The Info List - Direct To Home

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SATELLITE TELEVISION is a service that delivers television programming to viewers by relaying it from a communications satellite orbiting the Earth directly to the viewer's location. The signals are received via an outdoor parabolic antenna commonly referred to as a satellite dish and a low-noise block downconverter .

A satellite receiver then decodes the desired television programme for viewing on a television set . Receivers can be external set-top boxes , or a built-in television tuner . Satellite television provides a wide range of channels and services. It is usually the only television available in many remote geographic areas without terrestrial television or cable television service.

Modern systems signals are relayed from a communications satellite on the Ku band frequencies (12–18 GHz) requiring only a small dish less than a meter in diameter. The first satellite TV systems were an obsolete type now known as television receive-only . These systems received weaker analog signals transmitted in the C-band (4–8 GHz) from FSS type satellites, requiring the use of large 2–3-meter dishes. Consequently, these systems were nicknamed "big dish" systems, and were more expensive and less popular.

Early systems used analog signals , but modern ones use digital signals which allow transmission of the modern television standard high-definition television , due to the significantly improved spectral efficiency of digital broadcasting.

Different receivers are required for the two types. Some transmissions and channels are unencrypted and therefore free-to-air or free-to-view , while many other channels are transmitted with encryption (pay television ), requiring the viewer to subscribe and pay a monthly fee to receive the programming.


* 1 Technology

* 1.1 Sun outage

* 2 Uses

* 2.1 Direct broadcast via satellite * 2.2 Television receive-only

* 3 History

* 3.1 Early history * 3.2 Beginning of the satellite TV industry, 1976–1980 * 3.3 TVRO/C-band satellite era, 1980–1986 * 3.4 1990s to present

* 4 See also * 5 References


Satellite television dishes in Malaysia
. An Inview Neelix set-top box . Back view of a linear polarised LNB. Corrugated feedhorn and LNB on a Hughes DirecWay satellite dish.

The satellites used for broadcasting television are usually in a geostationary orbit 37,000 km (23,000 mi) above the earth's equator . The advantage of this orbit is that the satellite's orbital period equals the rotation rate of the Earth, so the satellite appears at a fixed position in the sky. Thus the satellite dish antenna which receives the signal can be aimed permanently at the location of the satellite, and does not have to track a moving satellite. A few systems instead use a highly elliptical orbit with inclination of +/−63.4 degrees and orbital period of about twelve hours, known as a Molniya orbit
Molniya orbit

Satellite television, like other communications relayed by satellite, starts with a transmitting antenna located at an uplink facility. Uplink satellite dishes are very large, as much as 9 to 12 meters (30 to 40 feet) in diameter. The increased diameter results in more accurate aiming and increased signal strength at the satellite. The uplink dish is pointed toward a specific satellite and the uplinked signals are transmitted within a specific frequency range, so as to be received by one of the transponders tuned to that frequency range aboard that satellite. The transponder re-transmits the signals back to Earth at a different frequency (a process known as translation, used to avoid interference with the uplink signal), typically in the C-band (4–8 GHz), Ku-band (12–18 GHz), or both. The leg of the signal path from the satellite to the receiving Earth station is called the downlink.

A typical satellite has up to 32 Ku-band or 24 C-band transponders, or more for Ku/C hybrid satellites. Typical transponders each have a bandwidth between 27 and 50 MHz. Each geostationary C-band satellite needs to be spaced 2° longitude from the next satellite to avoid interference; for Ku the spacing can be 1°. This means that there is an upper limit of 360/2 = 180 geostationary C-band satellites or 360/1 = 360 geostationary Ku-band satellites. C-band transmission is susceptible to terrestrial interference while Ku-band transmission is affected by rain (as water is an excellent absorber of microwaves at this particular frequency). The latter is even more adversely affected by ice crystals in thunder clouds.

On occasion, sun outage will occur when the sun lines up directly behind the geostationary satellite to which the receiving antenna is pointed. The downlink satellite signal, quite weak after traveling the great distance (see inverse-square law ), is collected with a parabolic receiving dish, which reflects the weak signal to the dish's focal point. Mounted on brackets at the dish's focal point is a device called a feedhorn or collector. The feedhorn is a section of waveguide with a flared front-end that gathers the signals at or near the focal point and conducts them to a probe or pickup connected to a low-noise block downconverter (LNB). The LNB amplifies the signals and downconverts them to a lower block of intermediate frequencies (IF), usually in the L-band .

The original C-band satellite television systems used a low-noise amplifier (LNA) connected to the feedhorn at the focal point of the dish. The amplified signal, still at the higher microwave frequencies, had to be fed via very expensive low-loss 50-ohm impedance gas filled hardline coaxial cable with relatively complex N-connectors to an indoor receiver or, in other designs, a downconverter (a mixer and a voltage-tuned oscillator with some filter circuitry) for downconversion to an intermediate frequency. The channel selection was controlled typically by a voltage tuned oscillator with the tuning voltage being fed via a separate cable to the headend, but this design evolved.

Designs for microstrip -based converters for amateur radio frequencies were adapted for the 4 GHz C-band. Central to these designs was concept of block downconversion of a range of frequencies to a lower, more easily handled IF.

The advantages of using an LNB are that cheaper cable can be used to connect the indoor receiver to the satellite television dish and LNB, and that the technology for handling the signal at L-band and UHF was far cheaper than that for handling the signal at C-band frequencies. The shift to cheaper technology from the hardline and N-connectors of the early C-band systems to the cheaper and simpler 75-ohm cable and F-connectors allowed the early satellite television receivers to use, what were in reality, modified UHF television tuners which selected the satellite television channel for down conversion to a lower intermediate frequency centered on 70 MHz, where it was demodulated. This shift allowed the satellite television DTH industry to change from being a largely hobbyist one where only small numbers of systems costing thousands of US dollars were built, to a far more commercial one of mass production.

In the United States, service providers use the intermediate frequency ranges of 950–2150 MHz to carry the signal from the LNBF at the dish down to the receiver. This allows for transmission of UHF signals along the same span of coaxial wire at the same time. In some applications ( DirecTV
AU9-S and AT-9), ranges of the lower B-band and 2250–3000 MHz, are used. Newer LNBFs in use by DirecTV, called SWM (Single Wire Multiswitch), are used to implement single cable distribution and use a wider frequency range of 2–2150 MHz.

The satellite receiver or set-top box demodulates and converts the signals to the desired form (outputs for television, audio, data, etc.). Often, the receiver includes the capability to selectively unscramble or decrypt the received signal to provide premium services to some subscribers; the receiver is then called an integrated receiver/decoder or IRD. Low-loss cable (e.g. RG-6 , RG-11 , etc.) is used to connect the receiver to the LNBF or LNB. RG-59 is not recommended for this application as it is not technically designed to carry frequencies above 950 MHz, but may work in some circumstances, depending on the quality of the coaxial wire, signal levels, cable length, etc.

A practical problem relating to home satellite reception is that an LNB can basically only handle a single receiver. This is because the LNB is translating two different circular polarizations (right-hand and left-hand) and, in the case of K-band, two different frequency bands (lower and upper) to the same frequency range on the cable. Depending on which frequency and polarization a transponder is using, the satellite receiver has to switch the LNB into one of four different modes in order to receive a specific "channel". This is handled by the receiver using the DiSEqC protocol to control the LNB mode. If several satellite receivers are to be attached to a single dish, a so-called multiswitch will have to be used in conjunction with a special type of LNB. There are also LNBs available with a multiswitch already integrated. This problem becomes more complicated when several receivers are to use several dishes (or several LNBs mounted in a single dish) pointing to different satellites.

