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Ashrama: Brahmacharya Grihastha Vanaprastha Sannyasa

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Rama
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Agastya Angiras Aruni Ashtavakra Atri Bharadwaja Gotama Jamadagni Jaimini Kanada Kapila Kashyapa Pāṇini Patanjali Raikva Satyakama Jabala Valmiki Vashistha Vishvamitra Vyasa Yajnavalkya

Medieval

Nayanars Alvars Adi Shankara Basava Akka Mahadevi Allama Prabhu Siddheshwar Jñāneśvar Chaitanya Gangesha Upadhyaya Gaudapada Gorakshanath Jayanta Bhatta Kabir Kumarila Bhatta Matsyendranath Mahavatar Babaji Madhusudana Madhva Haridasa Thakur Namdeva Nimbarka Prabhakara Raghunatha Siromani Ramanuja Sankardev Purandara Dasa Kanaka Dasa Ramprasad Sen Jagannatha Dasa Vyasaraya Sripadaraya Raghavendra Swami Gopala Dasa Śyāma Śastri Vedanta
Vedanta
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Aurobindo Bhaktivinoda Thakur Chinmayananda Dayananda Saraswati Mahesh Yogi Jaggi Vasudev Krishnananda Saraswati Narayana
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Glossary of Hinduism
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terms Hinduism
Hinduism
portal

v t e

Elements in a Hindu
Hindu
temple architecture.

Angkor Wat
Angkor Wat
temple in Cambodia
Cambodia
is a world heritage site.

Once completed, the Swaminarayanan Akshardham Temple Complex in New Jersey will be one of the largest temple complexes outside India.[1]

A Hindu
Hindu
temple is a symbolic house, seat and body of god. It is a structure designed to bring human beings and gods together, using symbolism to express the ideas and beliefs of Hinduism.[2][3] The symbolism and structure of a Hindu
Hindu
temple are rooted in Vedic traditions, deploying circles and squares.[4] A temple incorporates all elements of Hindu
Hindu
cosmos—presenting the good, the evil and the human, as well as the elements of Hindu
Hindu
sense of cyclic time and the essence of life—symbolically presenting dharma, kama, artha, moksa, and karma.[5][6][7] The spiritual principles symbolically represented in Hindu
Hindu
temples are given in the ancient Sanskrit
Sanskrit
texts of India
India
(for example, Vedas
Vedas
and Upanishads), while their structural rules are described in various ancient Sanskrit
Sanskrit
treatises on architecture (Brhat Samhita, Vastu Sastras).[8][9] The layout, the motifs, the plan and the building process recite ancient rituals, geometric symbolisms, and reflect beliefs and values innate within various schools of Hinduism.[4] A Hindu
Hindu
temple is a spiritual destination for many Hindus, as well as landmarks around which ancient arts, community celebrations and economy have flourished.[10][11] Hindu
Hindu
temples come in many styles, are situated in diverse locations, deploy different construction methods and are adapted to different deities and regional beliefs,[12] yet almost all of them share certain core ideas, symbolism and themes. They are found in South Asia particularly India
India
and Nepal, in southeast Asian countries such as Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Vietnam, and islands of Indonesia
Indonesia
and Malaysia,[13][14] and countries such as Canada, the Caribbean, Fiji, France, Guyana, Kenya, Mauritius, the Netherlands, South Africa, Suriname, Tanzania, Trinidad and Tobago, Uganda, the United Kingdom, the United States, and countries with a significant Hindu community.[15] The current state and outer appearance of Hindu
Hindu
temples reflect arts, materials and designs as they evolved over two millennia; they also reflect the effect of conflicts between Hinduism and Islam
Islam
since the 12th century.[16] The Swaminarayanan Akshardham in Robbinsville, New Jersey, United States, between the New York and Philadelphia metropolitan areas, was inaugurated in 2014 as the world's largest Hindu
Hindu
temple.[1]

Contents

1 Significance and meaning of a Hindu
Hindu
temple 2 Forms and designs of Hindu
Hindu
temples

2.1 Site 2.2 Manuals 2.3 The plan 2.4 The symbolism 2.5 The teams that built Hindu
Hindu
temples

3 Social functions of Hindu
Hindu
temples

3.1 Library of manuscripts 3.2 Temple schools 3.3 Hospitals, community kitchen, monasteries

4 Styles 5 Arts inside Hindu
Hindu
temples 6 Historical development and destruction 7 Customs and etiquette 8 Regional variations in Hindu
Hindu
temples

8.1 North Indian temples 8.2 Temples in West Bengal 8.3 Temples in Odisha 8.4 Temples of Goa and other Konkani temples 8.5 South Indian and Sri Lankan temples

8.5.1 Temples in Kerala 8.5.2 Temples in Karnataka
Karnataka
(Tulu Nadu) 8.5.3 Temples in Tamil Nadu

8.6 Temples in Cambodia 8.7 Temples in Vietnam 8.8 Temples in Indonesia 8.9 Temples in Thailand 8.10 Temples outside Asia

9 Temple management 10 Etymology and nomenclature 11 See also 12 References 13 Bibliography 14 External links

Significance and meaning of a Hindu
Hindu
temple[edit] A Hindu
Hindu
temple reflects a synthesis of arts, the ideals of dharma, beliefs, values, and the way of life cherished under Hinduism. It is a link between man, deities, and the Universal Purusa in a sacred space.[17]

The 9x9 (81) grid ‘’Parama Sayika’’ layout plan (above) found in large ceremonial Hindu
Hindu
Temples. It is one of many grids used to build Hindu
Hindu
temples. In this structure of symmetry, each concentric layer has significance. The outermost layer, Paisachika padas, signify aspects of Asuras and evil; while inner Devika padas signify aspects of Devas and good. In between the good and evil is the concentric layer of Manusha padas signifying human life; All these layers surround Brahma
Brahma
padas, which signifies creative energy and the site for temple’s primary idol for darsana. Finally at the very center of Brahma
Brahma
padas is Grabhgriya (Purusa Space), signifying Universal Principle present in everything and everyone.[4]

In ancient Indian texts, a temple is a place for Tirtha – pilgrimage.[4] It is a sacred site whose ambience and design attempts to symbolically condense the ideal tenets of Hindu
Hindu
way of life.[17] All the cosmic elements that create and sustain life are present in a Hindu
Hindu
temple – from fire to water, from images of nature to deities, from the feminine to the masculine, from the fleeting sounds and incense smells to the eternal nothingness yet universality at the core of the temple.[4] Susan Lewandowski states[8] that the underlying principle in a Hindu temple is built around the belief that all things are one, everything is connected. The pilgrim is welcomed through 64-grid or 81-grid mathematically structured spaces, a network of art, pillars with carvings and statues that display and celebrate the four important and necessary principles of human life – the pursuit of artha (prosperity, wealth), the pursuit of kama (pleasure, sex), the pursuit of dharma (virtues, ethical life) and the pursuit of moksha (release, self-knowledge).[18][19] At the center of the temple, typically below and sometimes above or next to the deity, is mere hollow space with no decoration, symbolically representing Purusa, the Supreme Principle, the sacred Universal, one without form, which is present everywhere, connects everything, and is the essence of everyone. A Hindu
Hindu
temple is meant to encourage reflection, facilitate purification of one’s mind, and trigger the process of inner realization within the devotee.[4] The specific process is left to the devotee’s school of belief. The primary deity of different Hindu
Hindu
temples varies to reflect this spiritual spectrum.[20][21] In Hindu
Hindu
tradition, there is no dividing line between the secular and the sacred.[8] In the same spirit, Hindu
Hindu
temples are not just sacred spaces, they are also secular spaces. Their meaning and purpose have extended beyond spiritual life to social rituals and daily life, offering thus a social meaning. Some temples have served as a venue to mark festivals, to celebrate arts through dance and music, to get married or commemorate marriages,[22] commemorate the birth of a child, other significant life events, or mark the death of a loved one. In political and economic life, Hindu
Hindu
temples have served as a venue for the succession within dynasties and landmarks around which economic activity thrived.[23] Forms and designs of Hindu
Hindu
temples[edit] Main article: Hindu
Hindu
temple architecture Almost all Hindu
Hindu
temples take two forms: a house or a palace. A house-themed temple is a simple shelter which serves as a deity’s home. The temple is a place where the devotee visits, just like he or she would visit a friend or relative. In Bhakti
Bhakti
school of Hinduism, temples are venues for puja, which is a hospitality ritual, where the deity is honored, and where devotee calls upon, attends to and connects with the deity. In other schools of Hinduism, the person may simply perform jap, or meditation, or yoga, or introspection in his or her temple. Palace-themed temples often incorporate more elaborate and monumental architecture. Site[edit] The appropriate site for a temple, suggest ancient Sanskrit
Sanskrit
texts, is near water and gardens, where lotus and flowers bloom, where swans, ducks and other birds are heard, where animals rest without fear of injury or harm.[4] These harmonious places were recommended in these texts with the explanation that such are the places where gods play, and thus the best site for Hindu
Hindu
temples.[4][8]

Hindu
Hindu
temple sites cover a wide range. The most common sites are those near water bodies, embedded in nature, such as the above at Badami, Karnataka.

The gods always play where lakes are, where the sun’s rays are warded off by umbrellas of lotus leaf clusters, and where clear waterpaths are made by swans whose breasts toss the white lotus hither and thither, where swans, ducks, curleys and paddy birds are heard, and animals rest nearby in the shade of Nicula trees on the river banks.

The gods always play where rivers have for their braclets the sound of curleys and the voice of swans for their speech, water as their garment, carps for their zone, the flowering trees on their banks as earrings, the confluence of rivers as their hips, raised sand banks as breasts and plumage of swans their mantle.

The gods always play where groves are near, rivers, mountains and springs, and in towns with pleasure gardens.

— Brhat Samhita 1.60.4-8, 6th Century AD[24]

While major Hindu
Hindu
temples are recommended at sangams (confluence of rivers), river banks, lakes and seashore, Brhat Samhita and Puranas suggest temples may also be built where a natural source of water is not present. Here too, they recommend that a pond be built preferably in front or to the left of the temple with water gardens. If water is neither present naturally nor by design, water is symbolically present at the consecration of temple or the deity. Temples may also be built, suggests Visnudharmottara in Part III of Chapter 93,[25] inside caves and carved stones, on hill tops affording peaceful views, mountain slopes overlooking beautiful valleys, inside forests and hermitages, next to gardens, or at the head of a town street. Manuals[edit] Ancient builders of Hindu
Hindu
temples created manuals of architecture, called Vastu-Sastra (literally "science" of dwelling; vas-tu is a composite Sanskrit
Sanskrit
word; vas means "reside", tu means "you"); these contain Vastu-Vidya (literally, knowledge of dwelling).[26] There exist many Vastu-Sastras on the art of building temples, such as one by Thakkura Pheru, describing where and how temples should be built.[27][28] By the 6th century AD, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
manuals for in India.[29] Vastu-Sastra manuals included chapters on home construction, town planning,[26] and how efficient villages, towns and kingdoms integrated temples, water bodies and gardens within them to achieve harmony with nature.[30][31] While it is unclear, states Barnett,[32] as to whether these temple and town planning texts were theoretical studies and if or when they were properly implemented in practice, the manuals suggest that town planning and Hindu
Hindu
temples were conceived as ideals of art and integral part of Hindu
Hindu
social and spiritual life.[26]

Ancient India
India
produced many Sanskrit
Sanskrit
manuals for Hindu
Hindu
temple design and construction, covering arrangement of spaces (above) to every aspect of its completion. Yet, the Silpins were given wide latitude to experiment and express their creativity.[33]

