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Dhundiraj Govind Phalke (Marathi: धुंडीराज गोविंद फाळके), popularly known as Dadasaheb Phalke (Marathi: दादासाहेब फाळके) ( pronunciation (help·info)) (30 April 1870 – 16 February 1944), was an Indian producer-director-screenwriter, known as the Father of Indian cinema.[1][2][3] Starting with his debut film, Raja Harishchandra the first Indian cinema
Indian cinema
in 1913, now known as India's first full-length feature, he made 95 movies and 26 short films in his career spanning 19 years, till 1937, including his most noted works: Mohini Bhasmasur
Mohini Bhasmasur
(1913), Satyavan Savitri (1914), Lanka Dahan
Lanka Dahan
(1917), Shri Krishna Janma
Shri Krishna Janma
(1918) and Kaliya Mardan (1919).[4] The Dadasaheb Phalke
Dadasaheb Phalke
Award, for lifetime contribution to cinema, was instituted in his honour by the Government of India
Government of India
in 1969. The award is one of the most prestigious awards in Indian cinema
Indian cinema
and is the highest official recognition for film personalities in the country.[5] A postage stamp bearing his likeness was released by India Post
India Post
to honour him in 1971. An honorary award from the Dadasaheb Phalke Academy Mumbai
Mumbai
was introduced in the year 2001, for lifetime achievement in Indian cinema.[6]

Contents

1 Biography

1.1 Early life and education 1.2 Early career 1.3 Film

1.3.1 Hindustan films 1.3.2 Sound film

2 Selected filmography 3 In popular culture 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External links

Biography[edit] Early life and education[edit] Dhundiraj Govind Phalke was born in a Marathi speaking Deshastha Brahmin[7] family on 30 April 1870 at Tryambakeshwar, 30 km from Nashik, Maharashtra, India,[4] where his father was an accomplished scholar.[8] He joined Sir J. J. School of Art, Mumbai
Mumbai
in 1885. After passing from J.J. School in 1890, Phalke went to the Kala Bhavan, Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda in Vadodara, where he studied sculpture, engineering, drawing, painting and photography.[9] Early career[edit] He began his career as a small town photographer in Godhra, but had to leave business after the death of his first wife and child in an outbreak of the bubonic plague. He soon met the German magician Carl Hertz, one of the 40 magicians employed by the Lumiere Brothers. Soon after, he had the opportunity to work with the Archaeological Survey of India
India
as a draftsman. However, restless with his job and its constraints, he turned to the business of printing. He specialised in lithography and oleograph, and worked for painter Raja Ravi Varma. Phalke later started his own printing press, made his first trip abroad to Germany, to learn about the latest technology, machinery and for art also. Film[edit]

Raja Harischandra
Raja Harischandra
1913, directed by Dadasaheb Phalke

Following a dispute with his partners about the running of the press, he gave up printing and turned his attention to moving pictures, after watching a silent film, The Life of Christ and envisioning Indian gods on the screen. Phalke made his first film, Raja Harishchandra, in 1912; it was first shown publicly on 3 May 1913 at Mumbai's Coronation Cinema,[10] effectively marking the beginning of the Indian film industry. About one year before, Ramchandra Gopal (known as Dadasaheb Torne) had recorded on stage a film drama called Pundalik and had shown the recording at the same theatre. However, the credit for making the first indigenous Indian feature film is attributed to Dadasaheb Phalke[11] as it is said that "Pundalik" had British cinematographers. Once again, Phalke proved successful in his new art and proceeded to make several silent films, shorts, documentary feature, educational and comic, tapping all the potential of this new medium. Film, having proved its financial viability, soon attracted businessmen who favoured money over aesthetics. Hindustan films[edit] Phalke formed a film company, Hindustan Films in partnership with five businessmen from Mumbai, in the hope that by having the financial aspect of his profession handled by experts in the field, he would be free to pursue the creative aspect. He set up a model studio and trained technicians and actors but, very soon, he ran into insurmountable problems with his partners. In 1920, Phalke resigned from Hindustan Films, made his first announcement of retirement from cinema, and he wrote Rangbhoomi, an acclaimed play. Lacking his extremely imaginative genius, Hindustan Films ran into deep financial losses, and he was finally persuaded to return. However, Phalke felt constrained by the business and, after directing a few films for the company, he withdrew from it. Sound film[edit] The times changed and Phalke fell victim to the emerging technology of sound film. Unable to cope with the talkies, the man who had fathered the Indian film industry became obsolete. His last silent movie Setubandhan was released in 1932 and later released with dubbing. During 1936–38, he produced his last film Gangavataran (1937), before retiring to Nashik, where he died on 16 February 1944. Selected filmography[edit]

