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DIOSDADO PANGAN MACAPAGAL (September 28, 1910 – April 21, 1997) was the ninth President of the Philippines , serving from 1961 to 1965, and the sixth Vice-President , serving from 1957 to 1961. He also served as a member of the House of Representatives , and headed the Constitutional Convention of 1970 . He is the father of Gloria Macapagal Arroyo , who was the 14th President of the Philippines from 2001 to 2010.

A native of Lubao, Pampanga , Macapagal graduated from the University of the Philippines
Philippines
and University of Santo Tomas
University of Santo Tomas
, both in Manila
Manila
, after which he worked as a lawyer for the government. He first won election in 1949 to the House of Representatives , representing a district in his home province of Pampanga . In 1957, he became Vice-President under the rule of President Carlos P. García , whom he defeated in the 1961 polls .

Diosdado Macapagal
Diosdado Macapagal
was also a reputed poet in the Chinese and Spanish language, though his poetic oeuvre was eclipsed by his political biography.

As President, Macapagal worked to suppress graft and corruption and to stimulate the Philippine economy. He introduced the country's first land reform law, placed the peso on the free currency exchange market, and liberalized foreign exchange and import controls. Many of his reforms, however, were crippled by a Congress dominated by the rival Nacionalista Party . He is also known for shifting the country's observance of Independence Day from July 4 to June 12, commemorating the day President Emilio Aguinaldo unilaterally declared the independence of the First Philippine Republic from the Spanish Empire in 1898. He stood for re-election in 1965, and was defeated by Ferdinand Marcos
Ferdinand Marcos
, who subsequently ruled for 21 years.

Under Marcos, Macapagal was elected president of the Constitutional Convention which would later draft what became the 1973 Constitution , though the manner in which the charter was ratified and modified led him to later question its legitimacy. He died of heart failure, pneumonia , and renal complications, in 1997, at the age of 86.

CONTENTS

* 1 Early life

* 1.1 Early education * 1.2 Early career * 1.3 First marriage * 1.4 Second marriage

* 2 House of Representatives * 3 Vice presidency

* 4 Presidency

* 4.1 Cabinet * 4.2 Major legislation signed

* 4.3 Domestic policies

* 4.3.1 Economy * 4.3.2 Socio-economic program * 4.3.3 Land reform

* 4.3.4 Anti-corruption drive

* 4.3.4.1 Stonehill controversy

* 4.3.5 Independence Day

* 4.4 Foreign policies

* 4.4.1 North Borneo
North Borneo
claim * 4.4.2 Maphilindo * 4.4.3 Vietnam War

* 4.5 1963 midterm election * 4.6 1965 presidential campaign

* 5 Post-presidency and death

* 6 Legacy

* 6.1 Birthplace (Ancestral House and Lot) * 6.2 Museum and Library

* 7 Electoral history * 8 Honors * 9 Publications * 10 See also * 11 References * 12 External links

EARLY LIFE

Diosdado Macapagal
Diosdado Macapagal
was born on September 28, 1910, in Lubao, Pampanga , the third of four children in a poor family. His father, Urbano Macapagal , was a poet who wrote in the local Pampangan language , and his mother, Romana Pangan Macapagal , was a schoolteacher who taught catechism. He is a distant descendant of Don Juan Macapagal , a prince of Tondo, who was a great-grandson of the last reigning Lakan of the Kingdom of Tondo
Kingdom of Tondo
, Lakan
Lakan
Dula . The family earned extra income by raising pigs and accommodating boarders in their home. Due to his roots in poverty, Macapagal would later become affectionately known as the "Poor boy from Lubao". Diosdado Macapagal
Diosdado Macapagal
was also a reputed poet in the Spanish language although his poet work was eclipsed by his political biography.

EARLY EDUCATION

Macapagal excelled in his studies at local public schools, graduating valedictorian at Lubao Elementary School, and salutatorian at Pampanga High School . He finished his pre-law course at the University of the Philippines
Philippines
, then enrolled at Philippine Law School in 1932, studying on a scholarship and supporting himself with a part-time job as an accountant. While in law school, he gained prominence as an orator and debater. However, he was forced to quit schooling after two years due to poor health and a lack of money.

Returning to Pampanga, he joined boyhood friend Rogelio de la Rosa in producing and starring in Tagalog operettas patterned after classic Spanish zarzuelas . It was during this period that he married his friend's sister, Purita de la Rosa in 1938. He had two children with de la Rosa, Cielo and Arturo.

Macapagal raised enough money to continue his studies at the University of Santo Tomas
University of Santo Tomas
. He also gained the assistance of philanthropist Honorio Ventura, the Secretary of the Interior at the time, who financed his education. After receiving his Bachelor of Laws degree in 1936, he was admitted to the bar , topping the 1936 bar examination with a score of 89.95%. He later returned to his alma mater to take up graduate studies and earn a Master of Laws degree in 1941, a Doctor of Civil Law degree in 1947, and a PhD in Economics in 1957.

