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As territory

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United States
(1600–1680)  Germany

As colonies

United States
United States
(1754–)  India  Ghana

a: Frederick VI was regent for his father, so ruled as de facto king from April 14, 1784; he continued to rule Denmark
Denmark
after the Treaty of Kiel until his death on December 3, 1839. b: Denmark
Denmark
(43,094 km2 or 16,639 sq mi), Schleswig-Holstein
Schleswig-Holstein
(15,763 km2 or 6,086 sq mi), Norway (mainland: 324,220 km2 or 125,180 sq mi), Faroes (1,399 km2 or 540 sq mi), Iceland
Iceland
(103,000 km2 or 40,000 sq mi). (With Greenland: additional 2,175,600 km2 or 840,000 sq mi.) c: Estimated 825,000 in Denmark, 440,000 in Norway
Norway
and 50,000 in Iceland[2] d: 929,000 in Denmark, 883,000 in Norway
Norway
and 47,000 in Iceland[3]

Denmark– Norway
Norway
(Danish and Norwegian: Danmark–Norge; also known as the Oldenburg Monarchy
Monarchy
or the Oldenburg realms) was an early modern multi-national and multi-lingual real union consisting of the Kingdom of Denmark, the Kingdom of Norway
Norway
(including Norwegian overseas possessions the Faroe Islands, Iceland, Greenland, et cetera), the Duchy of Schleswig, and the Duchy of Holstein. The state also claimed sovereignty over two historical peoples: Wends
Wends
and Goths. In addition, the state included the colonies of St. Thomas, St. John, St. Croix, Ghana, Tharangambadi, Serampore, and the Nicobar Islands. The state's inhabitants were mainly Danes, Norwegians, and Germans, and also included Faroese, Icelanders
Icelanders
and Inuit
Inuit
in the Norwegian overseas possessions, a Sami minority in northern Norway, as well as indigenous peoples and enslaved Africans in the colonies. The state's main cities were Copenhagen, Christiania (Oslo), Altona, Bergen
Bergen
and Trondheim; its primary official languages were Danish and German. Norwegian, Icelandic, Faroese, Sami and Greenlandic were also spoken[citation needed]. In 1380, Olaf II of Denmark
Denmark
inherited the Kingdom of Norway, titled as Olaf IV, after the death of his father Haakon VI of Norway, who was married to Olaf's mother Margrete I. Margrete I
Margrete I
was ruler of Norway from her son's death in 1387 until her own death in 1412. Denmark, Norway
Norway
and Sweden
Sweden
established and formed the Kalmar Union
Kalmar Union
in 1397. Following Sweden's departure in 1523, the union was effectively dissolved. From 1536/1537, Denmark
Denmark
and Norway
Norway
formed a personal union that would eventually develop into the 1660 integrated state called Denmark–Norway. Prior to 1660, Denmark– Norway
Norway
was a constitutional and elective monarchy in which the King's power was limited; in that year it became one of the most stringent absolute monarchies in Europe. The union lasted until 1814,[4][5] when the Treaty of Kiel
Treaty of Kiel
decreed that Norway
Norway
(except for the Faroe Islands, Iceland, and Greenland) be "ceded" to Sweden; this however was not recognised by Norway, which successfully resisted the attempt in the 1814 Swedish–Norwegian War and afterwards entered into a much looser personal union with Sweden as one of two equal kingdoms. In Norway, the 434-year union with Denmark
Denmark
is often called the 400 Year Night (400-årsnatten). [6]

Contents

1 Usage and extent 2 Colonies

2.1 India 2.2 Caribbean 2.3 West Africa

3 History

3.1 Origins of the Union 3.2 Northern Seven Years' War 3.3 Kalmar
Kalmar
War

3.3.1 Aftermath of the Älvsborg Ransom

3.4 Thirty Years' War

3.4.1 Torstenson War

3.5 Second Northern Wars 3.6 Royal absolutist state 3.7 Scanian War 3.8 Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
and end of the Union