The Silpa Prakasa of Odisha, authored by Ramacandra Bhattaraka Kaulacara in the ninth or tenth centuries AD, is another Sanskrit treatise on Temple Architecture.[34] Silpa Prakasa describes the geometric principles in every aspect of the temple and symbolism such as 16 emotions of human beings carved as 16 types of female figures. These styles were perfected in Hindu
Hindu
temples prevalent in eastern states of India. Other ancient texts found expand these architectural principles, suggesting that different parts of India
India
developed, invented and added their own interpretations. For example, in Saurastra tradition of temple building found in western states of India, the feminine form, expressions and emotions are depicted in 32 types of Nataka-stri compared to 16 types described in Silpa Prakasa.[34] Silpa Prakasa provides brief introduction to 12 types of Hindu
Hindu
temples. Other texts, such as Pancaratra Prasada Prasadhana compiled by Daniel Smith[35] and Silpa Ratnakara compiled by Narmada Sankara[36] provide a more extensive list of Hindu
Hindu
temple types. Ancient Sanskrit
Sanskrit
manuals for temple construction discovered in Rajasthan, in northwestern region of India, include Sutradhara Mandana’s Prasadamandana (literally, manual for planning and building a temple).[37] Manasara, a text of South Indian origin, estimated to be in circulation by the 7th century AD, is a guidebook on South Indian temple design and construction.[8][38] Isanasivagurudeva paddhati is another Sanskrit
Sanskrit
text from the 9th century describing the art of temple building in India
India
in south and central India.[39][40] In north India, Brihat-samhita by Varāhamihira is the widely cited ancient Sanskrit
Sanskrit
manual from 6th century describing the design and construction of Nagara style of Hindu temples.[33][41][42]

Elements of a Hindu
Hindu
temple in Kalinga style. There are many Hindu temple styles, but they almost universally share common geometric principles, symbolism of ideas, and expression of core beliefs.[4]

The plan[edit] A Hindu
Hindu
temple design follows a geometrical design called vastu-purusha-mandala. The name is a composite Sanskrit
Sanskrit
word with three of the most important components of the plan. Mandala means circle, Purusha is universal essence at the core of Hindu
Hindu
tradition, while Vastu means the dwelling structure.[43] Vastupurushamandala is a yantra.[27] The design lays out a Hindu
Hindu
temple in a symmetrical, self-repeating structure derived from central beliefs, myths, cardinality and mathematical principles. The four cardinal directions help create the axis of a Hindu
Hindu
temple, around which is formed a perfect square in the space available. The circle of mandala circumscribes the square. The square is considered divine for its perfection and as a symbolic product of knowledge and human thought, while circle is considered earthly, human and observed in everyday life (moon, sun, horizon, water drop, rainbow). Each supports the other.[4] The square is divided into perfect 64 (or in some cases 81) sub-squares called padas.[33][44] Each pada is conceptually assigned to a symbolic element, sometimes in the form of a deity. The central square(s) of the 64 or 81 grid is dedicated to the Brahman
Brahman
(not to be confused with Brahmin), and are called Brahma padas.

The 8x8 (64) grid Manduka Hindu
Hindu
Temple Floor Plan, according to Vastupurusamandala. The 64 grid is the most sacred and common Hindu temple template. The bright saffron center, where diagonals intersect above, represents the Purusha of Hindu
Hindu
philosophy.[4][33]

The 49 grid design is called Sthandila and of great importance in creative expressions of Hindu
Hindu
temples in South India, particularly in ‘‘Prakaras’’.[45] The symmetric Vastu-purusa-mandala grids are sometimes combined to form a temple superstructure with two or more attached squares.[46] The temples face sunrise, and the entrance for the devotee is typically this east side. The mandala pada facing sunrise is dedicated to Surya
Surya
deity (Sun). The Surya
Surya
pada is flanked by the padas of Satya
Satya
(Truth) deity on one side and Indra
Indra
(king of gods) deity on other. The east and north faces of most temples feature a mix of gods and demi-gods; while west and south feature demons and demi-gods related to the underworld.[47] This vastu purusha mandala plan and symbolism is systematically seen in ancient Hindu
Hindu
temples on Indian subcontinent as well as those in southeast Asia, with regional creativity and variations.[48][49] Beneath the mandala’s central square(s) is the space for the formless shapeless all pervasive all connecting Universal Spirit, the highest reality, the purusha.[50] This space is sometimes referred to as garbha-griya (literally womb house) – a small, perfect square, windowless, enclosed space without ornamentation that represents universal essence.[43] In or near this space is typically a murti (idol). This is the main deity idol, and this varies with each temple. Often it is this idol that gives the temple a local name, such as Visnu temple, Krishna
Krishna
temple, Rama
Rama
temple, Narayana
Narayana
temple, Siva temple, Lakshmi
Lakshmi
temple, Ganesha
Ganesha
temple, Durga
Durga
temple, Hanuman
Hanuman
temple, Surya
Surya
temple, and others.[17] It is this garbha-griya which devotees seek for ‘‘darsana’’ (literally, a sight of knowledge,[51] or vision[43]). Above the vastu-purusha-mandala is a superstructure with a dome called Shikhara
Shikhara
in north India, and Vimana in south India, that stretches towards the sky.[43] Sometimes, in makeshift temples, the dome may be replaced with symbolic bamboo with few leaves at the top. The vertical dimension's cupola or dome is designed as a pyramid, conical or other mountain-like shape, once again using principle of concentric circles and squares (see below).[4] Scholars suggest that this shape is inspired by cosmic mountain of Meru or Himalayan Kailasa, the abode of gods according to Vedic mythology.[43]

A Hindu
Hindu
temple has a Shikhara
Shikhara
(Vimana or Spire) that rises symmetrically above the central core of the temple. These spires come in many designs and shapes, but they all have mathematical precision and geometric symbolism. One of the common principles found in Hindu temple spires is circles and turning-squares theme (left), and a concentric layering design (right) that flows from one to the other as it rises towards the sky.[4][52]

In larger temples, the central space typically is surrounded by an ambulatory for the devotee to walk around and ritually circumambulate the Purusa, the universal essence.[4] Often this space is visually decorated with carvings, paintings or images meant to inspire the devotee. In some temples, these images may be stories from Hindu Epics, in others they may be Vedic tales about right and wrong or virtues and vice, in some they may be idols of minor or regional deities. The pillars, walls and ceilings typically also have highly ornate carvings or images of the four just and necessary pursuits of life – kama, artha, dharma and moksa. This walk around is called pradakshina.[43] Large temples also have pillared halls called mandapa. One on the east side, serves as the waiting room for pilgrims and devotees. The mandapa may be a separate structure in older temples, but in newer temples this space is integrated into the temple superstructure. Mega temple sites have a main temple surrounded by smaller temples and shrines, but these are still arranged by principles of symmetry, grids and mathematical precision. An important principle found in the layout of Hindu
Hindu
temples is mirroring and repeating fractal-like design structure,[53] each unique yet also repeating the central common principle, one which Susan Lewandowski refers to as "an organism of repeating cells".[23]

An illustration of Hindu
Hindu
temple Spires (Shikhara, Vimana) built using concentric circle and rotating-squares principle. The left is from Vijayanagar in Karnataka, the right is from Pushkar in Rajasthan.

The ancient texts on Hindu
Hindu
temple design, the Vastupurusamandala and Vastu Sastras, do not limit themselves to the design of a Hindu temple.[54] They describe the temple as a holistic part of its community, and lay out various principles and a diversity of alternate designs for home, village and city layout along with the temple, gardens, water bodies and nature.[4][30]

Exceptions to the square grid principle

Predominant number of Hindu
Hindu
temples exhibit the perfect square grid principle.[55] However, there are some exceptions. For example, the Teli-ka-mandir in Gwalior, built in the 8th century AD is not a square but is a rectangle in 2:3 proportion. Further, the temple explores a number of structures and shrines in 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 2:5, 3:5 and 4:5 ratios. These ratios are exact, suggesting the architect intended to use these harmonic ratios, and the rectangle pattern was not a mistake, nor an arbitrary approximation. Other examples of non-square harmonic ratios are found at Naresar temple site of Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
and Nakti-Mata temple near Jaipur, Rajasthan. Michael Meister suggests that these exceptions mean the ancient Sanskrit
Sanskrit
manuals for temple building were guidelines, and Hinduism
Hinduism
permitted its artisans flexibility in expression and aesthetic independence.[33] The symbolism[edit] A Hindu
Hindu
temple is a symbolic reconstruction of the universe and universal principles that make everything in it function.[56][57] The temples reflect Hindu
Hindu
philosophy and its diverse views on cosmos and Truths.[53][58] Hinduism
Hinduism
has no traditional ecclesiastical order, no centralized religious authorities, no governing body, no prophet(s) nor any binding holy book; Hindus can choose to be polytheistic, pantheistic, monistic, or atheistic.[59] Within this diffuse and open structure, spirituality in Hindu
Hindu
philosophy is an individual experience, and referred to as kṣaitrajña (Sanskrit: क्षैत्रज्ञ[60]). It defines spiritual practice as one’s journey towards moksha, awareness of self, the discovery of higher truths, true nature of reality, and a consciousness that is liberated and content.[61][62] A Hindu
Hindu
temple reflects these core beliefs. The central core of almost all Hindu
Hindu
temples is not a large communal space; the temple is designed for the individual, a couple or a family – a small, private space where he or she experiences darsana. Darsana is itself a symbolic word. In ancient Hindu
Hindu
scripts, darsana is the name of six methods or alternate viewpoints of understanding Truth.[63] These are Nyaya, Vaisesika, Sankhya, Yoga, Mimamsa
Mimamsa
and Vedanta
Vedanta
– each of which flowered into their own schools of Hinduism, each of which are considered valid, alternate paths to understanding Truth and realizing Self in the Hindu
Hindu
way of life.

Kāma is celebrated in some Hindu
Hindu
temples, such as Khajuraho and the Konark
Konark
Temple (above).[64]

From names to forms, from images to stories carved into the walls of a temple, symbolism is everywhere in a Hindu
Hindu
temple. Life principles such as the pursuit of joy, sex, connection and emotional pleasure (kama) are fused into mystical, erotic and architectural forms in Hindu
Hindu
temples. These motifs and principles of human life are part of the sacred texts of Hindu, such as its Upanishads; the temples express these same principles in a different form, through art and spaces. For example, Brihadaranyaka Upanisad at 4.3.21, recites:

In the embrace of his beloved a man forgets the whole world, everything both within and without; in the same way, he who embraces the Self, knows neither within nor without.

— Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, 7th Century BC[65]

The architecture of Hindu
Hindu
temples is also symbolic. The whole structure fuses the daily life and it surroundings with the divine concepts, through a structure that is open yet raised on a terrace, transitioning from the secular towards the sacred,[66] inviting the visitor inwards towards the Brahma
Brahma
pada and temple’s central core, as well as lifting him upwards into a symbolic space marked by its spire (shikhara, vimana). The ancient temples had grand intricately carved entrances but no doors, and lacked a boundary wall. In most cultures, suggests Edmund Leach,[66] a boundary and gateway separates the secular and the sacred, and this gateway door is grand. In Hindu tradition, this is discarded in favor of an open and diffusive architecture, where the secular world was not separated from the sacred, but transitioned and flowed into the sacred.[67] The Hindu temple has structural walls, which were patterned usually within the 64 grid, or other geometric layouts. Yet the layout was open on all sides, except for the core space which had just one opening for darsana. The temple space is laid out in a series of courts (mandappas). The outermost regions may incorporate the negative and suffering side of life with symbolism of evil, asuras and rakshashas (demons); but in small temples this layer is dispensed with. When present, this outer region diffuse into the next inner layer that bridges as human space, followed by another inner Devika padas space and symbolic arts incorporating the positive and joyful side of life about the good and the gods. This divine space then concentrically diffuses inwards and lifts the guest to the core of the temple, where resides the main idol as well as the space for the Purusa and ideas held to be most sacred principles in Hindu
Hindu
tradition. The symbolism in the arts and temples of Hinduism, suggests Edmund Leach, is similar to those in Christianity and other major religions of the world.[68] The teams that built Hindu
Hindu
temples[edit]

Inside Hindu
Hindu
temples

Shrine inside temple complex

Ramayana
Ramayana
scene along padas

Outer hall, Rameswaram

Center, Hoysaleswara

Indian texts call the craftsmen and builders of temples as ‘‘Silpin’’ (Sanskrit: शिल्पिन्[69]), derived from ‘‘Silpa’’.[70] One of earliest mentions of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
word Silpa is in Atharvaveda, from about 1000 BC, which scholars have translated as any work of art.[71] Other scholars suggest that the word Silpa has no direct one word translation in English, nor does the word ‘‘Silpin’’. Silpa, explains Stella Kramrisch,[39] is a multicolored word and incorporates art, skill, craft, ingenuity, imagination, form, expression and inventiveness of any art or craft. Similarly a Shilpin, notes Kramrisch, is a complex Sanskrit
Sanskrit
word, describing any person who embodies art, science, culture, skill, rhythm and employs creative principles to produce any divine form of expression. Silpins who built Hindu
Hindu
temples, as well as the art works and sculpture within them, were considered by the ancient Sanskrit texts to deploy arts whose number are unlimited, Kala (techniques) that were 64 in number,[72] and Vidya (science) that were of 32 types.[39] The Hindu
Hindu
manuals of temple construction describe the education, characteristics of good artists and architects. The general education of a Hindu
Hindu
Shilpin in ancient India
India
included Lekha or Lipi (alphabet, reading and writing), Rupa (drawing and geometry), Ganana (arithmetic). These were imparted from age 5 to 12. The advanced students would continue in higher stages of Shilpa Sastra studies till the age of 25.[73][74] Apart from specialist technical competence, the manuals suggest that best Silpins for building a Hindu
Hindu
temple are those who know the essence of Vedas
Vedas
and Agamas, consider themselves as students, keep well verse with principles of traditional sciences and mathematics, painting and geography.[27] Further they are kind, free from jealousy, righteous, have their sense under control, of happy disposition, and ardent in everything they do.[39] According to Silparatna, a Hindu
Hindu
temple project would start with a Yajamana (patron), and include a Sthapaka (guru, spiritual guide and architect-priest), a Sthapati (architect) who would design the building, a Sutragrahin (surveyor), and many Vardhakins (workers, masons, painters, plasterers, overseers) and Taksakas (sculptors).[27][41] While the temple is under construction, all those working on the temple were revered and considered sacerdotal by the patron as well as others witnessing the construction.[70] Further, it was a tradition that all tools and materials used in temple building and all creative work had the sanction of a sacrament.[27] For example, if a carpenter or sculptor needed to fell a tree or cut a rock from a hill, he would propitiate the tree or rock with prayers, seeking forgiveness for cutting it from its surroundings, and explaining his intent and purpose. The axe used to cut the tree would be anointed with butter to minimize the hurt to the tree.[39] Even in modern times, in some parts of India
India
such as Odisha, Visvakarma Puja is a ritual festival every year where the craftsmen and artists worship their arts, tools and materials.[75] Social functions of Hindu
Hindu
temples[edit] Hindu
Hindu
temples served as nuclei of important social, economic, artistic and intellectual functions in ancient and medieval India.[76][77] Burton Stein states that South Indian temples managed regional development function, such as irrigation projects, land reclamation, post-disaster relief and recovery. These activities were paid for by the donations (melvarum) they collected from devotees.[10] According to James Heitzman, these donations came from a wide spectrum of the Indian society, ranging from kings, queens, officials in the kingdom to merchants, priests and shepherds.[78] Temples also managed lands endowed to it by its devotees upon their death. They would provide employment to the poorest.[79] Some temples had large treasury, with gold and silver coins, and these temples served as banks.[80] Hindu
Hindu
temples over time became wealthy from grants and donations from royal patrons as well as private individuals. Major temples became employers and patrons of economic activity. They sponsored land reclamation and infrastructure improvements, states Michell, including building facilities such as water tanks, irrigation canals and new roads.[81] A very detailed early record from 1101 lists over 600 employees (excluding the priests) of the Brihadisvara Temple, Thanjavur, still one of the largest temples in Tamil Nadu. Most worked part-time and received the use of temple farmland as reward.[81] For those thus employed by the temple, according to Michell, "some gratuitous services were usually considered obligatory, such as dragging the temple chariots on festival occasions and helping when a large building project was undertaken".[81] Temples also acted as refuge during times of political unrest and danger.[81] In contemporary times, the process of building a Hindu
Hindu
temple by emigrants and diasporas from South Asia has also served as a process of building a community, a social venue to network, reduce prejudice and seek civil rights together.[82] Library of manuscripts[edit]

Types of Hindu
Hindu
temples

Cave temple

Forest temple

Mountain temple

Seashore temple

John Guy and Jorrit Britschgi state Hindu
Hindu
temples served as centers where ancient manuscripts were routinely used for learning and where the texts were copied when they wore out.[83] In South India, temples and associated mutts served custodial functions, and a large number of manuscripts on Hindu
Hindu
philosophy, poetry, grammar and other subjects were written, multiplied and preserved inside the temples.[84] Archaeological and epigraphical evidence indicates existence of libraries called Sarasvati-bhandara, dated possibly to early 12th-century and employing librarians, attached to Hindu
Hindu
temples.[85] Palm-leaf manuscripts called lontar in dedicated stone libraries have been discovered by archaeologists at Hindu
Hindu
temples in Bali
Bali
Indonesia and in 10th century Cambodian temples such as Angkor Wat
Angkor Wat
and Banteay Srei.[86] Temple schools[edit] Inscriptions from the 4th century AD suggest the existence of schools around Hindu
Hindu
temples, called Ghatikas or Mathas, where the Vedas
Vedas
were studied.[87] In south India, 9th century Vedic schools attached to Hindu
Hindu
temples were called Calai or Salai, and these provided free boarding and lodging to students and scholars.[88][89] The temples linked to Bhakti
Bhakti
movement in the early 2nd millennium, were dominated by non-Brahmins.[90] These assumed many educational functions, including the exposition, recitation and public discourses of Sanskrit and Vedic texts.[90] Some temple schools offered wide range of studies, ranging from Hindu
Hindu
scriptures to Buddhist texts, grammar, philosophy, martial arts, music and painting.[76][91] By the 8th century, Hindu
Hindu
temples also served as the social venue for tests, debates, team competition and Vedic recitals called Anyonyam.[76][91] Hospitals, community kitchen, monasteries[edit] According to Kenneth G. Zysk – a professor specializing in Indology and ancient medicine, Hindu
Hindu
mathas and temples had by the 10th-century attached medical care along with their religious and educational roles.[92] This is evidenced by various inscriptions found in Bengal, Andhra Pradesh and elsewhere. An inscription dated to about AD 930 states the provision of a physician to two matha to care for the sick and destitute. Another inscription dated to 1069 at a Vishnu
Vishnu
temple in Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
describes a hospital attached to the temple, listing the nurses, physicians, medicines and beds for patients. Similarly, a stone inscription in Andhra Pradesh dated to about 1262 mentions the provision of a prasutishala (maternity house), vaidya (physician), an arogyashala (health house) and a viprasattra (hospice, kitchen) with the religious center where people from all social backgrounds could be fed and cared for.[92][93] According to Zysk, both Buddhist monasteries and Hindu
Hindu
religious centers provided facilities to care for the sick and needy in the 1st millennium, but with the destruction of Buddhist centers after the 12th century, the Hindu
Hindu
religious institutions assumed these social responsibilities.[92] According to George Michell, Hindu
Hindu
temples in South India
India
were active charity centers and they provided free meal for wayfarers, pilgrims and devotees, as well as boarding facilities for students and hospitals for the sick.[94] The 15th and 16th century Hindu
Hindu
temples at Hampi
Hampi
featured storage spaces (temple granary, kottara), water tanks and kitchens.[95][96][97] Many major pilgrimage sites have featured dharmashalas since early times. These were attached to Hindu
Hindu
temples, particularly in South India, providing a bed and meal to pilgrims. They relied on any voluntary donation the visitor may leave and to land grants from local rulers.[98] Some temples have operated their kitchens on daily basis to serve the visitor and the needy, while others during major community gatherings or festivals. Examples include the major kitchens run by Hindu
Hindu
temples in Udupi
Udupi
(Karnataka), Puri
Puri
(Odisha) and Tirupati
Tirupati
(Andhra Pradesh). The tradition of sharing food in smaller temple is typically called prasada.[98][99] Styles[edit]

Golden Hindu
Hindu
Temples

The Golden Temple at Vellore
Vellore
is gilded with 1500 kg of pure gold.

One tonne of gold for plating of Kashi Vishwanath Temple's golden dome, was donated by Maharaja Ranjit Singh.[100][101]

Hindu
Hindu
temples are found in diverse locations each incorporating different methods of construction and styles:

Mountain[52] temples such as Masrur Cave[102] temples such as Chandrabhaga, Chalukya[103] and Ellora Step well temple compounds such as the Mata Bhavani, Ankol Mata and Huccimallugudi.[104] Forest[102] temples such as Kasaun and Kusama[105] River bank and sea shore temples such as Somnath.

Hindu
Hindu
deities, stepwell style.

Step well temples

In arid western parts of India, such as Rajasthan
Rajasthan
and Gujarat, Hindu communities built large walk in wells that served as the only source of water in dry months but also served as social meeting places and carried religious significance. These monuments went down into earth towards subterranean water, up to seven storey, and were part of a temple complex.[106] These vav (literally, stepwells) had intricate art reliefs on the walls, with numerous idols and images of Hindu deities, water spirits and erotic symbolism. The step wells were named after Hindu
Hindu
deities; for example, Mata Bhavani's Stepwell, Ankol Mata Vav, Sikotari Vav and others.[106] The temple ranged from being small single pada (cell) structure to large nearby complexes. These stepwells and their temple compounds have been variously dated from late 1st millennium BC through 11th century AD. Of these, Rani ki vav, with hundreds of art reliefs including many of Vishnu
Vishnu
deity avatars, has been declared a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage site.[107]

Cave Temples

The Indian rock-cut architecture
Indian rock-cut architecture
evolved in Maharashtran temple style in the 1st millennium AD. The temples are carved from a single piece of rock as a complete temple or carved in a cave to look like the interior of a temple. Ellora
Ellora
Temple is an example of the former, while The Elephanta Caves
Elephanta Caves
are representative of the latter style.[citation needed] The Elephanta Caves
Elephanta Caves
consist of two groups of caves—the first is a large group of five Hindu
Hindu
caves and the second is a smaller group of two Buddhist caves. The Hindu
Hindu
caves contain rock-cut stone sculptures, representing the Shaiva Hindu
Hindu
sect, dedicated to the god Shiva. Arts inside Hindu
Hindu
temples[edit]

Illustration of Chitrardha style of art work in a Hindu
Hindu
temple.

A typical, ancient Hindu
Hindu
temple has a profusion of arts – from paintings to sculpture, from symbolic icons to engravings, from thoughtful layout of space to fusion of mathematical principles with Hindu
Hindu
sense of time and cardinality. Ancient Sanskrit
Sanskrit
texts classify idols and images in number of ways. For example, one method of classification is the dimensionality of completion:[108]

Chitra – images that are 3-dimensional and completely formed, Chitrardha – images that are engraved in half relief, Chitrabhasa – images that are 2-dimensional such as paintings on walls and cloths.

Images and idols inside Hindu
Hindu
temples vary widely in their expression. Raudra or ugra images express destruction, fear and violence, such as Kali
Kali
image on left. Shanta or saumya images express joy, knowledge and harmony, such as Saraswati
Saraswati
image on right. Saumya images are most common in Hindu
Hindu
temples.