EARLY CAREER

After passing the bar examination, Macapagal was invited to join an American law firm as a practicing attorney, a particular honor for a Filipino at the time. He was assigned as a legal assistant to President Manuel L. Quezon in Malacañang Palace
Malacañang Palace
. During the Japanese occupation of the Philippines
Philippines
in World War II, Macapagal continued working in Malacañan Palace as an assistant to President José P. Laurel
José P. Laurel
, while secretly aiding the anti-Japanese resistance during the Allied liberation against the Japanese.

After the war, Macapagal worked as an assistant attorney with one of the largest law firms in the country, Ross, Lawrence, Selph and Carrascoso. With the establishment of the independent Republic of the Philippines
Philippines
in 1946, he rejoined government service when President Manuel Roxas appointed him to the Department of Foreign Affairs as the head of its legal division. In 1948, President Elpidio Quirino appointed Macapagal as chief negotiator in the successful transfer of the Turtle Islands in the Sulu Sea
Sulu Sea
from the United Kingdom to the Philippines. That same year, he was assigned as second secretary to the Philippine Embassy in Washington, D.C. In 1949, he was elevated to the position of Counselor on Legal Affairs and Treaties, at the time the fourth-highest post in the Philippine Foreign Office.

FIRST MARRIAGE

In 1938, he married Purita de la Rosa . They had two children, Cielo Macapagal-Salgado and Arturo Macapagal . Purita died in 1943.

SECOND MARRIAGE

On May 5, 1946 he married Dr. Evangelina Macaraeg , with whom he had two children, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (who would become President of the Philippines
Philippines
) and Diosdado Macapagal, Jr.

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

On the urging of local political leaders of Pampanga province, President Quirino recalled Macapagal from his position in Washington to run for a seat in the House of Representatives representing the 1st District of Pampanga . The district's incumbent, Representative Amado Yuzon , was a friend of Macapagal, but was opposed by the administration due to his support by communist groups. After a campaign that Macapagal described as cordial and free of personal attacks, he won a landslide victory in the 1949 election . He won re-election in the 1953 election , and served as Representative in the 2nd and 3rd Congress .

At the start of legislative sessions in 1950, the members of the House of Representatives elected Macapagal as Chairman of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, and he was given several important foreign assignments. He was a Philippine delegate to the United Nations General Assembly multiple times, notably distinguishing himself in debates over Communist aggression with Andrei Vishinsky and Jacob Malik of the Soviet Union. He took part in negotiations for the U.S.-R.P. Mutual Defense Treaty , the Laurel–Langley Agreement , and the Japanese Peace Treaty . He also authored the Foreign Service Act, which reorganized and strengthened the Philippine foreign service .

As a Representative, Macapagal authored and sponsored several laws of socio-economic importance, particularly aimed at benefiting the rural areas and the poor. Among the pieces of legislation which Macapagal promoted were the Minimum Wage Law, Rural Health Law, Rural Bank Law, the Law on Barrio Councils, the Barrio Industrialization Law, and a law nationalizing the rice and corn industries. He was consistently selected by the Congressional Press Club as one of the Ten Outstanding Congressmen during his tenure. In his second term, he was named Most Outstanding lawmaker of the 3rd Congress .

VICE PRESIDENCY

In the 1957 general election , the Liberal Party drafted Representative Macapagal to run for Vice President as the running-mate of José Yulo , a former Speaker of the House of Representatives . Macapagal's nomination was particularly boosted by Liberal Party President Eugenio Pérez , who insisted that the party's vice presidential nominee have a clean record of integrity and honesty. While Yulo was defeated by Carlos P. Garcia
Carlos P. Garcia
of the Nacionalista Party , Macapagal was elected Vice President in an upset victory, defeating the Nacionalista candidate, José B. Laurel, Jr. , by over eight percentage points. A month after the election, he was also chosen as the head of the Liberal Party.

As the first ever Philippine vice president to be elected from a rival party of the president, Macapagal served out his four-year vice presidential term as a leader of the opposition . The ruling party refused to give him a Cabinet position in the Garcia administration, which was a break from tradition. He was offered a position in the Cabinet only on the condition that he switch allegiance to the ruling Nationalista Party, but he declined the offer and instead played the role of critic to the administration's policies and performance. This allowed him to capitalize on the increasing unpopularity of the Garcia administration. Assigned to performing only ceremonial duties as vice president, he spent his time making frequent trips to the countryside to acquaint himself with voters and to promote the image of the Liberal Party.

