A developing country, also called a less developed country or an underdeveloped country, is a nation with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.[1] However, this definition is not universally agreed upon. There is also no clear agreement on which countries fit this category.[2] A nation's GDP per capita compared with other nations can also be a reference point.

The term "developing" describes a currently observed situation and not a changing dynamic or expected direction of progress. Since the late 1990s developing countries tended to demonstrate higher growth rates than developed countries.[3]

There is criticism for using the term developing country. The term implies inferiority of a developing country or undeveloped country compared with a developed country, which many countries dislike. It assumes a desire to develop along the traditional Western model of economic development which a few countries, such as Cuba and Bhutan, choose not to follow.[4] Alternative measurements such as gross national happiness have been suggested as important indicators. Developing countries include in decreasing order of economic growth or size of the capital market: Newly industrialized countries, emerging markets, frontier markets, least developed countries. Therefore, the least developed countries are the poorest of the developing countries.

Developing countries tend to have some characteristics in common. For example with regards to health risks, they commonly have: low levels of access to safe drinking water, sanitation and hygiene; high levels of pollution (e.g. air pollution, indoor smoke (indoor air pollution), water pollution); high proportion of people with tropical and infectious diseases (neglected tropical diseases); high number of road traffic accidents. Often there is also wide-spread poverty, low education levels, corruption at all government levels and a lack of good governance.

The Sustainable Development Goals were set up to help overcome many of these problems. Effects of global warming (climate change) are expected to impact developing countries more than wealthier countries. Development aid or development cooperation is financial aid given by governments and other agencies to support the economic, environmental, social, and political development of developing countries.


  Developing economies according to the IMF
  Developing economies out of scope of the IMF
  Graduated to developed economy
Least Developed Countries
Graduated to developing economies

Various terms are used for countries not considered a developed country. Terms used include less developed country or less economically developed country, and for the more extreme, least developed country or least economically developed country.

Less developed countries are characterized in comparison to developed countries. For example,

Kofi Annan, former Secretary General of the United Nations, defined a developed country as "one that allows all its citizens to enjoy a free and healthy life in a safe environment."[5] Nonetheless, according to the United Nations Statistics Division:

There is no established convention for the designation of "developed" and "developing" countries or areas in the United Nations system.[2]
The designations "developed" and "developing" are intended for statistical convenience and do not necessarily express a judgment about the stage reached by a particular country or area in the development process.[6]

The UN also notes,

In common practice, Japan in Asia, Canada and the United States in northern America, Australia and New Zealand in Oceania and western Europe are considered "developed" regions or areas. In international trade statistics the Southern African Customs Union is also treated as a developed region and Israel as a developed country. The countries emerging from the former Yugoslavia are generally treated as developing countries and countries of Central Europe and of the Commonwealth of Independent States (code 172) in Europe are not included under either developed.[2]

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) did not (before 2004) classify as either developed or developing the following countries: all countries of Central and Eastern Europe (including Central European countries that still belonged to the "Eastern Europe Group" in the UN institutions); the former Soviet Union (USSR) countries in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan) and Mongolia. Instead, they were referred to as "countries in transition".

The IMF uses a flexible classification system that considers "(1) per capita income level, (2) export diversification—so oil exporters that have high per capita GDP would not make the advanced classification because around 70% of its exports are oil, and (3) degree of integration into the global financial system."[7]

In the 2016 edition of its World Development Indicators, the World Bank made a decision to no longer distinguish between “developed” and “developing” countries in the presentation of its data. Since then, the World Bank considers the two-category distinction of "developed" and "developing" outdated [8]. Instead, The World Bank classifies countries into four income groups, based on GNI percapita, re-set each year on July 1. In 2016, the four categories in US dollars were:[8]

  • Low income countries: $1,025 or less.
  • Lower middle income countries: $1,026 to $4,035.
  • Upper middle income countries: $4,036 to $12,236.
  • High income countries: $12,237 and above

Along with the current level of development, countries can also be classified by how much their level of development has changed over a specific period of time.[9]

Measure and concept of development

  Least developed economies according to ECOSOC
  Least developed economies out of scope of the ECOSOC
  Graduated to developing economy

[when?][citation needed]
Newly industrialized countries as of 2013.[citation needed]

The development of a country is measured with statistical indexes such as income per capita (per person), (gross domestic product) per capita, life expectancy, the rate of literacy, freedom index and others. The UN has developed the Human Development Index (HDI), a compound indicator of some above statistics, to gauge the level of human development for countries where data is available. The UN had set Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) from a blueprint developed by all of the world's countries and leading development institutions, in order to evaluate growth.[10] The MDGs ended in 2015 and a follow-on process are the Sustainable Development Goals.

