HOME
The Info List - Danube


--- Advertisement ---



The Danube
Danube
or Donau (/ˈdænjuːb/ DAN-yoob, known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga. It is located in Central and Eastern Europe. The Danube
Danube
was once a long-standing frontier of the Roman Empire, and today flows through 10 countries, more than any other river in the world. Originating in Germany, the Danube
Danube
flows southeast for 2,860 km (1,780 mi), passing through or touching the border of Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Romania, Bulgaria, Moldova
Moldova
and Ukraine
Ukraine
before emptying into the Black Sea. Its drainage basin extends into nine more countries. The Danube
Danube
river basin is the most biodiverse region in Europe, and is home to hundreds of fish species, such as pike, zander, huchen, wels catfish, burbot and tench. It is also home to a large diversity of carp and sturgeon, as well as salmon and trout. A few species of euryhaline fish, such as European seabass, mullet, and eel, inhabit the Danube
Danube
delta and the lower portion of the river.

Contents

1 Names and etymology 2 Geography

2.1 Drainage basin 2.2 Tributaries 2.3 Cities and towns 2.4 Islands 2.5 Sectioning

3 Modern navigation 4 Piracy 5 Danube
Danube
Delta 6 International cooperation

6.1 Ecology and environment 6.2 Navigation

7 Geology 8 History

8.1 Ancient cultural perspectives of the lower Danube 8.2 Ottoman–Hungarian and Ottoman–Habsburg rivalry along the Danube

9 Economics

9.1 Drinking water 9.2 Navigation and transport 9.3 Fishing 9.4 Tourism

9.4.1 Danube
Danube
Bike Trail 9.4.2 Sultans Trail 9.4.3 Donausteig 9.4.4 The Route of Emperors and Kings

10 Important national parks 11 Cultural significance 12 See also 13 References 14 External links

Names and etymology[edit] Old European river name derived from a Proto-Indo-European *dānu. Other river names from the same root include the Dunajec, Dzvina/Daugava, Don, Donets, Dnieper, Dniestr, Dysna, Tana and Tuoni. In Rigvedic Sanskrit, dānu means "fluid, drop", in Avestan, the same word means "river". In the Rigveda, Dānu once appears as the mother of Vrtra, "a dragon blocking the course of the rivers." The Finnish word for Danube
Danube
is Tonava, which is most likely derived from the word for the river in Swedish and German, Donau. Up North there is also a river called Tana. Its Sámi name Deatnu means "Great River". It is possible that dānu in Scythian as in Avestan was a generic word for "river": Dnieper
Dnieper
and Dniestr, from Danapris and Danastius, are presumed to continue Scythian *dānu apara "far river" and *dānu nazdya- "near river", respectively.[1] Known to the ancient Greeks as the Istros (Ἴστρος) a borrowing from a Daco-Thracian name meaning "strong, swift" (akin to Sanskrit iṣiras "swift").[2] In Latin, the Danube
Danube
was variously known as Danubius, Danuvius or as Ister. The Dacian/Thracian name was Donaris for the upper Danube
Danube
and Istros for the lower Danube.[2] The Thraco-Phrygian name was Matoas,[3] "the bringer of luck".[4] The Latin name is masculine, as are all its Slavic names, except Slovenian, (the name of the Rhine
Rhine
is also masculine in Latin, most of the Slavic languages, as well as in German). The German Donau (Early Modern German Donaw, Tonaw,[5] Middle High German
Middle High German
Tuonowe[6]) is feminine, as it has been re-interpreted as containing the suffix -ouwe "wetland". The modern languages spoken in the Danube
Danube
basin all use names related to Dānuvius: German: Donau ([ˈdoːnaʊ̯]; (Austro-Bavarian: Doana); Silesian: Důnaj; Upper Sorbian: Dunaj; Slovak: Dunaj ([ˈdunaj]; Hungarian: Duna ([ˈdunɒ]); Serbo-Croatian: Dunav / Дунав ([dǔnaʋ] or [dǔnaːʋ] Romanian: Dunărea ([ˈdunəre̯a]); Bulgarian: Дунав, Dunav ([ˈdunɐf]); Ukrainian: Дунай, Dunai ([duˈnɑj]); Czech: Dunaj (Czech pronunciation: [ˈdʊnaj]); Polish: Dunaj (Polish pronunciation: [ˈdũnaj]); Slovene: Donava ([ˈdóːnaʋa]); Portuguese: Danúbio ([da'nubjo]); French: Danube [da'nub]); Italian: Danubio ([da'nubjo]); Spanish: Danubio ([da'nubjo]); Romansh: Danubi. Geography[edit]

The Danube
Danube
basin

Classified as an international waterway, it originates in the town of Donaueschingen, in the Black Forest
Black Forest
of Germany, at the confluence of the rivers Brigach
Brigach
and Breg. The Danube
Danube
then flows southeast for about 2,730 km (1,700 mi), passing through four capital cities before emptying into the Black Sea
Black Sea
via the Danube Delta
Danube Delta
in Romania
Romania
and Ukraine. Once a long-standing frontier of the Roman Empire, the river passes through or touches the borders of 10 countries: Romania
Romania
(29.0% of basin area), Hungary
Hungary
(11.6%), Serbia
Serbia
(10.2%), Austria
Austria
(10.0%), Germany (7.0%), Bulgaria
Bulgaria
(5.9%), Slovakia
Slovakia
(5.9%), Croatia
Croatia
(4.4%), Ukraine (3.8%), and Moldova
Moldova
(1.6%).[7] Its drainage basin extends into nine more (ten if Kosovo
Kosovo
is included). Drainage basin[edit]

The Danube
Danube
discharges into the Black Sea
Black Sea
(the upper body of water in the image).

Where the Danube
Danube
Meets the Black Sea
Black Sea
( NASA Goddard
NASA Goddard
image).