PRESIDENCY

Presidential styles of DIOSDADO P. MACAPAGAL

REFERENCE STYLE His Excellency

SPOKEN STYLE Your Excellency

ALTERNATIVE STYLE Mr. President

In the 1961 presidential election , Macapagal ran against Garcia's re-election bid, promising an end to corruption and appealing to the electorate as a common man from humble beginnings. He defeated the incumbent president with a 55% to 45% margin. His inauguration as the president of the Philippines
Philippines
took place on December 30, 1961.

CABINET

OFFICE NAME TERM

President DIOSDADO MACAPAGAL December 30, 1961 – December 30, 1965

Vice-President EMMANUEL PELAEZ December 30, 1961 – December 30, 1965

Secretary of Agriculture and Natural Resources JOSé LOCSIN 1961–1962

BENJAMIN GOZON 1962–1963

JOSé FELICIANO 1963–1965

Commissioner of Budget FAUSTINO SY-CHANGCO February 15, 1960 – December 30, 1965

Secretary of Education, Culture and Sports JOSE ROMERO December 30, 1961 – September 4, 1962

JOSé TUASON September 5, 1962 – December 30, 1962

ALEJANDRO ROCES December 31, 1962 – September 7, 1965

Secretary of Finance FERNANDO SISON January 2, 1962 – July 31, 1962

RODRIGO PéREZ August 1, 1962– January 7, 1964

RUFINO HECHANOVA January 8, 1964– December 13, 1965

Secretary of Foreign Affairs EMMANUEL PELAEZ December 1961 – July 1963

SALVADOR P. LOPEZ 1963

CARLOS P. ROMULO 1963 – 1964

MAURO MENDEZ May 1964 – December 30, 1965

Secretary of Health FRANCISCO DUQUE, JR. January 1962 – July 22, 1963

FLORO DABU July 23, 1963 – March 6, 1964

RODOLFO CANOS May 1, 1964 – June 20, 1964

MANUEL CUENCO December 13, 1964 – December 29, 1965

Secretary of Justice JOSE W. DIOKNO January 1962 – May 1962

JUAN LIWAG May 1962 – July 1963

SALVADOR MARIñO July 1963 – December 1965

Secretary of National Defense MACARIO PERALTA, JR. December 30, 1961 – December 30, 1965

Secretary of Commerce and Industry MANUEL LIM 1961 – 1962

RUFINO HECHANOVA 1962 – 1963

CORNELIO BALMACEDA 1963 – 1965

Secretary of Public Works, Transportation and Communications MARCIANO BAUTISTA 1961 – 1962

PAULINO CASES 1962

BRIGIDO VALENCIA 1962 – 1963

JORGE ABAD 1963 – 1965

Secretary of Agrarian Reform SIXTO ROXAS 1963

CLAUDETTE CALIGUIRAN 1963 – 1964

BENJAMIN GOZON 1964 – 1965

MAJOR LEGISLATION SIGNED

* Republic Act No. 3512 – An Act Creating A Fisheries Commission Defining Its Powers, Duties and Functions, and Appropriating Funds Therefor. * Republic Act No. 3518 – An Act Creating The Philippine Veterans' Bank, and For Other Purposes. * Republic Act No. 3844 – An Act To Ordain The Agricultural Land Reform Code and To Institute Land Reforms In The Philippines, Including The Abolition of Tenancy and The Channeling of Capital Into Industry, Provide For The Necessary Implementing Agencies, Appropriate Funds Therefor and For Other Purposes. * Republic Act No. 4166 – An Act Changing The Date Of Philippine Independence Day From July Four To June Twelve, And Declaring July Four As Philippine Republic Day, Further Amending For The Purpose Section Twenty-Nine Of The Revised Administrative Code. * Republic Act No. 4180 – An Act Amending Republic Act Numbered Six Hundred Two, Otherwise Known As The Minimum Wage Law, By Raising The Minimum Wage For Certain Workers, And For Other Purposes.

DOMESTIC POLICIES

Economy of the Philippines
Philippines
under President Diosdado Macapagal 1961–1965 POPULATION

1962 {displaystyle approx } 29.20 million

GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT

1962 Php 234,828 million ($ 89.0 billion)

1965 Php 273,769 million ($ 72.0 billion)

GROWTH RATE, 1962-65 5.5 %

PER CAPITA INCOME

1962 Php 8,042

1965 Php 8,617

TOTAL EXPORTS

1962 Php 46,177 million

1965 Php 66,216 million

EXCHANGE RATES

1 US$ = Php 3.80 1 Php = US$ 0.26

Sources: Philippine Presidency Project Malaya, Jonathan; Eduardo Malaya. So Help Us God... The Inaugurals of the Presidents of the Philippines. Anvil Publishing, Inc.