4 Religion 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References

Usage and extent[edit] The term "Kingdom of Denmark" is sometimes used to include both countries in the period, since the political and economic power emanated from the Danish capital, Copenhagen. These terms cover the "royal territories" of the Oldenburgs as it was in 1460, excluding the "ducal territories" of Schleswig and Holstein. The administration used two official languages, Danish and German, and for several centuries both a Danish and German Chancery existed.[7] The term "Denmark–Norway" reflects the historical and legal roots of the union. It is adopted from the Oldenburg dynasty's official title. The kings always used the style "King of Denmark
Denmark
and Norway, the Wends and the Goths" (Konge til Danmark og Norge, de Venders og Gothers). Denmark
Denmark
and Norway, sometimes referred to as the "Twin Realms" (Tvillingrigerne) of Denmark–Norway, had separate legal codes and currencies, and mostly separate governing institutions. Following the introduction of absolutism in 1660, the centralisation of government meant a concentration of institutions in Copenhagen. Centralisation was supported in many parts of Norway, where the two-year attempt by Sweden
Sweden
to control Trøndelag
Trøndelag
had met strong local resistance and resulted in a complete failure for the Swedes and a devastation of the province. This allowed Norway
Norway
to further secure itself militarily for the future through closer ties with the capital Copenhagen. The term "Sweden–Finland" is sometimes, although with less justification, applied to the contemporary Swedish realm between 1521 and 1809. Finland was never a separate kingdom, and was completely integrated with Sweden, while Denmark
Denmark
was the dominant component in a personal union. Colonies[edit] Main article: Danish colonial empire

Enlargeable map of Denmark– Norway
Norway
and its possessions c. 1800

Throughout the time of Denmark–Norway, it continuously had possession over various overseas territories. At the earliest times this meant areas in Northern Europe
Northern Europe
and North America, for instance Estonia
Estonia
and the Norwegian possessions of Greenland, the Faroe Islands and Iceland. From the 17th century, the kingdoms acquired colonies in Africa, the Caribbean
Caribbean
and India. At its height the empire was about 2,655,564.76 km2 (1,025,319 sq mi)[note 1] India[edit] Main article: Danish India Denmark– Norway
Norway
maintained numerous colonies from the 17th to 19th centuries over various parts around India. Colonies included the town of Tranquebar
Tranquebar
and Serampore. The last towns it had control over were sold to the United Kingdom in 1845. Rights in the Nicobar Islands
Nicobar Islands
were sold in 1869. Caribbean[edit] Main article: Danish West Indies Centred on the Virgin Islands, Denmark– Norway
Norway
established the Danish West Indies. This colony was one of the longest-lived of Denmark, until it was sold to the United States
United States
in 1917. It became the U.S. Virgin Islands. West Africa[edit] Main article: Danish Gold Coast In the Gold Coast region of West Africa, Denmark– Norway
Norway
also over time had control over various colonies and forts. The last remaining forts were sold to the United Kingdom in 1850. History[edit] Origins of the Union[edit]

Carta marina, an early map of the Nordic countries, made around end of Kalmar Union
Kalmar Union
and start of Denmark–Norway

The three kingdoms then united in the Kalmar Union
Kalmar Union
in 1397. Sweden broke out of this union and re-entered it several times, until 1521, when Sweden
Sweden
finally left the Union, leaving Denmark–Norway (including overseas possessions in the North Atlantic and the island of Saaremaa
Saaremaa
in modern Estonia). Northern Seven Years' War[edit] Main article: Northern Seven Years' War The outbreak of the Northern Seven Years' War
Northern Seven Years' War
in 1563 is mainly attributed[by whom?] to Denmark's displeasure over the dismantling of the Kalmar Union
Kalmar Union
in the 1520s. When the Danish king Christian III (reigned 1534–1559) included the traditionally Swedish insignia of three crowns into his own coat of arms, the Swedes interpreted this as a Danish claim over Sweden. In response Erik XIV of Sweden
Sweden
(reigned 1560–1568) added the insignia of Norway
Norway
and Denmark
Denmark
to his own coat of arms. After Swedish king Erik introduced obstacles in an attempt to hinder trade with Russia, Lübeck and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth joined Denmark
Denmark
in a war alliance. Denmark
Denmark
then carried out some naval attacks on Sweden, which effectively started the war. After seven years of fighting, the conflict concluded in 1570 with a status quo ante bellum. Kalmar
Kalmar
War[edit] Main article: Kalmar
Kalmar
War See also: Battle of Kringen