Developing countries are, in general, countries that have not achieved a significant degree of industrialization relative to their populations, and have, in most cases, a medium to low standard of living. There is a strong association between low income and high population growth.

The terms utilized when discussing developing countries refer to the intent and to the constructs of those who utilize these terms. Other terms sometimes used are less developed countries (LDCs), least economically developed countries (LEDCs), "underdeveloped nations" or Third World nations, and "non-industrialized nations". Conversely, developed countries, most economically developed countries (MEDCs), First World nations and "industrialized nations" are the opposite end of the spectrum.

To moderate the euphemistic aspect of the word developing, international organizations have started to use the term less economically developed country (LEDCs) for the poorest nations—which can, in no sense, be regarded as developing. That is, LEDCs are the poorest subset of LDCs. This may moderate against a belief that the standard of living across the entire developing world is the same.

The concept of the developing nation is found, under one term or another, in numerous theoretical systems having diverse orientations — for example, theories of decolonization, liberation theology, Marxism, anti-imperialism, and political economy.

Another important indicator is the sectoral changes that have occurred since the stage of development of the country. On an average, countries with a 50% contribution from the Secondary sector of Manufacturing have grown substantially. Similarly countries with a tertiary Sector stronghold also see greater rate of Economic Development.

Some researchers in development economics, such as Theodore Schultz who won a Nobel Prize in 1979, have found that literate farmers in developing countries are more productive than illiterate farmers. They therefore recommend investing in human capital (education, health, etc.) as an effective tool for economic development. Others, such as Mohammed Tamim, believe that economic development is measurable in educational level from primary school to the university. They noticed that wherever the educational level is raised, the level of development is also raised. They conclude that the percentage of the schooled population is proportional to the economic growth rate and inversely proportional in the demographic growth rate. The Take-Off of Walt Whitman Rostow can start in a country if its population is completely schooled. It is therefore necessary for the organization of a worldwide education program, itself conditioned by another worldwide program of birth control and the establishment of a worldwide organization for the implementation of this development strategy.[11]

Terms used to classify countries into levels of development

  Countries described as Advanced Economies by the IMF in 2016.[12]

There are several terms used to classify countries into rough levels of development. Classification of any given country differs across sources, and sometimes these classifications or the specific terminology used is considered disparaging. Use of the term "market" instead of "country" usually indicates specific focus on the characteristics of the countries' capital markets as opposed to the overall economy.

Developing countries can also be categorized by geography:

Other classifications include:

  • Heavily indebted poor countries, a definition by a program of the IMF and World Bank
  • Transition economy, moving from a centrally planned to market-driven economy
  • Multi-dimensional clustering system: with the understanding that different countries have different development priorities and levels of access to resources and institutional capacities[17] and to offer a more nuanced understanding of developing countries and their characteristics, scholars have categorised them into five distinct groups based on factors such as levels of poverty and inequality, productivity and innovation, political constraints and dependence on external flows.[18][19]

Previously used terms

Third World

Over the past few decades since the fall of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War, the term Third World has been used interchangeably with developing countries, but the concept has become outdated in recent years as it no longer represents the current political or economic state of the world. The term "Third World" arose during the Cold War to define countries that remained non-aligned with either NATO or the Communist Bloc.


There is some criticism of the use of the term "developing country". The term implies inferiority of a "developing country" or "undeveloped country" compared with a "developed country", which many countries dislike. It is criticized for being too positive and too negative.

It assumes a desire to "develop" along the traditional Western model of economic development, which a few countries, such as Cuba and Bhutan, choose not to follow.[4]

The concept of "development" rests on the assumption that Modernization theory holds. Modernization theory, as the dominant development theory of the late 19th and 20th centuries, has largely contributed to the definition of "development". In short, it argues that there is only one way to achieve "modernity" and "development" - that of "Western" nation-states. Largely challenged today, modernization theory still holds an important role in defining "development".