In addition to the bordering countries (see above), the drainage basin includes parts of nine more countries: Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
(4.6%), the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
(2.9%), Slovenia
Slovenia
(2.0%), Montenegro
Montenegro
(0.9%), Switzerland
Switzerland
(0.2%), Italy
Italy
(<0.1%), Poland
Poland
(<0.1%), the Republic of Macedonia (<0.1%) and Albania
Albania
(<0.1%).[7] Its total drainage basin is 801,463 km2 (309,447 sq mi).[8][9] The highest point of the drainage basin is the summit of Piz Bernina
Piz Bernina
at the Italy– Switzerland
Switzerland
border, at 4,049 metres (13,284 ft).[10] Tributaries[edit] Main article: List of tributaries of the Danube The land drained by the Danube
Danube
extends into many other countries. Many Danubian tributaries are important rivers in their own right, navigable by barges and other shallow-draught boats. From its source to its outlet into the Black Sea, its main tributaries are (in order that they enter):

Iller
Iller
(entering at Ulm) Lech Altmühl
Altmühl
(entering at Kelheim) Naab
Naab
(entering at Regensburg) Regen (entering at Regensburg) Isar Inn (entering at Passau) Ilz
Ilz
(entering at Passau) Enns Morava (entering near Devín Castle) Rába
Rába
(entering at Győr) Váh
Váh
(entering at Komárno) Hron
Hron
(entering at Štúrovo) Ipeľ Sió Dráva Vuka (entering at Vukovar)

18. Tisza 19. Sava
Sava
(entering at Belgrade) 20. Tamiš (entering at Pančevo) 21. Great Morava 22. Caraș 23. Jiu (entering at Bechet) 24. Iskar (entering near Gigen) 25. Olt (entering at Turnu Măgurele) 26. Osam
Osam
(entering near Nikopol, Bulgaria) 27. Argeș (entering at Oltenița) 28. Ialomița 29. Siret (entering near Galați) 30. Prut
Prut
(entering near Galați)

The confluence of the Sava
Sava
into the Danube
Danube
at Belgrade. Pictured from Belgrade
Belgrade
Fortress, Serbia

Cities and towns[edit]

The historical source of the Danube
Danube
in Donaueschingen.

The Donauzusammenfluss, or " Danube
Danube
confluence", where the Breg and Brigach
Brigach
unite to form the Danube
Danube
in Donaueschingen, Germany

The Danube
Danube
in Ulm
Ulm
from the steeple of Ulm
Ulm
Minster, looking southwest

Danube
Danube
in Linz, Austria

The Danube
Danube
in Bratislava, Slovakia

Basilica of Esztergom
Esztergom
(Hungary), the third largest cathedral in Europe

Confluence
Confluence
of river Sava
Sava
into the Danube
Danube
beneath Belgrade
Belgrade
citadel

The Danube
Danube
flows through many cities, including four national capitals (shown below in bold), more than any other river in the world. Ordered from the source to the mouth they are:

 Germany

Donaueschingen
Donaueschingen
in the State of Baden-Württemberg – rivers Brigach
Brigach
and Breg join to form the Danube Möhringen an der Donau in Baden-Württemberg Tuttlingen
Tuttlingen
in Baden-Württemberg Sigmaringen
Sigmaringen
in Baden-Württemberg Riedlingen
Riedlingen
in Baden-Württemberg Munderkingen
Munderkingen
in Baden-Württemberg Ehingen
Ehingen
in Baden-Württemberg Ulm
Ulm
in Baden-Württemberg Neu- Ulm
Ulm
in Bavaria Günzburg
Günzburg
in Bavaria Dillingen an der Donau
Dillingen an der Donau
in Bavaria Donauwörth
Donauwörth
in Bavaria Neuburg an der Donau
Neuburg an der Donau
in Bavaria Ingolstadt
Ingolstadt
in Bavaria Kelheim
Kelheim
in Bavaria Regensburg
Regensburg
in Bavaria Straubing
Straubing
in Bavaria Deggendorf
Deggendorf
in Bavaria Passau
Passau
in Bavaria

 Austria

Linz, capital of Upper Austria Krems in Lower Austria Tulln in Lower Austria Vienna – capital of Austria
Austria
and the most populous city on the Danube, where the Danube
Danube
floodplain is called the Lobau, though the Innere Stadt
Innere Stadt
is situated away from the main flow of the Danube
Danube
(it is bounded by the Donaukanal – ' Danube
Danube
canal').

 Slovakia

Bratislava – capital of Slovakia Komárno Štúrovo

 Hungary

Mosonmagyaróvár Győr Komárom Esztergom Visegrád Vác Szentendre Dunakeszi Budapest – capital of Hungary, the largest city and the largest agglomeration on Danube
Danube
(about 3,300,000 people). Szigetszentmiklós Százhalombatta Ráckeve Adony Dunaújváros Dunaföldvár Paks Kalocsa Baja Mohács

 Croatia

Vukovar Ilok

 Serbia

Apatin Bačka
Bačka
Palanka Futog Veternik Novi Sad Sremski Karlovci Zemun Belgrade – capital of Serbia Pančevo Smederevo Kovin Veliko Gradište Golubac Donji Milanovac Kladovo

 Bulgaria

Danube
Danube
at Nikopol, Bulgaria
Bulgaria
in winter

Vidin Lom Kozloduy Oryahovo Nikopol Belene Svishtov Ruse Tutrakan Silistra

 Moldova

Giurgiulești

 Ukraine

0 km, Danube Delta
Danube Delta
(Ukraine)

Reni Izmail Kiliya Vylkove

 Romania

The Danube
Danube
in Sulina, Romania

Moldova
Moldova
Nouă Orșova Drobeta-Turnu Severin Calafat Bechet Dăbuleni Corabia Turnu Măgurele Zimnicea Giurgiu Oltenița Călărași Fetești Cernavodă Hârșova Brăila Galați – largest port on the Danube Isaccea Tulcea Sulina – last city through which it flows

Panorama of the Danube
Danube
in Vienna

The Danube
Danube
Bend is a curve of the Danube
Danube
in Hungary, near the city of Visegrád. The Transdanubian Mountains
Transdanubian Mountains
lie on the right bank (left side of the picture), while the North Hungarian Mountains
North Hungarian Mountains
on the left bank (right side of the picture).