A common solution for consumers wanting to access multiple satellites is to deploy a single dish with a single LNB and to rotate the dish using an electric motor. The axis of rotation has to be set up in the north-south direction and, depending on the geographical location of the dish, have a specific vertical tilt. Set up properly the motorized dish when turned will sweep across all possible positions for satellites lined up along the geostationary orbit directly above the equator. The disk will then be capable of receiving any geostationary satellite that is visible at the specific location, i.e. that is above the horizon. The DiSEqC protocol has been extended to encompass commands for steering dish rotors.

There are five major components in a satellite system: the programming source, the broadcast center, the satellite, the satellite dish , and the receiver . "Direct broadcast" satellites used for transmission of satellite television signals are generally in geostationary orbit 37,000 km (23,000 mi) above the earth's equator . The reason for using this orbit is that the satellite circles the Earth at the same rate as the Earth rotates, so the satellite appears at a fixed point in the sky. Thus satellite dishes can be aimed permanently at that point, and don't need a tracking system to turn to follow a moving satellite. A few satellite TV systems use satellites in a Molniya orbit
Molniya orbit
, a highly elliptical orbit with inclination of +/-63.4 degrees and orbital period of about twelve hours.

Satellite television, like other communications relayed by satellite, starts with a transmitting antenna located at an uplink facility. Uplink facilities transmit the signal to the satellite over a narrow beam of microwaves , typically in the C-band frequency range due to its resistance to rain fade . Uplink satellite dishes are very large, often as much as 9 to 12 metres (30 to 40 feet) in diameter to achieve accurate aiming and increased signal strength at the satellite, to improve reliability. The uplink dish is pointed toward a specific satellite and the uplinked signals are transmitted within a specific frequency range, so as to be received by one of the transponders tuned to that frequency range aboard that satellite. The transponder then converts the signals to Ku band , a process known as "translation," and transmits them back to earth to be received by home satellite stations.

The downlinked satellite signal, weaker after traveling the great distance (see inverse-square law ), is collected by using a rooftop parabolic receiving dish ("satellite dish "), which reflects the weak signal to the dish's focal point. Mounted on brackets at the dish's focal point is a feedhorn which passes the signals through a waveguide to a device called a low-noise block converter (LNB) or low noise converter (LNC) attached to the horn. The LNB amplifies the weak signals, filters the block of frequencies in which the satellite television signals are transmitted, and converts the block of frequencies to a lower frequency range in the L-band range. The signal is then passed through a coaxial cable into the residence to the satellite television receiver, a set-top box next to the television.

The reason for using the LNB to do the frequency translation at the dish is so that the signal can be carried into the residence using cheap coaxial cable . To transport the signal into the house at its original Ku band microwave frequency would require an expensive waveguide , a metal pipe to carry the radio waves. The cable connecting the receiver to the LNB are of the low loss type RG-6 , quad shield RG-6, or RG-11. RG-59 is not recommended for this application as it is not technically designed to carry frequencies above 950 MHz, but will work in many circumstances, depending on the quality of the coaxial wire. The shift to more affordable technology from the 50 ohm impedance cable and N-connectors of the early C-band systems to the cheaper 75 ohm technology and F-connectors allowed the early satellite television receivers to use, what were in reality, modified UHF television tuners which selected the satellite television channel for down conversion to another lower intermediate frequency centered on 70 MHz where it was demodulated.

An LNB can only handle a single receiver. This is due to the fact that the LNB is mapping two different circular polarisations – right hand and left hand – and in the case of the Ku-band two different reception bands – lower and upper – to one and the same frequency band on the cable, and is a practical problem for home satellite reception. Depending on which frequency a transponder is transmitting at and on what polarisation it is using, the satellite receiver has to switch the LNB into one of four different modes in order to receive a specific desired program on a specific transponder. The receiver uses the DiSEqC protocol to control the LNB mode, which handles this. If several satellite receivers are to be attached to a single dish a so-called multiswitch must be used in conjunction with a special type of LNB. There are also LNBs available with a multiswitch already integrated. This problem becomes more complicated when several receivers use several dishes or several LNBs mounted in a single dish are aimed at different satellites.

The set-top box selects the channel desired by the user by filtering that channel from the multiple channels received from the satellite, converts the signal to a lower intermediate frequency , decrypts the encrypted signal, demodulates the radio signal and sends the resulting video signal to the television through a cable. To decrypt the signal the receiver box must be "activated" by the satellite company. If the customer fails to pay his monthly bill the box is "deactivated" by a signal from the company, and the system will not work until the company reactivates it. Some receivers are capable of decrypting the received signal itself. These receivers are called integrated receiver/decoders or IRDs.

Analog television which was distributed via satellite was usually sent scrambled or unscrambled in NTSC
, or SECAM
television broadcast standards. The analog signal is frequency modulated and is converted from an FM signal to what is referred to as baseband . This baseband comprises the video signal and the audio subcarrier(s). The audio subcarrier is further demodulated to provide a raw audio signal.

Later signals were digitized television signal or multiplex of signals, typically QPSK . In general, digital television, including that transmitted via satellites, is based on open standards such as MPEG and DVB-S / DVB-S2 or ISDB-S

The conditional access encryption/scrambling methods include NDS , BISS , Conax , Digicipher , Irdeto, Cryptoworks , DG Crypt , Beta digital , SECA Mediaguard , Logiways , Nagravision
, PowerVu , Viaccess , Videocipher , and VideoGuard . Many conditional access systems have been compromised.


An event called sun outage occurs when the sun lines up directly behind the satellite in the field of view of the receiving satellite dish. This happens for about a 10-minute period daily around midday, twice every year for a two-week period in the spring and fall around the equinox . During this period, the sun is within the main lobe of the dish's reception pattern, so the strong microwave noise emitted by the sun on the same frequencies used by the satellite's transponders drowns out reception.



DBS satellite dishes installed on an apartment complex. A Sky "minidish ".

Direct-To-Home can either refer to the communications satellites themselves that deliver service or the actual television service. Most satellite television customers in developed television markets get their programming through a direct broadcast satellite provider. Signals are transmitted using Ku band and are completely digital which means it has high picture and stereo sound quality.

Programming for satellite television channels comes from multiple sources and may include live studio feeds. The broadcast center assembles and packages programming into channels for transmission and, where necessary, encrypts the channels. The signal is then sent to the uplink where it is transmitted to the satellite. With some broadcast centers, the studios, administration and up-link are all part of the same campus. The satellite then translates and broadcasts the channels.

Most systems use the DVB-S standard for transmission. With pay television services, the datastream is encrypted and requires proprietary reception equipment. While the underlying reception technology is similar, the pay television technology is proprietary, often consisting of a conditional-access module and smart card . This measure assures satellite television providers that only authorized, paying subscribers have access to pay television content but at the same time can allow free-to-air channels to be viewed even by the people with standard equipment available in the market.

Some countries operate satellite television services which can be received for free, without paying a subscription fee. This is called free-to-air satellite television. Germany
is likely the leader in free-to-air with approximately 250 digital channels (including 83 HDTV channels and various regional channels) broadcast from the Astra 19.2°E satellite constellation. These are not marketed as a DBS service, but are received in approximately 18 million homes, as well as in any home using the Sky Deutschland commercial DBS system. All German analogue satellite broadcasts ceased on 30 April 2012.

