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Didymóteicho (Greek: Διδυμότειχο, [ðiðiˈmotixo]) is a town located on the eastern edge of the Evros regional unit of East Macedonia and Thrace, in northeastern Greece. It is the seat of the municipality of the same name. The town (pop. 9,263 in 2011) sits on a plain and located south east of Svilengrad, south of Edirne, Turkey and Orestiada, west of Uzunköprü, Turkey, about 20 km north of Soufli
Soufli
and about 90 km north of Alexandroupoli. The municipality of Didymóteicho has a land area of 565.4 km² and a population of 19,493 inhabitants. Didymoteicho
Didymoteicho
is just 2 kilometers away from the Greek-Turkish border, and as a result it is home to many Greek military units and Hellenic Army training centers. Hundreds of thousands of Greek men had to either receive military training or spend part of their military service here (see conscription in Greece). The famous 1991 George Dalaras and Lavrentis Machairitsas
Lavrentis Machairitsas
song Didymoteicho
Didymoteicho
Blues (Greek: Διδυμότειχο Μπλουζ) pays homage to the personal stories and experiences of these soldiers while offering a more general commentary about life in the Army.[2]

Contents

1 Name 2 Geography 3 Municipality

3.1 Communities

4 Province 5 History

5.1 Antiquity 5.2 Medieval era 5.3 Ottoman era 5.4 Modern era

6 Landmarks 7 Historical population 8 Notable people 9 Gallery 10 See also 11 References 12 External links

Name[edit] The city was formerly known in Katharevousa as Διδυμότειχον, Didymóteichon, from δίδυμος, dídymos, "twin" and τεῖχος, teîchos, "wall". It was called Dimetoka in Turkish, during the rule of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and Dimotika by the Pomaks
Pomaks
of the region. Geography[edit] Forests dominate the banks and parts of the plain. Much of the area is used for farming. The main produce is cattle, fruits and vegetables and some flowers. The hills dominate further west. Near the area lies the great forest of Dadia. Didymoteicho
Didymoteicho
is located around 12 km from Turkey
Turkey
and the western banks of the Evros. It is the easternmost municipality on the mainland of Greece
Greece
(in its town of Pythio). In the west, much of the land is mountainous and forested, while farmlands are located in the central and the northern part. It is on the railway line Thessaloniki– Istanbul
Istanbul
and the Greek road 51 (Alexandroupoli–Orestiada– Edirne
Edirne
in Turkey
Turkey
and Svilengrad
Svilengrad
in Bulgaria). Municipality[edit] The municipality Didymoteicho
Didymoteicho
was formed at the 2011 local government reform by the merger of the following 2 former municipalities, that became municipal units:[3]

Didymoteicho Metaxades

The municipality has an area of 565.372 km2, the municipal unit 354.134 km2.[4] Communities[edit] The municipal unit Didymoteicho
Didymoteicho
is subdivided into the following communities (constituent settlements in brackets):

Didymoteicho
Didymoteicho
(Didymoteicho, Zoodochos Pigi, Neoi Psathades) Asvestades Asimenio Ellinochori (Ellinochori, Thyrea, Lagos) Isaakio Karoti Koufovouno Kyani Mani (Mani, Evgeniko, Sitaria) Petrades Poimeniko Prangio Pythio
Pythio
(Pythio, Rigio, Stathmos) Rigio Sitochori Sofiko