Panorama of the Danube
Danube
in Budapest

Budapest
Budapest
at night

Panoramic image of the Danube
Danube
and Sava
Sava
river from Kalemegdan, Belgrade Serbia.

Islands[edit] Further information: List of islands in the Danube

Aerial view of Margaret Island, Budapest, Hungary. There are 15 bridges over the Danube
Danube
in Budapest.

Great War Island, Belgrade, as seen from Zemun, Serbia. It is located at the confluence of the Sava
Sava
and Danube.

Adakale Island in the Danube
Danube
was forgotten during the peace talks at the Congress of Berlin
Congress of Berlin
in 1878, which allowed it to remain a de jure Turkish territory and the Ottoman Sultan Abdülhamid II's private possession until the Treaty of Lausanne
Treaty of Lausanne
in 1923 (de facto until Romania
Romania
unilaterally declared its sovereignty on the island in 1919 and further strengthened this claim with the Treaty of Trianon
Treaty of Trianon
in 1920.)[11][12] The island was submerged during the construction of the Iron Gates
Iron Gates
hydroelectric plant in 1970, which also removed the possibility of a potential legal claim by the descendants of Abdülhamid II.

Adakale Island Ostrovul Mare, Gogoșu Balta Ialomiței Belene
Belene
Island Csepel Island Donauinsel Great Brăila
Brăila
Island Great War Island Island of Vukovar Island of Šarengrad Žitný ostrov Szigetköz Island of Szentendre Margaret Island Csepel Island Island of Mohács Ostrovul Ciocănești Ostrovul Mare, Islaz Ostrvo (Kostolac) Kozloduy
Kozloduy
Island Ribarsko Ostrvo, Novi Sad Vardim Island

Sectioning[edit]

Upper Section: From spring to Devín Gate, at the border of Austria and Slovakia. Danube
Danube
remains a characteristic mountain river until Passau, with average bottom gradient 0.0012% (12 ppm), from Passau
Passau
to Devín Gate
Devín Gate
the gradient lessens to 0.0006% (6 ppm). Middle Section: From Devín Gate
Devín Gate
to Iron Gate, at the border of Serbia and Romania. The riverbed widens and the average bottom gradient becomes only 0.00006% (0.6 ppm). Lower Section: From Iron Gate to Sulina, with average gradient as little as 0.00003% (0.3 ppm).

Modern navigation[edit]

The Danube
Danube
in Budapest

Fisher in the Danube
Danube
Delta

Play media

Freight ship on the Danube
Danube
near Vienna

The Danube
Danube
is navigable by ocean ships from the Black Sea
Black Sea
to Brăila in Romania
Romania
and by river ships to Kelheim, Bavaria, Germany; smaller craft can navigate further upstream to Ulm, Württemberg, Germany. About 60 of its tributaries are also navigable. Since the completion of the German Rhine–Main–Danube Canal
Rhine–Main–Danube Canal
in 1992, the river has been part of a trans-European waterway from Rotterdam
Rotterdam
on the North Sea
North Sea
to Sulina
Sulina
on the Black Sea, a distance of 3,500 km (2,200 mi). In 1994 the Danube
Danube
was declared one of ten Pan-European transport corridors, routes in Central and Eastern Europe
Europe
that required major investment over the following ten to fifteen years. The amount of goods transported on the Danube
Danube
increased to about 100 million tons in 1987. In 1999, transport on the river was made difficult by the NATO bombing of three bridges in Serbia
Serbia
during the Kosovo
Kosovo
War. Clearance of the resulting debris was completed in 2002, and a temporary pontoon bridge that hampered navigation was removed in 2005. At the Iron Gate, the Danube
Danube
flows through a gorge that forms part of the boundary between Serbia
Serbia
and Romania; it contains the Iron Gate I Hydroelectric Power Station dam, followed at about 60 km (37 mi) downstream (outside the gorge) by the Iron Gate II Hydroelectric Power Station. On 13 April 2006, a record peak discharge at Iron Gate Dam
Dam
reached 15,400 m3/s (540,000 cu ft/s). There are three artificial waterways built on the Danube: the Danube-Tisa-Danube Canal
Danube-Tisa-Danube Canal
(DTD) in the Banat
Banat
and Bačka
Bačka
regions (Vojvodina, northern province of Serbia); the 64 km (40 mi) Danube- Black Sea
Black Sea
Canal, between Cernavodă
Cernavodă
and Constanța
Constanța
(Romania) finished in 1984, shortens the distance to the Black Sea
Black Sea
by 400 km (250 mi); the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal
Rhine–Main–Danube Canal
is about 171 km (106 mi), finished in 1992, linking the North Sea
North Sea
to the Black Sea.[citation needed] Piracy[edit] In 2010–12, shipping companies (especially from Ukraine) claimed that their vessels suffered from "regular pirate attacks", on the Serbian and Romanian stretches of the Danube.[13][14][15] However, these transgressions may not be considered acts of piracy, as defined according to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, but rather instances of "river robbery".[16] On the other hand, media reports say the crews on transport ships often steal and sell their own cargo and then blame the plundering on “pirates”, and the alleged attacks are not piracy but small-time contraband theft that is taking place along the river.[17] Danube
Danube
Delta[edit] Main article: Danube
Danube
Delta The Danube Delta
Danube Delta
(Romanian: Delta Dunării pronounced [ˈdelta ˈdunərij]; Ukrainian: Дельта Дунаю, Del'ta Dunaju) is the largest river delta in the European Union. The greater part of the Danube Delta
Danube Delta
lies in Romania
Romania
( Tulcea
Tulcea
county), while its northern part, on the left bank of the Chilia arm, is situated in Ukraine
Ukraine
(Odessa Oblast). The approximate surface is 4,152 km2 (1,603 sq mi), of which 3,446 km2 (1,331 sq mi) are in Romania. If one includes the lagoons of Razim-Sinoe (1,015 km2 (392 sq mi) of which 865 km2 (334 sq mi) water surface), which are located south of the delta proper, but are related to it geologically and ecologically (their combined territory is part of the World Heritage Site), the total area of the Danube Delta
Danube Delta
reaches 5,165 km2 (1,994 sq mi). The Danube Delta
Danube Delta
is also the best preserved river Delta in Europe, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
UNESCO World Heritage Site
(since 1991) and a Ramsar Site. Its lakes and marshes support 45 freshwater fish species. Its wetlands support vast flocks of migratory birds of over 300 species, including the endangered pygmy cormorant (Phalacrocorax pygmaeus). These are threatened by rival canalization and drainage schemes such as the Bystroye Canal.[citation needed] International cooperation[edit] Ecology and environment[edit] Main article: International Commission for the Protection of the Danube
Danube
River