Another way of classification is by the expressive state of the image:

Raudra or ugra – are images that were meant to terrify, induce fear. These typically have wide, circular eyes, carry weapons, have skulls and bones as adornment. These idols were worshiped by soldiers before going to war, or by people in times of distress or terrors. Raudra deity temples were not set up inside villages or towns, but invariably outside and in remote areas of a kingdom.[108] Shanta and saumya – are images that were pacific, peaceful and expressive of love, compassion, kindness and other virtues in Hindu pantheon. These images would carry symbolic icons of peace, knowledge, music, wealth, flowers, sensuality among other things. In ancient India, these temples were predominant inside villages and towns.[108]

A Hindu
Hindu
temple may or may not include an idol or images, but larger temples usually do. Personal Hindu
Hindu
temples at home or a hermitage may have a pada for yoga or meditation, but be devoid of anthropomorphic representations of god. Nature or others arts may surround him or her. To a Hindu
Hindu
yogin, states Gopinath Rao,[108] one who has realised Self and the Universal Principle within himself, there is no need for any temple or divine image for worship. However, for those who have yet to reach this height of realization, various symbolic manifestations through images, idols and icons as well as mental modes of worship are offered as one of the spiritual paths in the Hindu
Hindu
way of life. This belief is repeated in ancient Hindu
Hindu
scriptures. For example, the Jabaladarshana Upanishad
Upanishad
states:[108]

शिवमात्मनि पश्यन्ति प्रतिमासु न योगिनः अज्ञानं भावनार्थाय प्रतिमाः परिकल्पिताः ५९ - जाबालदर्शनोपनिषत्

A yogin perceives god (Siva) within himself, images are for those who have not reached this knowledge. (Verse 59)

— Jabaladarsana Upanishad, [109]

Historical development and destruction[edit]

Ancient Hindu
Hindu
temples outside the Indian subcontinent

Ateshgah temple, Azerbaijan

Angkor
Angkor
Wat, Cambodia

Prambanan
Prambanan
temple, Indonesia

Po Nagar
Po Nagar
temple, Vietnam

A number of ancient Indian texts suggest the prevalence of idols, temples and shrines in Indian subcontinent for thousands of years. For example, the 4th century BC text, Astadhyayi mentions male deity arcas (images/idols) of Agni, Indra, Varuna, Rudra, Mrda, Pusa, Surya, Soma being worshipped, as well as the worship of arcas of female goddesses such as Indrani, Varunani, Usa, Bhavani, Prthivi and Vrsakapayi.[110] The 2nd Century BC ‘‘Mahabhasya’’ of Patanjali
Patanjali
extensively describes temples of Dhanapati (deity of wealth and finance, Kubera), as well as temples of Rama
Rama
and Kesava, wherein the worship included dance, music and extensive rituals. The Mahabhasya also describes the rituals for Krsna, Visnu and Siva. An image recovered from Mathura in north India
India
has been dated to the 2nd century BC.[110] Kautilya’s Arthashastra
Arthashastra
from 3rd Century BC describes a city of temples, each enshrining various Vedic and Puranic deities. All three of these sources have common names, describe common rituals, symbolism and significance possibly suggesting that the idea of idols, temples and shrines passed from one generation to next, in ancient India, at least from the 4th century BC.[110] The oldest temples, suggest scholars, were built of brick and wood. Stone became the preferred material of construction later.[111][112] Early Jainism and Buddhism literature, along with Kautilya’s Arthashastra, describe structures, embellishments and designs of these temples – all with motifs and deities currently prevalent in Hinduism. Bas-reliefs and idols have been found from 2nd to 3rd Century, but none of the temple structures have survived. Scholars[110] theorize that those ancient temples of India, later referred to as Hindu
Hindu
temples, were modeled after domestic structure – a house or a palace. Beyond shrines, nature was revered, in forms such as trees, rivers, stupas before the time of Buddha and Vardhamana Mahavira. As Jainism and Buddhism branched off from the religious tradition later to be called Hinduism, the ideas, designs and plans of ancient Vedic and Upanishad
Upanishad
era shrines were adopted and evolved, likely from the competitive development of temples and arts in Jainism and Buddhism. Ancient reliefs found so far, states Michael Meister,[110] suggest five basic shrine designs and combinations thereof in 1st millennium BC:

A raised platform with or without a symbol A raised platform under an umbrella A raised platform under a tree A raised platform enclosed with a railing A raised platform inside a pillared pavilion

Many of these ancient shrines were roofless, some had toranas and roof.

Ladkhan Shiva
Shiva
Temple in Karnataka
Karnataka
from the 5th century.

From the 1st century BC through 3rd Century AD, the evidence and details about ancient temples increases. The ancient literature refers to these temples as Pasada (or Prasada), stana, mahasthana, devalaya, devagrha, devakula, devakulika, ayatana and harmya.[110] The entrance of the temple is referred to as dvarakosthaka in these ancient texts notes Meister,[110] the temple hall is described as sabha or ayagasabha, pillars were called kumbhaka, while vedika referred to the structures at the boundary of a temple.

A 7th century Chalukyan style temple ceiling in Karnataka

With the start of Gupta dynasty in the 4th century, Hindu
Hindu
temples flourished in innovation, design, scope, form, use of stone and new materials as well as symbolic synthesis of culture and dharmic principles with artistic expression.[113][114] It is this period that is credited with the ideas of garbhagrha for Purusa, mandapa for sheltering the devotees and rituals in progress, as well as symbolic motifs relating to dharma, karma, kama, artha and moksha. Temple superstructures were built from stone, brick and wide range of materials. Entrance ways, walls and pillars were intricately carved, while parts of temple were decorated with gold, silver and jewels. Visnu, Siva and other deities were placed in Hindu
Hindu
temples, while Buddhists and Jains built their own temples, often side by side with Hindus.[115] The 4th through 6th century marked the flowering of Vidharbha style, whose accomplishments survive in central India
India
as Ajanta caves, Pavnar, Mandhal and Mahesvar. In South India, this period is credited with some of the earliest stone temples of the region, with Chalukya temples dated to be from the 5th century by some scholars,[116] and the 6th by some others.[117] Over 6th and 7th century, temple designs were further refined during Maurya dynasty, evidence of which survives today at Ellora
Ellora
and Elephanta.

Many Hindu
Hindu
temples were destroyed and the remains used to rebuild Islamic mosques between 12th and 18th century AD. Above drawing by James Prinsep
James Prinsep
(1832) shows an overlay of a mosque built over the ancient Hindu
Hindu
Vishveshvur temple.

It is the 5th through 7th century AD when outer design and appearances of Hindu
Hindu
temples in north India
India
and south India
India
began to widely diverge.[118] Nevertheless, the forms, theme, symbolism and central ideas in the grid design remained same, before and after, pan- India
India
as innovations were adopted to give distinctly different visual expressions. During the 5th to 11th century, Hindu
Hindu
temples flourished outside Indian subcontinent, such as in Cambodia, Viet Nam, Malaysia
Malaysia
and Indonesia.

Destruction and conversion

With the arrival of Islam
Islam
in South Asia, Hindu
Hindu
temples along with the temples of Buddhists and Jains, became targets of Islamic armies. Idols were broken up and damaged. Spires and pillars were torn down by the invading armies from Persia, Central Asia and resident Sultans. Temples were looted of their treasury and parts reused to build or to convert the temples into mosques.[119] During some periods, Muslim emperors such as Akbar encouraged arts, helped repair and protect Hindu
Hindu
temples. In other periods, the Sultans and emperors led a campaign of temple destruction as well as forbade repairs to damaged temples.[120] Richard Eaton has listed 80 campaigns of Hindu
Hindu
temple site destruction stretching over centuries, particularly from the 12th through the 18th century.[121] The religious conflict and desecrations continued during the British colonial era.[122] The destruction of Hindu
Hindu
temple sites was comparatively less in the southern parts of India, such as in Tamil Nadu. Cave style Hindu temples that were carved inside a rock, hidden and rediscovered centuries later, such as the Kailasha Temple, have also survived. These are now UNESCO
UNESCO
world heritage sites.[123] Customs and etiquette[edit] The customs and etiquette varies across India. Devotees in major temples may bring in symbolic offerings for the puja. This includes fruits, flowers, sweets and other symbols of the bounty of the natural world. Temples in India
India
are usually surrounded with small shops selling these offerings.

Jagannath Temple at Puri, one of Char Dham: the four main spiritual centers of Hindus

When inside the temple, devotees keep both hands folded (namaste mudra). The inner sanctuary, where the murtis reside, is known as the garbhagriha. It symbolizes the birthplace of the universe, the meeting place of the gods and mankind, and the threshold between the transcendental and the phenomenal worlds.[124] It is in this inner shrine that devotees seek a darsana of, where they offer prayers. Devotees may or may not be able to personally present their offerings at the feet of the deity. In most large Indian temples, only the pujaris (priest) are allowed to enter into the main sanctum.[125] Temple management staff typically announce the hours of operation, including timings for special pujas. These timings and nature of special puja vary from temple to temple. Additionally, there may be specially allotted times for devotees to perform circumambulations (or pradakshina) around the temple.[125] Visitors and worshipers to large Hindu
Hindu
temples may be required to deposit their shoes and other footwear before entering. Where this is expected, the temples provide an area and help staff to store footwear. Dress codes vary. It is customary in temples in Kerala, for men to remove shirts and to cover pants and shorts with a traditional cloth known as a Vasthiram.[126] In Java
Java
and Bali
Bali
(Indonesia), before one enters the most sacred parts of a Hindu
Hindu
temple, shirts are required as well as Sarong
Sarong
around one's waist.[127] At many other locations, this formality is unnecessary. Regional variations in Hindu
Hindu
temples[edit] North Indian temples[edit]

Kedarnath Temple, Uttarakhand

Shiv Temple, Assam

North Indian temples are referred to as Nagara style of temple architecture.[128] They have sanctum sanctorum where the deity is present, open on one side from where the devotee obtains darśana. There may or may not be many more surrounding corridors, halls, etc. However, there will be space for devotees to go around the temple in clockwise fashion circumambulation. In North Indian temples, the tallest towers are built over the sanctum sanctorum in which the deity is installed.[129] The north India
India
Nagara style of temple designs often deploy fractal-theme, where smaller parts of the temple are themselves images or geometric re-arrangement of the large temple, a concept found in French and Russian architecture such as the matryoshka principle. One difference is the scope and cardinality, where Hindu
Hindu
temple structures deploy this principle in every dimension with garbhgriya as the primary locus, and each pada as well as zones serving as additional centers of loci. This makes a Nagara Hindu
Hindu
temple architecture symbolically a perennial expression of movement and time, of centrifugal growth fused with the idea of unity in everything.[128] Temples in West Bengal[edit]

Dakshineswar Kali
Kali
Temple, Kolkata

In West Bengal, the Bengali terra cotta temple architecture is found. Due to lack of suitable stone in the alluvial soil locally available, the temple makers had to resort to other materials instead of stone. This gave rise to using terracotta as a medium for temple construction. Terracotta
Terracotta
exteriors with rich carvings are a unique feature of Bengali temples. The town of Vishnupur in West Bengal
West Bengal
is renowned for this type of architecture. There is also a popular style of building known as Navaratna (nine-towered) or Pancharatna (five-towered). An example of Navaratna style is the Dakshineswar Kali Temple.[130] Temples in Odisha[edit]

Rajarani Temple, Bhubaneswar

Odisha
Odisha
temple architecture is known as Kalinga architecture, classifies the spire into three parts, the Bāḍa (lower limb), the Ganḍi (body) and the Cuḷa/Mastaka (head). Each part is decorated in a different manner. Kalinga architecture
Kalinga architecture
is a style which flourished in Kalinga, the name for kingdom that included ancient Odisha. It includes three styles: Rekha Deula, Pidha Deula
Deula
and Khakhara Deula.[131] The former two are associated with Vishnu, Surya and Shiva
Shiva
temples while the third is mainly associated with Chamunda and Durga
Durga
temples. The Rekha Deula
Deula
and Khakhara Deula
Deula
houses the sanctum sanctorum while the Pidha Deula
Deula
style includes space for outer dancing and offering halls. Temples of Goa and other Konkani temples[edit]

Saptakoteshwar Temple in Goa

The temple architecture of Goa is quite unique. As Portuguese colonial hegemony increased, Goan Hindu
Hindu
temples became the rallying point to local resistance.[132] Many these temples are not more than 500 years old, and are a unique blend of original Goan temple architecture, Dravidian, Nagar and Hemadpanthi
Hemadpanthi
temple styles with some British and Portuguese architectural influences. Goan temples were built using sedimentary rocks, wood, limestone and clay tiles, and copper sheets were used for the roofs. These temples were decorated with mural art called as Kavi kala or ocher art. The interiors have murals and wood carvings depicting scenes from the Hindu
Hindu
mythology. South Indian and Sri Lankan temples[edit]

The gopuram (tower) of Natarajar Temple, a typical South Indian temple complex in Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu.

