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Dionysius of Halicarnassus
Halicarnassus
(Greek: Διονύσιος Αλεξάνδρου Αλικαρνασσεύς Dionysios Alexandrou Alikarnassefs; "Dionysios son of Alexandros of Halikarnassos"; c. 60 BC – after 7 BC) was a Greek historian and teacher of rhetoric, who flourished during the reign of Caesar Augustus. His literary style was Atticistic — imitating Classical Attic Greek
Attic Greek
in its prime. Dionysius' opinion of the necessity of a promotion of paideia within education, from true knowledge of Classical sources, endured for centuries in a form integral to the identity of the Greek elite.[1]

Contents

1 Life 2 Works

2.1 Dionysian imitatio

3 Foundation myth

3.1 Romulus
Romulus
and Remus

3.1.1 Origins and survival in the wild 3.1.2 Youth 3.1.3 Overthrow of Amulius 3.1.4 Death of Remus

3.2 Foundation of Rome
Rome
by Romulus

3.2.1 Institutions 3.2.2 Legal system 3.2.3 Rape of the Sabine women 3.2.4 Deaths of Tatius
Tatius
and Romulus

4 Editions 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links

Life[edit] He was a Halicarnassusian.[1] At some time he moved to Rome
Rome
after the termination of the civil wars, and spent twenty-two years studying Latin
Latin
and literature and preparing materials for his history. During this period, he gave lessons in rhetoric, and enjoyed the society of many distinguished men. The date of his death is unknown.[2] In the 19th century, it was commonly supposed that he was the ancestor of Aelius Dionysius of Halicarnassus.[3] Works[edit] His major work, entitled Ρωμαϊκή Αρχαιολογία (Romaiki Archeologia, Roman Antiquities), embraced the history of Rome from the mythical period to the beginning of the First Punic War. It was divided into twenty books, of which the first nine remain entire, the tenth and eleventh are nearly complete, and the remaining books exist in fragments in the excerpts of the Roman emperor Constantine Porphyrogenitus and an epitome discovered by Angelo Mai in a Milan manuscript. The first three books of Appian, Plutarch's Life of Camillus and Life of Coriolanus also embody much of Dionysius.[citation needed] His chief object was to reconcile the Greeks
Greeks
to the rule of Rome, by dilating upon the good qualities of their conquerors and also by arguing, using more ancient sources, that the Romans were genuine descendants of the older Greeks.[4][5] According to him, history is philosophy teaching by examples, and this idea he has carried out from the point of view of a Greek rhetorician. But he carefully consulted the best authorities, and his work and that of Livy
Livy
are the only connected and detailed extant accounts of early Roman history. Dionysius was also the author of several rhetorical treatises, in which he shows that he has thoroughly studied the best Attic models:

The Art of Rhetoric
Rhetoric
(Τέχνη ρητορική Techni ritoriki), which is rather a collection of essays on the theory of rhetoric, incomplete, and certainly not all his work; The Arrangement of Words (Περί συνθέσεως ὀνομάτων Peri syntheseos onomaton, De compositione verborum), treating of the combination of words according to the different styles of oratory; On Imitation (Περί μιμήσεως Peri mimiseos), on the best models in the different kinds of literature and the way in which they are to be imitated—a fragmentary work; Commentaries on the Attic Orators (Περί τών Αττικών ρητόρων Peri ton Attikon ritoron), which, however, only deal with Lysias, Isaeus, Isocrates
Isocrates
and (by way of supplement) Dinarchus; On the Admirable Style of Demosthenes
Demosthenes
(Περί λεκτικής Δημοσθένους δεινότητος Peri lektikis Dimosthenous dinotitos); and On the Character of Thucydides (Περί Θουκιδίδου χαρακτήρος Peri Thoukydidou charaktiros).