Pelicans
Pelicans
in the Danube
Danube
Delta, Romania

The International Commission for the Protection of the Danube
Danube
River (ICPDR) is an organization consisting of 14 member states (Germany, Austria, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, Hungary, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Bulgaria, Romania, Moldova, Montenegro and Ukraine) and the European Union. The commission, established in 1998, deals with the whole Danube
Danube
river basin, which includes tributaries and the groundwater resources. Its goal is to implement the Danube
Danube
River Protection Convention by promoting and coordinating sustainable and equitable water management, including conservation, improvement and rational use of waters and the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive. Navigation[edit] Main article: Danube
Danube
Commission The Danube Commission
Danube Commission
is concerned with the maintenance and improvement of the river's navigation conditions. It was established in 1948 by seven countries bordering the river. Members include representatives from Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Germany, Hungary, Moldova, Slovakia, Romania, Russia, Ukraine, and Serbia, It meets regularly twice a year. It also convenes groups of experts to consider items provided for in the commission's working plans. The commission dates to the Paris Conferences of 1856 and 1921, which established for the first time an international regime to safeguard free navigation on the Danube. Today the Commission include riparian and non-riparian states. Geology[edit]

Iron Gates, Serbia- Romania
Romania
border

Iron Gate I
Iron Gate I
Hydroelectric Power Station, Romania-Serbia

Although the headwaters of the Danube
Danube
are relatively small today, geologically, the Danube
Danube
is much older than the Rhine, with which its catchment area competes in today's southern Germany. This has a few interesting geological complications. Since the Rhine
Rhine
is the only river rising in the Alps
Alps
mountains which flows north towards the North Sea, an invisible line beginning at Piz Lunghin
Piz Lunghin
divides large parts of southern Germany, which is sometimes referred to as the European Watershed. Before the last ice age in the Pleistocene, the Rhine
Rhine
started at the southwestern tip of the Black Forest, while the waters from the Alps that today feed the Rhine
Rhine
were carried east by the so-called Urdonau (original Danube). Parts of this ancient river's bed, which was much larger than today's Danube, can still be seen in (now waterless) canyons in today's landscape of the Swabian Alb. After the Upper Rhine valley had been eroded, most waters from the Alps
Alps
changed their direction and began feeding the Rhine. Today's upper Danube
Danube
is but a meek reflection of the ancient one.

The Iron Gate, on the Serbian-Romanian border ( Iron Gates
Iron Gates
natural park and Đerdap national park)

Since the Swabian Alb
Swabian Alb
is largely shaped of porous limestone, and since the Rhine's level is much lower than the Danube's, today subsurface rivers carry much water from the Danube
Danube
to the Rhine. On many days in the summer, when the Danube
Danube
carries little water, it completely oozes away noisily into these underground channels at two locations in the Swabian Alp, which are referred to as the Donauversickerung (Danube Sink). Most of this water resurfaces only 12 kilometres (7 mi) south at the Aachtopf, Germany's wellspring with the highest flow, an average of 8,500 litres per second (300 cu ft/s), north of Lake Constance—thus feeding the Rhine. The European Water Divide applies only for those waters that pass beyond this point, and only during the days of the year when the Danube
Danube
carries enough water to survive the sink holes in the Donauversickerung. Since such large volumes of underground water erode much of the surrounding limestone, it is estimated that the Danube
Danube
upper course will one day disappear entirely in favor of the Rhine, an event called stream capturing. The hydrological parameters of Danube
Danube
are regularly monitored in Croatia
Croatia
at Batina, Dalj, Vukovar
Vukovar
and Ilok.[18] History[edit]

The oldest bridge across the Danube, constructed by Apollodorus of Damascus between 103-105 CE, directed by Trajan, modern Serbia
Serbia
and Romania.

At Esztergom
Esztergom
and Štúrovo, the Danube
Danube
separates Hungary
Hungary
from Slovakia

The Danube
Danube
in Vienna

The Danube
Danube
between Belene
Belene
and Belene
Belene
Island, Bulgaria

A look upstream from the Donauinsel
Donauinsel
in Vienna, Austria
Austria
during an unusually cold winter (February 2006). A frozen Danube
Danube
usually occurs just once or twice in a lifetime.