Picture of Dadasaheb Phalke

Raja Harishchandra
Raja Harishchandra
(1913) Mohini Bhasmasur
Mohini Bhasmasur
(1913) Satyavan Savitri (1914)[12] Lanka Dahan
Lanka Dahan
(1917) Shri Krishna Janma
Shri Krishna Janma
(1918) Kaliya Mardan (1919) Buddhadev (1923) Setu Bandhan (1932) Gangavataran (1937)

In popular culture[edit] In 2009, the Marathi film Harishchandrachi Factory, which was directed by theatre veteran Paresh Mokashi
Paresh Mokashi
and depicts Dadasaheb Phalke's struggle in making Raja Harishchandra
Raja Harishchandra
in 1913, was selected as India's official entry to the Academy Awards
Academy Awards
in the Best Foreign Language Film category.[13][14][15] References[edit]

^ Dadasaheb Phalke, the father of Indian cinema
Indian cinema
– Bāpū Vāṭave, National Book Trust – Google Books. Books.google.co.in. Retrieved 17 November 2012.  ^ Sachin Sharma, TNN 28 June 2012, 03.36AM IST (28 June 2012). "Godhra forgets its days spent with Dadasaheb Phalke
Dadasaheb Phalke
– Times of India". Articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 17 November 2012. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Vilanilam, J. V. (2005). Mass Communication in India: A Sociological Perspective. New Delhi: Sage Publications. p. 128. ISBN 81-7829-515-6.  ^ a b http://niffindia.com/phalke.htm. Retrieved 22 August 2008.  Missing or empty title= (help)[dead link] ^ "Pran chosen for Dada Saheb Phalke award". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 12 April 2013.  ^ " Dadasaheb Phalke
Dadasaheb Phalke
Academy Award for Yash Chopra, Rajesh Khanna – The Times of India". The Times of India.  ^ "The Father of Indian Cinema- Dadasaheb Phalke".  ^ "The Sunday Tribune – Spectrum – Article". Tribuneindia.com. Retrieved 17 November 2012.  ^ "Dada Saheb Phalke – A Distinguished Student of Kalabhavan". Fortunecity.com. 16 February 1944. Archived from the original on 15 March 2012. Retrieved 5 January 2012.  ^ "Raja-Harishchandra - Trailer from - Cast - Showtimes - NYTimes.com". Movies.nytimes.com. Archived from the original on 5 November 2012. Retrieved 17 November 2012.  ^ Cybertech. "Hall of Fame : Tribute : Dadasaheb Phalke". Nashik.com. Archived from the original on 25 January 2012. Retrieved 5 January 2012.  ^ imdb.com ^ PTI (20 September 2009). "'Harishchandrachi Factory' India's entry for Oscars – Times of India". Timesofindia.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 17 November 2012.  ^ Express News Service. " Harishchandrachi Factory
Harishchandrachi Factory
to tell story behind making of India's first feature film". Express India. Archived from the original on 30 September 2012. Retrieved 17 November 2012.  ^ http://www.ptinews.com/news/291828_-Harishchandrachi-factory--India-s-entry-for-Oscars. Retrieved 20 September 2009.  Missing or empty title= (help)[dead link]

Further reading[edit]

Vatave, Bapu (2004). Dadasaheb Phalke, the Father of Indian Cinema. National Book Trust. ISBN 812374319X.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dadasaheb Phalke.

List of Silent films made in India Dadasaheb Phalke
Dadasaheb Phalke
on IMDb Dadasaheb Phalke
Dadasaheb Phalke
@ SPICE Website on Dada Saheb Phalke Film Academy on Dadasaheb Phalke

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 30627966 LCCN: n94085832 ISNI: 0000 0000 4338 0446 GN

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