The last two treatises are supplemented by letters to Gn. Pompeius and Ammaeus (two, one of which is about Thucydides).[2] Dionysian imitatio[edit] Main article: Dionysian imitatio Dionysian imitatio is the literary method of imitation as formulated by Dionysius, who conceived it as the rhetorical practice of emulating, adapting, reworking, and enriching a source text by an earlier author.[6][7] Dionysius' concept marked a significant departure from the concept of mimesis formulated by Aristotle
Aristotle
in the 4th century BC, which was only concerned with "imitation of nature" and not "imitation of other authors."[6] Latin
Latin
orators and rhetoricians adopted Dionysius' method of imitatio and discarded Aristotle's mimesis.[6] Foundation myth[edit] Dionysius is one of the primary sources for the accounts of the Roman foundation myth and the myth of Romulus
Romulus
and Remus. He was heavily relied upon for the later publications of Livy
Livy
and Plutarch[citation needed]. He writes extensively on the myth, sometimes attributing direct quotations to its figures. The myth spans the first 2 volumes of his Roman Antiquities, beginning with Book I chapter 73 and concluding in Book II chapter 56.[citation needed] Romulus
Romulus
and Remus[edit] Origins and survival in the wild[edit] Dionysius claims that the twins were born to a vestal named Ilia Silvia (sometimes called Rea). Her family descends from Aeneas
Aeneas
of Troy and the daughter of King Latinus
Latinus
of the Original Latin
Latin
tribes. Proca, her grandfather had willed the throne to his son Numitor but he was later deposed by her uncle, Amulius. For fear of the threat that Numitor's heirs might pose, the king had Ilia's brother, Aegestus killed and blamed robbers. The truth about the crime was known by some, including Numitor, who feigned ignorance. Amulius
Amulius
then appointed Ilia to the Vestal priestesshood, where her vow of chastity would prevent her from producing any further male rivals. Despite this, she became pregnant a few years later, claiming to have been raped. The different accounts of the twins' conception are laid out, but Dionysius declines to choose one over the others. The sources variously relate that it was a suitor, Amulius
Amulius
himself (in full armor to conceal his identity), or even the god Mars himself. The latter is supposed to have comforted Ilia by making her grieve, and telling her that she would bear twins whose bravery and triumphs would be unmatched. Ilia hid her pregnancy with claims of illness so as to avoid her vestal duties. Amulius
Amulius
suspected her and employed physicians and his wife to monitor her for signs of being with child. When he did discover the truth, she was placed under armed guard. After being informed of the delivery of the twins, Amulius
Amulius
suspected that she had in fact given birth to triplets. The third child had been concealed from the guards present. Ilia was either put to death, or kept secretly in a hidden dungeon for the rest of her life. Citing Fabius, Cincius, Porcius Cato, and Piso, Dionysius recounts the most common tale. The king orders the twins to be tossed into the Tiber. When his servants arrived at the riverbank, high waters had made it impossible to reach the stream. They left the twin's basket in a pool of standing water on the site of the ficus Ruminalis. After the waters of the Tiber had carried the twins away, their basket is overturned by a rock and they are dumped into the mud. A she-wolf finds them there and nurses them in front of her lair (the Lupercal). Plutarch
Plutarch
places the Lupercal
Lupercal
as at the foot of Palantine hill along the road to the Roman chariot grounds and was the source of a natural spring. Youth[edit] The twins were discovered by unnamed herdsmen, and when they arrive, the she-wolf calmly retreats into the cave. Faustulus, the man in charge of the royal abattoir, happened upon the scene. He had heard the story of Ilia's twin birth and the king's order, but never let on that he suspected the foundlings were one and the same. He persuaded the shepherds to allow him to take the boys home, and brought them to his wife, who had just delivered a stillborn child. Later, quoting Fabius' account of the overthrow of Amulius, Dionysius claims that Faustulus
Faustulus
had saved the basket in which the boys had been abandoned.[citation needed] As they grew, the boys exhibited the graces and behavior of the royal-born. They passed their days living as herdsmen in the mountains, spending many nights in huts of reeds and sticks. orphan footnote.[8] Dionysius relates an alternate, "non-fantastical" version of Romulus and Remus' birth, survival and youth. In this version, Numitor managed to switch the twins at birth with two other infants. The twins were delivered by their grandfather to Faustulus
Faustulus
to be fostered by him and his wife. Faustulus
Faustulus
was descended from the first Greek colonists in Latium. He was the caretaker for Amulius' holdings around Palatine hill. He was persuaded to care for the twins by his brother Faustinus, who tended the kings herds on nearby Aventine hill. Their adopted mother was Faustulus' wife Laurentia, a former prostitute. According to Plutarch, lupa( Latin
Latin