Bratislava
Bratislava
does not usually suffer major floods, but the Danube sometimes overflows its right bank

Combat between Russian and Turkish forces on the Danube
Danube
in 1854, during the Crimean War
Crimean War
(1853–1856)

The Danube
Danube
basin was the site of some of the earliest human cultures. The Danubian Neolithic cultures include the Linear Pottery cultures of the mid- Danube
Danube
basin. Many sites of the sixth-to-third millennium BC Vinča culture, (Vinča, Serbia) are sited along the Danube. The third millennium BC Vučedol culture
Vučedol culture
(from the Vučedol site near Vukovar, Croatia) is famous for its ceramics. Darius the Great, king of Persia, crossed the river in the late 6th century BC in order to invade European Scythia and to subdue the Scythians. Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
defeated the Triballian king Syrmus and the northern barbarian Thracian and Illyrian tribes by advancing from Macedonia as far as the Danube
Danube
in 336 BC. Under the Romans the Danube
Danube
formed the border of the Empire with the tribes to the north almost from its source to its mouth. At the same time it was a route for the transport of troops and the supply of settlements downstream. From AD 37 to the reign of the Emperor Valentinian I
Valentinian I
(364–375) the Danubian Limes
Danubian Limes
was the northeastern border of the Empire, with occasional interruptions such as the fall of the Danubian Limes
Danubian Limes
in 259. The crossing of the Danube
Danube
into Dacia was achieved by the Imperium Romanum, first in two battles in 102 and then in 106 after the construction of a bridge in 101 near the garrison town of Drobeta at the Iron Gate. This victory over Dacia under Decebalus
Decebalus
enabled the Province of Dacia to be created, but in 271 it was lost again. Avars used the river as their southeastern border in the 6th century. Ancient cultural perspectives of the lower Danube[edit] Part of the rivers Danubius or Istros was also known as (together with the Black Sea) the Okeanos in ancient times, being called the Okeanos Potamos (Okeanos River). The lower Danube
Danube
was also called the Keras Okeanoio (Gulf or Horn of Okeanos) in the Argonautica by Apollonius Rhodos (Argon. IV. 282). At the end of the Okeanos Potamos, is the holy island of Alba (Leuke, Pytho Nisi, Isle of Snakes), sacred to the Pelasgian (and later, Greek) Apollo, greeting the sun rising in the east. Hecateus Abderitas refers to Apollo's island from the region of the Hyperboreans, in the Okeanos. It was on Leuke, in one version of his legend, that the hero Achilles was buried (to this day, one of the mouths of the Danube
Danube
is called Chilia). Old Romanian folk songs recount a white monastery on a white island with nine priests.[19] Ottoman–Hungarian and Ottoman–Habsburg rivalry along the Danube[edit]

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (February 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Between the late 14th and late 19th centuries, the Ottoman Empire competed first with the Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
and later with the Austrian Habsburgs for controlling the Danube
Danube
(Turks call it Tuna), which formed the northern border of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
for centuries. Many of the Ottoman–Hungarian Wars
Ottoman–Hungarian Wars
(1366–1526) and Ottoman–Habsburg wars (1526–1791) were fought along the river. The most important wars of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
along the Danube
Danube
include the Battle of Nicopolis
Battle of Nicopolis
(1396), the Siege of Belgrade
Belgrade
(1456), the Battle of Mohács
Mohács
(1526), the first Turkish Siege of Vienna
Vienna
(1529), the Siege of Esztergom
Esztergom
(1543), the Long War (1591–1606), the Battle of Vienna
Vienna
(1683), the Great Turkish War
Great Turkish War
(1683–1699), the Crimean War (1853–1856) and the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878). Economics[edit] Drinking water[edit] Along its course, the Danube
Danube
is a source of drinking water for about 20 million people. In Baden-Württemberg, Germany, almost 30 percent (as of 2004) of the water for the area between Stuttgart, Bad Mergentheim, Aalen
Aalen
and Alb-Donau (district)
Alb-Donau (district)
comes from purified water of the Danube. Other cities such as Ulm
Ulm
and Passau
Passau
also use some water from the Danube. In Austria
Austria
and Hungary, most water is drawn from ground and spring sources, and only in rare cases is water from the Danube
Danube
used. Most states also find it too difficult to clean the water because of extensive pollution; only parts of Romania
Romania
where the water is cleaner still obtain drinking water from the Danube
Danube
on a regular basis.[20] Navigation and transport[edit] In the 19th century, the Danube
Danube
was an important waterway but was, as The Times of London put it, "annually swept by ice that will lift a large ship out of the water or cut her in two as if she were a carrot."[21] Today, as "Corridor VII" of the European Union, the Danube
Danube
is an important transport route. Since the opening of the Rhine–Main– Danube
Danube
Canal, the river connects the Port of Rotterdam and the industrial centres of Western Europe
Europe
with the Black Sea
Black Sea
and, also, through the Danube – Black Sea
Black Sea
Canal, with the Port of Constanța. The waterway is designed for large-scale inland vessels (110 × 11.45 m) but it can carry much larger vessels on most of its course. The Danube
Danube
has been partly canalized in Germany
Germany
(5 locks) and Austria
Austria
(10 locks). Proposals to build a number of new locks to improve navigation have not progressed, due in part to environmental concerns. Downstream from the Freudenau locks in Vienna, canalization of the Danube
Danube
was limited to the Gabčíkovo dam and locks near Bratislava and the two double Iron Gate locks in the border stretch of the Danube between Serbia
Serbia
and Romania. These locks have larger dimensions. Downstream of the Iron Gate, the river is free flowing all the way to the Black Sea, a distance of more than 860 kilometres (530 mi). The Danube
Danube
connects with the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal
Rhine–Main–Danube Canal
at Kelheim, with the Donaukanal
Donaukanal
in Vienna, and with the Danube– Black Sea
Black Sea
Canal at Cernavodă. Apart from a couple of secondary navigable branches, the only major navigable rivers linked to the Danube
Danube
are the Drava, Sava
Sava
and Tisa. In Serbia, a canal network also connects to the river; the network, known as the Danube–Tisa– Danube
Danube
Canals, links sections downstream.