The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
has approximately 160 digital channels (including the regional variations of BBC
channels, ITV channels, Channel 4
Channel 4
and Channel 5 ) that are broadcast without encryption from the Astra 28.2°E satellite constellation, and receivable on any DVB-S receiver (a DVB-S2 receiver is required for certain high definition television services). Most of these channels are included within the Sky EPG
, and an increasing number within the Freesat

's national broadcaster, Doordarshan
, promotes a free-to-air DBS package as " DD Free Dish ", which is provided as in-fill for the country's terrestrial transmission network. It is broadcast from GSAT-15 at 93.5°E and contains about 80 FTA channels.

While originally launched as backhaul for their digital terrestrial television service, a large number of French channels are free-to-air on satellites at 5°W, and have recently been announced as being official in-fill for the DTT network.

In North America
North America
(United States, Canada
and Mexico
) there are over 80 FTA digital channels available on Galaxy 19 (with the majority being ethnic or religious in nature). Other FTA satellites include AMC-4 , AMC-6 , Galaxy 18 , and Satmex 5. A company called GloryStar promotes FTA religious broadcasters on Galaxy 19 .


Main article: Television receive-only A C-band satellite dish used by TVRO systems.

The term Television receive-only , or TVRO, arose during the early days of satellite television reception to differentiate it from commercial satellite television uplink and downlink operations (transmit and receive). This was the primary method of satellite television transmissions before the satellite television industry shifted, with the launch of higher powered DBS satellites in the early 1990s which transmitted their signals on the Ku band frequencies. Satellite television channels at that time were intended to be used by cable television networks rather than received by home viewers. Early satellite television receiver systems were largely constructed by hobbyists and engineers. These early TVRO systems operated mainly on the C-band frequencies and the dishes required were large; typically over 3 meters (10 ft) in diameter. Consequently, TVRO is often referred to as "big dish" or "Big Ugly Dish" (BUD) satellite television.

TVRO systems were designed to receive analog and digital satellite feeds of both television or audio from both C-band and Ku-band transponders on FSS -type satellites. The higher frequency Ku-band systems tend to resemble DBS systems and can use a smaller dish antenna because of the higher power transmissions and greater antenna gain. TVRO systems tend to use larger rather than smaller satellite dish antennas, since it is more likely that the owner of a TVRO system would have a C-band-only setup rather than a Ku band-only setup. Additional receiver boxes allow for different types of digital satellite signal reception, such as DVB/ MPEG-2
and 4DTV .

The narrow beam width of a normal parabolic satellite antenna means it can only receive signals from a single satellite at a time. Simulsat or the Vertex-RSI TORUS, is a quasi-parabolic satellite earthstation antenna that is capable of receiving satellite transmissions from 35 or more C- and Ku-band satellites simultaneously.



In 1945 British science fiction writer Arthur C. Clarke proposed a worldwide communications system which would function by means of three satellites equally spaced apart in earth orbit. This was published in the October 1945 issue of the Wireless World magazine and won him the Franklin Institute 's Stuart Ballantine Medal in 1963.

The first public satellite television signals from Europe
to North America were relayed via the Telstar
satellite over the Atlantic
ocean on 23 July 1962, although a test broadcast had taken place almost two weeks earlier on 11 July. The signals were received and broadcast in North American and European countries and watched by over 100 million. Launched in 1962, the Relay 1 satellite was the first satellite to transmit television signals from the US to Japan. The first geosynchronous communication satellite , Syncom 2 , was launched on 26 July 1963.

The world's first commercial communications satellite, called Intelsat I and nicknamed "Early Bird", was launched into geosynchronous orbit on April 6, 1965. The first national network of television satellites, called Orbita , was created by the Soviet Union in October 1967, and was based on the principle of using the highly elliptical Molniya satellite for rebroadcasting and delivering of television signals to ground downlink stations. The first commercial North American satellite to carry television transmissions was Canada 's geostationary Anik 1 , which was launched on 9 November 1972. ATS-6
, the world's first experimental educational and Direct Broadcast Satellite (DBS), was launched on 30 May 1974. It transmitted at 860 MHz using wideband FM modulation and had two sound channels. The transmissions were focused on the Indian subcontinent but experimenters were able to receive the signal in Western Europe using home constructed equipment that drew on UHF television design techniques already in use.

The first in a series of Soviet geostationary satellites to carry Direct-To-Home television, Ekran 1, was launched on 26 October 1976. It used a 714 MHz UHF downlink frequency so that the transmissions could be received with existing UHF television technology rather than microwave technology.


The satellite television industry developed first in the US from the cable television industry as communication satellites were being used to distribute television programming to remote cable television headends . Home Box Office (HBO), Turner Broadcasting System (TBS), and Christian Broadcasting Network (CBN, later The Family Channel ) were among the first to use satellite television to deliver programming. Taylor Howard of San Andreas , California
became the first person to receive C-band satellite signals with his home-built system in 1976.

In the US, PBS
, a non-profit public broadcasting service, began to distribute its television programming by satellite in 1978.

In 1979 Soviet engineers developed the Moskva (or Moscow
) system of broadcasting and delivering of TV signals via satellites. They launched the Gorizont communication satellites later that same year. These satellites used geostationary orbits . They were equipped with powerful on-board transponders, so the size of receiving parabolic antennas of downlink stations was reduced to 4 and 2.5 metres. On October 18, 1979, the Federal Communications Commission
Federal Communications Commission
(FCC) began allowing people to have home satellite earth stations without a federal government license. The front cover of the 1979 Neiman-Marcus Christmas catalogue featured the first home satellite TV stations on sale for $36,500. The dishes were nearly 20 feet (6.1 m) in diameter and were remote controlled. The price went down by half soon after that, but there were only eight more channels. The Society for Private and Commercial Earth Stations (SPACE), an organisation which represented consumers and satellite TV system owners, was established in 1980.

Early satellite television systems were not very popular due to their expense and large dish size. The satellite television dishes of the systems in the late 1970s and early 1980s were 10 to 16 feet (3.0 to 4.9 m) in diameter, made of fibreglass or solid aluminum or steel , and in the United States cost more than $5,000, sometimes as much as $10,000. Programming sent from ground stations was relayed from eighteen satellites in geostationary orbit located 22,300 miles (35,900 km) above the Earth.


Further information: Television receive-only

By 1980, satellite television was well established in the USA and Europe. On 26 April 1982, the first satellite channel in the UK, Satellite Television
Ltd. (later Sky1 ), was launched. Its signals were transmitted from the ESA 's Orbital Test Satellites . Between 1981 and 1985, TVRO systems' sales rates increased as prices fell. Advances in receiver technology and the use of gallium arsenide FET technology enabled the use of smaller dishes. Five hundred thousand systems, some costing as little as $2000, were sold in the US in 1984. Dishes pointing to one satellite were even cheaper. People in areas without local broadcast stations or cable television service could obtain good-quality reception with no monthly fees. The large dishes were a subject of much consternation, as many people considered them eyesores , and in the US most condominiums, neighborhoods, and other homeowner associations tightly restricted their use, except in areas where such restrictions were illegal. These restrictions were altered in 1986 when the Federal Communications Commission
Federal Communications Commission
ruled all of them illegal. A municipality could require a property owner to relocate the dish if it violated other zoning restrictions, such as a setback requirement, but could not outlaw their use. The necessity of these restrictions would slowly decline as the dishes got smaller.