Christian IV of Denmark

Because of Denmark–Norway's dominion over the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
(dominium maris baltici) and the North Sea, Sweden
Sweden
had the intention of avoiding paying Denmark's Sound Toll. Swedish king Charles IX's way of accomplishing this was to try to set up a new trade route through Lapland and northern Norway. In 1607 Charles IX declared himself "King of the Lapps in Nordland", and started collecting taxes in Norwegian territory. Denmark
Denmark
and King Christian IV of Denmark
Christian IV of Denmark
protested against the Swedish actions, as they had no intentions of letting another independent trade route open, Christian IV also had an intent of forcing Sweden
Sweden
to rejoin its union with Denmark. In 1611 Denmark
Denmark
finally invaded Sweden with 6000 men and took the city of Kalmar. On January 20, 1613, the Treaty of Knäred
Treaty of Knäred
was signed in which Norway's land route from Sweden was regained by incorporating Lapland into Norway, and Swedish payment of the Älvsborg Ransom for two fortresses which Denmark
Denmark
had taken in the war. However, Sweden
Sweden
achieved an exemption from the Sound Toll, which had only previously been secured by Britain and Holland. Aftermath of the Älvsborg Ransom[edit] The great ransom paid by Sweden
Sweden
(called the Älvsborg Ransom) was used by Christian IV, among many other things, to found the cities of Glückstadt, Christiania (refounded after a fire), Christianshave, Christianstad and Christianssand. He also founded the Danish East India
India
Company which led to the establishment of numerous Danish colonies in India. Thirty Years' War[edit] Main article: Thirty Years' War Not long after the Kalmar
Kalmar
war, Denmark– Norway
Norway
got involved in another greater war, in which they fought together with the mainly north German and other Protestant states against the Catholic states led by German Catholic League. Christian IV sought to become the leader of the north German Lutheran states, however following the Battle of Lutter
Battle of Lutter
in 1626 Denmark
Denmark
met a crushing defeat. This led to most of the German Protestant states ceasing their support for Christian IV. After another defeat at the Battle of Wolgast
Battle of Wolgast
and following the Treaty of Lübeck
Treaty of Lübeck
in 1629, which forbade Denmark
Denmark
from future intervening in German affairs, Denmark's participation in the war came to an end. Torstenson War[edit]

Treaty of Brömsebro, 1645.   Denmark–Norway   Sweden   The provinces of Jemtland, Herjedalen, Idre & Serna and the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
islands of Gotland
Gotland
and Ösel, which were ceded to Sweden   The province of Halland, ceded for 30 years.

Main article: Torstenson War Sweden
Sweden
was very successful during the Thirty Years' War, while Denmark was a failure. Sweden
Sweden
saw an opportunity of a change of power in the region. Denmark– Norway
Norway
had a threatening territory surrounding Sweden, and the Sound Dues were a continuing irritation for the Swedes. In 1643 the Swedish Privy Council determined Swedish territorial gain in an eventual war against Denmark– Norway
Norway
to have good chances. Not long after this, Sweden
Sweden
invaded Denmark–Norway. Denmark
Denmark
was poorly prepared for the war, and Norway
Norway
was reluctant to attack Sweden, which left the Swedes in a good position. The war ended as foreseen with Swedish victory, and with the Treaty of Brömsebro in 1645, Denmark– Norway
Norway
had to cede some of their territories, including Norwegian territories Jemtland, Herjedalen and Idre & Serna, and the Danish Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
islands of Gotland
Gotland
and Ösel. The Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War
thus began the rise of Sweden
Sweden
as a great power, while it marked the start of decline for the Danish.