The term "developing" implies mobility and does not acknowledge that development may be in decline or static in some countries, particularly in southern African states worst affected by HIV/AIDS. In such cases, the term "developing country" may be considered a euphemism. The term implies homogeneity between such countries, which vary widely. The term also implies homogeneity within such countries when wealth (and health) of the most and least affluent groups varies widely. Similarly, the term "developed country" incorrectly implies a lack of continuing economic development/growth in more-developed countries.

In general, development entails a modern infrastructure (both physical and institutional), and a move away from low value added sectors such as agriculture and natural resource extraction. Developed countries, in comparison, usually have economic systems based on continuous, self-sustaining economic growth in the tertiary sector of the economy and quaternary sector of the economy and high material standards of living. However, there are notable exceptions, as some countries considered developed have a significant component of primary industries in their national economies, e.g., Norway, Canada, Australia. The USA and Western Europe have a very important agricultural sector, and are major players in international agricultural markets. Also, natural resource extraction can be a very profitable industry (high value added), e.g., oil extraction.

An alternative measurement that has been suggested is that of gross national happiness, measuring the actual satisfaction of people as opposed to how fiscally wealthy a country is.

During the late 20th century, and with the advance of World-systems theory, the notions of "developed country" and "developing country" have started to slowly be replaced by the less-controversial, trade-based, notions of "core country", "semi-periphery country" and "periphery country".

Other authors such as Walt Whitman Rostow suggest that developing countries are in transition from traditional lifestyles to the modern lifestyles which began in the Industrial Revolution in the 18th and 19th centuries.

Alternative proposals

The Global South is a term that has been emerging.[20] It can also include poorer "southern" regions of wealthy "northern" countries.[21] The Global South refers to these countries' "interconnected histories of colonialism, neo-imperialism, and differential economic and social change through which large inequalities in living standards, life expectancy, and access to resources are maintained."[22]

Common challenges

Most developing countries have these criteria in common:[23][24]

Urban slums

According to UN-Habitat, around 33% of the urban population in the developing world in 2012, or about 863 million people, lived in slums.[25] The proportion of urban population living in slums was highest in Sub-Saharan Africa (61.7%), followed by South Asia (35%), Southeast Asia (31%), East Asia (28.2%), West Asia (24.6%), Oceania (24.1%), Latin America and the Caribbean (23.5%), and North Africa (13.3%).[25]

The UN-Habitat reports that 43% of urban population in developing countries and 78% of those in the least developed countries are slum dwellers.[26]

Slums form and grow in different parts of the world for many different reasons. Causes include rapid rural-to-urban migration, economic stagnation and depression, high unemployment, poverty, informal economy, forced or manipulated ghettoization, poor planning, politics, natural disasters and social conflicts.[27][28][29]

In some cities, especially in countries in Southern Asia and sub-Saharan, slums are not just marginalized neighborhoods holding a small population; slums are widespread, and are home to a large part of urban population. These are sometimes called "slum cities".[30]

Violence against women

Several forms of violence against women are more prevalent in developing countries than in other parts of the world. For example, dowry violence and bride burning is associated with India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and Nepal. Acid throwing is also associated with these countries, as well as in Southeast Asia, including Cambodia. Honor killing is associated with the Middle East and South Asia. Marriage by abduction is found in Ethiopia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. Abuse related to payment of bride price (such as violence, trafficking and forced marriage) is linked to parts of Sub-Saharan Africa and Oceania.[31][32]

Female genital mutilation is another form of violence against women which is still occurring in many developing countries. It is found mostly in Africa, and to a lesser extent in the Middle East and some other parts of Asia. Develping countries with the highest rate of women who have been cut are Somalia (with 98 percent of women affected), Guinea (96 percent), Djibouti (93 percent), Egypt (91 percent), Eritrea (89 percent), Mali (89 percent), Sierra Leone (88 percent), Sudan (88 percent), Gambia (76 percent), Burkina Faso (76 percent), and Ethiopia (74 percent).[33] Due to globalization and immigration, FGM is spreading beyond the borders of Africa and Middle East, to countries such as Australia, Belgium, Canada, France, New Zealand, the U.S., and UK.[34]