Economy

In his inaugural address, Macapagal promised a socio-economic program anchored on "a return to free and private enterprise", placing economic development in the hands of private entrepreneurs with minimal government interference.

Twenty days after the inauguration, exchange controls were lifted and the Philippine peso was allowed to float on the free currency exchange market. The currency controls were initially adopted by the administration of Elpidio Quirino as a temporary measure, but continued to be adopted by succeeding administrations. The peso devalued from P2.64 to the U.S. dollar, and stabilized at P3.80 to the dollar, supported by a $300 million stabilization fund from the International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund
.

To achieve the national goal of economic and social progress with prosperity reaching down to the masses, there existed a choice of methods. First, there was the choice between the democratic and dictatorial systems, the latter prevailing in Communist countries. On this, the choice was easy as Filipinos had long been committed to the democratic method. With the democratic mechanism, however, the next choice was between free enterprise and the continuing of the controls system. Macapagal stated the essence of free enterprise in layman parlance in declaring before Congress on January 22, 1962 that "the task of economic development belongs principally to private enterprise and not to the government.

Before independence there was free enterprise in the Philippines under Presidents Manuel Quezon
Manuel Quezon
, Sergio Osmeña
Sergio Osmeña
and Manuel Roxas . In 1950 President Elpidio Quirino deviated from free enterprise launching as a temporary emergency measure the system of exchange and import controls. The controls system was carried on by President Magsaysay and Garcia.

The first fundamental decision Macapagal had to make was whether to continue the system of exchange controls of Quirino, Magsaysay and Garcia or to return to the free enterprise of Quezon, Osmena and Roxas. It had been his view since he was a Congressman for eight years that the suitable economic system for Filipinos was free enterprise. So on January 21, 1962 after working for 20 straight hours he signed a Central Bank decree abolishing exchange controls and returning the country to free enterprise.

During the 20 days available to make a decision on choice between controls and free enterprise, between his inauguration as President and before the opening of Congress , Macapagal's main adviser was Governor Andres Castillo of the Central Bank .

Further reform efforts by Macapagal were blocked by the Nacionalistas, who dominated the House of Representatives and the Senate at that time. Nonetheless, Macapagal was able to achieve steady economic progress, and annual GDP growth averaged at 5.53% for 1962–65.

Socio-economic Program

The removal of controls and the restoration of free enterprise was intended to provide only the fundamental setting in which Macapagal could work out economic and social progress. A specific and periodic program for the guidance of both the private sector and the government was an essential instrument to attain the economic and social development that constituted the goal of his labors.

Such a program for his administration was formulated under his authority and direction by a group of able and reputable economic and business leaders the most active and effective of which was Sixto Roxas III. From an examination of the planned targets and requirements of the Five-Year program – formally known as the Five-Year Socio- Economic Integrated Development Program – it could be seen that it aimed at the following objectives.

* immediate restoration of economic stability ; * alleviating the plight of the common man; and * establishing a dynamic basic for future growth.

Free enterprise was restored with decontrol. The Five-Year Economic Program had been prescribed. Land reform abolishing tenancy had been launched. These were essential foundations for economic and social progress for the greatest number.

The essential foundations having been laid, attention must then be turned to the equally difficult task of building the main edifice by implementing the economic program. Although the success of Macapagal's Socio- Economic Program in free enterprise inherently depended on the private sector, it would be helpful and necessary for the government to render active assistance in its implementation by the citizens.

Such role of the government in free enterprise , in the view of Macapagal, required it (1) to provide the social overhead like roads, airfields and ports that directly or proximately promote economic growth, (2) to adopt fiscal and monetary policies salutary to investments, and most importantly (3) to serve as an entrepreneur or promote of basic and key private industries, particularly those that require capital too large for businessmen to put up by themselves. Among the enterprises he selected for active government promotion were integrated steel , fertilizer , pulp , meat canning and tourism .

Land Reform

See also: Land reform in the Philippines
Philippines

Like Ramon Magsaysay , President Diosdado Macapagal
Diosdado Macapagal
came from the masses. He savored calling himself the "Poor boy from Lubao". Ironically, he had little popularity among the masses. This could be attributed to an absence any charismatic appeal owing to his stiff personality. But despite this, Macapagal had certain achievements. Foremost of these was the Agricultural Land Reform Code of 1963 (Republic Act No. 3844) which provided for the purchase of private farmlands with the intention of distributing them in small lots to the landless tenants on easy term of payment. It is a major development in history of land reform in the Philippines
Philippines
,

In comparison with the previous agrarian legislation, the law lowered the retention limit to 75 hectares, whether owned by individuals or corporations. It removed the term "contiguous" and established the leasehold system. The share-tenancy or the kasama system was prohibited. It formulated a bill of rights that assured agricultural workers the right to self-organization and to a minimum wage . It also created an office that acquired and distributed farmlands and a financing institution for this purpose. The major flaw of this law was, however, that it had several exemptions, such as ort (big capital plantations established during the Spanish and American periods); fishponds, saltbeds, and lands primarily planted to citrus , coconuts , cacao , coffee , durian , and other similar permanent trees; landholdings converted to residential , commercial , industrial , or other similar non-agricultural purposes.