Originally, all channels were broadcast in the clear (ITC) because the equipment necessary to receive the programming was too expensive for consumers. With the growing number of TVRO systems, the program providers and broadcasters had to scramble their signal and develop subscription systems.

In October 1984, the U.S. Congress passed the Cable Communications Policy Act of 1984 , which gave those using TVRO systems the right to receive signals for free unless they were scrambled, and required those who did scramble to make their signals available for a reasonable fee. Since cable channels could prevent reception by big dishes, other companies had an incentive to offer competition. In January 1986, HBO
began using the now-obsolete VideoCipher II system to encrypt their channels . Other channels used less secure television encryption systems. The scrambling of HBO
was met with much protest from owners of big-dish systems, most of which had no other option at the time for receiving such channels, claiming that clear signals from cable channels would be difficult to receive. Eventually HBO
allowed dish owners to subscribe directly to their service for $12.95 per month, a price equal to or higher than what cable subscribers were paying, and required a descrambler to be purchased for $395. This led to the attack on HBO's transponder Galaxy 1 by John R. MacDougall in April 1986. One by one, all commercial channels followed HBO's lead and began scrambling their channels. The Satellite Broadcasting and Communications Association (SBCA) was founded on December 2, 1986 as the result of a merger between SPACE and the Direct Broadcast Satellite
Direct Broadcast Satellite
Association (DBSA).

Videocipher II used analog scrambling on its video signal and Data Encryption
Standard –based encryption on its audio signal. VideoCipher II was defeated, and there was a black market for descrambler devices which were initially sold as "test" devices.

The necessity for better satellite television programming than TVRO arose in the 1980s. Satellite television services, first in Europe, began transmitting Ku band signals in the late 1980s. On 11 December 1988 Luxembourg
launched Astra 1A , the first satellite to provide medium power satellite coverage to Western Europe. This was one of the first medium-powered satellites, transmitting signals in Ku band and allowing reception with small(90 cm) dishes for the first time ever. The launch of Astra beat the winner of the UK's state Direct Broadcast Satellite licence, British Satellite Broadcasting , to the market, and accelerated its demise.


By 1987, nine channels were scrambled, but 99 others were available free-to-air. While HBO
initially charged a monthly fee of $19.95, soon it became possible to unscramble all channels for $200 a year. Dish sales went down from 600,000 in 1985 to 350,000 in 1986, but pay television services were seeing dishes as something positive since some people would never have cable service, and the industry was starting to recover as a result. Scrambling also led to the development of pay-per-view events. On November 1, 1988, NBC
began scrambling its C-band signal but left its Ku band signal unencrypted in order for affiliates to not lose viewers who could not see their advertising. Most of the two million satellite dish users in the United States still used C-band. ABC and CBS
were considering scrambling, though CBS
was reluctant due to the number of people unable to receive local network affiliates . The piracy on satellite television networks in the US led to the introduction of the Cable Television
Consumer Protection and Competition Act of 1992 . This legislation enabled anyone caught engaging in signal theft to be fined up to $50,000 and to be sentenced to a maximum of two years in prison. A repeat offender can be fined up to $100,000 and be imprisoned for up to five years.

Satellite television had also developed in Europe
but it initially used low power communication satellites and it required dish sizes of over 1.7 metres. On 11 December 1988 Luxembourg
launched Astra 1A , the first satellite to provide medium power satellite coverage to Western Europe. This was one of the first medium-powered satellites, transmitting signals in Ku band and allowing reception with small dishes (90 cm). The launch of Astra beat the winner of the UK's state Direct Broadcast Satellite
Direct Broadcast Satellite
licence holder, British Satellite Broadcasting
, to the market.

In the US in the early 1990s, four large cable companies launched PrimeStar , a direct broadcasting company using medium power satellites. The relatively strong transmissions allowed the use of smaller (90 cm) dishes. Its popularity declined with the 1994 launch of the Hughes DirecTV
and Dish Network
Dish Network
satellite television systems.

On March 4, 1996 EchoStar introduced Digital Sky Highway (Dish Network) using the EchoStar 1 satellite. EchoStar launched a second satellite in September 1996 to increase the number of channels available on Dish Network
Dish Network
to 170. These systems provided better pictures and stereo sound on 150–200 video and audio channels, and allowed small dishes to be used. This greatly reduced the popularity of TVRO systems. In the mid-1990s, channels began moving their broadcasts to digital television transmission using the DigiCipher conditional access system.

In addition to encryption, the widespread availability, in the US, of DBS services such as PrimeStar and DirecTV
had been reducing the popularity of TVRO systems since the early 1990s. Signals from DBS satellites (operating in the more recent Ku band) are higher in both frequency and power (due to improvements in the solar panels and energy efficiency of modern satellites) and therefore require much smaller dishes than C-band, and the digital modulation methods now used require less signal strength at the receiver than analog modulation methods. Each satellite also can carry up to 32 transponders in the Ku band, but only 24 in the C band, and several digital subchannels can be multiplexed (MCPC) or carried separately ( SCPC ) on a single transponder. Advances in noise reduction due to improved microwave technology and semiconductor materials have also had an effect. However, one consequence of the higher frequencies used for DBS services is rain fade where viewers lose signal during a heavy downpour. C-band satellite television signals are less prone to rain fade.

In a return to the older (but proven) technologies of satellite communication, the current DBS-based satellite providers in the USA ( Dish Network
Dish Network
and DirecTV) are now utilizing additional capacity on the Ku-band transponders of existing FSS-class satellites, in addition to the capacity on their own existing fleets of DBS satellites in orbit. This was done in order to provide more channel capacity for their systems, as required by the increasing number of High-Definition and simulcast local station channels. The reception of the channels carried on the Ku-band FSS satellite's respective transponders has been achieved by both DirecTV
& Dish Network
Dish Network
issuing to their subscribers dishes twice as big in diameter (36") than the previous 18" (">


* Freesat
* Dish TV
Dish TV
* Dish Home * List of direct broadcast satellite providers * Television receive-only * Satellite television by region * Commercialization of space * Free-to-air * Microwave
antenna * Molniya orbit
Molniya orbit
* Satellite dish
Satellite dish
* Satellite subcarrier audio * Smart TV : provides television via internet connection * SMATV * Television antenna


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Regulations, Section IV. Radio
Stations and Systems – Article 1.39, definition: Broadcasting-satellite service * ^ A B "Frequency letter bands". Microwaves101.com. 25 April 2008.