for "wolf") was a common term for members of her profession and this gave rise to the she-wolf legend. The twins receive a proper education in the city of Gabii. Overthrow of Amulius[edit] According to Fabius, when the twins were 18, they became embroiled in a violent disputes with some of Numitor's herdsmen. In retaliation, Remus was lured into an ambush and capture while Romulus
Romulus
was elsewhere. In Aelius Tubero's version, the twins were taking part in the festivities of the Lupercalia, requiring them to run naked through the village when Remus, defenseless as he was, was taken prisoner by Numitor's armed men. After rounding up the toughest herdsmen to help him free Remus, Romulus
Romulus
rashly set out for Alba Longa. To avoid tragedy, Faustulus intercepted him and revealed the truth about the twins' parentage. With the discovery that Numitor was family, Romulus
Romulus
sets his sights on Amulius, instead. He and the rest of his village set out in small groups toward the city so that their arrival will go unnoticed by the guards. Meanwhile, after being turned over to Numitor to determine his punishment, Remus was told of his origins by the former king and eagerly joins with him in their own effort to topple Amulius. When Romulus
Romulus
joined them at Numitor's home, the three of them began to plan their next move.[citation needed] Back home, Faustulus
Faustulus
had begun to worry about how the twins' claims will be heard in Alba. He decides to bolster them by bringing the basket in which they were abandoned to the city. He's stopped by suspicious guards at the gates and he and the basket are seen by none-other-than the servant who had taken them to the river those many years before. Under the questioning of the king, and after the king's insincere offers of benevolence toward his nephews, Faustulus, trying to protect Romulus
Romulus
and Remus, and escape the king's clutches, claimed he had been bringing the basket to the imprisoned Ilia at the twins request and that they were at the moment tending their flocks in the mountains. Amulius
Amulius
sent Faustulus
Faustulus
and his men to find the boys. He then tried to trick Numitor into coming to the palace so that the former king could be kept under guard until the situation had been dealt with. Unfortunately for the king, the man he sent to lure Numitor into his clutches instead revealed everything that had happened at the palace. The twins and their grandfather led their joint supporters to the palace, killed Amulius, and took control of the city. Plutarch
Plutarch
continues the same alternate version of the twins' parentage and youth. After the boys had returned home from their studies in Gabii, Numitor has the twins attack his own herdsmen and drive off his own cattle to contrive a complaint against his brother. To placate him, Amulius
Amulius
ordered not only the twins to be brought to the palace for trial, but all the others who were present, as well. This is exactly what Numitor had hoped for. When Romulus and Remus
Romulus and Remus
arrived in Alba, their grandfather revealed their true identity and he, the twins and the other herdsmen joined forces to attack Amulius, apparently killing him. Death of Remus[edit] The now re-installed King Numitor granted Romulus and Remus
Romulus and Remus
control over the area around where Rome
Rome
would be founded, and sent some of Alba Longa's commoners and nobles along with them. These included volunteers as well as his enemies, and other troublemakers and fifty families of the descendants of the Greeks
Greeks
who had settled in Italy after the Trojan War. The commoners were given provisions, weapons, slaves and livestock. Wanting to use competition to better complete the many tasks ahead of them, each twin took command of half of the new group of colonists and natives. Instead, the two groups each wanted their twin to be king. Eventually, both Romulus and Remus
Romulus and Remus
began to harbor their own ambitions of being the sole ruler of the new city. Things came to a head when a dispute broke out over the particular hill upon which Rome
Rome
should be built. Romulus
Romulus
wanted to build on Palatine Hill
Palatine Hill
for its significance to their childhood. Remus chose Aventine Hill
Aventine Hill
for its strategic advantages. Finally, with no resolution in site, they took the matter to Numitor. He told each twin to stake out a spot on an appointed morning at dawn and wait for a "bird omen" from the gods to settle things. They took his suggestion and the two brothers took their positions along with guard to prevent cheating. No birds appeared to Romulus, but he tried to trick Remus by sending a message that he should come to him right away. Ashamed, the messengers took their time, and while en route, Remus saw 6 vultures. The messengers brought Remus back to his brother and when they arrived, Romulus
Romulus
was asked what type of bird he had seen (apparently owing to the ruse). Unsure, Romulus
Romulus
was suddenly saved by the sudden arrival of 12 vultures. He dismissed his brother's query and declared himself the winner. Furious Remus refused to accept defeat. This reignited the conflict between them. Outwardly, each twin acknowledged the other's claim to having won: Remus by seeing the vultures first, and Romulus
Romulus
by seeing more of them. Privately, however, neither was willing to give in. An armed battle broke out between their followers resulting in deaths among both. Faustulus
Faustulus