It was viewed that the 75-hectare retention limit was just too high for the growing population density. Moreover, this law merely allowed the transfer of the landlordism from one area to another. This was because landlords were paid in bonds, which he could use to purchase agricultural lands. Likewise, the farmer was free to choose to be excluded from the leasehold arrangements if he volunteered to give up the landholdings to the landlord.

Within two years after the law was implemented, no land was being purchased under its term and conditions caused by the peasants ' inability to purchase the land. Besides, the government seemed lacking of strong political will, as shown by the Congress ' allotment of only one million Philippine pesos for the implementation of this code. At least Php200 million was needed within a year from the enactment and implementation of the code, and Php300 million in the next three years for the program to be successful. However, by 1972, the code had benefited only 4,500 peasants covering 68 estates, at the cost of Php57 million to the government. Consequently, by the 1970s, the farmers ended up tilling less land, with their share in the farm also being less. They incurred more debts, depending on the landlord , creditors , and palay buyers. Indeed, during the administration of Macapagal, the productivity of the farmers further declined.

Anti-corruption Drive

One of Macapagal's major campaign pledges had been to clean out the government corruption that had proliferated under former President Garcia. The administration also openly feuded with Filipino businessmen Fernando Lopez and Eugenio Lopez , brothers who had controlling interests in several large businesses. The administration alluded to the brothers as "Filipino Stonehills who build and maintain business empires through political power, including the corruption of politicians and other officials". In the 1965 election , the Lopezes threw their support behind Macapagal's rival, Ferdinand Marcos
Ferdinand Marcos
, with Fernando Lopez serving Marcos' running mate.

Stonehill Controversy

The Administration's campaign against corruption was tested by Harry Stonehill , an American expatriate with a $50-million business empire in the Philippines. Macapagal's Secretary of Justice, Jose W. Diokno investigated Stonehill on charges of tax evasion, smuggling, misdeclaration of imports, and corruption of public officials. Diokno's investigation revealed Stonehill's ties to corruption within the government. Macapagal, however, prevented Diokno from prosecuting Stonehill by deporting the American instead, then dismissing Diokno from the cabinet. Diokno questioned Macapagal's actions, saying, "How can the government now prosecute the corrupted when it has allowed the corrupter to go?" Diokno later served as a Senator of the Republic .

Independence Day

Macapagal appealed to nationalist sentiments by shifting the commemoration of Philippine independence day. On May 12, 1962, he signed a proclamation which declared Tuesday, June 12, 1962, as a special public holiday in commemoration of the declaration of independence from Spain
Spain
on that date in 1898. The change became permanent in 1964 with the signing of Republic Act No. 4166. For having issued his 1962 proclamation, Macapagal is generally credited with having moved the celebration date of the Independence Day holiday. Years later, Macapagal told journalist Stanley Karnow the real reason for the change: "When I was in the diplomatic corps, I noticed that nobody came to our receptions on the Fourth of July , but went to the American Embassy instead. So, to compete, I decided we needed a different holiday."

FOREIGN POLICIES

North Borneo
North Borneo
Claim

President Diosdado Macapagal
Diosdado Macapagal
on the bridge of the USS Oklahoma City in 1962

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: NORTH BORNEO CLAIM - DIOSDADO MACAPAGAL\\'S SECOND STATE OF THE NATION ADDRESS ON 28 JANUARY 1963

On September 12, 1962, during President Diosdado Macapagal's administration, the territory of eastern North Borneo
North Borneo
(now Sabah
Sabah
), and the full sovereignty, title and dominion over the territory were ceded by heirs of the Sultanate of Sulu , HM Sultan Muhammad Esmail E. Kiram I, to the Republic of the Philippines
Philippines
. The cession effectively gave the Philippine government the full authority to pursue their claim in international courts. The Philippines
Philippines
broke diplomatic relations with Malaysia after the federation had included Sabah
Sabah
in 1963. It was revoked in 1989 because succeeding Philippine administrations have placed the claim in the back burner in the interest of pursuing cordial economic and security relations with Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
. To date, Malaysia continues to consistently reject Philippine calls to resolve the matter of Sabah's jurisdiction to the International Court of Justice
International Court of Justice
. Sabah
Sabah
sees the claim made by the Philippines' Moro leader Nur Misuari to take Sabah
Sabah
to International Court of Justice (ICJ) as a non-issue and thus dismissed the claim.