Fishing
Fishing
from a Zille on the Danube
Danube
in Lower Austria, 1982

In the Austrian and German sections of the Danube, a type of flat-bottomed boat called a Zille was developed for use along the river. Zillen are still used today for fishing, ferrying, and other transport of goods and people in this area. Fishing[edit] The importance of fishing on the Danube, which was critical in the Middle Ages, has declined dramatically. Some fishermen are still active at certain points on the river, and the Danube Delta
Danube Delta
still has an important industry. The Upper Danube
Danube
ecoregion alone has about 60 fish species and the Lower Danube– Dniester
Dniester
ecoregion has about twice as many.[22] Among these are an exceptionally high diversity of sturgeon, a total of six species (beluga, Russian sturgeon, bastard sturgeon, sterlet, starry sturgeon and European sea sturgeon), but these are all threatened and have largely–or entirely in the case of the European sea sturgeon–disappeared from the river.[22] The huchen, one of the largest species of salmon, is endemic to the Danube
Danube
basin, but has been introduced elsewhere by humans.[23] Tourism[edit]

Wachau
Wachau
Valley near Spitz, Austria

Important tourist and natural spots along the Danube
Danube
include the Wachau
Wachau
Valley, the Nationalpark Donau-Auen
Nationalpark Donau-Auen
in Austria, Gemenc
Gemenc
in Hungary, the Naturpark Obere Donau
Naturpark Obere Donau
in Germany, Kopački rit
Kopački rit
in Croatia, Iron Gate in Serbia
Serbia
and Romania, the Danube Delta
Danube Delta
in Romania, and the Srebarna Nature Reserve
Srebarna Nature Reserve
in Bulgaria. Also, leisure and travel cruises on the river are of significance. Besides the often frequented route between Vienna
Vienna
and Budapest, some ships even go from Passau
Passau
in Germany
Germany
to the Danube Delta
Danube Delta
and back. During the peak season, more than 70 cruise liners are in use on the river, while the traffic-free upper parts can only be discovered with canoes or boats. The Danube
Danube
region is not only culturally and historically of importance, but also due to its fascinating landmarks and sights important for the regional tourism industry. With its well established infrastructure regarding cycling, hiking and travel possibilities, the region along the Danube
Danube
attracts every year an international clientele. In Austria
Austria
alone, there are more than 14 million overnight stays and about 6.5 million arrivals per year.[24] The Danube
Danube
Banks in Budapest
Budapest
are a part of Unesco World Heritage sites, they can be viewed from a number of sightseeing cruises offered in the city. The Danube
Danube
Bend is also a popular tourist destination. Danube
Danube
Bike Trail[edit]

The Danube
Danube
Bike Trail running along the Schlögener Schlinge

The Danube
Danube
Bike Trail leading through the city Linz

The Danube
Danube
Bike Trail (also called Danube
Danube
Cycle Path or the Donauradweg) is a bicycle trail along the river. Especially the parts through Germany
Germany
and Austria
Austria
are very popular, which makes it one of the 10 most popular bike trails in Germany.[25] The Danube
Danube
Bike Trail starts at the origin of the Danube
Danube
and ends where the river flows into the Black Sea. It is divided into four sections:

Donaueschingen– Passau
Passau
(559 km) Passau– Vienna
Vienna
(340 km) Vienna– Budapest
Budapest
(306 km) Budapest– Black Sea
Black Sea
(1670 km)

Sultans Trail[edit] The Sultans Trail is a hiking trail that runs along the river between Vienna
Vienna
and Smederevo
Smederevo
in Serbia. From there the Sultans Trail leaves the Danube, terminating in Istanbul. Sections along the river are as follows.

Vienna– Budapest
Budapest
(323 km) Budapest– Smederevo
Smederevo
(595 km)

Donausteig[edit]

Resting area along the Donausteig hiking trail near Bad Kreuzen

In 2010 the Donausteig, a hiking trail from Passau
Passau
to Grein, was opened. It is 450 kilometres (280 mi) long and it is divided into 23 stages. The route passes five Bavarian and 40 Austrian communities. An impressive landscape and beautiful viewpoints, which are along the river, are the highlights of the Donausteig.[26] The Route of Emperors and Kings[edit] The Route of Emperors and Kings is an international touristic route leading from Regensburg
Regensburg
to Budapest, calling in Passau, Linz
Linz
and Vienna. The international consortium ARGE Die Donau-Straße der Kaiser und Könige, comprising ten tourism organisations, shipping companies, and cities, strives for the conservation and touristic development of the Danube
Danube
region.[24] In medieval Regensburg, with its maintained old town, stone bridge and cathedral, the Route of Emperors and Kings begins. It continues to Engelhartszell, with the only Trappist monastery in Austria. Further highlight-stops along the Danube
Danube
include the “Schlögener Schlinge”, the city of Linz, which was European Capital of Culture in 2009 with its contemporary art richness, the Melk Abbey, the university city of Krems and the cosmopolitan city of Vienna. Before the Route of Emperors and Kings ends, you pass Bratislava
Bratislava
and Budapest, the latter which was seen as the twin town of Vienna
Vienna
during the times of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Since ancient Roman times, famous emperors and their retinue travelled on and along the Danube and used the river for travel and transportation. While travelling on the mainland was quite exhausting, most people preferred to travel by ship on the Danube. So the Route of Emperors and Kings was the setting for many important historical events, which characterize the Danube
Danube
up until today. The route got its name from the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I of Barbarossa and the crusaders as well as from Richard I of England
Richard I of England
who had been jailed in the Dürnstein Castle, which is situated above the Danube. The most imperial journeys throughout time were those of the Habsburg family. Once crowned in Frankfurt, the emperors ruled from Vienna
Vienna
and also held in Regensburg
Regensburg
the Perpetual Diet of Regensburg. Many famous castles, palaces, residences and state-run convents where built by the Habsburger along the river. Nowadays they still remind us of the bold architecture of the “Donaubarock”. Today, people can not only travel by boat on the Danube, but also by train, by bike on the Danube
Danube
Bike Trail or walk on the “Donausteig” and visit the UNESCO World Heritage cities of Regensburg, Wachau
Wachau
and Vienna.[27] Important national parks[edit]

Gornje Podunavlje
Gornje Podunavlje
Special
Special
Nature Reserve in Serbia.