was so distraught over his inability to end the strife between his adopted sons that he threw himself into the middle of the fighting and was killed. Remus also fell. Romulus
Romulus
was devastated at his personal losses as well as the many suffered by the twins' followers. Only after the intervention of Laurentia
Laurentia
was he able to return to the job of founding the city. Other sources who are unnamed by Plutarch
Plutarch
claimed that despite his anger over Romulus' conduct during the contest of the augury, Remus conceded and the construction of the city began on Palatine Hill. Out of resentment, he derided the city's newly-built walls and demonstrated their ineffectiveness by leaping over them, saying that an enemy of Romulus
Romulus
could do the same. In response, Celer, the job's foreman, killed him on the spot with a blow to the head and implied that Remus himself had become his brother's enemy. Foundation of Rome
Rome
by Romulus[edit] Before construction on the city began Romulus
Romulus
made sacrifices and received good omens, and he then ordered the populace to ritually atone for their guilt. The city's fortifications were first and then housing for the populace. He assembles the people and gives them the choice as to what type of government they want. After his address, which extols Bravery in war abroad, and moderation at home, and in which Romulus
Romulus
denies any need to remain in power, the people decide to remain a kingdom and ask him to remain its king. Before accepting he looks for a sign of the approval of the gods. He prays, and witnesses an auspicious lightning bolt, after which he declares that no king shall take the throne without receiving approval from the gods. Institutions[edit] He divides Rome
Rome
into 3 tribes, each selected a Tribune
Tribune
in charge of each. Each tribe was divided into 10 Curia, and each of those into smaller units. He divided the kingdoms land holdings between them. Plutarch
Plutarch
suggests that Athenian institutions were the inspiration for Romulus' creation of the Patrician class from the wealthy and virtuous. Other sources cited claim All others Roman's formed the Plebeian class. The Patricians were put in charge of religious, legal and civil institutions, while the Plebs were to be farmers, herders and tradesmen. Each curiae was responsible for provided soldiers in the event of war. To maintain order, every pleb had the right to choose a Patrician in a system of patronage (clientela). All patrons (patronus) were required to protect the rights and interests of those plebs (cliens) beneath them. In return all plebs were required to support his patron in his endeavors and assist him when needed. It was illegal for either party to testify against one another or otherwise act against the interests of the other. Romulus
Romulus
then proceeded to establish the senate. Another act that Dionysius attributes to Greek influence. He selected 300 of the strongest and fittest among the nobles to become his personal bodyguard and messengers. The celeres were so-named either for their quickness, or, according to Valerius Antias, for their commander. These were the first Roman cavalry
Roman cavalry
and were instrument in many Roman victories. Romulus
Romulus
then delimited the various powers of the institutions he had created. The Roman king was made the ultimate authority in all religious and legal matters. He would personally hear the cases of "the greatest crimes" but after reaching a decision, his opinion would be subject to approval by the people. He would be the commander in chief of the military in wartime. The senate would have the power to decide any matter or issue brought to them by the king with a binding vote (attributed by Dionysius to the Lacedaemonians. The popular assemblies had the power to elect magistrates, pass laws and declare war at the king's discretion. Romulus
Romulus
passed laws meant to encourage child-rearing. He welcomed free men of any background to settle in the new city with promises of citizenship and an offer of protection from those from home who might be pursuing them. Immigrants flocked to Rome
Rome
as a result. Rome
Rome
would also benefit from their practice of sending colonists to newly conquered cities and allowing the subjugated to carry on as they had before. More common in the Greek world was to treat those they defeated harshly. Rome
Rome
grew 10 times during Romulus' reign. In an extensive exploration of the various, lurid traditions of the day, Dionysius effusively praises the manner in which Romulus' organized and established Rome's religious customs and practices. He attributes to the king everything from the founding of temples, to defining the sphere of individual gods, their festivals and the blessings they would each bestow. Among the Greek and native traditions, he kept only those he deemed worthy and rejected any that were too unseemly or otherwise unfit for Roman society. According to Terentius Varro, Romulus
Romulus
appointed a large number of Roman men and women to religious office during his reign. He also allowed the various curia to select their own. He adopted the Greek practice of appointing children to participate in the city's ceremonies. He established an office of augury, who would ensure the approval of the gods during all worship undertaken. Each curia was required to sacrifice and give offerings in a way so specified. He established budgets for religious practice in the city. Legal system[edit]