Maphilindo

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: MANILA ACCORRD

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: MANILA DECLARATION

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: JOINT STATEMENT BY THE GOVERNMENTS OF PHILIPPINES, MALAYSIA AND INDONESIA

In July 1963, President Diosdado Macapagal
Diosdado Macapagal
convened a summit meeting in Manila
Manila
in which a nonpolitical confederation for Malaysia, the Philippines, and Indonesia, Maphilindo , was proposed as a realization of José Rizal
José Rizal
's dream of bringing together the Malay peoples, seen as artificially divided by colonial frontiers.

Maphilindo was described as a regional association that would approach issues of common concern in the spirit of consensus. However, it was also perceived as a tactic on the parts of Jakarta
Jakarta
and Manila to delay, or even prevent, the formation of the Federation of Malaysia . Manila
Manila
had its own claim to Sabah
Sabah
(formerly British North Borneo
North Borneo
), and Jakarta
Jakarta
protested the formation of Malaysia as a British imperialist plot. The plan failed when Sukarno
Sukarno
adopted his plan of "konfrontasi " with Malaysia. The Konfrontasi, or Confrontation basically aimed at preventing Malaysia from attaining independence. The idea was inspired onto President Sukarno
Sukarno
by the Partai Komunis Indonesia (PKI), or literally the Indonesian Communist Party . The party convinced President Sukarno
Sukarno
that the formation of Malaysia is a form of neo-colonization and would affect tranquility in Indonesia. The subsequent development of ASEAN
ASEAN
almost certainly excludes any possibility of the project ever being revived.

Vietnam War

Before the end of his term in 1965, President Diosdado Macapagal persuaded Congress to send troops to South Vietnam
South Vietnam
. However this proposal was blocked by the opposition led by Senate President Ferdinand Marcos
Ferdinand Marcos
who deserted Macapagal's Liberal Party and tae

to the Nacionalista Party .

The U.S. government 's active interest in bringing other nations into the war had been part of U.S. policy discussions as early as 1961. President Lyndon Johnson first publicly appealed for other countries to come to the aid of South Vietnam
South Vietnam
on April 23, 1964–in what was called the "More Flags" program. Chester Cooper, former director of Asian affairs for the White House, explained why the impetus came from the United States instead of from the Republic of South Vietnam: "The 'More Flags' campaign ... required the application of considerable pressure for Washington to elicit any meaningful commitments. One of the more exasperating aspects of the search…was the lassitude …... of the Saigon government. In part ... the South Vietnam
South Vietnam
leaders were preoccupied with political jockeying. ... In addition, Saigon appeared to believe that the program was a public relations campaign directed at the American people."

1963 MIDTERM ELECTION

Main article: Philippine Senate election, 1963

The senatorial election was held on November 12, 1963. Macapagal's Liberal Party (LP) won four out of the eight seats up for grabs during the election – thereby increasing the LP's senate seats from eight to ten.

1965 PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN

Main article: Philippine presidential election, 1965
Philippine presidential election, 1965

Towards the end of his term, Macapagal decided to seek re-election to continue seeking reforms which he claimed were stifled by a "dominant and uncooperative opposition" in Congress. With Senate President Ferdinand Marcos, a fellow member of the Liberal Party, unable to win his party's nomination due to Macapagal's re-election bid, Marcos switched allegiance to the rival Nacionalista Party to oppose Macapagal.

Among the issues raised against the incumbent administration were graft and corruption, rise in consumer goods, and persisting peace and order issues. Macapagal was defeated by Marcos in the November 1965 polls .

POST-PRESIDENCY AND DEATH

Grave of Diosdado Macapagal
Diosdado Macapagal
at the Libingan ng mga Bayani.

Macapagal announced his retirement from politics following his 1965 loss to Marcos. In 1971, he was elected president of the constitutional convention that drafted what became the 1973 constitution. The manner in which the charter was ratified and later modified led him to later question its legitimacy. In 1979, he formed the National Union for Liberation as a political party to oppose the Marcos regime.

Following the restoration of democracy in 1986, Macapagal took on the role of elder statesman , and was a member of the Philippine Council of State . He also served as honorary chairman of the National Centennial Commission, and chairman of the board of CAP Life, among others.

In his retirement, Macapagal devoted much of his time to reading and writing. He published his presidential memoir, authored several books about government and economics, and wrote a weekly column for the Manila
Manila
Bulletin newspaper.

Diosdado Macapagal
Diosdado Macapagal
died of heart failure, pneumonia and renal complications at the Makati
Makati
Medical Center on April 21, 1997. He is buried at the Libingan ng mga Bayani .