The largest settlements, other than Didymoteicho
Didymoteicho
itself, are Sofikó (pop. 795), Metaxades
Metaxades
(687), Koufóvouno (629), Lagós (620) and Ellinochóri (593). Province[edit] The province of Didymoteicho
Didymoteicho
(Greek: Επαρχία Διδυμοτείχου) was one of the provinces of the Evros Prefecture. Its territory corresponded with that of the current municipality Didymoteicho
Didymoteicho
and the municipal unit Orfeas.[5] It was abolished in 2006. History[edit] Antiquity[edit] The area around the town was inhabited in Neolithic
Neolithic
times.[citation needed] It was later an important Thracian and Hellenistic
Hellenistic
town, sacked by the Romans in 204 BC. In the early 2nd century, the Roman emperor Trajan
Trajan
created a new city on the banks of the Maritsa
Maritsa
River, between two surrounding hills, near modern Turkish Uzunköprü, and named it Plotinopolis after his wife Pompeia Plotina. The city would later be one of the most important towns in Thrace, having its own assembly, and an episcopal see (suffragan of Adrianople). The ruins of the ancient city are now known as the Kale, after the Turkish for "castle". A solid gold bust of Emperor Septimius Severus
Septimius Severus
found on the site of Plotinopolis in 1965 is now in the museum at Komotini. The city had been built in a very strategic position, because it had for exploitation a very fertile plain and also controlled a passage of Erythropotamos, through which passed a branch of the via Egnatia leading in the middle and upper valley of Evros river and on the shores of the Black Sea.[6] Medieval era[edit] According to F. A. Giannopoulos, Didymoteicho
Didymoteicho
was probably built in the 6th century by Justinian I
Justinian I
to replace Plotinopolis, whose exposed lowland location made it hard to defend. It seems that already in the 7th century, Plotinopolis had been abandoned in favour of the new site.[7] The fortress was captured by Krum of Bulgaria
Krum of Bulgaria
in 813, but in 879 it was a bishopric whose incumbent, Nikephoros, participated in the Ninth Council of Constantinople.[7] A century later, it served as a place of exile for the general and rebel Bardas Skleros, who unsuccessfully tried to oust Byzantine Emperor Basil II.[7] Didymoteicho
Didymoteicho
briefly became the seat of a short-lived lordship within the Latin Empire
Latin Empire
after the Fourth Crusade. In the early 13th century, the town was fought over by Latin crusaders, members of the Angelos family, the Bulgarians, circa 1204 by the Despotate of Epirus. Finally the Empire of Nicaea
Empire of Nicaea
returned Didymoteicho
Didymoteicho
to Byzantine Greek control by capturing it around 1243 during the reign of John III Doukas Vatatzes.[7] After the Byzantine reconquest of Constantinople
Constantinople
in 1261, Didymoteicho
Didymoteicho
became the most important city in Thrace. During the Byzantine civil war of 1341–47, it served as the base of John VI Kantakouzenos. The lower city was destroyed during the war and rebuilt in 1342. After the war, the city became the centre of the Thracian appanage of Matthew Kantakouzenos,[7] who provided it with strong fortifications.[8] The city was the birthplace of emperors John III Doukas Vatatzes
John III Doukas Vatatzes
(born c. 1193) and John V Palaiologos
John V Palaiologos
(b. 18 June 1332).[9] Ottoman era[edit] Further information: Ottoman Greece Didymoteicho
Didymoteicho
was captured by the Ottoman Turks in 1359 and again, this time permanently, in 1361.[7] The Battle of Demotika, the Ottomans' first victory in Europe, was fought before the city in 1352 during yet another Byzantine civil war. The city—known as Dimetoka or Demotika under Ottoman rule—was probably captured by the Ottoman commander Hadji Ilbeg. It soon became the seat of the Ottoman court under Murad I, until the conquest of nearby Adrianople
Adrianople
a few years later.[8] It nevertheless remained a "favourite resort of early Ottoman rulers" due to its rich hunting grounds even after the capital moved to Adrianople
Adrianople
and Constantinople. As such the city was rebuilt, with the Byzantine walls repaired and a royal palace constructed, and beautified, an effect still evident in 1443, when the French traveler Bertrandon de la Broquiere
Bertrandon de la Broquiere
visited it.[8] Bayezid II
Bayezid II
was born there and was on his way there to retire after abdicating in favour of his son, Selim I, when he died (probably of poison).[8] The Ottoman traveler Evliya Çelebi
Evliya Çelebi
visited the town in 1670. The town was the seat of a kadi and administrative centre of the local district (nahiye). Evliya also provides a description of the fortress. The upper fortress, where the disused royal palace was located, measured some 2,500 paces in circumference, with double stone walls and "a hundred" towers; the sole Muslim living there was the commander, the rest of it, some 100 households, being inhabited solely by non-Muslims. The citadel within it (Iç Kale) was arranged on two levels, one of which was known as the "Maiden's Castle" (Kız Kalesı). The outer town (Varoş) counted 600 multi-storeyed houses and was divided into 12 wards (mahalle). There were several mosques and mesjits, of which the Bayezid Mosque was the most important, as well as four madrasahs, one of which was established by Sultan Bayezid I. From Evliya's references, the area of Didymoteicho
Didymoteicho
appears to have been a major centre of the Bektashi
Bektashi
dervishes. Of the local hamams, the most notable was the so-called "Whisper Bath" (fısıltı hamamı), with its "Ear of Dionysus"; it survived at least until the 1890s. The town had a marketplace but no bezesten; its chief produce were grapes and quinces, but also local pottery and glassware, which had a great reputation.[8] Swedish king Charles XII
Charles XII
stayed in the town from February 1713 to October 1714 after his flight from the Battle of Poltava, but otherwise the town became an unimportant provincial backwater in early modern times.[8] Modern era[edit] In 1912 the town was briefly occupied by the Bulgarians during the First Balkan War, only to return to the Ottomans a year later. The Ottoman Government offered the city to Bulgaria in 1915, as a reward for entering World War I
World War I
on the side of the Central Powers. Under the terms of the 1919 Treaty of Neuilly, Didymoteicho, along with the rest of Western Thrace,[10] came under the temporary management of a multinational Entente military force led by the French General Charles Antoine Charpy. In the second half of April 1920, as a result of the San Remo conference
San Remo conference
of the leaders of the main allies of the Entente powers (except the United States), the region of Western Thrace was annexed by Greece. The Second World War
Second World War
devastated Didymoteicho. Today Didymoteicho
Didymoteicho
is home to many descendants of Greek refugees from Eastern Thrace, now Turkey, as well as members of Greece's Turkish-speaking Muslim minority population (see Western Thrace Turks). Like the Pomaks
Pomaks
of East Macedonia and Thrace
East Macedonia and Thrace
the Turkish population of Didymoteicho
Didymoteicho
dates to the Ottoman period and unlike the Turkish Muslims
Turkish Muslims
and Greek Muslims
Greek Muslims
of Greek Macedonia
Greek Macedonia
and Epirus
Epirus
was exempted from the 1922–23 Greek-Turkish population exchange following the Treaty of Lausanne. The town was considerably affected by the Evros river flooding of 17 to 22 February 2005. Flood warnings were reported at that time. The flood affected much of the town on Wednesday, 2 March 2005 and continued for several days. On Friday, 4 March, flood waters began to ebb slowly. Over 5,000 mm of rainfall caused the river to overflow its banks. Buildings, properties and stores were flooded, leaving people stranded. It was the worst flood in nearly 50 years. The railway line south of Didymoteicho
Didymoteicho
and near the station was also flooded and was closed. Serious flooding was also experienced in March 2006 throughout the city and the general Evros river area. Landmarks[edit]