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: CRC Press . ISBN 978-1420078688 . Retrieved 29 July 2014. * ^ A B " Microwave
Journal International". Microwave
Journal International . Horizon House . 43 (10–12): 26–28. 2000. Retrieved 28 July 2014. * ^ A B C D Dodd, Annabel Z. (2002). The Essential Guide to Telecommunications (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey : Prentice Hall . pp. 307–10. ISBN 0130649074 . Retrieved 29 July 2014. * ^ A B Tirró, S. (30 June 1993). Satellite Communication Systems Design. Berlin
: Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 279–80. ISBN 978-0306441479 . Retrieved 29 July 2014. * ^ A B C Antipolis, Sophia (September 1997). Digital Video Broadcasting
(DVB); Implementation of Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulation in DVB satellite transmission systems (PDF) (Report). European Telecommunications Standards Institute
European Telecommunications Standards Institute
. pp. 1–7. TR 101 198. Retrieved 20 July 2014. * ^ "JEDI Innovation report". * ^ Bruce R. Elbert (2008). "9 Earth Stations and Network Technology". Introduction To Satellite Communications. Artech House. ISBN 9781596932111 . * ^ "Space TV". Popular Mechanics. Hearst Magazines. 171 (8): 57–60. August 1994. ISSN 0032-4558 . * ^ " Intelsat New Media Brochure" (PDF). * ^ "Satellitenfernsehen in Deutschland" . kabelfernsehen-kabelanschluss.de (in German). Retrieved 5 April 2016. * ^ "ZDFneo, 3sat, BR, NDR, SWR, WDR, Phoenix, KiKa starten HD Kanäle" . kabel-internet-telefon.de (in German). 13 March 2012. Retrieved 8 April 2012. * ^ "HDTV: Neue HD-Kanäle von ARD und ZDF ab 30. April 2012" . T-online.de (in German). 20 January 2012. Retrieved 8 April 2012. * ^ James, Meg. NBC
tacks on Telemundo oversight to Gaspin\'s tasks. Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Times, July 26, 2007. Retrieved on May 14, 2010. * ^ "Satellite Communications Training from NRI!". Popular Science. Bonnier Corporation. 228. February 1986. Retrieved 16 December 2014. * ^ Prentiss 1989 , p. 274. * ^ Prentiss 1989 , p. 246. * ^ Prentiss 1989 , p. 1. * ^ Prentiss 1989 , p. 293. * ^ "Sensing SATCOM Success Is New Simulsat From ATCi". Satnews. 1 November 2009. Retrieved 16 December 2014. * ^ "The Arthur C. Clarke Foundation". Archived from the original on July 25, 2011. Retrieved 2016-06-01. * ^ Campbell, Richard; Martin, Christopher R.; Fabos, Bettina (23 February 2011). Media and Culture: An Introduction to Mass Communication. London, UK: Macmillan Publishers . p. 152. ISBN 978-1457628313 . Retrieved 15 August 2014. * ^ The 1945 Proposal by Arthur C. Clarke for Geostationary Satellite Communications * ^ Wireless technologies and the national information infrastructure. DIANE Publishing. September 1995. p. 138. ISBN 0160481805 . Retrieved 15 August 2014. * ^ A B Klein, Christopher (23 July 2012). "The Birth of Satellite TV, 50 Years Ago". History.com. History Channel. Retrieved 5 June 2014. * ^ "Relay 1". NASA.gov. NASA. * ^ Darcey, RJ (16 August 2013). "Syncom 2". NASA.gov. NASA. Retrieved 5 June 2014. * ^ "Encyclopedia Astronautica - Intelsat I". Archived from the original on 16 January 2010. Retrieved 5 April 2010. * ^ "Soviet-bloc Research in Geophysics, Astronomy, and Space" (Press release). Springfield Virginia: U.S. Joint Publications Research Service. 1970. p. 60. Retrieved 16 December 2014. * ^ Robertson, Lloyd (1972-11-09). "Anik A1 launching: bridging the gap". CBC English TV. Retrieved 2007-01-25. * ^ Ezell, Linda N. (22 January 2010). " NASA
- ATS". Nasa.gov. NASA . Retrieved 1 July 2014. * ^ Long Distance Television
Reception (TV-DX) For the Enthusiast, Roger W. Bunney, ISBN 0900162716 * ^ "Ekran". Astronautix.com. Astronautix. 2007. Archived from the original on 12 November 2013. Retrieved 1 July 2014. * ^ "Ekran". * ^ Feder, Barnaby J. (15 November 2002). "Taylor Howard, 70, Pioneer In Satellite TV for the Home". New York Times
New York Times
. Retrieved 19 July 2014. * ^ Public Service Broadcasting
in the Age of Globalization, Editors: Indrajit Banerjee, Kalinga Seneviratne. ISBN 9789814136013 * ^ A B Wade, Mark. "Gorizont". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Archived from the original on 2008-06-17. Retrieved 2008-06-29. * ^ The "Glory Days" of Satellite Archived 2014-03-03 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ Browne, Ray (2001). The Guide to United States Popular Culture. Madison, Wisconsin
Madison, Wisconsin
: Popular Press. p. 706. ISBN 9780879728212 . Retrieved 1 July 2014. * ^ Giarrusso, Michael (28 July 1996). "Tiny Satellite Dishes Sprout in Rural Areas". Los Angeles Times
Los Angeles Times
. Los Angeles
Los Angeles
: Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 1 July 2014. * ^ Keating, Stephen (1999). "Stealing Free TV, Part 2". The Denver Post . Denver, CO : The Denver Post. Retrieved 3 July 2014. * ^ Stein, Joe (1989-01-24). "Whatta dish : Home satellite reception a TV turn-on". Evening Tribune . p. C-8. * ^ "Earth Station Is Very Popular Dish". Reading Eagle . Kansas City, Missouri . 21 December 1980. Retrieved 21 July 2014. * ^ A B C D Brooks, Andree (10 October 1993). "Old satellite dish restrictions under fire New laws urged for smaller models". The Baltimore Sun . Baltimore, MD
Baltimore, MD
: The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved 1 July 2014. * ^ A B Nye, Doug (14 January 1990). "SATELLITE DISHES SURVIVE GREAT SCRAMBLE OF 1980S". Deseret News
Deseret News
. Salt Lake City
Salt Lake City
: Deseret News. Retrieved 30 June 2014. * ^ Ku-Band Satellite TV: Theory, Installation and Repair. Frank Baylin et al. ISBN 9780917893148 . * ^ A B C Stecklow, Steve (1984-07-07). "America's Favorite Dish". The Miami Herald
The Miami Herald
. Knight-Ridder News Service . p. 1C. * ^ Reibstein, Larry (1981-09-27). "Watching TV Via Satellite Is Their Dish". The Philadelphia Inquirer . p. E01. * ^ A B C Dawidziak, Mark (1984-12-30). "Satellite TV Dishes Getting Good Reception". Akron Beacon-Journal
Akron Beacon-Journal
. p. F-1. * ^ A B "Broadband Cable 10th Anniversary". TinyPic. Retrieved 5 May 2013. * ^ A B "Industry History". sbca.com. Satellite Broadcasting
and Communications Association. 2014. Retrieved 5 June 2014. * ^ Stecklow, Steve (1984-10-25). "Research Needed in Buying Dish: High Cost Is Important Consideration for Consumer". Wichita Eagle . Knight-Ridder News Service. p. 6C. * ^ A B C D E Takiff, Jonathan (1987-05-22). "Satellite TV Skies Brighten As War With Programmers Ends". Chicago Tribune
Chicago Tribune
. Knight-Ridder Newspapers . Retrieved 2014-04-10. * ^ Wolf, Ron (1985-01-20). "Direct-Broadcast TV Is Still Not Turned On". The Philadelphia Inquirer. p. C01. * ^ A B C Lyman, Rick; Borowski, Neill (April 29, 1986). "On The Trail Of \'Captain Midnight\'". Philly. Retrieved May 20, 2014. * ^ A B Paradise, Paul R. (1 January 1999). Trademark Counterfeiting, Product Piracy, and the Billion Dollar Threat to the U.S. Economy. Westport, Connecticut : Greenwood Publishing Group . p. 147. ISBN 1567202500 . Retrieved 3 July 2014. * ^ A B C "ASTRA 1A Satellite details 1988-109B NORAD 19688". N2YO. 9 July 2014. Retrieved 12 July 2014. * ^ A B C "Scrambled NBC
Bad News for Satellite Pirates". The San Francisco Chronicle . United Press International. 1988-11-03. p. E3. * ^ A B Article STATUTE-106-Pg1460.pdf, Cable Television
Consumer Protection and Competition Act of 1992, Act No. 1460 of 8 October 1992 (in English). Retrieved on 3 July 2014. * ^ A B "ASTRA 1A Satellite details 1988-109B NORAD 19688". N2YO. 9 July 2014. Retrieved 12 July 2014. * ^ A B Grant, August E. Communication Technology Update (10th ed.). Taylor & Francis . p. 87. ISBN 978-0-240-81475-9 . * ^ Bell-Jones, Robin; Berbner, Jochen; Chai, Jianfeng; Farstad, Thomas; Pham, Minh (June 2001). "High Technology Strategy and Entrepreneurship" (PDF). INSEAD journal. Fontainebleau
: INSEAD. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-07-24. * ^ Mirabito, M., and Morgenstern, B. (2004). Satellites: Operations and Applications: The New Communication Technologies (fifth edition). Burlington: Focal Press. * ^ A B Khaplil, Vidya R.; Bhalachandra, Anjali R. (April 2008). Advances in Recent Trends in Communication and Networks. New Delhi
New Delhi
: Allied Publishers . p. 119. ISBN 1466651709 . Retrieved 16 July 2014. * ^ "Rain fade: satellite TV signal and adverse weather". Dish-cable.com. Dish-cable.com. 2010. Retrieved 16 July 2014. * ^ A B Satellite Home Viewer Improvement Act, Act No. 00-96 of 29 November 1999 (in english language ). Retrieved on 30 July 2014.