LEGACY

On September 28, 2009, Macapagal's daughter, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo , inaugurated the President Diosdado Macapagal
Diosdado Macapagal
Museum and Library, located at his home town of Lubao, Pampanga .

President Benigno S. Aquino III declared September 28, 2010 as a special non-working holiday in Macapagal's home province of Pampanga to commemorate the centennial of his birth.

BIRTHPLACE (ANCESTRAL HOUSE AND LOT)

The landmarks are located in front of Lubao Institute at San Nicolas 1, Lubao, Pampanga.

*

The "Bahay Kubo" of Macapagal *

Mural *

Interior *

Inside the small house *

Prologue *

Marker

MUSEUM AND LIBRARY

These house the personal books and memorabilia of Macapagal.

*

Macapagal Clan *

Façade of the House *

Bust (sculpture) of Macapagal in museum-library *

Museum and Library *

Oil Portrait of Macapagal *

Second floor of the Museum

ELECTORAL HISTORY

VICE PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION, 1957 :

* DIOSDADO MACAPAGAL (Liberal Party ) – 2,189,197 (46.55%) * José Laurel, Jr. ( Nacionalista Party ) – 1,783,012 (37.91%) * Vicente Araneta (Progressive Party ) – 375,090 (7.97%) * Lorenzo Tañada (Nationalist Citizens\' Party ) – 344,685 (7.32%) * Restituto Fresto ( Lapiang Malaya ) – 10,494 (0.22%)

PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION, 1961 :

* DIOSDADO MACAPAGAL (Liberal Party ) – 3,554,840 (55%) * Carlos P. Garcia
Carlos P. Garcia
( Nacionalista Party ) – 2,902,996 (45%)

PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION, 1965 :

* Ferdinand Marcos
Ferdinand Marcos
( Nacionalista Party ) – 3,861,324 (51.94%) * DIOSDADO MACAPAGAL (Liberal Party ) – 3,187,752 (42.88%) * Raul Manglapus (Progressive Party ) – 384,564 (5.17%)

HONORS

NATIONAL HONOR

* Philippines
Philippines
: Grand Cross (Dakilang Kamanong) of the Gawad Mabini (1994)

FOREIGN HONOR

* Taiwan
Taiwan
: Grand Cordon of the Order of Brilliant Jade (May 2, 1960) * Japan
Japan
: Grand Cordon of the Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum (1962) * Spain
Spain
: Knight of the Collar of the Order of Isabella the Catholic (June 30, 1962) * Italy
Italy
: Knight Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic (July 1962) * Vatican :Knight with Collar of the Order of Pius IX (July 9, 1962) * Pakistan
Pakistan
: Nishan-e- Pakistan
Pakistan
(July 11, 1962) * Sovereign Military Order of Malta : Collar of the Order pro merito Melitensi * Thailand
Thailand
: Knight of the Order of the Rajamitrabhorn * West Germany
West Germany
: Grand Cross Special
Special
Clas of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany (November 1963)

PUBLICATIONS

* Speeches of President Diosdado Macapagal. Manila: Bureau of Printing, 1961. * New Hope for the Common Man: Speeches and Statements of President Diosdado Macapagal. Manila: Malacañang Press Office, 1962. * Five Year Integrated Socio-economic Program for the Philippines. Manila: , 1963. * Fullness of Freedom: Speeches and Statements of President Diosdado Macapagal. Manila: Bureau of Printing, 1965. * An Asian looks at South America. Quezon City: Mac Publishing House, 1966. * The Philippines
Philippines
Turns East. Quezon City: Mac Publishing House, 1966. * A Stone for the Edifice: Memoirs of a President. Quezon City: Mac Publishing House, 1968. * A New Constitution for the Philippines. Quezon City: Mac Publishing House, 1970. * Democracy
Democracy
in the Philippines. Manila: , 1976. * Constitutional Democracy
Democracy
in the World. Manila: Santo Tomas University Press, 1993. * From Nipa Hut to Presidential Palace: Autobiography of President Diosdado P. Macapagal. Quezon City: Philippine Academy for Continuing Education and Research, 2002.

SEE ALSO

* History of the Philippines
Philippines
(1946–1965) * History of the Philippines
Philippines
* Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo * Agricultural Land Reform Code * MAPHILINDO

NAMED AFTER DIOSDADO MACAPAGAL:

* Diosdado Macapagal Boulevard

REFERENCES

* ^ " Diosdado Macapagal
Diosdado Macapagal
biography". The Macapagals. Archived from the original on September 17, 2008. Retrieved August 9, 2009. * ^ A B C D E F G H "Common Man\'s President". Time. November 24, 1961. Retrieved August 6, 2009. * ^ "The Houses of Lakandula, Matanda, and Solayman (1571–1898): Genealogy and Group Identity". Philippine Quarterly of Culture and Society 18. 1990. * ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R Malaya, J. Eduardo; Jonathan E. Malaya (2004). So Help Us God: The Presidents of the Philippines
Philippines
and Their Inaugural Addresses. Manila: Anvil. pp. 200–214. ISBN 971-27-1486-1 . * ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P "Diosdado Macapagal". Malacañang Museum. Office of the President of the Philippines. Archived from the original on June 24, 2008. Retrieved August 6, 2009.