Castle, situated in the northwestern part of town

Çelebi Sultan Mehmed Mosque

Alatza mosque

The Çelebi Sultan Mehmed Mosque
Çelebi Sultan Mehmed Mosque
or Beyazid Mosque, completed in 1420. Didymoteicho
Didymoteicho
Folklore Museum The 'Silent Baths', the oldest hamam in Europe. Today there are only ruins of the baths (figure 13[11]) but a European union project has been initiated to restore them.[12] International Centre of Young Artists of Eastern Europe, Website Central Square, next to the town hall Military Museum, [1], (in English) (in Greek) Municipal Theatre, on Georgios Street The ruins of the ancient city of Plotinopolis. The Byzantine town wall and its fortifications, situated around the town.

Historical population[edit]

Year Municipal unit Municipality

1991 19,450 –

2001 18,998 –

2011 16,078 19,493

Notable people[edit]

John III Doukas Vatatzes
John III Doukas Vatatzes
(c. 1192–1254), emperor of Nicaea John V Palaiologos
John V Palaiologos
(1332–1391), Byzantine Emperor Bayezid II
Bayezid II
(1481–1512) Sultan of the Ottoman Empire Eugenios Eugenidis
Eugenios Eugenidis
(1882–1954), shipping magnate Sürmeli Ali Pasha Grand Vizier
Grand Vizier
of the Ottoman Empire

Gallery[edit]

Vasilopoula Byzantine tower

The entrance of the church with a statue of Constantine XI Palaiologos

The church with the remains of an arch

Church interior

Church dome interior

See also[edit]

List of settlements in the Evros regional unit

References[edit]

^ a b "Απογραφή Πληθυσμού - Κατοικιών 2011. ΜΟΝΙΜΟΣ Πληθυσμός" (in Greek). Hellenic Statistical Authority.  ^ http://www.e-orfeas.gr/singing/songstories/2839-article.html ^ Kallikratis law Greece
Greece
Ministry of Interior (in Greek) ^ "Population & housing census 2001 (incl. area and average elevation)" (PDF) (in Greek). National Statistical Service of Greece. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 September 2015.  ^ "Detailed census results 1991" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 March 2016.  (39 MB) (in Greek) (in French) ^ D. C. Samsaris, Historical Geography of Western Thrace during the Roman Antiquity (in Greek), Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
2005, p. 114-120 ^ a b c d e f Gregory, Timothy E. (1991). "Didymoteichon". In Kazhdan, Alexander. The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. p. 620. ISBN 978-0-19-504652-6.  ^ a b c d e f Babinger, Franz (1991). "Dimetoḳa". The Encyclopedia of Islam, New Edition, Volume II: C–G. Leiden and New York: BRILL. pp. 291–292. ISBN 90-04-07026-5.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 24 September 2008. Retrieved 8 October 2008.  ^ Treaty of Neuilly, article 27 (3), 48 ^ Eleni Kanetaki (2005). "The still existing ottoman hamams in the Greek territory" (PDF). Middle East Technical University / Faculty of Architecture. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 January 2013. Retrieved 2012-06-06.  ^ "JOVAPROB / Joint valorisation and promotion of the old baths in the trans border area". European Territorial Cooperation – Greece Bulgaria 2007–2013. Retrieved 2012-06-06. 