Treaty of Roskilde, 1658.   Halland, occupied by Sweden
Sweden
for a 30-year period under the terms of the Peace of Brömsebro negotiated in 1645, was now ceded   the Scanian lands and Båhus County were ceded    Trøndelag
Trøndelag
and Bornholm
Bornholm
provinces, which were ceded in 1658, but which rebelled against Sweden
Sweden
and returned to Danish rule in 1660

Second Northern Wars[edit] Main article: Northern Wars See also: Dano-Swedish War (1657–1658) The Dano-Swedish War (1657–1658), a part of the Second Northern War, was one of the most devastating wars for the Dano-Norwegian kingdom. After a huge loss in the war, Denmark– Norway
Norway
was forced in the Treaty of Roskilde
Treaty of Roskilde
to give Sweden
Sweden
nearly half its territory. This included Norwegian province of Trøndelag
Trøndelag
and Båhuslen, all remaining Danish provinces on the Swedish mainland, and the island of Bornholm. However, two years later, in 1660, there was a follow-up treaty, the Treaty of Copenhagen, which gave Trøndelag
Trøndelag
and Bornholm
Bornholm
back to Denmark–Norway. Royal absolutist state[edit] In the aftermath of Sweden's final secession from the Kalmar Union
Kalmar Union
in 1521, civil war and Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
followed in Denmark
Denmark
and Norway. When things had settled down, the Rigsraad (High Council) of Denmark
Denmark
became weakened, and was abolished in 1660[8] when Denmark– Norway
Norway
became an absolutist state and Denmark
Denmark
a hereditary monarchy, as Norway
Norway
had been since the Middle Ages. These changes were confirmed in the Lex Regia signed on 14 November 1665, stipulating that all power lay in the hands of the king, who was only responsible towards God.[9] The Norwegian Riksråd was assembled for the last time in 1537. Norway
Norway
kept its separate laws and some institutions, such as a royal chancellor, and separate coinage and army. Norway
Norway
also had its own royal standard flag until 1748, after that the Dannebrog became the only official merchant flag in the union. Scanian War[edit] Main article: Scanian War Denmark
Denmark
had lost its provinces in Scania after the Treaty of Roskilde and was always eager to retrieve them, but as Sweden
Sweden
had grown into a great power it would not be an easy task. However, Christian V saw an opportunity when Sweden
Sweden
got involved in the Franco-Dutch War, and after some hesitation Denmark
Denmark
invaded Sweden
Sweden
in 1675. Although the Danish assault began as a great success, the Swedes led by 19-year-old Charles XI counter-attacked and took back the land that was being occupied. The war was concluded with the French dictating peace, with no permanent gains or losses to either of the countries. Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
and end of the Union[edit] Main article: Napoleonic Wars See also: Gunboat War

Battle between the frigate HMS Tartar and Norwegian gunboats near Bergen
Bergen
in 1808.