Bernard van Orley - Romulus
Romulus
Gives Laws to the Roman People - WGA16696

Again, Dionysius thoroughly describes the laws of other nations before contrasting the approach of Romulus
Romulus
and lauding his work. The Roman law governing marriage is, according to his Antiquities an elegant yet simple improvement over that of other nations, most of which he harshly derides. By declaring that wives would share equally in the possessions and conduct of their husband, Romulus
Romulus
promoted virtue in the former and deterred mistreatment by the latter. Wives could inherit upon their husband's birth. A wife's adultery was a serious crime, however, drunkenness could be a mitigating factor in determining the appropriate punishment. Because of his laws, Dionysius claims, not a single Roman couple divorced for the next 5 centuries. His laws governing parental rights, in particular those that allow fathers to maintain power over their adult children were an improvement over those of others. Under the laws of Romulus, native-born free Roman's were limited to two forms of employment: farming and the army. All other occupations were filled by slaves or non-Roman labor. Romulus
Romulus
used the trappings of his office, to encourage compliance with the law. His court was imposing and filled with loyal soldiers and he was always accompanied by the 12 lictors appointed to be his attendants. Rape of the Sabine women[edit] Further information: Battle of the Lacus Curtius According to Gnaeus Gellius, in Romulus' fourth year in power, the recently founded city of Rome, its population swollen with immigrants found itself surrounded by unfriendly neighbors and short of marriageable women. Romulus
Romulus
sought to solve both problems through intermarrying with the other cities in the region, but he was rebuffed. His solution having been approved by his grandfather, received the auspices of the gods, and the support of the senate began with the announcement of a spectacular festival and competitions to honor the god Neptune, and to which all of Rome's neighbors were welcome. They came from far and wide, sometimes entire families, to attend and participate. On the king's signal, Romans began abducting the young women in attendance much to the shock and horror of their guests. Later, the women are brought before him where he assures them that he and the other men of Rome
Rome
intend to honorably marry them and that they won't be sexually exploited in any way. This eases their fears. The cities of Caenina, Crustumerium, and Antemnae petition Tatius, king of the Sabines
Sabines
to lead a joint attack in response to the kidnappings. Their goal was stymied by Rome's own diplomatic efforts and the other three cities eventually concluded that Tatius
Tatius
was delaying any action on purpose. They decided to attack Rome
Rome
without the Sabines
Sabines
and their armies are defeated and their cities captured each in turn. The wars that resulted from the mass abduction committed by the Romans came to a climax in an epic battle fought at the foot of the Capitoline Hill. After the Sabines
Sabines
had captured the Roman Citadel through guile, they occupied the most strategically important point in the city with the help, knowing or otherwise, of Tarpeia. After several skirmishes and minor engagements, the armies fought two pitched battles featuring valor and losses to both sides.