Media related to Satellite television at Wikimedia Commons

* v * t * e



* Radio
( Radio
program * Cable * Satellite ) * Telephone
* Teletext
* Television
( Television
program * Cable * Satellite) * Internet television and radio ( Webcast
* Streaming media
Streaming media
* Web television * Peer-to-peer television * BitTorrent television and movies )

Broadcasting niche

* Campus radio * Commercial broadcasting * Community radio
Community radio
* News broadcasting * Pirate radio / Pirate television * Public broadcasting
Public broadcasting
* Religious broadcasting * Talk radio

Specialty channels

* Adult television channels * Children\'s interest channel / Children\'s television series * Documentary channel * Men\'s interest channel * Movie television channels * Music radio / Music television * Quiz channel * Shopping channel

* News broadcasting

* Business channels * Public affairs * Sports television channels

* Women\'s interest channel

Production and funding

* Broadcast designer * Broadcast license * Broadcast network
Broadcast network
* Broadcast-safe * Broadcast television systems * Digital on-screen graphic * Lower third
Lower third
* Network affiliate * News ticker * Score bug * Television
news screen layout * Television
licence * Television
studio * Press box * Press pool * on-screen display

* v * t * e

Cable , satellite, and other specialty television providers

* v * t * e

Cable, satellite, and other specialty television providers in Africa, Asia, the Middle East and Oceania


* Cable TV Hong Kong
Hong Kong
* Cablevision
(Lebanon) * Clear TV (Lebanon) * Cablelink
* Destiny Cable
Destiny Cable
* Docomo Pacific * eonet (Japan) * First Media * Foxtel
* GMM Z * Hathway * Hot * InCablenet * Itscom (Japan) * JCTV (Japan) * Kbro * Lanka Broadband Networks (Sri Lanka) * Montage Cable TV (Nigeria) * NayaTel * OkeVision * Optus Television
* Ooredoo (Qatar) * PPCTV * Rostelecom * Siti Cable * Sky Cable * Sonatel * TBC (Taiwan) * Tokai Cable * Top TV (Indonesia) * TransACT * Tata Sky * TrueVisions
* United Communication Service * Vodafone New Zealand * WorldCall


* Airtel digital TV * Aora * Astro (Malaysia) * beIN (Middle East and North Africa) * BiG TV (Indonesia) * CanalSat Afrique * CanalSat Calédonie * Cignal
* Consat (Nigeria) * DD Free Dish * DDishTV * Dialog TV (Sri Lanka) * Dish TV
Dish TV
* Dish TV
Dish TV
Sri Lanka * Dish Home * Dream Satellite TV * DStv
(Sub-Saharan Africa) * Foxtel
(Australia) * GMM Z * G Sat * HiTV * Indosat * K+ (Vietnam) * K-Vision * Kristal-Astro * KT SkyLife
KT SkyLife
* MediaNet * Metro Digital * MBC * MNC Vision * MRTV-4 * myHD * NJOI * NTV Plus * OrangeTV * OSN (Middle East and North Africa) * Pacific Broadcasting
Services Fiji * Pearl Digital TV * Pra International Green Group India * Real VU * Reliance Digital TV * Sky Direct * Sky Pacific * SKY PerfecTV! * Sky Television
(New Zealand) * Sky Net * STAR (Greater China) * Star India
* StarSat, South Africa * Star Select * StarTimes
* STAR TV * Sun Direct * Tata Sky * Telone (Zimbabwe) * Transvision (Indonesia)
Transvision (Indonesia)
* TrendTV * TrueVisions
* Videocon d2h * Viva+
* Yes (Israel) * ZAP * Zuku


* Sky on demand * BTV * BesTV * DU * Fetch TV * Fine TV * GTA Teleguam * Hikari TV * HyppTV (Malaysia) * LG Uplus * Maroc Telecom * My.T * NET TV (Nepal) * now TV * Olleh TV * Omantel * PEO TV (Sri Lanka) * Rostelecom * Saudi Telecom Company * Singtel TV * Skytel (Mongolia) * StarHub TV
StarHub TV
* USeeTV


* ABS-CBN TV Plus (Philippines) * Freeview (Australia) * Freeview (New Zealand) * Igloo (New Zealand) * Mediacorp (Singapore) * MYTV (Malaysia) * StarTimes


* Austar
* CTH (Thailand) * DishHD * Galaxy (Australia) * Mega TV (Malaysia) * Neighbourhood Cable (Australia) * SelecTV (Australia) * U Television
(Malaysia) * UBI World TV (Australia)

* Africa, Asia, Middle East and Oceania * Europe
* Americas * Canada
* United States * Central and South America

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Cable, satellite, and other specialty television providers in Canada

Terrestrial and satellite


* Bell TV
Bell TV
* Shaw Direct
Shaw Direct
* Telus Satellite TV



* Bell ( Cablevision
for Val-d\'Or, QC , MTS for Manitoba
) * Cogeco ( Ontario
, Quebec
) * EastLink ( Atlantic
, Northern Ontario
, Western Canada
) * Look Communications * Rogers Cable ( Ontario
, New Brunswick
New Brunswick
, Newfoundland ) * Source (Hamilton, ON ) * Shaw (Western Canada, Northwestern Ontario) * Vidéotron ( Quebec


* Access ( Saskatchewan
) * Cable Axion (Magog, QC ) * CityWest
(Prince Rupert, BC ) * DERYtelecom (Saguenay, QC ) * Novus Cable (select areas of BC Lower Mainland
Lower Mainland
) * Omineca Cablevision (Prince George, BC ) * Westman(Brandon, MB )


* Defunct cable and DBS companies of Canada


* Bell

* Fibe(Aliant) * Fibe TV(ON/QC) * MTS TV(MB)

* Comwave * SaskTel MaxTV * Telus Optik TV * Tbaytel Digital TV * Vmedia * Zazeen


* Craig Wireless

* Africa, Asia, and Oceania * Americas * Europe

1More than 400,000 television service subscribers.