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Didymoteicho.

Official website (in Greek) Official website (in English) Official website (in Turkish) Official website (in Bulgarian) Hellenic Ministry of Culture: Didymoticho

Places adjacent to Didymoteicho

Orestiada

Metaxades

Didymoteicho
Didymoteicho
(municipal unit)

Uzunköprü
Uzunköprü
(Turkey)

Orfeas

Meriç (Turkey)

v t e

Subdivisions of the municipality of Didymoteicho

Municipal unit of Didymoteicho

Asimenio Asvestades Didymoteicho Ellinochori Isaakio Karoti Koufovouno Kyani Mani Petrades Poimeniko Prangio Pythio Sitochori Sofiko

Municipal unit of Metaxades

Alepochori Asproneri Doxa Elafochori Ladi Metaxades Paliouri Vrysika

v t e

Administrative division of the Eastern Macedonia and Thrace
Eastern Macedonia and Thrace
Region

Area 14,157 km2 (5,466 sq mi) Population 608,182 (as of 2011) Municipalities 22 (since 2011) Capital Komotini

Regional unit of Drama

Doxato Drama Kato Nevrokopi Paranesti Prosotsani

Regional unit of Evros

Alexandroupoli Didymoteicho Orestiada Samothrace Soufli

Regional unit of Kavala

Kavala Nestos Pangaio

Regional unit of Rhodope

Arriana Iasmos Komotini Maroneia-Sapes

Regional unit of Thasos

Thasos

Regional unit of Xanthi

Abdera Myki Topeiros Xanthi

Regional governor Christos Metios (since November 2016) Decentralized Administration Macedonia and Thrace

v t e

Former provinces of Greece

Grouped by region and prefecture

Attica

East and West Attica

Attica

Piraeus

Aegina Hydra Kythira Piraeus Troizinia

West Attica

Megaris

Central Greece

Boeotia

Livadeia Thebes

Euboea

Chalcis Istiaia Karystia

Phocis

Dorida Parnassida

Phthiotis

Domokos Locris Phthiotis

Central Macedonia

Chalkidiki

Arnaia Chalkidiki

Imathia

Imathia Naousa

Kilkis

Kilkis Paionia

Pella

Almopia Edessa Giannitsa

Serres

Fyllida Serres Sintiki Visaltia

Thessaloniki

Lagkadas Thessaloniki

Crete

Chania

Apokoronas Kissamos Kydonia Selino Sfakia

Heraklion

Kainourgio Malevizi Monofatsi Pediada Pyrgiotissa Temenos Viannos

Lasithi

Ierapetra Lasithi Mirampello Siteia

Rethymno

Agios Vasileios Amari Mylopotamos Rethymno

East Macedonia and Thrace

Evros

Alexandroupoli Didymoteicho Orestiada Samothrace Soufli

Kavala

Kavala Nestos Pangaio Thasos

Rhodope

Komotini Sapes

Epirus

Ioannina

Dodoni Konitsa Metsovo Pogoni

Thesprotia

Filiates Margariti Souli Thyamida

Ionian Islands

Corfu

Corfu Paxoi

Kefallinia

Ithaca Kranaia Pali Sami

North Aegean

Lesbos

Lemnos Mithymna Mytilene Plomari

Samos

Ikaria Samos

Peloponnese

Arcadia

Gortynia Kynouria Mantineia Megalopoli

Argolis

Argos Ermionida Nafplia

Laconia

Epidavros Limira Gytheio Lacedaemon Oitylo

Messenia

Kalamai Messini Pylia Trifylia

South Aegean

Cyclades

Andros Kea Milos Naxos Paros Syros Thira Tinos

Dodecanese

Kalymnos Karpathos Kos Rhodes

Thessaly

Larissa

Agia Elassona Farsala Larissa Tyrnavos

Magnesia

Almyros Skopelos Volos

Trikala

Kalampaka Trikala

West Greece

Achaea

Aigialeia Kalavryta Patras

Aetolia-Acarnania

Missolonghi Nafpaktia Trichonida Valtos Vonitsa-Xiromero

Elis

Elis Olympia

West Macedonia

Kozani

Eordaia Kozani Voio

Note: not all prefectures were subdivided int

.