During the French Revolutionary Wars
French Revolutionary Wars
Denmark– Norway
Norway
at first tried to stay neutral, so it could continue its trade with both France and the United Kingdom, but when it entered the League of Armed Neutrality, the British considered it a hostile action, and attacked Copenhagen
Copenhagen
in 1801 and again in 1807. In the 1807 attack on Copenhagen the British army confiscated the entire Dano-Norwegian navy on the grounds that Denmark– Norway
Norway
was about to launch an attack on Britain. The Dano-Norwegian navy had been the only navy left in Europe able to challenge the British navy after the destruction of the Spanish–French navy in the Battle of Trafalgar. The Dano-Norwegian navy was however not prepared for any military operation and the British soldiers found the Dano-Norwegian navy still in dock after the winter season. The Dano- Norwegians
Norwegians
were more concerned about preserving their continued neutrality and the entire Dano-Norwegian army was therefore gathered at Danevirke
Danevirke
in the event of a French attack, leaving Copenhagen
Copenhagen
vulnerable to a British attack. The British attack on Danish neutrality effectively forced the Dano-Norwegians into an alliance with Napoleon, and Denmark– Norway
Norway
allied itself with France. Denmark– Norway
Norway
was defeated and had to cede the Kingdom of Norway
Norway
to the King of Sweden
Sweden
at the Treaty of Kiel. Norway's overseas possessions were kept by Denmark. But the Norwegians
Norwegians
objected to the terms of this treaty, and a constitutional assembly declared Norwegian independence on 17 May 1814 and elected the Crown Prince Christian Frederik as king of independent Norway. Following a Swedish invasion, Norway
Norway
was forced to accept a personal union between Sweden
Sweden
and Norway, but retained its liberal constitution and separate institutions, except for the foreign service. The union was dissolved in 1905. Religion[edit] Denmark– Norway
Norway
was among the countries to follow Martin Luther
Martin Luther
after the Protestant Reformation, thus the official religion was established as Lutheran
Lutheran
Protestantism throughout the entire life span of the kingdom. There was however one other religious "reformation" in the kingdom during the rule of Christian VI, a follower of Pietism. The period from 1735 until his death in 1746 has been nicknamed "the State Pietism", as new laws and regulations were established in favor of Pietism. Though Pietism
Pietism
did not last for a substantial time, numerous new small pietistic resurrections occurred over the next 200 years. In the end, Pietism
Pietism
was never firmly established as a lasting religious grouping.

See also[edit]

Denmark
Denmark
portal Norway
Norway
portal Iceland
Iceland
portal Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
portal Greenland
Greenland
portal Schleswig-Holstein
Schleswig-Holstein
portal

Union between Sweden
Sweden
and Norway Military history of Denmark Possessions of Norway

Notes[edit]

^ Possessions of Denmark– Norway
Norway
(as of 1800)

Denmark: 42,925.46 km2 (16,573.61 sq mi) Norway: 324,220 km2 (125,180 sq mi) Schleswig-Holstein: 15,763.18 km2 (6,086.20 sq mi) Greenland: 2,166,086 km2 (836,330 sq mi) Iceland: 103,000 km2 (40,000 sq mi) Faroe Islands: 1,399 km2 (540 sq mi) Danish India: 1,648.13 km2 (636.35 sq mi) Danish West Indies: 400 km2 (150 sq mi) Danish Gold Coast: 126 km2 (49 sq mi)

References[edit]

^ regjeringen.no (5 July 2011). "A Forerunner to the Norwegian Council of State". Government.no.  ^ Historisk Tidsskrift: Nyt om Trediveårskrigen (in Danish) ^ Tacitus.no – Skandinaviens befolkning (in Swedish) ^ "Denmark". World Statesmen. Retrieved January 18, 2015.  ^ "Norway". World Statesmen. Retrieved January 18, 2015.  ^ [1] ^ Rigsarkivets Samlinger. Arkivalier før 1848. Danske kancelli 1454–1848 Archived 2006-02-12 at the Wayback Machine.; Rigsarkivets Samlinger. Arkivalier før 1848. Tyske kancelli Archived 2006-02-12 at the Wayback Machine.. ^ Krig og Enevælde: 1648–1746 Archived 2011-10-04 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "1655 Lex Regia (Kongelov) for Kongerigerne Danmark og Norge, Hertugdømmerne Slesvig og Holsten etc". thomasthorsen.dk. 

v t e

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v t e

Norway articles

History

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Norway
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Kalmar
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Coordinates: 55°40′N 12°34′E / 55.667°N 12.567°E / 55

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