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Cable, satellite, and other speciality television providers in Europe


* Ailə TV * Alma TV * Anvia * Ariel TV * ASTA-NET * AS Starman * ASK CATV(Bosnia and Herzegovina) * ATV Plus * B&B TV * Blic.net * Nowo (Portugal) * CableSat West * Caiway(Netherlands) * Canal Digital (Norway) * Casema * CenterTelecom * Coolbox * Com Hem (Sweden) * ComNet * DigiCom * dna Welho(Finland) * EVision (Ireland) * ELTA-KABEL (Bosnia and Herzegovina) * ER-Telecom * Get * GO (Malta) * INEA (Poland) * IPKO * Kabel Deutschland (Germany) * Kabel Noord * KATV1(Azerbaijan) * Kazakhtelecom (Kazakhstan) * Kujtesa * Lattelecom
* LIWEST * Madritel * Magnet Networks * Magyar Telekom * MC Cable * Melita Cable * Meo (telecommunication service) * MISS.NET (Bosnia and Herzegovina) * Movistar+
(Spain) * M-sat Cable * Mtel (Bulgaria) * MTIS(Belarus) * M&H Company
M&H Company
* Naxoo (Switzerland) * Networx * North-West Telecom * NOS (Portugal) * Numericable-SFR (France) * SFR (Belgium) * ONO (Spain) * Orange TV(France) * Petrus (Poland) * PostTV Luxembourg
* Primacom (Germany) * Promax (Poland) * Radijus Vektor * RCS border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

* AB Sat (France) * AKTA TV (Romania) * Antik Sat * Austriasat * Bulsatcom * Canal Digital (Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Finland) * CanalDigitaal (Netherlands and Flanders) * Canalsat (France) * Caspio HD * Cosmote TV (Greece) * CS Link * Cyfrowy Polsat (Poland) * Digi TV * Digit-Alb * Digiturk (Turkey) * Dolce(Romania) * D-Smart (Turkey) * Euro1080 * Filbox * Focus Sat (Romania) * fransat * Freesat
(UK) * Freesat
from Sky (UK) * Free Sat(Romania) * GlobeCast World TV * HD+
(Germany) * MagtiCom (Georgia) * Movistar+
(Spain) * Mtel (Bulgaria) * Meo (telecommunication service) * NC+
(Poland) * NOS (Portugal) * NOVA Cyprus * NOVA Greece * NTV Plus (Russia) * Orbita Telecom * Otau TV(Kazakhstan) * Real Digital * Saorsat * Sky UK * Sky Deutschland (Germany) * Sky Ireland * Sky Italia (Italy) * Skylink * TéléSAT Numérique (Belgium) * Tivù Sat (Italy) * TNTSAT * TotalTV * Tricolor TV
Tricolor TV
(Russia) * Tring Digital TV * TV Vlaanderen Digitaal (Flanders) * UPC Direct * Viasat
(Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Finland, Latvia, Estonia and Lithuania) * Viasat
Ukraine * Vip SAT TV * Vivacom * Xtra TV(Ukraine) * ZeonBud


* A1 Telekom Austria * Altibox * Amis * Beeline * Bouygues Telecom * BT TV (UK) * Bulsatcom (Bulgaria) * Canal Digital * Cosmote TV (Greece) * CytaVision (Cyprus) * DartyBox (France) * Elsat * Fastweb(Italy) * Free(France) * Freewire(UK) * HOME.TV (Bosnia and Herzegovina) * iNES(Romania) * Infostrada TV (Italy) * KPN
(Netherlands) * Magnet Networks (Ireland) * Moja TV (Bosnia and Herzegovina) * Moldtelecom * Movistar+
(Spain) * Mtel (Bulgaria) * Mts TV (Serbia) * Meo (telecommunication service) * NejTV * Neuf Cegetel * NOS (Portugal) * Open IPTV
(Bosnia and Herzegovina) * Optimus Clix (Portugal) * Orange TV(France) * Plusnet * Portugal Telecom * PrimeTel(Cyprus) * Proximus TV (Belgium) * Sappa TV * Scarlet(Belgium) * SFR (France) * ShqipTV * Síminn (Iceland) * Smart Telecom (Ireland) * Super TV(Bosnia and Herzegovina) * Sure TV * T-2(Slovenia) * TalkTalk TV (UK) * Telekom Entertain (Germany) * Telenor (Norway) * Telfort (Netherlands) * Telia Digital-tv * TeliaSonera * Teo LT * TIMvision * Tivibu * YouView (UK) * Vivacom (Bulgaria) * Vodafone Greece * Vodafone Italy * Vodafone Portugal * XS4ALL (Netherlands)


* Antena PLUS(Serbia) * Boxer TV Access (Sweden) * Boxer TV A/S (Denmark) * Digea (Greece) * Easy TV (Ireland) * evotv(Croatia) * Freeview (UK)
Freeview (UK)
Digitenne (Netherlands) * Mediaset Premium (Italy) * PlusTV (Finland) * PTDT(Portugal) * RiksTV (Norway) * Saorview (Ireland) * TNT(France) * Vip TV (Macedonia) * Zala TV(Belarus)


* Alice Home TV * Boom TV (Romania) * CableTel
(Bulgaria) * On Telecoms (Greece) * Romtelecom * Numericable * UPC Nederland * TDC (Denmark)

* v * t * e

Cable, satellite, and other specialty television providers in Latin America and the Caribbean


* Axtel TV (Mexico) * Airlink Communications (Trinidad and Tobago) * Cablecom (Mexico) * Cablemás (Mexico) * Cable Onda * Cablevisión (Argentina) * CaboTelecom * Claro Colombia * Digicel Play (Caribbean) * Columbus/FLOW (Caribbean) * Independent Cable Network of Trinidad and Tobago (ICNTT) * Izzi Telecom (Mexico) * Massy Communications (Trinidad and Tobago) * Mayaro Cable TV (Trinidad and Tobago) * Megacable (Mexico) * Movistar TV (Chile, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela) * Mundo Pacifico (Chile) * NET (Brazil) * Oi TV (Brazil) * Red Intercable (Argentina) * RVR International (Trinidad and Tobago) * Telefónica del Sur * Tricom (Dominican Republic) * TRICO Industries Limited (Trinidad and Tobago) * Une (Colombia) * VTR (Chile)


* CanalSat Caraïbes (Caribbean) * CANTV (Venezuela) * Claro TV * DirecTV
(South America & Caribbean) * Dish México * Entel (Chile) * Green Dot (Caribbean) * Inter Satélital * Movistar TV (Chile, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela) * Oi TV (Brazil) * SKY Brasil * SKY México, Dominican Republic border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

* bmobile (Trinidad and Tobago) * Claro República Dominicana * Vivo TV (Brazil)


* Multi-Choice TV (Barbados)


* DirecTV
* DirecTV
* GVT TV (Brazil) * Sky Argentina * Sky Chile * Sky Colombia * Sky Ecuador * Sky Peru * Sky Venezuela