The Istanbul Convention prohibits female genital mutilation (Article 38).[35] As of 2016, FGM has been legally banned in many African countries.[36]

Public health problems

The following list shows the most significant environmentally-related causes or conditions, as well as certain diseases with a strong environmental component:[37]

Low levels of access to water, sanitation, hygiene (WASH)

Access to water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services is at very low levels in many developing countries. In 2015 the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that "1 in 3 people, or 2.4 billion, are still without sanitation facilities" while 663 million people still lack access to safe and clean drinking water.[40][41] The estimate in 2017 by JMP states that 4.5 billion people currently do not have safely managed sanitation.[42] The majority of these people live in developing countries.

About 892 million people, or 12 percent of the global population, practiced open defecation instead of using toilets in 2016.[42] Seventy-six percent (678 million) of the 892 million people practicing open defecation in the world live in just seven countries. India is the country with the highest number of people practicing open defecation, around 525 million people.[42] Further countries with a high number of people openly defecating are Nigeria (47 million), followed by Indonesia (31 million), Ethiopia (27 million), Pakistan (23 million),[43] Niger (14 million) and Sudan (11 million).[42][44]

Sustainable Development Goal 6 is one of 17 Sustainable Development Goals established by the UN in 2015. It calls for clean water and sanitation for all people. This is particularly relevant for people in developing countries.


  • Over the last few decades, global population growth has largely been focused in developing countries (which often have higher birth rates than developed countries). As populations expand in poorer countries, rural people are moving to cities in an extensive urban migration that is resulting in the creation of slums.[45]
  • Migration related to climate change is likely to be predominantly from rural areas in developing countries to towns and cities.[46]:407[47] In the short term climate stress is likely to add incrementally to existing migration patterns rather than generating entirely new flows of people.[47]:110
  • Increased and intensified industrial and agricultural production and emission of toxic chemicals directly into the soil, air, and water.
  • Unsustainable use of energy resources.
  • Climate change and global warming-related health impacts leading to the loss of biodiversity and affecting the ecosystem.
  • High dependency on natural resources for livelihood, leading to unsustainable exploitation or depletion of those resources
  • Child Marriage
  • Political instability [48]
  • Political corruption[49]

Factors stimulating growth

  • Human Capital [50][48][further explanation needed]
  • Trade Policy: Countries with more restrictive policies have not grown as fast as countries with open and less distorted trade policies.[48][51]
  • Investment: Investment has a positive effect on growth.[48]
  • Education [52]

Country lists

Developing countries according to International Monetary Fund

The following are considered developing economies according to the International Monetary Fund's World Economic Outlook Report, April 2015.[53][54]

Countries not listed by IMF

Countries that are graduated developed economies

The following, including the Four Asian Tigers and new Eurozone European countries, were considered developing countries until the '90s, and are now listed as advanced economies (developed countries) by the IMF. Time in brackets is the time to be listed as advanced economies.

Three economies lack data before being listed as advanced economies. Because of the lack of data, it is difficult to judge whether they are advanced economies or developing economies before being listed as advanced economies.

BRIC countries

Four countries belong to the "emerging markets" groups and are together called the BRIC countries: Brazil, Russia, India and China.