Golubac
Golubac
Fortress in Đerdap National park, Serbia.

Naturpark Obere Donau
Naturpark Obere Donau
(Germany) Donauauen zwischen Neuburg und Ingolstadt
Ingolstadt
(Germany) – map Nature protection area Donauleiten (Germany) Nationalpark Donau Auen (Austria) – map Chránená krajinná oblasť Dunajské luhy (Slovakia) – map Danube-Ipoly National Park
Danube-Ipoly National Park
(Hungary) – map Danube- Drava
Drava
National Park (Hungary) – map Naturalpark Kopački Rit
Kopački Rit
(Croatia) – map Gornje Podunavlje
Gornje Podunavlje
Nature Reserve (Serbia) – map Fruška Gora
Fruška Gora
National Park (Serbia) Koviljsko-petrovaradinski rit Nature Reserve (Serbia) Great War Island
Great War Island
Nature Reserve (Serbia) Đerdap National park
Đerdap National park
(Serbia) Iron Gates
Iron Gates
Natural Park (Romania) Persina Nature Park
Persina Nature Park
(Bulgaria) – map Kalimok-Brushlen Protected Site (Bulgaria) – map Srebarna Nature Reserve
Srebarna Nature Reserve
(Bulgaria) – map Măcin Mountains
Măcin Mountains
Natural Park (Romania) Small Island of Brăila
Brăila
Natural Park (Romania) Danube Delta
Danube Delta
Biosphere Reserve (Romania) – map Danube
Danube
Biosphere Reserve in Ukraine

Cultural significance[edit]

This article is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. You can help by converting this article to prose, if appropriate. Editing help is available. (May 2012)

The 1900 plan to link the Danube
Danube
and the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
by C. Wagenführer. It would be a realisation of the erroneous notion of the Danube
Danube
having a bifurcation.[28]

The Danube
Danube
is mentioned in the title of a famous waltz by Austrian composer Johann Strauss, An der schönen, blauen Donau (On the Beautiful Blue Danube). This piece is well known across the world and is also used widely as a lullaby. The Waves of the Danube (Romanian: Valurile Dunării) is a waltz by the Romanian composer Iosif Ivanovici (1845–1902); as the Anniversary Song, it has been performed by many vocalists, such as Al Jolson, Rosemary Clooney, Vera Lynn, Tom Jones, and countless others. [It is most commonly known as the Anniversary Waltz, though that is actually a different song.] Joe Zawinul
Joe Zawinul
wrote a symphony about the Danube
Danube
called Stories of the Danube. It was performed for the first time at the 1993 Bruckner festival, at Linz.

16th-century Danube
Danube
landscape near Regensburg, by Albrecht Altdorfer
Albrecht Altdorfer
- a member of the Danube
Danube
school.

In 2008, the Finnish indie rock band Wiidakko released a song called Tonava ( Danube
Danube
in Finnish) on their second album Asiat joita et voi koskaan saavuttaa.[29] The Danube
Danube
figures prominently in the Bulgarian National Anthem, as a symbolic representation of the country's natural beauty. In Lithuanian folklore songs appearance of Danube
Danube
(Dunojus, Dunojėlis) is more common than the appearance of the longest Lithuanian river Neman. The German tradition of landscape painting, the Danube
Danube
school, was developed in the Danube
Danube
valley in the 16th century. One of Claudio Magris's masterpieces is called Danube (ISBN 1-86046-823-3). The book, published in 1986, is a large cultural-historical essay, in which Magris travels the Danube
Danube
from the very first sources to the delta, tracing the rich European ethnic and cultural heritage, literary and ideological past and present along the way. Jules Verne's The Danube Pilot
The Danube Pilot
(1908) ("Le Pilote du Danube") depicts the adventures of fisherman Serge Ladko as he travels down the river. Algernon Blackwood's The Willows, about a boat excursion on the river, is considered one of the greatest stories in the literature of the supernatural. The river is the subject of the film The Ister (2004) (official site here [1]). Parts of the German road movie Im Juli take place along the Danube. In Nicolas Roeg's 1980 film Bad Timing, the border crossing over the Danube
Danube
between Bratislava
Bratislava
and Vienna
Vienna
is a recurring site in which the romance between Milena (Teresa Russell), Alex (Art Garfunkel) and Milena's husband Stefan (Denholm Elliot) is played out. In the Star Trek
Star Trek
universe, the Danube-class runabout is a type of starship used by the Federation Starfleet, most notably in the Deep Space Nine series. The river is mentioned a great number of times throughout the Earth's Children Saga by Jean M. Auel, especially in the book The Plains of Passage, when the main characters Ayla and Jondalar travel west along this river, which they call the Great Mother River, due to its big size. Miklós Jancsó's film the Blue Danube
Danube
Waltz
Waltz
(1992) The Hungarian sweet speciality, Duna kavics (" Danube
Danube
pebbles") is named after the river. A Hungarian folk ensemble, the Danube
Danube
Folk Ensemble (Duna Művészegyüttes) is named after the river. The group is made up of 30 dancers and musicians. During their performances they show the Hungarian folk music, dance and costumes. There are Hasidic (Chabad Nigunnim) songs called "dunai", dating from around 1800. They are often lullabys and are named after the river Dunay. Farmers around the river used to come to it and sing spiritual songs to thank their god for the great beauty which they saw every day.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

2006 European floods Between the Woods and the Water, a travel book telling of a Danubian journey in 1934 The Ister, 2004 film List of crossings of the Danube Steamboats on the Danube

References[edit]