* Vivo TV Plus (Brazil)

* Africa, Asia, and Oceania * Americas * Canada
* Europe
* United States

* v * t * e

Cable, satellite, and other specialty television providers in the United States


* Adams Cable

* Altice USA

* Optimum * Suddenlink Communications

* Armstrong * Atlantic
Broadband * ATborder-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

* Claro * Dish Network
Dish Network
* DirecTV
* Glorystar * Headend in the Sky * Home2US


* ATborder-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

* CenturyLink Stream * DirecTV
Now * FuboTV
* Hulu
with Live TV * Philo * PlayStation Vue
PlayStation Vue
* Sling TV * Spectrum TV Stream * Xfinity Instant TV * YouTube TV


* Amazon Video * Anime Network * Apple iTunes Store * CBS
All Access * Crackle * Crunchyroll
* CW Seed * CuriosityStream * DramaFever
* Fandor * Feeln * FunimationNow * go90 * HBO
Now * History Vault * Hulu
* iON (IPTV) * Lifetime Movie Club * Netflix
* Noggin * Pluto TV * Roku
* Seeso * Showtime * Starz * Tribeca Shortlist * Tubi TV * UFC Fight Pass * Univision
NOW * Yupptv * WWE Network


* Adelphia Communications Corporation * Alameda Power and Telecom 1 * Astound Broadband

* ATborder-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

* AlphaStar * GlobeCast World TV * PrimeStar * United States Satellite Broadcasting
* Voom HD Networks


* Sky Angel * Virtual Digital Cable


* Aereo * USDTV * MovieBeam

* v * t * e

Additional resources on North American television


* List of local television stations in North America
North America
* DTV transition * North American TV mini-template


* Canadian networks * List of Canadian television networks * List of Canadian television channels * List of Canadian specialty channels * Local Canadian TV stations * List of United States stations available in Canada
* 2001 Vancouver TV realignment
2001 Vancouver TV realignment
* 2007 Canada
broadcast TV realignment


* Mexican networks * Local Mexican TV stations


* American networks * List of American cable and satellite networks * List of American over-the-air networks * Local American TV stations (W) * Local American TV stations (K) * Spanish-language TV networks * 1994 United States broadcast TV realignment * 2006 United States broadcast TV realignment * List of Canadian television stations available in the United States * Insular Areas TV

* Africa, Asia, and Oceania * Americas * Europe

* v * t * e

Wireless video and data distribution methods

* Advanced Wireless Services * Amateur television * Analog television * Digital radio * Digital television
Digital television
* Digital terrestrial television
Digital terrestrial television

* Digital Video Broadcasting
Digital Video Broadcasting

* Terrestrial (DVB-T) * Satellite (DVB-S2) * Handheld (DVB-H)

* Multipoint Video Distribution System ( MVDS or DVB-MS) * HomeRF * Instructional Television
Fixed Service (ITFS; now known as Educational Broadband Service (EBS)) * Ku band * Local Multipoint Distribution Service (LMDS) * Microwave
* Mobile broadband * Mobile television * Mobile WiMAX (IEEE 802.16e) * Mobile broadband wireless access (IEEE 802.20) * Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service (MMDS; now known as Business Radio
Service (BRS)) * MVDS * MVDDS * Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service (3G MMMS) * Satellite Internet access * Satellite radio * Satellite television * UWB ( IEEE 802.15.3 ) * Visual sensor network * Wi-Fi
( IEEE 802.11 ) * WiMAX
( IEEE 802.16 ) * WRAN (IEEE 802.22) * Wireless local loop (WLL) * Wireless broadband * Wireless USB
Wireless USB
* 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) * 4G

* v * t * e

Satellite communications


* Satellite television * Satellite radio * Relay satellite * Transponder * Satellite Internet access * Amateur satellite * Ground station * High-throughput satellite


* Satellite data unit * Satellite dish
Satellite dish
* Satellite modem
Satellite modem
* Satellite phone
Satellite phone
* Spacebus
* Very-small-aperture terminal
Very-small-aperture terminal


* S-DMB * DVB-RCS * DVB-S2 * Digital audio radio service


* AfriStar * Astra Digital Radio
* DirecTV
* Dish Network
Dish Network

* Sirius XM Holdings
Sirius XM Holdings

* Sirius Satellite Radio

* Sky Television
plc * 1worldspace


* EchoStar * Eutelsat
* Globalstar
* Hughes * Inmarsat
* Intelsat * Iridium * SED Systems
SED Systems
* SES * Telesat * Tooway * Viasat


* Airbus * Arianespace * Boeing
* INVAP * Lockheed Martin
Lockheed Martin
* Loral * Orbital ATK * Thales Alenia Space
Thales Alenia Space


* Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems * ETSI Satellite Digital Radio


* List of communications satellite firsts * List of communication satellite companies

* Communications satellites

* v * t * e



* Beacon * Broadcasting
* Cable protection system * Cable TV * Communications satellite
Communications satellite
* Computer network * Drums * Electrical telegraph * Fax * Heliographs * Hydraulic telegraph * Internet
* Mass media * Mobile phone * Optical telecommunication * Optical telegraphy * Pager * Photophone
* Prepay mobile phone * Radio
* Radiotelephone * Satellite communications * Semaphore * Smartphone
* Smoke signals * Telecommunications history * Telautograph
* Telegraphy
* Teleprinter
(teletype) * Telephone
* The Telephone
Cases * Television
* Timeline of communication technology * Undersea telegraph line * Videoconferencing * Videophone * Videotelephony * Whistled language


* Edwin Howard Armstrong * John Logie Baird
John Logie Baird
* Paul Baran * Alexander Graham Bell
Alexander Graham Bell
* Tim Berners-Lee * Jagadish Chandra Bose
Jagadish Chandra Bose
* Vint Cerf
Vint Cerf
* Claude Chappe * Donald Davies
Donald Davies
* Lee de Forest
Lee de Forest
* Philo Farnsworth
Philo Farnsworth
* Reginald Fessenden * Elisha Gray * Erna Schneider Hoover
Erna Schneider Hoover
* Charles K. Kao * Hedy Lamarr
Hedy Lamarr
* Innocenzo Manzetti * Guglielmo Marconi
Guglielmo Marconi
* Antonio Meucci * Radia Perlman * Alexander Stepanovich Popov
Alexander Stepanovich Popov
* Johann Philipp Reis * Nikola Tesla * Camille Tissot
Camille Tissot
* Alfred Vail
Alfred Vail
* Charles Wheatstone
Charles Wheatstone
* Vladimir K. Zworykin

Transmission media

* Coaxial cable
Coaxial cable

* Fiber-optic communication
Fiber-optic communication

* Optical fiber
Optical fiber

* Free-space optical communication * Molecular communication * Radio
waves * Transmission line

Network topology and switching

* Links * Nodes * Terminal node * Network switching (circuit * packet ) * Telephone


* Space-division * Frequency-division * Time-division * Polarization-division * Orbital angular-momentum * Code-division


* BITNET * Cellular network
Cellular network
* Computer * CYCLADES * Ethernet
* FidoNet * Internet
* ISDN * LAN * Mobile * NGN * NPL network * Public Switched Telephone
* Radio
* Telecommunications equipment * Television
* Telex
* WAN * Wireless * World Wide Web
World Wide Web

* Category
* Portal