Koneswaram Temple, a Tamil Saivate temple in Tirukonamalai, Sri Lanka.

South Indian temples have a large gopuram, a monumental tower, usually ornate, at the entrance of the temple. This forms a prominent feature of Koils, Hindu
Hindu
temples of the Dravidian style.[133] They are topped by the kalasam, a bulbous stone finial. They function as gateways through the walls that surround the temple complex.[134] The gopuram's origins can be traced back to early structures of the Tamil kings Pallavas; and by the twelfth century, under the Pandya
Pandya
rulers, these gateways became a dominant feature of a temple's outer appearance, eventually overshadowing the inner sanctuary which became obscured from view by the gopuram's colossal size.[135] It also dominated the inner sanctum in amount of ornamentation. Often a shrine has more than one gopuram.[136] They also appear in architecture outside India, especially Khmer architecture, as at Angkor
Angkor
Wat. A koil may have multiple gopurams, typically constructed into multiple walls in tiers around the main shrine. The temple's walls are typically square with the outer most wall having gopuras. The sanctum sanctorium and its towering roof (the central deity's shrine) are also called the vimanam.[137] The inner sanctum has restricted access with only priests allowed beyond a certain point. Temples in Kerala[edit] Temples in Kerala
Kerala
have a different architectorial style, (keeping the same essence of vaastu ) especially due to climatic differences Kerala have with other parts of India
India
with larger rainfall. The temple roof is mostly tiled and is sloped and the walls are often square, the inner most shrine being entirely enclosed in another four walls to which only the pujari(priest) enters. The walls are decorated with either mural paintings or rock sculptures which many a times are emphasised on Dwarapalakas. Temples in Karnataka
Karnataka
(Tulu Nadu)[edit] Temples in Karnataka
Karnataka
(Tulu Nadu) have a unique style of architecture and have been constructed according to vasthu. Among these Shri Agnidurga Gopalkrishna Temple (Gurupur, Mangalore), Sri Gokarnanatheshwara Temple (Kadri), Sri Kudtheri Mahamaya Temple, Sri Sowthedka Temple, Sri Mahothobaara Kotilingeshwara Temple, Sri Chandramouleswara Temple, Sri Brahma
Brahma
Baidarkala Garadi Temple, Sri Durga
Durga
Parameshwari Temple, Sri Somanatheshwara Temple, Sri Manjunatha Temple Sri Subramanya Temple, Sri Mahaganapati Temple, Sri Durga Parameshwari Temple, Sri Durga
Durga
Parameshwari Temple, Sri Adi Janardana Temple, Sri Mookambika Temple Sri Durgaparameshwari Temple, Sri Vinayaka Temple, Sri Shankara Narayana
Narayana
Temple, Sri Durga
Durga
Parameshwari Temple, Sri Vishwanatha Temple, Sri Amrutheshwara Temple, Sri Subramanya Temple, Sri Raja Rajeshwari Temple, Sri Kadri Manjunatha Temple, Sri Mangaladevi Temple, Sri Mahalingeshwara Temple, Sri Somanatheshwara Temple, Sri Durga
Durga
Parameshwari Temple, Sri Vishnu Murthy Temple, Sri Durga
Durga
Parameshwari Temple, Sri Mahalingeshwara Mahaganapati Temple, Sri Janardana Swamy Temple, Sri Ananteshwara Vinayaka Temple, Sri Mahisha Mardini Temple etc. are considered as famous temples and with lot of religious activities Temples in Tamil Nadu[edit]

The Meenakshi Amman Temple
Meenakshi Amman Temple
in Madurai .

Temple construction reached its peak during rule of Pallavas. They built various temples around Kancheepuram, and Narasimhavarman II built the Shore Temple
Shore Temple
in Mamallapuram, a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site. The Pandyas
Pandyas
rule created temples such as the Meenakshi Amman Temple
Meenakshi Amman Temple
at Madurai and Nellaiappar Temple
Nellaiappar Temple
at Tirunelveli.[138] The Cholas were prolific temple builders right from the times of the first medieval king Vijayalaya Chola. The Chola temples include Nataraja
Nataraja
temple at Chidambaram, the Sri Ranganathaswami Temple at Srirangam, the Brihadeshvara Temple
Brihadeshvara Temple
of Thanjavur, Brihadeshvara Temple
Brihadeshvara Temple
of Gangaikonda Cholapuram and the Airavatesvara Temple
Airavatesvara Temple
of Darasuram which are among the UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Sites. The Nayaks of Madurai reconstructed some of the well-known temples in Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
such as the Meenakshi Temple.[8][139] Temples in Cambodia[edit]

Art relief at the Hindu
Hindu
temple Banteay Srei
Banteay Srei
in Cambodia

Angkor Wat
Angkor Wat
was built as a Hindu
Hindu
temple by King Suryavarman II in the early 12th century in Yasodharapura (Khmer, present-day Angkor), the capital of the Khmer Empire, as his state temple and eventual mausoleum. Breaking from the Shaiva tradition of previous kings, Angkor Wat
Angkor Wat
was instead dedicated to Vishnu. The Spire in Khmer Hindu temple is called Giri (mountain) and symbolizes the residence of gods just like Meru does in Bali
Bali
Hindu
Hindu
mythology and Ku (Guha) does in Burmese Hindu
Hindu
mythology.[140] Angkor Wat
Angkor Wat
is just one of numerous Hindu
Hindu
temples in Cambodia, most of them in ruins. Hundreds of Hindu
Hindu
temples are scattered from Siem Reap to Sambor Prei Kuk in central Cambodian region.[141] Temples in Vietnam[edit] There are a number of Hindu
Hindu
temple clusters along the coast of Vietnam, with some on UNESCO
UNESCO
world heritage site list.[142] Examples include Mỹ Sơn
Mỹ Sơn
– a cluster of 70 temples with earliest dated to be from the 4th century AD and dedicated to Siva, while others are dedicated to Hindu
Hindu
deities Krishna, Vishnu
Vishnu
and others. These temples, internally and with respect to each other, are also built on the Hindu perfect square grid concept. Other sites in Vietnam
Vietnam
with Hindu
Hindu
temples include Phan Rang with the Cham temple Po Klong Garai.[143] Temples in Indonesia[edit]

Prambanan
Prambanan
in Java

Pura Ulun Danu Bratan, Bali

Ancient temples in Indonesia
Indonesia
are called candi. Hindu
Hindu
temples of ancient Java, Indonesia, bear resemblances with temples of South Indian style. The largest of these is the 9th century Javanese Hindu temple, Prambanan
Prambanan
in Yogyakarta, now a UNESCO
UNESCO
world heritage site. It was designed as three concentric squares and has 224 temples. The inner square contains 16 temples dedicated to major Hindu
Hindu
deities, of which Siva temple is the largest. The temple has extensive wall reliefs and carvings illustrating the stories from the Hindu
Hindu
epic Ramayana.[144] In Bali, Pura (Balinese temple)
Pura (Balinese temple)
is designed as an open-air worship place in a walled compound. The compound walls have a series of intricately decorated gates without doors for the devotee to enter. The design, plan and layout of the holy pura follows a square layout.[145][146] Temples in Thailand[edit] Thailand
Thailand
has many notable Hindu
Hindu
temples including: the Sri Mariammam temple in Bangkok, the Devasathan, the Erawan Shrine, Prasat Muang Tam, Sdok Kok Thom
Sdok Kok Thom
and Phanom Rung. Temples outside Asia[edit]

A Hindu
Hindu
temple in Queens, USA (left), another in Hamm, Germany.

Many members of the South Asian diaspora have established Hindu mandirs outside India
India
as a means of preserving and celebrating cultural and spiritual heritage abroad. Describing the hundreds of mandirs that can be found throughout the United States, scholar Gail M. Harley observes, "The temples serve as central locations where Hindus can come together to worship during holy festivals and socialize with other Hindus. Temples in America reflect the colorful kaleidoscopic aspects contained in Hinduism
Hinduism
while unifying people who are disbursed throughout the American landscape."[147] Numerous mandirs in North America and Europe have gained particular prominence and acclaim. The Hindu
Hindu
Temple Society of North America, representing Sri Maha Vallabha Ganapati
Ganapati
Devasthanam
Devasthanam
(Sanskrit: श्री महावल्लभ गणपति देवस्थानम्, Tamil: ஸ்ரீ மகா வல்லப கணபதி தேவஸ்தானம்), in Flushing, Queens, New York City, is the oldest Hindu
Hindu
temple in the Western Hemisphere, and its canteen feeds 4,000 people a week, with as many as 10,000 during the Diwali
Diwali
(Deepavali) holiday.[148] Temple management[edit] The Archaeological Survey of India
India
has control of most ancient temples of archaeological importance in India. In India, day-to-day activities of a temple is managed by a temple board committee that administers its finances, management, and events. Since independence, the autonomy of individual Hindu
Hindu
religious denominations to manage their own affairs with respect to temples of their own denomination has been severely eroded and the state governments have taken control of major Hindu
Hindu
temples in some countries; however, in others, such as the United States, private temple management autonomy has been preserved. Etymology and nomenclature[edit]

Somnath

Rameshwaram

Varanasi

Badrinath

Puri

Amarnath

Major Hindu
Hindu
temple sites for Tirtha and general tourism in India. Orange markers are UNESCO
UNESCO
world heritage sites.

In Sanskrit, the liturgical language of Hinduism, the word mandir means "house" (Sanskrit: मन्दिर). Ancient Sanskrit
Sanskrit
texts use many words for temple, such as matha, vayuna, kirti, kesapaksha, devavasatha, vihara, suravasa, surakula, devatayatana, amaragara, devakula, devagrha, devabhavana, devakulika, and niketana.[149] Regionally, they are also known as prasada, vimana, kshetra, gudi, ambalam, punyakshetram, deval, deula, devasthanam, kovil, candi, pura, and wat. The following are the other names by which a Hindu
Hindu
temple is referred to in India:

Devasthana (ದೇವಸ್ಥಾನ) in Kannada Deul/Doul/Dewaaloy in Assamese and in Bengali Deval/Raul/Mandir(मंदिर) in Marathi Devro/Mindar in Rajasthani Deula
Deula
(ଦେଉଳ)/Mandira(ମଦିର) in Odia and Gudi in Kosali Odia Gudi (గుడి), Devalayam (దేవాలయం), Devasthanam (దేవస్థానము), Kovela (కోవెల), Kshetralayam (క్షేత్రాలయం), Punyakshetram (పుణ్యక్షేత్రం), or Punyakshetralayam (పుణ్యక్షేత్రాలయం) in Telugu Kovil
Kovil
or kō-vill (கோவில்) and occasionally Aalayam (ஆலயம்) in Tamil; the Tamil word Kovil
Kovil
means "residence of God"[150] and is used for a distinct style of Hindu
Hindu
temple with Dravidian architecture Kshetram (ക്ഷേത്രം), Ambalam (അമ്പലം), or Kovil
Kovil
(കോവിൽ) in Malayalam Mandir (मंदिर) in Hindi, Nepali, Marathi, Punjabi (ਮੰਦਰ), Gujarati (મંદિર), and Urdu
Urdu
(مندر)[151] Mandiram (మందిరం)in Telugu[152] Mondir (মন্দির) in Bengali

In Southeast Asia temples known as:

Candi in Indonesia, especially in Javanese, Malay and Indonesian, used both for Hindu
Hindu
or Buddhist temples. Pura in Hindu
Hindu
majority island of Bali, Indonesia. Wat
Wat
in Cambodia
Cambodia
and Thailand, also applied to both Hindu
Hindu
and Buddhist temples.