See also


  1. ^ O'Sullivan, Arthur; Sheffrin, Steven M. (2003). Economics: Principles in Action. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458: Pearson Prentice Hall. p. 471. ISBN 0-13-063085-3. 
  2. ^ a b c "Composition of macro geographical (continental) region". 
  3. ^ Korotayev, A.; Zinkina, J. (2014). "On the structure of the present-day convergence". Campus-Wide Information Systems. 31 (2/3): 139–152. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 
  4. ^ a b Karma Ura. "The Bhutanese development story" (PDF). Retrieved 17 September 2012. 
  5. ^ G_05_00 Archived 2009-08-08 at the Wayback Machine.
  6. ^ "United Nations Statistics Division- Standard Country and Area Codes Classifications (M49)". Unstats.un.org. Retrieved 2014-01-15. 
  7. ^ "Q. How does the WEO categorize advanced versus emerging and developing economies?". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 20 July 2009. 
  8. ^ a b Fantom, Neil; Khokhar, Tariq; Purdie, Edie (15 April 2016). "The 2016 edition of World Development Indicators is out: three features you won't want to miss". The Data Blog. The World Bank. Retrieved October 22, 2016. 
  9. ^ "Least Developed Countries Report 2012 - Unctad" (PDF). 
  10. ^ "United Nations Millennium Development Goals". www.un.org. Retrieved 2018-03-28. 
  11. ^ Mohammed Tamim, Le Spectre du tiers-monde, L'Harmattan, 2002
  12. ^ April 2008 World Economic Outlook
  13. ^ Paweł Bożyk (2006). "Newly Industrialized Countries". Globalization and the Transformation of Foreign Economic Policy. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. ISBN 0-7546-4638-6. 
  14. ^ Mauro F. Guillén (2003). "Multinationals, Ideology, and Organized Labor". The Limits of Convergence. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-11633-4. 
  15. ^ Waugh, David (2000). "Manufacturing industries (chapter 19), World development (chapter 22)". Geography, An Integrated Approach (3rd ed.). Nelson Thornes Ltd. pp. 563, 576–579, 633, and 640. ISBN 0-17-444706-X. 
  16. ^ Mankiw, N. Gregory (2007). Principles of Economics (4th ed.). ISBN 0-324-22472-9. 
  17. ^ Koch, Svea (2015-06-01). "From Poverty Reduction to Mutual Interests? The Debate on Differentiation in EU Development Policy". Development Policy Review. 33 (4): 479–502. doi:10.1111/dpr.12119. ISSN 1467-7679. 
  18. ^ Vázquez, Sergio Tezanos; Sumner, Andy (2013-12-01). "Revisiting the Meaning of Development: A Multidimensional Taxonomy of Developing Countries". The Journal of Development Studies. 49 (12): 1728–1745. doi:10.1080/00220388.2013.822071. ISSN 0022-0388. 
  19. ^ Taeihagh, Araz (2017-06-19). "Crowdsourcing, Sharing Economies, and Development". Journal of Developing Societies. doi:10.1177/0169796x17710072. 
  20. ^ Mitlin, Diana; Satterthwaite, David (2013). Urban Poverty in the Global South: Scale and Nature. Routledge. p. 13. ISBN 9780415624664. 
  21. ^ Braveboy-Wagner, Jacqueline Anne (2003). The Foreign Policies of the Global South: Rethinking Conceptual Frameworks. Lynne Rienner Publishers. p. 11. ISBN 9781588261755. 
  22. ^ dados, nour; connell, raewyn (2012-01-01). "the global south". Contexts. 11 (1): 12–13. JSTOR 41960738. 
  23. ^ "Criteria For Identification Of LDCs". United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Development Policy and Analysis Division. Retrieved 2018-03-02. 
  24. ^ a b UN-OHRLLS Criteria for Identification and Graduation of LDCs.
  25. ^ a b "State of the World's Cities Report 2012/2013: Prosperity of Cities" (PDF). UNHABITAT. Retrieved 4 October 2013. 
  26. ^ The challenge of slums – Global report on Human Settlements, United Nations Habitat (2003)
  27. ^ What are slums and why do they exist? Archived 2011-02-06 at the Wayback Machine. UN-Habitat, Kenya (April 2007)
  28. ^ Patton, C. (1988). Spontaneous shelter: International perspectives and prospects, Philadelphia: Temple University Press
  29. ^ Assessing Slums in the Development Context United Nations Habitat Group (2011)
  30. ^ Slum Cities and Cities with Slums" States of the World’s Cities 2008/2009. UN-Habitat. 
  31. ^ "Papua New Guinea: police cite bride price major factor in marital violence". Island Business. 21 November 2011. Archived from the original on 18 February 2015. Retrieved 6 August 2014 – via Violence is not our Culture. 
  32. ^ "An exploratory study of bride price and domestic violence in Bundibugyo District, Uganda" (PDF). Centre for Human Rights Advancement (CEHURA) and South African Medical Research Council. April 2012. Retrieved 6 August 2014. 