^ Mallory, J.P. and Victor H. Mair. The Tarim Mummies: Ancient China and the Mystery of the Earliest Peoples from the West. London: Thames and Hudson, 2000. p. 106. Абаев В. И. Осетинский язык и фольклор (Ossetian language and folklore). Moscow: Publishing house of Soviet Academy of Sciences, 1949. P. 236 ^ a b Katičić, Radoslav. Ancient Languages of the Balkans, Part One. Paris: Mouton, 1976: 144. ^ Dyer, Robert (1974). "Matoas, the Thraco-Phrygian name for the Danube, and the IE root *madų". Glotta. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht (GmbH & Co. KG). 52 (1/2): 91. JSTOR 40266286.  ^ Šašel Kos, Marjeta (2009). "Reka kot božanstvo — Sava
Sava
v antiki" [River as a Deity – The Sava
Sava
in Antiquity]. In Barachini, Jožef. Ukročena lepotica: Sava
Sava
in njene zgodbe [The Tamed Beauty: The Sava
Sava
and Its Stories] (PDF) (in Slovenian and English). Sevnica: Javni zavod za kulturo, šport, turizem in mladinske dejavnosti. pp. 42–50. ISBN 978-961-92735-0-0. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016.  ^ Tonaw in Sebastian Franck, Weltbuch (1542), 81. Donaw e.g. in Leonhard Thurneisser zum Thurn, Pison (1572), 186; spelling Donau from the 17th century. ^ Grimm, Deutsche Grammatik, 407. ^ a b "Countries of the Danube
Danube
River Basin". International Commission for the protection of the Danube
Danube
River. Retrieved 2010-11-13.  ^ Complete table of the Bavarian Waterbody Register by the Bavarian State Office for the Environment (xls, 10.3 MB) ^ Danube
Danube
River Basin District, Part A - Roof Report, IPCDR, p 8 ^ http://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/env/water/blanks/assessment/black.pdf ^ Treaty of Peace with Turkey signed at Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland, 24 July 1923, retrieved 6 December 2014  ^ "Ada Kaleh". alexisphoenix.org.  ^ Riječni gusari u Srbiji pljačkaju hrvatske brodove (in Serbian) ^ "Ukrainian Danube
Danube
Shipping Company Says Its Ships Are Being Attacked Frequently In Romanian Part Of River Danube". Un.ua. Retrieved 2012-06-11.  ^ Romanian Pirates Attack Ukrainian Ships More Frequently (in Ukrainian) ^ Pirates on the lower Danube
Danube
at rivercruiseinfo.com ^ Reports Of 'Pirates Of The Danube' Get The Old Heave-Ho at Radio Free Europe ^ "Daily hydrological report". State Hydrometeorological Bureau of the Republic of Croatia. Retrieved 2010-09-09.  ^ Dacia Preistorica, Nicolae Densusianu (1913). ^ "The Danube". International Association of Water Supply Companies in the Danube
Danube
River Catchement Area. Archived from the original on 19 May 2012. Retrieved 2012-07-28.  ^ "The Danube," The Times, February 13, 1883, page 12 ^ a b Hales, J. (2013). Upper Danube. Freshwater Ecoregions of the World. Retrieved 25 February 2013. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Hucho hucho" in FishBase. February 2013 version. ^ a b "Press release of the "ARGE Donau Österreich"" (PDF) (in German). Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 March 2014. Retrieved 2014-04-01.  ^ "Die ADFC-Radreiseanalyse 2013 – Zahlen, Daten und Fakten" (in German). Retrieved 12 March 2014.  ^ "Donausteig". Retrieved 1 April 2014.  ^ "The Route of Emperors and Kings". www.bavaria.by. Retrieved 29 March 2014.  ^ Žmuc, Irena (2010). "Sustained Interest". In Županek, Bernarda. Emona: Myth and Reality (PDF). Museum and Galleries of Ljubljana; City Museum of Ljubljana. p. 63. ISBN 978-961-6509-20-6.  ^ wiidakko (18 November 2013). " Wiidakko - Tonava" – via YouTube. 

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Danube.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Danube.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Danube.

Geographic data related to Danube
Danube
at OpenStreetMap Danube
Danube
watershed map and information from the World Resources Institute Danube
Danube
Panorama Project сайт о Дунае (in Russian) Danube
Danube
and the sport of rowing Danube
Danube
image pool on Flickr Danube
Danube
Tourist Commission (in German) danubemap.eu - The Tourist Map of the Danube
Danube
(archive) International Commission for the Protection of the Danube
Danube
River Bridges of Budapest
Budapest
over the Danube Description of the Danube
Danube
estuary in June 1877, The Times of London

v t e

The Danube

Countries

Germany Austria Slovakia Hungary Croatia Serbia Bulgaria Romania Moldova Ukraine

Cities

Ulm Ingolstadt Regensburg Passau Linz Vienna Bratislava Győr Budapest Vukovar Ilok Novi Sad Belgrade Ruse Brăila Galați Izmail Tulcea

Tributaries

Iller Lech Regen Isar Inn Morava Váh Hron Ipeľ/Ipoly Drava Tisza/Tisa Sava Timiș/Tamiš Great Morava Timok Jiu Iskar Olt Osam Yantra Vedea Argeș Ialomița Siret Prut

See also

List of islands in the Danube List of crossings of the Danube

v t e

Hydrography of Croatia

Rivers

Bednja Boljunčica Bosut Cetina Česma Danube Dobra Drava Gacka Glina Glogovnica Ilova Jadro Karašica Karašica Korana Krapina Krka Kupa Kupčina Lika Lonja Mirna Mrežnica Mura Neretva Odra Ombla Orljava Pakra Plitvica Raša Rječina Sava Slunjčica Spačva Studva Sunja Sutla Trnava Una Vuka Zrmanja

Lakes

Vrana (Dalmatia) Dubrava Peruća Prokljan Varaždin Vrana (Cres) Krušćica Plitvice Baćina Trakošćan

Valleys, estuaries, canyons, wetlands

Lim Paklenica Kopački Rit Lonjsko Polje

Waterfalls

Galovački buk Skradinski buk Roški slap Štrbački buk Large waterfall (Plitvice)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 251797299 LCCN: n85318261 GND: 4012712-6 SELIBR: 143100 HDS: 7145 NDL: 00628835

.