Temple sites

Some lands, including Varanasi, Puri, Kanchipuram, Dwarka, Amarnath, Kedarnath, Somnath, Mathura and Rameswara, are considered holy in Hinduism. They are called kṣétra (Sanskrit: क्षेत्र[153]). A kṣétra has many temples, including one or more major ones. These temples and its location attracts pilgrimage called tirtha (or tirthayatra).[154]

Konark
Konark
Sun Temple panoramic view

See also[edit] Media related to Hindu
Hindu
temples at Wikimedia Commons

Hindu
Hindu
temple architecture List of Hindu
Hindu
temples List of largest Hindu
Hindu
Temples List of Hindu
Hindu
deities

References[edit]

^ a b Frances Kai-Hwa Wang (July 28, 2014). "World's Largest Hindu Temple Being Built in New Jersey". NBC News. Retrieved December 3, 2016.  ^ Stella Kramrisch
Stella Kramrisch
(1946). The Hindu
Hindu
Temple. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 135, context: 40–43, 110–114, 129–139 with footnotes. ISBN 978-81-208-0223-0. , Quote: "The [Hindu] temple is the seat and dwelling of God, according to the majority of the [Indian] names" (p. 135); "The temple as Vimana, proportionately measured throughout, is the house and body of God" (p. 133). ^ George Michell (1977). The Hindu
Hindu
Temple: An Introduction to Its Meaning and Forms. University of Chicago Press. pp. 61–62. ISBN 978-0-226-53230-1. ; Quote: "The Hindu
Hindu
temple is designed to bring about contact between man and the gods" (...) "The architecture of the Hindu
Hindu
temple symbolically represents this quest by setting out to dissolve the boundaries between man and the divine". ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Stella Kramrisch
Stella Kramrisch
(1946). The Hindu Temple. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 19–43, 135–137, context: 129–144 with footnotes. ISBN 978-81-208-0223-0.  ^ Stella Kramrisch, The Hindu
Hindu
Temple, Vol 2, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0222-3, pp. 346-357 and 423-424 ^ Klaus Klostermaier, The Divine Presence in Space and Time – Murti, Tirtha, Kala; in A Survey of Hinduism, ISBN 978-0-7914-7082-4, State University of New York Press, pp. 268-277. ^ George Michell (1977). The Hindu
Hindu
Temple: An Introduction to Its Meaning and Forms. University of Chicago Press. pp. 61–76. ISBN 978-0-226-53230-1.  ^ a b c d e f Susan Lewandowski, The Hindu
Hindu
Temple in South India, in Buildings and Society: Essays on the Social Development of the Built Environment, Anthony D. King (Editor), ISBN 978-0710202345, Routledge, Chapter 4 ^ MR Bhat (1996), Brhat Samhita of Varahamihira, ISBN 978-8120810600, Motilal Banarsidass ^ a b Burton Stein, "The Economic Function of a Medieval South Indian Temple", The Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 19 (February 1960), pp. 163-76. ^ George Michell (1988), The Hindu
Hindu
Temple: An Introduction to Its Meaning and Forms, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 978-0226532301, pp. 58-65. ^ Alice Boner (1990), Principles of Composition in Hindu
Hindu
Sculpture: Cave Temple Period, ISBN 978-8120807051, see Introduction and pp. 36-37. ^ Francis Ching et al., A Global History of Architecture, Wiley, ISBN 978-0470402573, pp. 227-302. ^ Brad Olsen (2004), Sacred Places Around the World: 108 Destinations, ISBN 978-1888729108, pp. 117-119. ^ Paul Younger, New Homelands: Hindu
Hindu
Communities, ISBN 978-0195391640, Oxford University Press ^ For the effect on Hindu
Hindu
temples of Islam’s arrival in South Asia and Southeast Asia, see:

Gaborieau, Marc (1985). "From Al-Beruni to Jinnah: idiom, ritual and ideology of the Hindu-Muslim confrontation in South Asia". Anthropology Today. Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. 1 (3): 7–14. doi:10.2307/3033123. JSTOR 3033123.  Richard Eaton (2000), "Temple Desecration and Indo-Muslim States", Journal of Islamic Studies, 11(3), pp. 283-319. Annemarie Schimmel, Islam
Islam
in the Indian Subcontinent, ISBN 978-9004061170, Brill Academic, Chapter 1 Robert W. Hefner, Civil Islam: Muslims and Democratization in Indonesia, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0691050461, pp. 28-29.

^ a b c George Michell (1988), The Hindu
Hindu
Temple: An Introduction to Its Meaning and Forms, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 978-0226532301, Chapter 1 ^ Alain Daniélou (2001), The Hindu
Hindu
Temple: Deification of Eroticism, Translated from French to English by Ken Hurry, ISBN 0-89281-854-9, pp. 101-127. ^ Samuel Parker (2010), Ritual as a Mode of Production: Ethnoarchaeology and Creative Practice in Hindu
Hindu
Temple Arts, South Asian Studies, 26(1), pp. 31-57; Michael Rabe, Secret Yantras and Erotic Display for Hindu
Hindu
Temples, (Editor: David White), ISBN 978-8120817784, Princeton University Readings in Religion (Motilal Banarsidass Publishers), Chapter 25, pp. 435-446. ^ Antonio Rigopoulos (1998). Dattatreya: The Immortal Guru, Yogin, and Avatara: A Study of the Transformative and Inclusive Character of a Multi-faceted Hindu
Hindu
Deity. State University of New York Press. pp. 223–224, 243. ISBN 978-0-7914-3696-7.  ^ Alain Daniélou (2001). The Hindu
Hindu
Temple: Deification of Eroticism. Inner Traditions. pp. 69–71. ISBN 978-0-89281-854-9.  ^ Pyong Gap Min, Religion and Maintenance of Ethnicity among Immigrants – A Comparison of Indian Hindus and Korean Protestants, Editor: Karen Leonard (Immigrant Faiths), ISBN 978-0759108165, Chapter 6, pp. 102-103. ^ a b Susan Lewandowski, The Hindu
Hindu
Temple in South India, in Buildings and Society: Essays on the Social Development of the Built Environment, Anthony D. King (Editor), ISBN 978-0710202345, Routledge, pp. 71-73. ^ Stella Kramrisch, The Hindu
Hindu
Temple, Vol 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0222-3, page 4 ^ Stella Kramrisch, The Hindu
Hindu
Temple, Vol 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0222-3, page 5-6 ^ a b c BB Dutt (1925), Town planning in Ancient India
India
at Google Books, ISBN 978-81-8205-487-5; See critical review by LD Barnett, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, Vol. 4, Issue 2, June 1926, pp. 391. ^ a b c d e Stella Kramrisch
Stella Kramrisch
(1976), The Hindu
Hindu
Temple Volume 1 & 2, ISBN 81-208-0223-3 ^ Jack Hebner (2010), Architecture of the Vastu Sastra – According to Sacred Science, in Science of the Sacred (Editor: David Osborn), ISBN 978-0557277247, pp. 85-92; N Lahiri (1996), Archaeological landscapes and textual images: a study of the sacred geography of late medieval Ballabgarh, World Archaeology, 28(2), pp. 244-264 ^ Susan Lewandowski (1984), Buildings and Society: Essays on the Social Development of the Built Environment, edited by Anthony D. King, Routledge, ISBN 978-0710202345, Chapter 4 ^ a b Sherri Silverman (2007), Vastu: Transcendental Home Design in Harmony with Nature, Gibbs Smith, Utah, ISBN 978-1423601326 ^ G. D. Vasudev (2001), Vastu, Motilal Banarsidas, ISBN 81-208-1605-6, pp. 74-92. ^ LD Barnett, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, Vol 4, Issue 2, June 1926, pp. 391. ^ a b c d e Meister, Michael (1983). "Geometry and Measure in Indian Temple Plans: Rectangular Temples". Artibus Asiae. 44 (4): 266–296. doi:10.2307/3249613. JSTOR 3249613.  ^ a b Alice Boner and Sadāśiva Rath Śarmā (1966), Silpa Prakasa Medieval Orissan Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Text on Temple Architecture at Google Books, E.J. Brill (Netherlands) ^ H. Daniel Smith (1963), Ed. Pāncarātra prasāda prasādhapam, A Pancaratra Text on Temple-Building, Syracuse: University of Rochester, OCLC 68138877 ^ Mahanti and Mahanty (1995 Reprint), Śilpa Ratnākara, Orissa Akademi, OCLC 42718271 ^ Amita Sinha (1998), "Design of Settlements in the Vaastu Shastras", Journal of Cultural Geography, 17(2), pp. 27-41, doi:10.1080/08873639809478319 ^ Tillotson, G. H. R. (1997). "Svastika Mansion: A Silpa-Sastra in the 1930s". South Asian Studies, 13(1), pp. 87-97 ^ a b c d e Stella Kramrisch
Stella Kramrisch
(1958), Traditions of the Indian Craftsman, The Journal of American Folklore, Vol. 71, No. 281, (Jul. - Sep., 1958), pp. 224-230 ^ Ganapati
Ganapati
Sastri (1920), Īśānaśivagurudeva paddhati, Trivandrum Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Series, OCLC 71801033 ^ a b Heather Elgood (2000), Hinduism
Hinduism
and the religious arts, ISBN 978-0304707393, Bloomsbury Academic, pp. 121-125. ^ H, Kern (1865), The Brhat Sanhita of Varaha-mihara, The Asiatic Society of Bengal, Calcutta ^ a b c d e f Susan Lewandowski, The Hindu
Hindu
Temple in South India, in Buildings and Society: Essays on the Social Development of the Built Environment, Anthony D. King (ed.), ISBN 978-0710202345, Routledge, pp. 68-69. ^ The square is symbolic and has Vedic origins from fire altar, Agni. The alignment along cardinal direction, similarly is an extension of Vedic rituals of three fires. This symbolism is also found among Greek and other ancient civilizations, through the gnomon. In Hindu
Hindu
temple manuals, design plans are described with 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36, 49, 64, 81 up to 1024 squares; 1 pada is considered the simplest plan, as a seat for a hermit or devotee to sit and meditate on, or make offerings with Vedic fire in front. The second design of 4 padas lacks the central core, and is also a meditative constructive. The 9 pada design has a sacred surrounded center, and is the template for the smallest temple. Older Hindu
Hindu
temple vastumandalas may use the 9 through 49 pada series, but 64 is considered the most sacred geometric grid in Hindu temples. It is also called Manduka, Bhekapada or Ajira in various ancient Sanskrit
Sanskrit
texts. ^ In addition to square (4) sided layout, Brhat Samhita also describes Vastu and mandala design principles based on a perfect triangle (3), hexagon (6), octagon (8) and hexadecagon (16) sided layouts, according to Stella Kramrisch. ^ Rian et al. (2007), " Fractal
Fractal
geometry as the synthesis of Hindu cosmology in Kandariya Mahadev temple, Khajuraho", Building and Environment, Vol 42, Issue 12, pp. 4093-4107, doi:10.1016/j.buildenv.2007.01.028 ^ Stella Kramrisch
Stella Kramrisch
(1976), The Hindu
Hindu
Temple Volume 1, ISBN 81-208-0223-3 ^ Datta and Beynon (2011), "Early Connections: Reflections on the canonical lineage of Southeast Asian temples", in EAAC 2011 : South of East Asia : Re-addressing East Asian Architecture and Urbanism : Proceedings of the East Asian Architectural Culture International Conference, Department of Architecture, National University of Singapore, Singapore, pp. 1-17 ^ V.S. Pramar, Some Evidence on the Wooden Origins of the Vāstupuruṣamaṇḍala,Artibus Asiae, Vol. 46, No. 4 (1985), pp. 305-311. ^ This concept has equivalence to the concept of Acintya, or Sang Hyang Widhi Wasa, in Balinese Hindu
Hindu
temples; elsewhere it has been referred to as satcitananda ^ Stella Kramrisch
Stella Kramrisch
(1976), The Hindu
Hindu
Temple, Vol. 1, ISBN 81-208-0223-3, p. 8. ^ a b Meister, Michael W. (March 2006). "Mountain Temples and Temple-Mountains: Masrur". Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians. 65 (1): 26–49. doi:10.2307/25068237. JSTOR 25068237.  ^ a b Trivedi, K. (1989). Hindu
Hindu
temples: models of a fractal universe. The Visual Computer, 5(4), 243-258 ^ S Bafna, On the Idea of the Mandala as a Governing Device in Indian Architectural Tradition, Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Vol. 59, No. 1 (Mar., 2000), pp. 26-49 ^ Meister, Michael W. (April–June 1979). "Maṇḍala and Practice in Nāgara Architecture in North India". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 99 (2): 204–219. doi:10.2307/602657. JSTOR 602657.  ^ Stella Kramrisch, The Hindu
Hindu
Temple, Vol 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0222-3, pp. 10-11. ^ George Michell (1988), The Hindu
Hindu
Temple: An Introduction to Its Meaning and Forms, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 978-0226532301, pp. 21-22. ^ Edmund Leach, "The Gatekeepers of Heaven: Anthropological Aspects of Grandiose Architecture", Journal of Anthropological Research, Vol. 39, No. 3 (Autumn 1983), pp. 243-264. ^ See:

Julius J. Lipner, Hindus: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices, 2nd Edition, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-45677-7, page 8; Quote: "(...) one need not be religious in the minimal sense described to be accepted as a Hindu
Hindu
by Hindus, or describe oneself perfectly validly as Hindu. One may be polytheistic or monotheistic, monistic or pantheistic, even an agnostic, humanist or atheist, and still be considered a Hindu."; Lester Kurtz (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace and Conflict, ISBN 978-0123695031, Academic Press, 2008; MK Gandhi, The Essence of Hinduism, Editor: VB Kher, Navajivan Publishing, see p. 3; According to Gandhi, "a man may not believe in God and still call himself a Hindu."

^ Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary, क्षैत्रज्ञ Jim Funderburk and Peter Scharf (2012); Quote:

क्षैत्रज्ञ [ kṣaitrajña ] [ kṣaitrajña ] n. ( fr. [ kṣetra-jñá ] g. [ yuvādi ], spirituality, nature of the soul Lit. W.; the knowledge of the soul Lit. W.

^ See the following two in Ewert Cousins series on World Spirituality:

Bhavasar and Kiem, "Spirituality and Health", in Hindu
Hindu
Spirituality, Editor: Ewert Cousins (1989), ISBN 0-8245-0755-X, Crossroads Publishing New York, pp. 319-337; John Arapura, "Spirit and Spiritual Knowledge in the Upanishads", in Hindu
Hindu
Spirituality, Editor: Ewert Cousins (1989), ISBN 0-8245-0755-X, Crossroads Publishing New York, pp. 64-85.

^ Gavin Flood, Brill's Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Editor: Knut Jacobsen (2010), Volume II, Brill, ISBN 978-90-04-17893-9, see Article on Wisdom and Knowledge, pp. 881-884. ^ Stella Kramrisch, The Hindu
Hindu
Temple, Vol 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0222-3, pp. 8-9. ^ Thomas Donaldson (2005), Konark, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195675917 ^ Michael Rabe (1996), "Sexual Imagery on the 'Phantasmagorical Castles' at Khajuraho – The Artha
Artha
of Temple Kama", International Journal of Tantric Studies, Vol. 2, No. 2. ^ a b E Leach, "The Gatekeepers of Heaven: Anthropological Aspects of Grandiose Architecture", Journal of Anthropological Research, Vol. 39, No. 3 (Autumn, 1983), pp. 249-250. ^ Mary Beth Heston, "Iconographic Themes of the Gopura of the Kailāsanātha Temple at Ellora", Artibus Asiae, Vol. 43, No. 3 (1981–1982), pp. 219-235. ^ E Leach, "The Gatekeepers of Heaven: Anthropological Aspects of Grandiose Architecture", Journal of Anthropological Research, Vol. 39, No. 3 (Autumn, 1983), pp. 262. ^ zilpin University of Cologne, Germany ^ a b Samuel Parker (1987), "Artistic practice and education in India: A historical overview", Journal of Aesthetic Education, pp. 123-141. ^ Ananda Coomaraswamy, "Indian Architectural Terms", Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 48 (1928), pp. 269. ^ Vatsyayana, Kamasutra
Kamasutra
I.3, Jayamangala ^ Stella Kramrisch, The Hindu
Hindu
Temple, Vol 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0222-3, pp. 11. ^ Misra, R. N. (2011), "Silpis in Ancient India: Beyond their Ascribed Locus in Ancient Society", Social Scientist, Vol. 39, No. 7/8, pp. 43-54. ^ Joshi (2013), "Boon of astronomy: Rituals and religious festivals in Odisha
Odisha
for a peaceful society", International Journal of Physical and Social Sciences, 3(5), pp. 162-176. ^ a b c George Michell (1988), The Hindu
Hindu
Temple: An Introduction to Its Meaning and Forms, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 978-0226532301, pages 58-60 ^ Hartmut Scharfe (2002), From Temple schools to Universities, in Education in Ancient India: Handbook of Oriental Studies, Brill Academic, ISBN 978-9004125568, pages 166-193 ^ Heitzman, James (1987). "Temple Urbanism in Medieval South India". The Journal of Asian Studies. Cambridge University Press. 46 (4): 791–826, see Table 1 on p. 805 for an illustrative tabulated distribution. doi:10.2307/2057102.  ^ T Mahalingam (1951), Economic life in the Vijayanagar Empire, University of Madras, pp. 490-498. ^ Burton Stein (February 4, 1961), The state, the temple and agriculture development, The Economic Weekly Annual, pp. 179-187. ^ a b c d George Michell (1977). The Hindu
Hindu
Temple: An Introduction to Its Meaning and Forms. University of Chicago Press. pp. 58–59. ISBN 978-0-226-53230-1.  ^ See:

Diana L. Eck (2000), "Negotiating Hindu
Hindu
Identities in the US", in Harold Coward, John R. Hinnells, and Raymond Brady Williams (Editors) – The South Asian Religious Diaspora in Britain, Canada, and the United States, SUNY Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-4509-9, 219–237 Marion O'Callaghan
Marion O'Callaghan
(1998), " Hinduism
Hinduism
in the Indian Diaspora in Trinidad", Journal of Hindu-Christian Studies, Vol. 11, Article 5, doi 10.7825/2164-6279.1178 Chandra Jayawardena, "Religious Belief and Social Change: Aspects of the Development of Hinduism
Hinduism
in British Guiana", Comparative Studies in Society and History, Vol. 8, No. 2 (January 1966), pp. 211-240.

^ John Guy and Jorrit Britschgi (2011), Wonder of the Age: Master Painters of India, 1100–1900, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, ISBN 978-1588394309, page 19 ^ Saraju Rath (2012), Aspects of Manuscript Culture in South India, Brill Academic, ISBN 978-9004219007, pages ix, 158-168, 252-259 ^ Hartmut Scharfe (2002), From Temple schools to Universities, in Handbook of Oriental Studies, Brill Academic, ISBN 978-9004125568, pages 183-186 ^ Wayne A. Wiegand and Donald Davis (1994), Encyclopedia of Library History, Routledge, ISBN 978-0824057879, page 350 ^ Hartmut Scharfe (2002), From Temple schools to Universities, in Education in Ancient India: Handbook of Oriental Studies, Brill Academic, ISBN 978-9004125568, pages 169-171 ^ Hartmut Scharfe (2002), From Temple schools to Universities, in Education in Ancient India: Handbook of Oriental Studies, Brill Academic, ISBN 978-9004125568, page 175 ^ D. Dayalan (1992). Early Temples of Tamilnadu: Their Role in Socio-Economic Life (c. AD 550-925). Harman. pp. 202–203. ISBN 978-81-85151-55-7. , Quote: "There were some institutions [ Hindu
Hindu
temples] which may be called temple-colleges and strove for the promotion of education in the country. They also acted as great residential institutions and offered facilities for the study and stay of hundreds of students and teachers from far and near. Some of these were triple institutions, a college, a hostel and a hospital knit together. Many of such institutions are found described in the Chola inscriptions. (...) But the earliest known Vedic institution of advanced studies that existed in the Tamil country was the vidyasthana at Bahur near Pondicherry. A copper plate grant issued during the reign of Nripatungavarman (AD 877) records the gift of certain villages as vidya-bhoga for its maintenance." ^ a b Hartmut Scharfe (2002), From Temple schools to Universities, in Education in Ancient India: Handbook of Oriental Studies, Brill Academic, ISBN 978-9004125568, pages 173-174 ^ a b Hartmut Scharfe (2002), From Temple schools to Universities, in Education in Ancient India: Handbook of Oriental Studies, Brill Academic, ISBN 978-9004125568, page 176-182 ^ a b c Kenneth G. Zysk (1998). Asceticism and Healing in Ancient India: Medicine in the Buddhist Monastery. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 45–46. ISBN 978-81-208-1528-5.  ^ Michael Willis (2014). The Archaeology of Hindu
Hindu
Ritual: Temples and the Establishment of the Gods. Cambridge University Press. p. 106. ISBN 978-1-107-46016-4.  ^ George Michell (1977). The Hindu
Hindu
Temple: An Introduction to Its Meaning and Forms. University of Chicago Press. pp. 59–60. ISBN 978-0-226-53230-1.  ^ Kapila
Kapila
Vatsyayan (1991). Concepts of Space, Ancient and Modern. Abhinav. pp. 198–199. ISBN 978-81-7017-252-9.  ^ Fritz, John M; Michell, George (2016). Hampi
Hampi
Vijayanagara. Jaico. pp. 61–63. ISBN 978-81-8495-602-3.  ^ Anila Verghese (2002). Hampi. Oxford University Press. pp. 20, 33, 39. ISBN 978-0-19-565433-2.  ^ a b Colleen Taylor Sen (2004). Food Culture in India. Greenwood. pp. 126–127. ISBN 978-0-313-32487-1.  ^ Albertina Nugteren (2005). Belief, Bounty, And Beauty: Rituals Around Sacred Trees in India. BRILL Academic. pp. 412–413. ISBN 90-04-14601-6.  ^ Matthew Atmore Sherring (1868). The Sacred City of the Hindus: An Account of Benares in Ancient and Modern Times. Trübner & co. p. 51.  ^ Madhuri Desai (2007). Resurrecting Banaras: Urban Space, Architecture and Religious Boundaries. ProQuest. ISBN 978-0-549-52839-5.  ^ a b Meister, Michael W. (1981). "Forest and Cave: Temples at Candrabhāgā and Kansuān". Archives of Asian Art. University of Hawai'i Press. 34: 56–73. JSTOR 20111117.  ^ Gary Tarr, Chronology and Development of the Chāḷukya Cave Temples, Ars Orientalis, Vol. 8 (1970), pp. 155-184. ^ Jutta Neubauer (1981), The Stepwells of Gujarat: in art-historical perspective, ISBN 978-0391022843, see Introduction, Chapters 1 and 2. ^ Meister, Michael W. (1975–1976). "A Field Report on Temples at Kusuma". Archives of Asian Art. University of Hawai'i Press. 29: 23–46. JSTOR 20062576.  ^ a b Jutta Neubauer, "The stepwells of Gujarat", India
India
International Centre Quarterly, Vol. 26, No. 2 (Summer 1999), pp. 75-80. ^ Rani-ki-vav at Patan, Gujarat, UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site. ^ a b c d e Gopinath Rao (1914), Elements of Hindu
Hindu
Iconography Madras, Cornell University Archives, pp. 17-39. ^ Jabaladarsana Upanishad
Upanishad
1.59 ^ a b c d e f g Michael Meister (1988), Encyclopedia of Indian Temple Architecture, Oxford University Press, 0-691-04053-2, Chapter 1 ^ Subhash Kak, Early Indian Architecture and Art, Migration & Diffusion, Vol.6/Nr.23, pages 6-27, 2005. ^ Stella Kramrisch, The Hindu
Hindu
Temple. University of Calcutta, Calcutta, 1946. ^ Banerji, New Light on the Gupta Temples at Deogarh, Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Vol V (1963), pp. 37-49. ^ Saraswati, Temple Architecture in the Gupta Age, Journal of the Indian Society of Oriental Art, Vol VIII (1940), pp. 146-158. ^ Joanna Williams, The Art of Gupta India, Empire and Province, Princeton, 1982 ^ Ananda K. Coomaraswamy, History of Indian and Indonesian Art (New York, 1965 reprint), pp. 78-80. ^ Gary Tartakov, "The Beginning of Dravidian Temple Architecture in Stone", Artibus Asiae, Vol. 42, No. 1 (1980), pp. 39-99. ^ Michael Meister (Editor), Encyclopedia of Indian Temple Architecture – South India
India
200 BC to AD 1324, University of Pennsylvania Press (1983), ISBN 0-8122-7840-2 ^ See:

Elizabeth Merklinger, The Mosques of Raichur: A preliminary classification, Kunst des Orients, Vol. 12, H. 1/2 (1978/1979), pp. 79-94. Mark Jarzombek et al. (2010), A Global History of Architecture, Wiley, ISBN 978-0470402573, Chapters and Sections: "1200 CE – Delhi through Qutb Minar" Ali Javid, World Heritage Monuments and Related Edifices in India, Volume 1, ISBN 978-0875864839, pp. 263. Quote - "The stones to construct the mosque were obtained by demolishing twenty seven Hindu and Jain temples."

^ See:

Peter Jackson (2003), The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521543293, pp. 168 A.L. Srivastava (1966), Delhi Sultanate, 5th Edition, Agra College Vincent Smith (1920), The Oxford History of India: From the Earliest Times to the End of 1911, Oxford University Press, pp. 268-269, 306-307, 437-438

^ Richard Eaton (January 5, 2001), "Temple desecration and Indo-Muslim states", Frontline, pp. 70-77 (Archived by Columbia University) ^ Marc Gaborieau (1985), From Al-Beruni to Jinnah: idiom, ritual and ideology of the Hindu-Muslim confrontation in South Asia, Anthropology Today, 1(3), pp. 7-14. ^ Ellora
Ellora
Caves Cave 16 – Kailasha Hindu
Hindu
Temple, 8th Century CE, UNESCO ^ Werner, Karel (1994). A Popular Dictionary of Hinduism. Curzon Press. ISBN 0-7007-1049-3. ^ a b Narayanan, Vasudha. "The Hindu
Hindu
Tradition". In A Concise Introduction to World Religions, ed. Willard G. Oxtoby and Alan F. Segal. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. ^ Bain, Keith, Pippa Bryun, and David Allardice. Frommer’s India. 1st. New Jersey: Wiley Publishing, 2010, p. 75. ^ Indonesia
Indonesia
Handbook, 3rd edition, ISBN 978-1900949514, pp. 38. ^ a b Adam Hardy (2007), The Temple Architecture of India, John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 978-0470028278 ^ Williams, Raymond (2001). Introduction to Swaminarayan Hinduism. Cambridge University Press. pp. 123–136. ISBN 978-0-521-65422-7.  ^ Pika Ghosh (2005), Temple to Love: Architecture and Devotion in Seventeenth-century Bengal, ISBN 978-0253344878, Indiana University Press ^ Dibishada Brajasundar Garnayak, Evolution of Temple Architecture in Orissa, Orissa Review, November 2007 ^ Padmaja Vijay Kamat, "Temple Economy in Goa: A Case Study", The Macrotheme Review 2(5), Fall 2013, pp. 97-111. ^ Ching, Francis D.K.; et al. (2007). A Global History of Architecture. New York: John Wiley and Sons. p. 762. ISBN 0-471-26892-5.  ^ Ching, Francis D.K. (1995). A Visual Dictionary of Architecture. New York: John Wiley and Sons. p. 253. ISBN 0-471-28451-3.  ^ Michell, George (1988). The Hindu
Hindu
Temple. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 151–153. ISBN 0-226-53230-5.  ^ "gopura". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2008-01-20.  ^ Ram Raz, Henry Harkness (1834), Essay on the Architecture of the Hindus at Google Books ^ Sastri 1970, pp. 18–182. ^ Stein (1978), South Indian Temples: An Analytical Study, New Delhi, ISBN 978-0706905816 ^ Stella Kramrisch, The Hindu
Hindu
Temple, Vol 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0222-3, pp. 170-172. ^ Kubo Sumiko, Geomorphology, Archaeo-stratigraphy, and 14C Ages of Sambor Prei Kuk Pre-Angkorean Site, Central Cambodia, BULLETIN of the Graduate School of Education of Waseda University (Japan), No.22, March 2012 ^ My Son Sanctuary Vietnam, UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site ^ Ngô Vǎn Doanh (2006), Champa: Ancient Towers. Hanoi: The Gioi Publishers, Chapter 16. ^ Prambanan
Prambanan
Temple Compounds UNESCO
UNESCO
world heritage site ^ Brigitta Hauser-Schaublin (1993), Keraton and Temples in Bali, in Urban Symbolism (Editor: P. Nas), Brill Academic, ISBN 978-9004098558 ^ Hildred Geertz, The Life of a Balinese Temple, ISBN 978-0824825331, University of Hawaii Press ^ Harley, Gail M. (2003). Hindu
Hindu
and Sikh Faiths in America. Facts on File, Inc. ISBN 0-8160-4987-4. ^ Shivani Vora (October 28, 2016). "In Line for Blessings and Sweets at Hindu
Hindu
Temple Canteen". The New York Times. Retrieved October 29, 2016.  ^ Sanskrit
Sanskrit
words for Temple Cologne Digital Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Lexicon, Koeln University, Germany ^ The word ko in Tamil language
Tamil language
also means king, and kovil can also mean king's house. ^ Shackle, C. (1 January 1990). Hindi and Urdu
Urdu
Since 1800: A Common Reader. Heritage Publishers. ISBN 9788170261629. Specifically Hindu
Hindu
cultural contexts such as the pūjā 'worship' in the mandir 'temple' will clearly generate a predominance of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
vocabulary in Urdu
Urdu
as well as Hindi usage.  ^ "Tirupati: Sri Venkateswara Dhyana Vignan Mandiram, Tirupati
Tirupati
Tourist Places to Visit for Temple". Archived from the original on 19 June 2008. Retrieved 11 May 2016.  ^ Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary, क्षेत्र "sacred spot, place of pilgrimage". ^ Knut A. Jacobsen (2012), Pilgrimage in the Hindu
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Tradition: Salvific Space, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415590389

Bibliography[edit]

Stella Kramrisch, Hindu
Hindu
Temple, ISBN 978-8120802223 Goel, S. R., and Arun Shourie. 1992. Hindu
Hindu
temples: what happened to them. New Delhi: Voice of India. Michael W. Meister, Encyclopaedia of Indian Temple Architecture, ISBN 978-0195615371 George Michell, The Hindu
Hindu
Temple: An Introduction to Its Meaning and Forms, ISBN 978-0226532301 Ram Rāz, Henry Harkness (1834), Essay on the Architecture of the Hindus at Google Books
Google Books
- on Hindu
Hindu
Temple Vimana, Pillars and Śilpa Śastras Nagar, Shanti Lal. 1990. The temples of Himachal Pradesh. New Delhi: Aditya Prakashan. Kṛṣṇa Deva. 1995. Temples of India. New Delhi: Aryan Books International.

External links[edit]

Measurement and Proportion in Hindu
Hindu
Temple Architecture Michael Meister

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hindu
Hindu
temples.

v t e

Worship in Hinduism

Main topics

Aarti Bhajan Darśana Deities Festivals Homa (Yajna) Kirtan Mantra Murti Tilaka Utsava Vrata Yatra

Rituals

Puja

Abhisheka Bhog Naivedhya Panchamakara Panchamrita Parikrama Pranāma Prasad Pushpanjali

Homa

Yajna Agnicayana Agnihotra Agnikaryam Aupasana Dhuni Kaamya karma Pravargya Purushamedha Putrakameshti Viraja Homa

Other

Achamana Archana Ashirvad Ashvamedha Darśana Karmkand Kumbhabhishekham Nitya karma Ngejot Panchayatana puja Prana pratishta Sandhyavandanam Shuddhi Shrauta Upakarma

Prayer Meditation

Ajapa japa Bhajan Brahmamuhurtha Jagran Jai Sri Ram Japa Kirtan Om Sandhyavandanam Shaktipat Stotra Third eye Yoga

Mantras

Om Hare Krishna Om Namah Shivaya Gayatri Mantra

Objects

Puja thali Altar Banalinga Banana leaf Biruda Coconut Dhunachi Dhuni Dhupa Diya Cāmara Garland Ghanta Joss stick Kalasha Kamandalu Khirapat Kindi Paduka Palki Panchamrita Pandal Pinda Prayer beads Rangoli Shankha Tilaka Upanayana Uthsavar Yagnopaveetham

Materials

Agarwood Alta Camphor Charu Ghee Incense Kumkuma Marigold Milk Panchagavya Rudraksha Sandalwood Sindoor Soma Tulsi Turmeric Vibhuti

Instruments

Dholak Harmonium Karatalas Khol Manjira Mridangam Tabla

Iconography

Lingam Murti Om Pindi Shaligram Swastika Yoni more...

Places

Ashram Dwajasthambam Ghat Kalyani Matha Temple Pilgrimage sites

Roles

Guru Pandit Pujari Rishi Sadhu Sannyasa Swami Yogi more...

Sacred animals

Nāga Nag Panchami Nagaradhane

Sacred plants

Trees

Akshayavat Ashoka Banyan Kadamba Kalpavriksha Parijaat Peepal Sacred groves

Fruits and other plants

Bael Kusha grass Lotus Tulsi (Tulasi chaura Tulsi
Tulsi
Vivah)

See also

Firewalking Sanskara Temple dance

v t e

Place of worship

Bahá'í House of Worship
Bahá'í House of Worship
(Baha'is) Chaitya/Buddhist temples/monastery (Buddhists) Church building (Christians) Hof (Germanic pagans) Hindu
Hindu
temple/mandir (Hindus) Jain temple/basadi (Jains) Synagogue
Synagogue
(Jews) Mosque
Mosque
(Muslims) Shinto shrine/jinja (Shintos) Gurdwara
Gurdwara
(Sikhs) Taoist temple
Taoist temple
(Taoists) Magic circle
Magic circle
(Neopagans / Wiccans) Fire temple
Fire temple
(Zoroastrians) Sun temp

.