* ^ A B "Diosdado Macapagal". Encarta Online Encyclopedia. Microsoft. Archived from the original on October 31, 2009. Retrieved August 6, 2009. * ^ Karnow, Stanley (1989). In Our Image: America\'s Empire in the Philippines
Philippines
. New York: Ballantine Books. p. 33. ISBN 0-345-32816-7 . * ^ A B C Macapagal, Diosdado (1966). "About the Author". The Philippines
Philippines
Turns East. Quezon City: Mac Publishing House. * ^ A B C D " Diosdado Macapagal
Diosdado Macapagal
autobiography". The Macapagals. Archived from the original on June 1, 2009. Retrieved August 9, 2009. * ^ A B C D E F G H I J K "Diosdado Macapagal". Macapagal.com. Retrieved September 23, 2011. * ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Manapat, Carlos, et al. Economics, Taxation, and Agrarian Reform. Quezon City: C&E Pub., 2010. Print. * ^ A B C D "The Philippines: Smoke in Manila". Time. August 10, 1962. Retrieved August 11, 2009. * ^ A B "Building a Strong Republic" (PDF). Philippine Information Agency. 2003. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 27, 2007. Retrieved August 11, 2009. * ^ Diosdado Macapagal, Proclamation No. 28 Declaring June 12 as Philippine Independence Day, Philippine History Group of Los Angeles, archived from the original on May 12, 2009, retrieved November 11, 2009 * ^ Proclamation no. 28: June 12 as Philippine Independence Day Archived October 24, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. in Insights on the Philippine Independence, Kalayaan 2000, June 12, 2000, Presidential Communications Operations Office. * ^ "Republic Act No. 4166". August 4, 1964. Retrieved August 5, 2009. * ^ Ambeth Ocampo (September 28, 2010). "Looking Back : Macapagal at 100". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved February 8, 2011. * ^ Manuel S. Satorre, Jr., President Diosdado Macapagal
Diosdado Macapagal
set RP Independence Day on June 12, .positivenewsmedia.net, retrieved 2008-12-10 * ^ Karnow 1989 , p. 365. * ^ "UN General Assembly 15th Session – The Trusteeship System and Non-Self-Governing Territories (pages:509–510)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 20, 2012. Retrieved September 23, 2011. * ^ "UN General Assembly 18th Session – the Question of Malaysia (pages:41–44)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on November 11, 2011. Retrieved September 23, 2011. * ^ "Cession and transfer of the territory of North Borneo
North Borneo
by His Highness, Sultan Mohammad Esmail Kiram, Sultan of Sulu, acting with the consent and aprroval of the Ruma Bechara, in council assembled, to the Republic of the Philippines". Government of the Philippines. April 24, 1962. Archived from the original on February 7, 2016. Retrieved September 29, 2016. * ^ "United Nations Treaty Registered No. 8029, Manila
Manila
Accord between Philippines, Federation of Malaya and Indonesia (31 JULY 1963)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on October 11, 2010. Retrieved September 23, 2011. * ^ "United Nations Treaty Series No. 8809, Agreement relating to the implementation of the Manila
Manila
Accord" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on October 12, 2011. Retrieved September 23, 2011. * ^ Come clean on Sabah, Sulu sultan urge gov\'t. Accessed March 1, 2008. * ^ Philippines\' Claim To Sabah. Accessed February 28, 2008. * ^ The Star (May 29, 2008). Call for ICJ arbitration dismissed. * ^ A B C "Diosdado Macapagal". Macapagal.com. Retrieved September 23, 2011. * ^ A B C "The Philippines: Allies During the Vietnam War". HistoryNet. Retrieved September 23, 2011. * ^ "Youtube – Inauguration and Blessing of Pres Diosdado Macapagal Museum and Library Lubao, Pampanga". Youtube.com. September 28, 2009. Retrieved September 23, 2011. * ^ "PGMA leads the inauguration of Diosdado Macapagal
Diosdado Macapagal
Museum and Library. – Philippines
Philippines
News Agency". Highbeam.com. Retrieved September 23, 2011. * ^ Macapagal at 100 Archived May 7, 2011, at the Wayback Machine ., Ambeth Ocampo, Philippine Daily Inquirer. * ^ "Cementing Philippines
Philippines
Friendship". Taiwan
Taiwan
Today.

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