semitism and Anti-Black Racism:
Nazi Germany and
Apartheid South Africa". Telos. 1996 (108): 25–46.
Yanis Varoufakis (2013). "Chapter 11: Evolving domination in the
laboratory". Economic Indeterminacy: A personal encounter with the
economists' peculiar nemesis. Routledge Frontiers of Political
Economy. Routledge. p. 13. ISBN 0415668492.
^ Shaun Hargreaves-Heap;
Yanis Varoufakis (July 2002), "Some
experimental evidence on the evolution of discrimination, co-operation
and perceptions of fairness", The Economic Journal, Royal Economic
Society, 112 (481): 679–703, doi:10.1111/1468-0297.00735
^ Jennifer Roback, "The Political Economy of Segregation: The Case of
Segregated Streetcars." Journal of Economic History 56, no. 4
(December 1986): 893–917.
^ Richard S. Toikka, The Welfare Implications of Becker’s
Discrimination Coefficient, 13 J. ECON. THEORY 472, 472 (1976); Glen
G. Cain, The Economic Analysis of Labor Market Discrimination: A
Survey, in 1 HANDBOOK OF LABOR ECONOMICS 693, 774 (Orley Ashenfelter
& Richard Layard eds., 1986).
^ For review of the literature in regard to the last two points see
Menahem Pasternak, Employment Discrimination: Some Economic
Definitions, Critique and Legal Implications, 33 N. C. Cent. L. Rev.
Look up discrimination in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
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Discrimination Laws in Europe
Behavioral Biology and Racism
Cruelty to animals
Abusive power and control
Complex post-traumatic stress disorder
Race / Ethnicity / Nationality
Disability hate crime
Enemy of the people
LGBT hate crime
Violence against women
White power music
Age of candidacy
Cleanliness of blood
Crime of apartheid
Gender pay gap
Jim Crow laws
Law for Protection of the Nation
MSM blood donor controversy
Numerus clausus (as religious or racial quota)
Same-sex marriage (laws and issues prohibiting)
Racial bias in criminal news
Racism by country
Second-generation gender bias
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