  33. ^ UNICEF (22 July 2013). Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: A statistical overview and exploration of the dynamics of change (pdf). UNICEF. Retrieved 18 November 2013. 
  34. ^ Nussbaum, Martha (1999). "Judging other cultures: the case of genital mutilation". In Nussbaum, Martha. Sex & social justice. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 120–121. ISBN 0195110323. 
  35. ^ Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 8 October 2017. 
  36. ^ Citations:
  37. ^ "Environment and health in developing countries". Priority environment and health risks. World Health Organization. 8 September 2016. 
  38. ^ Russel S. The economic burden of illness for households in developing countries: a review of studies focusing on malaria, tuberculosis, and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2004
  39. ^ Grantham-McGregor, Sally et al., the International Child Development Steering Group. “Developmental Potential in the First 5 Years for Children in Developing Countries.” Lancet 369.9555 (2007): 60–70. PMC. Web. 28 Nov. 2014.
  40. ^ "Key facts from JMP 2015 report". World Health Organization. Retrieved 2017-11-17. 
  41. ^ "WHO Lack of sanitation for 2.4 billion people is undermining health improvements". www.who.int. Retrieved 2017-11-17. 
  42. ^ a b c d WHO and UNICEF (2017) Progress on Drinking Water, Sanitation and Hygiene: 2017 Update and SDG Baselines. Geneva: World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), 2017
  43. ^ "UNICEF: Without toilets, childhood is even riskier due to malnutrition". UNICEF. Retrieved 22 August 2017. The fact remains that in Pakistan, 25 million people (or 13 percent of the population) practice open defecation. 
  44. ^ "Progress on Drinking Water, Sanitation and Hygiene - 2017". www.washdata.org. World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). Retrieved 26 September 2017. 
  45. ^ Westra, Richard (2011). "Renewing Socialist Development in the Third World", Journal of Contemporary Asia, 41(4): 519-543.
  46. ^ Scott; et al., "Chapter 12: Human settlements in a changing climate: impacts and adaptation", Sec. 12.3.1 Population Migration  Missing or empty title= (help), pp. 406–407, in IPCC SAR WG2 1996.
  47. ^ a b The World Bank, "Part One: Chapter 2: Reducing Human Vulnerability: Helping People Help Themselves" (PDF), Managing social risks: Empower communities to protect themselves , p. 109, WDR 2010.
  48. ^ a b c d Edwards, S. "Trade Orientation, Distortions and Growth In Developing Countries." (n.d.): n. pag. 1-37
  49. ^ Political factors that affect development Make Wealth History
  50. ^ Schultz, Theodore W. 1961. "Investment in human capital." American Economic Review 51, no. 1 (March): 1-17.
  51. ^ Harrison, Ann. "Openness and Growth: A Time-series, Cross-country Analysis for Developing Countries." Journal of Development Economics 48.2 (1996): 419-47. Web.
  52. ^ Verspoor, Adriaan. "Pathways to Change: Improving the Quality of Education in Developing Countries. World Bank Discussion Papers 53." (n.d.):
  53. ^ "World Economic Outlook, April 2015, pp.150-153" (PDF). Retrieved 2015-06-26. 
  54. ^ "World Economic Outlook, Database—WEO Groups and Aggregates Information, April 2015". Retrieved 2015-06-26. 
  55. ^ a b c d e "IMF Advanced Economies List. World Economic Outlook, May 1998, p. 134" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-01-15. 
  56. ^ "World Economic Outlook, April 2001, p.157" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-01-15. 
  57. ^ "World Economic Outlook, April 2007, p.204" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-01-15. 
  58. ^ "World Economic Outlook, April 2008, p.236" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-01-15. 
  59. ^ a b "World Economic Outlook, April 2009, p.184" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-01-15. 
  60. ^ Velinger, Jan (28 February 2006). "World Bank Marks Czech Republic's Graduation to 'Developed' Status". Radio Prague. Retrieved 22 January 2007. 
  61. ^ "World Economic Outlook, April 2011, p.172" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-01-15. 
  62. ^ "World Economic Outlook, April 2014, p.160" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-05-21. 
  63. ^ "World Economic Outlook, April 2015, p.48" (PDF). Retrieved 2015-04-11. 
  64. ^ "World Economic Outlook, October 2012, p.180" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-08-04. 
  65. ^ a b "World Economic Outlook, April 2016, p.148" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-06-25. 

Cited sources