The Intervention of the Sabine Women, by Jacques-Louis David, 1799

In the course of the battle, both sides found themselves on the verge of defeat, only to turn the tide back in the nick of time. Romulus himself was injured by a rock to the head. The fighting ceased only by the coming of dusk. Afterwards, the Sabine women, led by the noble Hersilia, convinced the two kings to make peace. After a ceasefire, the nations agreed to become a single kingdom under the joint rule of Romulus
Romulus
and Tatius. The city was expanded and its institutions were adjusted to accommodate the new increase in population and to demonstrate their mutual good will. The joint kingship lasted for four years until the death of Tatius. During this time they conquered the Camerini and made their city a Roman colony. Deaths of Tatius
Tatius
and Romulus[edit] The two peoples are merged under a joint throne with Rome
Rome
as the capital. The Sabines
Sabines
and Romans alike were then declared Quirites, from the Sabine city of Cures. To honor the Sabine women, when Romulus divided the city into 30 local councils, he named them after the women. He also recruits three new units of knights and called them Ramnenses Tatiensis (from the two kings names). Some of Tatius' friends victimized some Laurentii and when the city sent ambassadors to demand justice, Tatius
Tatius
would not allow Romulus hand over the perpetrators over to them. A group of Sabines
Sabines
waylay the ambassadors as they sleep on the way home. Some escape and when word gets back to Rome, Romulus
Romulus
promptly turns the men respsonsible—including one of Tatius' family members—over to a new group of ambassadors. Tatius
Tatius
follows the group out of the city and frees the accused men by force. Later, while both kings are participating in a sacrifice in Lavinium
Lavinium
he is killed in retribution. The account of Licinius Macer
Licinius Macer
recounts that Tatius
Tatius
was killed when he went alone to try and convince the victims in Lavinium
Lavinium
to forgive the crimes committed. When they discovered he had not brought the men responsible with him, as the senate and Romulus
Romulus
had ordered, an angry mob stones him to death. After his rule had turned more dictatorial, Romulus
Romulus
met his end. Either through actions divine or earthly. According to some reports, Romulus
Romulus
is swept up into heaven, where he takes his place among the gods as Quirinus. Others point to the hands of the nobility, who had grown ever more resentful of their treatment by king. Editions[edit]

Collected Works edited by Friedrich Sylburg (1536–1596) (parallel Greek and Latin) (Frankfurt 1586) (available at Google Books) Complete edition by Johann Jakob Reiske
Johann Jakob Reiske
(1774–1777)[9] Archaeologia by A. Kiessling (1860-1870) (vol. 1, vol. 2, vol. 3, vol. 4) and V. Prou (1886) and C. Jacoby (1885–1925) (vol. 1, vol. 2, vol. 3, vol. 4, supplementum) [9] Opuscula by Hermann Usener
Hermann Usener
and Ludwig Radermacher (1899-1929)[9] in the Teubner
Teubner
series (vol. 1 contains Commentaries on the Attic Orators, Letter to Ammaeus, On the Admirable Style of Demosthenes, On the Character of Thucydides, Letter to Ammaeus about Thucydides, vol. 2 contains The Arrangement of Words, On Imitation, Letter to Gn. Pompeius, The Art of Rhetoric, Fragments) Roman Antiquities by V. Fromentin and J. H. Sautel (1998–), and Opuscula rhetorica by Aujac (1978–), in the Collection Budé English translation by Edward Spelman (1758) (available at Google Books) Trans. Earnest Cary, Harvard University Press, Loeb Classical Library:

Roman Antiquities, I, 1937. Roman Antiquities, II, 1939. Roman Antiquities, III, 1940. Roman Antiquities, IV, 1943. Roman Antiquities, V, 1945. Roman Antiquities, VI, 1947. Roman Antiquities, VII, 1950.

Trans. Stephen Usher, Critical Essays, I, Harvard University Press, 1974, ISBN 978-0-674-99512-3 Trans. Stephen Usher, Critical Essays, II, Harvard University Press, 1985, ISBN 978-0-674-99513-0

References[edit]

^ a b T. Hidber. Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece (p.229). Routledge
Routledge
31 Oct 2013, 832 pages, ISBN 1136787992, (editor N. Wilson). Retrieved 2015-09-07.  ^ a b  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Dionysius Halicarnassensis". Encyclopædia Britannica. 8 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 285–286.  ^ Schmitz, Leonhard (1867), "Dionysius, Aelius", in Smith, William, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, 1, Boston, p. 1037  ^ Dionysius of Halicarnassus. "The Roman Antiquities (Loeb Classical Library edition, 1937), Book 1, 11". Penelope, University of Chicago. Retrieved January 12, 2013.  ^ E. Gabba, Dionysius and the History of Archaic Rome
Rome
(Berkeley 1991) ^ a b c Ruthven (1979) pp. 103–4 ^ Jansen (2008) ^ In his account of the conflict with Amulius, Livy
Livy
claims that Faustulus, had always known that the boys had been abandoned by the order of the king and had hoped that they are of Royal blood, Histories I.5 ^ a b c Chisholm 1911.

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Further reading[edit]

Bonner, S. F. 1939. The literary treatises of Dionysius of Halicarnassus: A study in the development of critical method. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press. Damon, C. 1991. "Aesthetic response and technical analysis in the rhetorical writings of Dionysius of Halicarnassus." Museum Helveticum 48: 33–58. de Jonge, Casper Constantijn. 2008. Between Grammar and Rhetoric: Dionysius of Halicarnassus
Halicarnassus
On Language, Linguistics and Literature. Leiden: Brill. Dionysius of Halicarnassus. 1975. On Thucydides. Translated, with commentary, by W. Kendrick Pritchett. Berkeley and London: Univ. of California Press. Gabba, Emilio. 1991. Dionysius and the history of archaic Rome. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press. Gallia, Andrew B. 2007. "Reassessing the 'Cumaean Chronicle': Greek chronology and Roman history in Dionysius of Halicarnassus." Journal of Roman Studies 97: 50–67. Sacks, Kenneth. 1986. " Rhetoric
Rhetoric
and speeches in Hellenistic historiography." Athenaeum 74: 383–95. Usher, S. 1974–1985. Dionysius of Halicarnassus: The critical essays. 2 vols. Cambridge, MA, and London: Harvard Univ. Press. Wiater, N. 2011. The ideology of classicism: Language, history and identity in Dionysius of Halicarnassus. Berlin and New York: De Gruyter. Wooten, C. W. 1994. "The Peripatetic tradition in the literary essays of Dionysius of Halicarnassus." In Peripatetic rhetoric after Aristotle. Edited by W. W. Fortenbaugh and D. C. Mirhady, 121–30. Rutgers University Studies in Classical Humanities 6. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

External links[edit]

English translation of the Antiquities (at LacusCurtius) 1586 Edition with the original Greek from the Internet Archive Greek text and French translation

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 100218889 LCCN: n50082922 ISNI: 0000 0001 2283 4434 GND: 118672037 SELIBR: 183856 SUDOC: 02683281X BNF: cb13091418v (data) NKC: jn1998100

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